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Stoichiometry (1)

-- the study of the the study of the


quantitative quantitative
aspects of aspects of
chemical chemical
reactions. reactions.
Counting Atoms Counting Atoms
Chemistry is a quantitative Chemistry is a quantitative
science sciencewe need a we need a
counting unit. counting unit.
MOLE MOLE
Three Important Laws
Law of conservation of mass (Lavoisier):
Mass is neither created nor destroyed
Law of definite proportion (Proust):
A given compound always contains exactly the
same proportion of elements by mass
Lawof multiple proportions (Dalton):
When two elements form a series of compounds,
the ratios of the masses of the second element
that combine with 1 gram of the first element can
always be reduced to small whole numbers
Lavoisier: The Law of
Conservation of Mass
Early 1700s Lavoisier: Law of
Conservation of Mass
During a chemical change,
matter is neither created nor
destroyed.
LAWOF CONSERVATION OF MASS LAWOF CONSERVATION OF MASS
In every chemical operation an equal In every chemical operation an equal
quantity of matter exists before and after quantity of matter exists before and after
the operation. the operation. That That is, the amount of is, the amount of
matter before a reaction must equal the matter before a reaction must equal the
amount of matter after a reaction. No amount of matter after a reaction. No
matter is lost. matter is lost.
The The total mass of reactants = total mass of products total mass of reactants = total mass of products
LLAWOF AWOF CCONSERVATION OF ONSERVATION OF MMASS ASS
When 0.0976 g of magnesium was heated in air,
0.1618 g of magnesium oxide (MgO) was
produced. What is the mass of oxygen needed to
produce 0.1618 g MgO?
Using the LCM:
Total mass reactants = total mass products
mass of Mg + mass O = mass of MgO
0.0976 g Mg + mass O = 0.1618 g MgO
mass O = 0.1618 g - 0.0976 = 0.0642 g O 0.0642 g O
1799, Proust: Law of Definite
Proportions
A compound always contains the
same elements in certain definite
proportions.
Proust: The Law of
Definite Proportions
LAWOF DEFINITE PROPORTIONS LAWOF DEFINITE PROPORTIONS
In a compound, the ratios by mass of the
elements in that compound are fixed
independent of the origins or preparation of
that compound. A compound is unique
because of the specific arrangement and
weights of the elements which make up
that compound.
That is, elements combine in whole
numbers. Also it is not possible to have a
compound with portion an atom.
LAWOF DEFINITE PROPORTIONS LAWOF DEFINITE PROPORTIONS
Elements combine in specific ratios to form compounds Elements combine in specific ratios to form compounds
Use the Generic equation for percent: Use the Generic equation for percent:
% = ( portion / total ) 100 % = ( portion / total ) 100
1. What is the experimental percent of oxygen in CO
2
if
42.0 g of carbon reacted completely with 112.0 g of
oxygen?
% O = (mass of O / mass of CO
2
) 100
% O= [112.0 g O / (42.0 g + 112.0 g) CO
2
] 100 = 72.7% O 72.7% O
2. What is the theoretical percent of aluminum in
aluminum oxide?
% Al = (Atomic mass of Al / Formula mass of Al
2
O
3
) 100
% Al = (54 amu / 102 amu) 100 = 52.9% 52.9%
3. What is the percent composition of sodium chloride?
% Na = 39.3% % % Na = 39.3% % Cl Cl = 60.7% = 60.7%
LAWOF MULTIPLE PROPORTIONS LAWOF MULTIPLE PROPORTIONS
When t w o el ement s f or m a ser i es of
c ompounds, t he masses of t he one
el ement t hat c ombi ne w i t h a f i x ed
mass of t he ot her el ement st and t o
one anot her i n t he r at i o of smal l
i nt eger s.
Iron oxide exists in different ratios Iron oxide exists in different ratios
with different properties with different properties
FeO and Fe FeO and Fe
22
OO
33
Law of conservation of mass & Law of conservation of mass &LLaw of aw of ddefinite efinite
pproportions roportions
When 0.0976 g of magnesium was heated in air,
0.1618 g of magnesium oxide (MgO) was
produced.
a) what is the percent of Mg in MgO?
% Mg = (mass Mg / Mass MgO) 100
= (0.0976g / 0.1618 g) 100 = 60.3 % 60.3 %
b) Using onl y LDP, what mass of oxygen was
needed to combine with the magnesium?
% O = 100% MgO - 60.3% Mg = 39.7% O
% O = (mass O / mass MgO) 100
39.7 % = (mass O / 0.1618 g) 100
mass O = 0.397 ( 0.1618 g) = 0.0642 g O 0.0642 g O
Same as using the LCM!!
