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Chevron Corporation 400-1 J uly 1999

400 Design
Abstract
This section discusses the many considerations involved in the engineering design
of pipelines. It covers the design scope for the pipeline facilitynot the associated
station and terminal facility (although station and terminal piping are included in
pipeline codes for transportation systems). This section relates regulatory jurisdic-
tion to the selection of an appropriate design code. Hydraulic calculations, line
sizing, stress analysis, pipe wall thickness calculations, pipe and coating selection,
and ancillary considerations are discussed in relation to the various codes and the
Companys preferred practices. Pipeline crossings, appurtenances, and cathodic
protection facilities are also discussed.
Contents Page
410 Regulations and Codes 400-3
411 Regulatory Jurisdictions
412 Codes
420 Hydraulics 400-6
421 Basic Pressure Drop Calculations
422 Special Hydraulic Conditions
423 Hydraulic Profiles
430 Line Sizing 400-13
431 Elements to Determine an Economic System
432 Preliminary Pipe Selection and Line Operating Pressure
433 Hydraulic Profiles and Pump Station Locations
434 Order-of-Magnitude Estimates for Investment Costs
435 Order-of-Magnitude Estimates for Operating Costs
436 Economic Analysis for Line Sizing
437 Improving Cost Estimates
438 Sizing of Short Lines
440 Line Design 400-29
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441 Pipe and Coating Selection
442 Pipe Stress and Wall Thickness Calculations for Liquid Pipelines per
ANSI/ASME Code B31.4
443 Pipe Stress and Wall Thickness Calculations for Gas Transmission Pipelines
per ANSI/ASME Code B31.8
444 Coating Selection
445 BurialRestrained Lines and Provision for Expansion
446 Seismic Considerations
447 Crossings
448 Special Considerations
450 Pipeline Appurtenances 400-51
451 Line Valves
452 Scraper Traps
453 Electronic Inspection Pigs
454 Line Pressure Control and Relief
455 Slug Catchers
456 Vents and Drains
457 Electrical Area Classification
458 Line Markers
460 Corrosion Prevention Facilities 400-62
461 General
462 Impressed Current System for Cathodic Protection
463 Galvanic Sacrificial Anodes for Cathodic Protection
464 Insulating Flanges and Joint Assemblies
465 Cathodic Protection Test Stations and Line Bonding Connections
470 References 400-63
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410 Regulations and Codes
411 Regulatory J urisdictions
United States
Regulations governing interstate hazardous liquid and gas pipeline facilities are
established and enforced on a federal level. Intrastate pipeline facilities are subject
to federal authority unless the state certifies that it will assume responsibility. The
state must adopt the same regulations or more stringent, compatible regulations.
The Chevron Pipe Line Company Guide to Pipeline Safety Regulations provides
information on federal and state jurisdiction for hazardous liquid and natural gas
pipelines. The Operations Section of Chevron Pipe Line Company should be
contacted for a copy of this guide.
Regulations for hazardous liquid pipelines are covered in Title 49, Code of Federal
Regulations, Part 195 (49 CFR 195), Transportation of Hazardous Liquids by Pipe-
line. Section 195.2 defines a hazardous liquid as petroleum, petroleum products, or
anhydrous ammonia. Section 195.1(b) excludes onshore gathering lines in rural
areas and onshore production facilities and flow lines. Pending regulations are
expected to include supercritical CO
2
pipelines under Part 195.
For gas pipelines, 49 CFR 191, covers annual reporting and incident reporting, and
49 CFR 192 deals with minimum federal safety standards for transportation of
natural gas and other gas by pipeline.
Section 910 of this manual gives further details on the applicability of the various
regulations to offshore pipelines.
Canada
In Canada, jurisdiction for pipeline design and operation is either federal or provin-
cial. In general, interprovincial transmission pipelines and pipelines designated as
involving national priorities are regulated by the National Energy Board and are
certificated pipelines. The Company is not, as yet, involved in transmission pipeline
operations in Canada and therefore is not usually concerned with the National
Energy Board regulations.