PRACTICE PROBLEMS PRACTICE PROBLEMS
Practicing Law of conservation of mass:
________1. Aluminum metal combines with oxygen to produce
aluminum oxide. If 141.0g of aluminum yields 266.7 g of
aluminum oxide, how many grams of oxygen were needed?
________2. Sodium metal reacts with chlorine gas to produce the
salt, sodium chloride. If 15.0 g of chlorine yields 26.5 g of salt,
how much sodium metal is needed?
Practicing the law of definite proportions:
________3. What is the experimental percent of oxygen in a copper
oxide if 10.0 g of copper reacted completely with 2.52 g of
oxygen?
_______ 4. Based on question #1, what is the experimental percent
composition of aluminum oxide?
_______ 5. Calculate the theoretical percent composition for
aluminum chloride and sodium oxide.
PRACTICE PROBLEMS PRACTICE PROBLEMS
Practicing percents:
________1. Pure gold is too soft a metal for many uses, so it is
alloyed to give it more mechanical strength. One particular alloy is
made by mixing 29.17 g of gold, 3.81 grams of silver, and 5.91 g of
copper. What is the percent of gold in this mixture?
________2. If 255 g of a meat sample contains 21.9 g of fat, what
percentage of fat is present?
Using the LAWS:
________3. How many grams of CuO can be obtained from 1.80 g of
copper (use the theoretical percent composition)?
4. When aluminum combines with bromine gas, they produce the
substance aluminum bromide, AlBr
3
. Write a chemical equation
describing this reaction.
_______ If 56.88 g of aluminum bromide is formed from 5.75 g of
aluminum, how many grams of bromine was needed?
75.0%
8.6%
2.25 g
2Al + 3Br
2
2Al Br
3
51.13 g
Connecting Mass to Moles
One of the greatest challenges early chemists
faced was trying to find a way to connect the
mass of a substance to the number of particles
in the sample.
It was determined that elementary particles
combined in fixed ratios by weight.
Connecting Mass to Moles
This led Dalton to the atomic model of matter
Example: The mass ratio of oxygen to
hydrogen in water is 8:1
This does not tell us how many atoms of each
element are involved
It could tell us this if we knew the relative mass of
each kind of atom
Relative Mass
To assign relative masses to elements it is
necessary to know that the samples being
compared have the same number of particles
If particles are all the same size, the same size
sample would have the same number of
particles
If particles are different sizes, the same size
sample would have different numbers of
particles
Relative Mass
At the time, chemists did not know which was
true and tended to think the latter was more
likely
Example: A bucket of baseballs has fewer balls
that an identical bucket of golf balls
If this is true in the macroscopic world, why
wouldnt it be true in the sub-microscopic one?
Relative Mass
Consider earlier this year when we studied
density: was iron more dense than aluminum
because iron had more particles per given
volume than aluminum or because irons
individual particles were more massive than
aluminums? Could it be some combination of
both?
Relative Mass
The truth is, based on the experiments we
conducted earlier in the year, we couldnt say
which was true.
Daltondid not know what was true during his
time either.
Since the mass of individual atoms could not be
determined, a system of atomic masses had to
be determined by comparison.
Relative Mass
To determine a system of masses by
comparison, one element would have to be
chosen as the basis of comparison for all
others
Dalton chose hydrogen and assigned it a mass
of 1.
Relative Mass
To find the mass of another element like
oxygen:
Compare the masses of equal number of
oxygen and hydrogen atoms OR
Find the combining masses of oxygen and
hydrogen in water
Relative Mass
Dalton thought that the former approach was
invalid because he thought identical volumes of
hydrogen and oxygen gases would have
different numbers of particles
He thought the latter was valid but did not take
into account that it is valid ONLY if the ratio of
atomic combination is known
Reactions of Gases
Research conducted by Gay-Lussac
suggested that equal volumes of gases, at the
same temperature and pressure, contain equal
numbers of particles
Reactions of Gases
Gay-Lussac noted that gases
appear to react in simple integer
ratios
Example: Two volumes of
hydrogen reacted with one volume
of oxygen to produce two volumes
of water
These findings appeared to
contradict the idea that equal
volumes of gases have equal
numbers of particles
Reactions of Gases
Why? Well, if water is was H
2
O,
then two volumes of hydrogen and
one volume of oxygen should
make one volume of water
+ + =
Reactions of Gases
Gay-Lussacs law that equal
volumes of gases have equal
numbers of particles and Daltons
atomic theory did not seem to be
compatible
In 1811, Avogadro wrote a paper
that reconciled the two
Avogadros Hypothesis
Avogadro assumed
Equal volumes of gases have
equal numbers of molecules
These molecules can be split into
half-molecules during chemical
reactions
That molecules of elemental gases
could contain more than a single
atom
Avogadros Hypothesis
Two volumes of hydrogen react
with one volume of oxygen to
produce two volumes of water
when hydrogen and oxygen can be
split into half-molecules!