Intraprovincial transmission, interfield, and gathering system pipelines are provin-
cially regulated. Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan have well established
government departments to handle pipelines. The other provinces impose varying
degrees of control. Most of the Companys Canadian operations are in Alberta,
British Columbia, Manitoba and Saskatchewan.
Albertas Pipeline Act is enforced by the Energy Resources Conservation Board.
The Board issues its Pipeline Regulations and the Oil and Gas Conservation Regula-
tions. These regulations govern pipeline design, licensing, construction, testing, and
record keeping, and exercise influence over routing, measurement, and environ-
mental issues. For information on other provinces, contact Chevron Canada
Resources Limited in Calgary, Alberta.
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Other Locations
Legal requirements for pipeline design and operation in other geographical loca-
tions must be determined individually. If regulations do not exist or are less restric-
tive than U.S. regulations, the pipeline facilities should be designed to the applicable
ANSI/ASME code.
412 Codes
ANSI/ASME Code B31.4
ANSI/ASME Code B31.4, Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons, Liquid
Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia, and Alcohols is incorporated by reference in
49 CFR 195. It is also a sound basis, although not legally required, for cross-country
water and water slurry pipelines, allowing their future conversion to oil or other
hazardous liquid service. A copy of Code B31.4 may be found in this manual under
Industry Codes and Practices.
Code B31.4 establishes requirements for safe design, construction, inspection,
testing and maintenance of pipeline systems transporting liquids such as crude oil,
condensate, natural gasoline, natural gas liquids, liquified petroleum gas, liquid
alcohol, liquid anhydrous ammonia, and liquid petroleum products. The Company
has used this code for Gilsonite and phosphate slurry pipelines. Figure 400.1.1 in
Code B31.4 (1986 Addenda) shows the range of facilities covered by the code.
Among these are pump stations, tank farms, terminals, pressure reducing stations
and metering stations.
Code B31.4 does not apply to auxiliary station piping such as water, air, steam,
lubricating oil, gas and fuel; piping at or below 15 psig, piping with metal tempera-
tures above 250F or below -20F; or field production facilities and pipelines.
ANSI/ASME Code B31.8
Incorporated by reference in 49 CFR 192 for natural and other gas, ANSI/ASME
Code B31.8, Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems, applies to field
gathering, transmission and distribution pipelines for natural gas. It covers the
design, fabrication, installation, inspection, testing, and safety aspects of gas trans-
mission and distribution system operation and maintenance. Figure I8 in Appendix I
of Code B31.8 shows the range of facilities covered by the Code, including gas
compressor stations, gas metering and regulation stations, and closed-pipe gas
storage equipment. A copy of Code B31.8 may be found in this manual under
Industry Codes and Practices.
Code B31.8 does not apply to piping with metal temperatures above 450F or below
-20F, vent piping operating at substantially atmospheric pressures, wellhead assem-
blies, or control valves and flow lines between wellhead and trap or separator.
Canadian Standard CAN3-Z183
Canadian Standard CAN3-Z183, Oil Pipeline Systems, is incorporated by reference
into the National Energy Board Act of Canada and the pipeline regulations of all
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Canadian provinces. It covers the design, material selection, fabrication, installa-
tion, inspection, testing, operation, maintenance, and repair of onshore pipelines
carrying crude oil, multiphase liquids, condensate, liquid petroleum products,
natural gas liquids, liquified petroleum gas, and oilfield water.
CAN3-Z183 applies to pump stations, tank farms, pressure reducing stations, and
metering stations. It does not apply to auxiliary station piping such as water, air,
steam, gas, fuel and lubricating oil, piping with metal temperatures above 120C or
below -45C, production equipment or oil wells. A copy of the Standard may be
obtained from Chevron Canada Resources or the Canadian Standards Association.
Canadian Standard CAN/CSA-Z184
Canadian Standard CAN/CSA-Z184, Gas Pipeline Systems, is incorporated by
reference into the National Energy Board Act of Canada and the pipeline regula-
tions of all Canadian provinces. It covers the design, fabrication, installation,
inspection, testing and safety aspects of operation and maintenance of gas pipeline
system, including gathering lines, transmission lines, compressor stations, metering
and regulating stations, distribution lines, service lines, offshore pipelines and
closed-pipe gas storage equipment. It does not apply to liquified natural gas pipe-
lines, auxiliary station piping such as water and air, metal temperatures above 230C
or below -70C, production equipment, or gas wells. A copy may be obtained from
Chevron Canada Resources or the Canadian Standards Association.
Producing Field Flow and Gathering Lines
The ANSI/ASME Codes do not clearly define the extent of producing field flow and
gathering lines, and CFR regulations do not cover oil and gas gathering lines in rural
areas. Therefore, the Company has not always been consistent in applying the codes
when designing pipelines between producing facilities and pipeline transportation
systems. Where practices have not already been established, it is suggested that
designs for field liquid pipelines follow Code B31.4, and, for gas pipelines, Code
B31.8.
49 CFR 192 and 195 apply within the limits of any incorporated or unincorporated
city, town, village, or other designated residential or commercial area. They require
compliance with ANSI/ASME B31.4 and B31.8.
49 CFR 195.2 defines a liquid gathering line as a pipeline sized NPS 8 or smaller
from a production facility. 49 CFR 195.1(b)(6) excludes transportation through
onshore production facilities (including flow lines). 49 CFR 192.3 defines a gas
gathering line as a pipeline that transports gas from a current production facility to a
transmission line. Where a line handles liquid-gas two-phase flow, the more strin-
gent requirements of each code should be applied, and special consideration should
be given to the effects of slug flow along the system.
Producing Field Facilities
For on-plot production facilities such as wellhead piping, separators, traps, tank
batteries and gas gathering compressors, the Company uses ANSI/ASME Code
B31.3, Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping (see the Piping Manual).
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Pipeline Stations and Terminals
Design and construction of piping at pump stations, compressor stations, and termi-
nals should comply with Code B31.4 or B31.8, as appropriate. Former Chevron
practice was to design piping for these facilities to the more conservative Code
B31.3. It is entirely a local decision whether to continue this practice.
For descriptions of piping components, and guidelines for mechanical design, layout
and construction for piping at stations and terminals, refer to the Piping Manual,
which covers Code B31.3 piping for hydrocarbon services, and utility and auxiliary
piping involved in station and terminal facilities. Terminal facilities within a
refinery are designed to Code B31.3, unless they are confined to a separate and
defined pipeline area adjacent to refinery facilities.
420 Hydraulics
Pressures required to move design flows through a pipeline system are calculated
from the fluid properties, pipe diameter and line length. Pertinent fluid properties
for basic hydraulic calculations are viscosity and specific gravity at the tempera-
tures and pressures of the fluid in the line.
These calculations indicate a range of feasible pipe diameters and tentative spacing
of pump or compressor stations along the line. Section 430 should be reviewed as a
guide for initially selecting pipe diameters for a particular system. As design
becomes final, hydraulic calculations are refined to determine conditions for over-
pressure control during line shut-off and surges.
The design flow, or line throughput rate, is established by the operating organiza-
tion, which should define as closely as possible the expected maximum and
minimum rates, and forecast future yearly throughput requirements. This informa-
tion is critical in determining the most economic line size. Once line size is deter-
mined and pipe is selected, hydraulic calculations can be made to determine flows
for variables in operating conditions, future expansion of system capacity by the
addition of pump or compressor stations, and line capacity if the system is
converted to different service.