+ + = +
Avogadros Hypothesis
If we accept Avogadros
Hypothesis, we can compare the
mass of various gases and deduce
the relative mass of the molecules
To do this, we pick a weighable
amount of the lightest element
(how about 1.0 g?) then use mass
ratios to assign atomic masses to
the other elements
Implications
If two volumes of hydrogen
combine with one volume of
oxygen gas, it is reasonable to
assume that two molecules of
hydrogen are reacting with each
molecule of oxygen
The word chosen to represent the
standard weighable amount of
stuff, the mole, comes from the
Latin mole cula or little lump
Counting Atoms Counting Atoms
Chemistry is a quantitative Chemistry is a quantitative
science sciencewe need a we need a
counting unit. counting unit.
1 mole is the amount of substance that 1 mole is the amount of substance that
contains as many particles (atoms, contains as many particles (atoms,
molecules) as C atoms in 12.0 g of molecules) as C atoms in 12.0 g of
12 12
C. C.
MOLE MOLE
Particles in a Mole Particles in a Mole
6.02214199 x 10 6.02214199 x 10
23 23
Avogadros Number Avogadros Number
There is Avogadros number of particles in a
mole of any substance.
There is Avogadros number of particles in a
mole of any substance.
Amedeo AmedeoAvogadro Avogadro
1776 1776--1856 1856
Molar Mass Molar Mass
1 mol of 1 mol of
12 12
C C
= 12.00 g of C = 12.00 g of C
= 6.022 x 10 = 6.022 x 10
23 23
atoms atoms
of C of C
12.00 g of 12.00 g of
12 12
C is its C is its
MOLAR MASS MOLAR MASS
Taking into account all of Taking into account all of
the isotopes of C, the the isotopes of C, the
molar mass of C is molar mass of C is
12.011 g/mol 12.011 g/mol
One One--mole Amounts mole Amounts
PROBLEM: What amount of Mg is PROBLEM: What amount of Mg is
represented by 0.200 g? How many represented by 0.200 g? How many
atoms? atoms?
PROBLEM: What amount of Mg is PROBLEM: What amount of Mg is
represented by 0.200 g? How many represented by 0.200 g? How many
atoms? atoms?
Mg has a molar mass of 24.3050 g/mol.
0.200 g
1 mol
24.31 g
= 8.23 x 10
-3
mol
8.23 x 10
-3
mol
6.022 x 10
23
atoms
1 mol
= 4.95 x 10 = 4.95 x 10
21 21
atoms Mg atoms Mg
How many atoms in this piece of Mg?
MOLECULAR MOLECULAR
WEIGHT AND WEIGHT AND
MOLAR MASS MOLAR MASS
Molecular weight Molecular weight = sum of the = sum of the
atomic weights of all atoms in atomic weights of all atoms in
the molecule. the molecule.
Molar mass Molar mass = molecular weight = molecular weight
in grams per mol. in grams per mol.
What is the What is the
molar mass of molar mass of
ethanol, C ethanol, C
22
HH
66
O? O?
1 mol contains 1 mol contains
2 moles of C (12.01 g C/1 mol) = 24.02 g C 2 moles of C (12.01 g C/1 mol) = 24.02 g C
6 moles of H (1.01 g H/1 mol) = 6.06 g H 6 moles of H (1.01 g H/1 mol) = 6.06 g H
1 mol of O (16.00 g O/1 mol) = 16.00 g O 1 mol of O (16.00 g O/1 mol) = 16.00 g O
TOTAL = TOTAL = molar mass = 46.08 g/mol molar mass = 46.08 g/mol
How many How many moles moles of alcohol (C of alcohol (C
22
HH
66
O) O)
are there in a standard can of beer are there in a standard can of beer
if there are 21.3 g of C if there are 21.3 g of C
22
HH
66
O? O?
(a) Molar mass of C
2
H
6
O = 46.08 g/mol
(b) Calc. moles of alcohol
21.3 g
1 mol
46.08 g
= 0.462 mol
How many How many molecules molecules of alcohol are of alcohol are
there in a standard can of beer if there there in a standard can of beer if there
are 21.3 g of C are 21.3 g of C
22
HH
66
O? O?
= 2.78 x 10
23
molecules
We know there are 0.462 mol of C
2
H
6
O.
0.462 mol
6.022 x 10
23
molecules
1 mol

How many How many atoms of C atoms of C are there in are there in
a standard can of beer if there are 21.3 g a standard can of beer if there are 21.3 g
of C of C
22
HH
66
O? O?
= 5.57 x 10
23
C atoms
There are 2.78 x 10
23
molecules.
Each molecule contains 2 C atoms.
Therefore, the number of C atoms is
2.78 x 10
23
molecules
2 C atoms
1 molecule