421 Basic Pressure Drop Calculations
The Fluid Flow Manual is a primary source of pressure drop data for most oils as
well as water and natural gas. Refer to the following sections of it for guidance in
making pressure-drop calculations:
400 Friction Pressure Drop
800 Surge Pressure
900 Pipeline Flow
1000 Fluid Properties
General hydraulics theory and development of formulas is covered in the Fluid
Flow Manual, Section 400. The Fluid Flow Manual is recommended for both liquid
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and gas transmission lines, although pipeline handbooks and general hydraulics
texts may also be used.
Oil and Water Lines at Ambient Temperatures
Hydraulic calculations are straightforward for pipelines with a single fluid stock and
little variation in viscosity throughout the line at any given time, as is the case with
many of the Companys field and transportation pipelines. Section 422 covers other
situations; Section 932 discusses subsea hydraulics.
Except for certain crude oils and heavy fuel oils whose viscosity is sensitive to
temperature, the annual mean ambient air temperature may be used as the average
flow temperature for buried lines. If available, ground temperature data is preferred.
If seasonal variations are great, calculations should be made for winter and summer
temperature averages. The effect of seasonal variations must be carefully evaluated.
For crude oils it is necessary to know the pour point of the oilthe temperature at
which viscosity of a cooling oil abruptly increasesto determine if special
measures are needed to move the oil when ambient ground temperatures approach
or fall below the pour point. An oil with pour point at or above the ambient tempera-
ture requires special treatment, such as a pour point, depressant additive, dilution
with lighter stock, or a heated pipeline system. If ground temperatures are close to
the pour point reliable data on ground temperature is critical. A program to collect
this data in the initial phase of the project is recommended.
Design Throughput. The design throughput of an oil pipeline is its average annual
pumping rate in barrels per calendar day (BPCD). Capacity requirements given in
barrels per day (BPD) should be construed as meaning BPCD. The design flow that
a system must be capable of attaining to compensate for lost capacity from shut-
downs and reduced flow conditions is given in barrels per operating day (BPOD).
The ratio of BPCD to BPOD is the load factor (see Equation 400-1). A well-oper-
ated pipeline handling a single stock at any one time can be expected to have a load
factor of at least 0.95. This figure should be used to arrive at the design BPOD rate
from a given BPCD throughput unless special circumstances dictate a lower factor.
BPOD = BPCD/Load Factor
= 1.05 BPCD for the usual oil pipeline system
(Eq. 400-1)
In some areas BOPD and BWPD are common notations for barrels of oil and barrels
of water per day. Do not confuse these with BPOD and BPCD.
Preliminary Hydraulic Calculations. To set the inside diameter of a line for
preliminary hydraulic calculations for cross-country oil pipelines, a pipe wall thick-
ness of 0.250 inch can generally be used for lines up through NPS 30, 0.375 inch
from NPS 30 to NPS 42, and 0.500 inch over NPS 42. Heavier wall thicknesses
should be used for offshore pipelines (see Section 930).
For liquid pipelines, pressure drop data from Section 400 of the Fluid Flow Manual
can be developed and plotted as in Figure 400-1. Because pressure drop data will be
interrelated with ground elevations, allowable line pipe, and valve pressures and
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pump discharge heads, pressures are expressed in feet of the fluid in the line as well
as pounds per square inch (psi). Formulas to convert to pressure units of pounds per
square inch, or vice versa, are:
P
psi
=head
ft
0.4328 specific gravity
head
ft
= (2.311 P
psi
)/specific gravity
(Eq. 400-2)
Gas Transmission Lines
Flow calculations for gas transmission lines are covered in Section 400 of the Fluid
Flow Manual.
Detailed design development for a high-pressure (ANSI 600# or higher) gas trans-
mission system includes hydraulic analysis of transient pressure and temperature
conditions in the pipeline, and of two-phase flow resulting from pressuring of the
line from a high-pressure source and depressuring, whether intentional or resulting
from line rupture. Low temperatures caused by autorefrigeration during depres-
suring can significantly affect fluid properties (and influence material selection).
Effects of normal flow variation that stem from the delay in system response at
other locations must also be considered.
Unless seasonal ambient ground temperature variations are extreme, the annual
mean ambient air temperature adequately approximates the average flow tempera-
ture for long buried lines. For short lines, gas temperatures of the compressor station
or wells may be considerably higher than ambient, and should be taken into account.
The design annual throughput of gas lines is usually expressed in standard cubic feet
per calendar day (SCFCD). Seasonal throughput for gas lines can vary significantly
because of demand fluctuations and should be considered in setting the load factor
Fig. 400-1 Pressure Drop and Head Loss
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that determines design flow rate, expressed in standard cubic feet per operating day
(SCFOD).
422 Special Hydraulic Conditions
Situations involving special hydraulic calculations follow, along with sources of
guidance for appropriate calculation methods. Specialists in the Materials and Engi-
neering Analysis Division of the Engineering Technology Department can provide
further guidance and reference to similar systems. Situations covered in this section
include multistock lines, hot oil pipelines, non-Newtonian fluids, mixed phase flow,
and supercritical fluids.
Multistock Flow
Calculations for crude lines handling a range of specific gravities and for product
pipelines must allow for (1) the presence in the line of stocks with differing phys-
ical properties and (2) deliveries from the line at several points. The latter consider-
ably reduces the volume of products going through to the terminal compared to
throughput at the initial station. To avoid excessive mixing of products, the line flow
should be within the turbulent region. At low flow rates, batching pigs can be used
to minimize interface mixing.
Slurry pipelines usually operate within a narrow range of flow rateswith the
minimum rate adequate to keep solids in suspension and the maximum low enough
to avoid excessive abrasion and erosion. A wide range of net solid throughput is
achieved by frequent batching of slurry and water, or by displacing slurry with
water at intervals, then shutting down and restarting. To establish maximum and
minimum pressure drops, calculations should be made for slurry alone and water
alone.
Hot Oil Pipelines
If it has a high pour point or very high viscosity, a waxy crude oil or heavy oil must
be heated before it enters the pipeline, and must not be allowed to cool below a
minimum temperature before it reaches the terminal or an intermediate reheating
station. Maximum oil temperature entering the line is usually limited by allowable
temperature for the pipe coating (see Section 340 of this manual and the Coatings
Manual. See Section 900 of the Fluid Flow Manual for calculations for friction
heating and external heat transfer coefficients. Heat traced pipeline electrical
heating systems attached to the pipeline, or insulation on the pipe may be warranted
to maintain oil temperatures above the allowable minimum. Design guides for these
systems are not covered in this manual, though some Company installations are
listed in Section 370.
A planned shutdown procedure for hot oil pipelines, either for maintenance or emer-
gency shutdown, usually involves displacing the line with a lighter stock. Hydraulic
calculations for a multistock situation should therefore be made for both displacing
and restarting.
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Non-Newtonian Fluids
Non-Newtonian fluids should be handled on a case-by-case basis. Their viscosity
characteristics change significantly with flow rate and as a result of the fluids
hydraulic and temperature history. Pretreatment, heating, addition of pour depres-
sants or flow improvers, and a combination of strategies have been used success-
fully to facilitate pumping of these oils through pipelines. Line restart after
shutdown is likely to require special investigation and study.
Refer to the Materials and Engineering Analysis Division of the Engineering Tech-
nology Department for assistance on any pipeline system involving an oil or slurry
having non-Newtonian properties. See also Section 1000 of the Fluid Flow Manual
for a discussion of non-Newtonian fluids.
Mixed Phase Flow
Field production systems often have mixed phase flow in lines handling oil, water,
and gas. For two-phase flow (liquid-gas) refer to the Fluid Flow Manual, Section
400, or use the PIPEFLOW-2 computer program (see the Fluid Flow Manual,
Section 1100 and Appendix E). These facilities usually have a slug-catcher at the
line terminus.
Supercritical Fluids
A supercritical fluid is a gas compressed to a pressure greater than the saturation
pressure, at temperatures greater than the critical temperature. The critical
temperature is the temperature at which the gas cannot be liquified at any pressure.
Supercritical fluids behave like compressible liquids, or gases as dense as a liquid.
Pipeline transport of carbon dioxide as a supercritical fluid has become more
common in recent years. The viscosity of supercritical CO
2
is very low, but the
density varies significantly with pressure, temperature and amounts of other gases
present as impurities. Moreover, changes in pressure result in temperature changes.
Hydraulic calculations can be made with the PIPEFLOW-2 computer program (see
the Fluid Flow Manual, Section 1100 and Appendix E) incorporating density data
for pressures and temperatures along the line. Calculations for supercritical hydro-
carbons can be handled in a similar manner.
423 Hydraulic Profiles
When a pipeline route has been determined, elevation data and hydraulic pressure
drop gradient data can be plotted in a hydraulic profile. The hydraulic profile can
be used to establish line size and pump station spacing, and to show allowable pipe
pressures (see Sections 433 and 434). Data on pipe grade and wall thickness, pipe
coating, and locations of block valves, scraper trap manifolds, and major river cross-
ings can conveniently be incorporated on the same plot.
Hydraulic profiles plot the following data:
Ground elevations along the route, including at least the significant high and
low points, and pump station and branch line locations
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The approximate terminal pressure (in feet of head) at the end of the line (or
section of line) required, for example, for the fluid to pass through terminal
manifolding and piping and into tankage at design flow
Hydraulic gradient data, in feet of pressure drop per mile at design flow rate (or
maximum and minimum rates), for one or several pipe sizes
A basic plot of this data is indicated in Figure 400-2.
A hydraulic control point is a high-elevation point that governs the inlet head for
its section of line. Often, hydraulic control points are encountered, and the hydraulic
gradient must clear the ground elevation control point. Two situations may result as
indicated in Figure 400-3:
A slack line should be avoided because it results in erratic correlation of the line
input and output meters, which makes leak detection by metering instrumentation
impossible. For products pipelines the volume of interface mixture between succes-
sive products is uncontrollable in a slack-line, and product mixing is severe in
downhill sections downstream from the control point. In rare instances slack-line
operation may be considered so that back-pressure control is not required.
The actual pressure in the pipeline at any point along the route equals the difference
between the hydraulic gradient and the ground elevation (see Figure 400-4).
With multistock flow where two or more stocks having appreciably different
viscosities and specific gravities are in the same line, higher pressures may develop
(a) The hydraulic gradient is continued to the end of the line, resulting in a
residual pressure at the end of the line, for which back pressure control must
be provided.
(b) Without back pressure control, a length of line will flow only partially full, in
what is called a cascade or slack-line condition.
Fig. 400-2 Hydraulic Gradients Fig. 400-3 Hydraulic Profile: Backpressure Control
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at intermediate points along the line than if there were only one stock. In
Figure 400-5 the trailing stock has the lower viscosity and, therefore, a less steep
hydraulic gradient than the leading stock. With pump station and terminal discharge
pressures P
1
and P
2
fixed, the locus of pressures at the interface between the stocks
is arched upwards. The pressure H in feet of stock A at a distance of x miles along
the line of total length L is given by:
(Eq. 400-3)
where:
R =
r =
H
2
= 2.311 P
2
/ (sp. gr. stock A) in feet of stock A (not stock B)
Note that while the two hydraulic gradients vary, since the throughput will not be
constant for fixed station and terminal pressures, their ratio is essentially constant.
If there are injection or take off points along the line, so that flow in the main line
is increased or decreased, the different hydraulic gradients need to be plotted in
succession along the line for the changed flow rates.
H R E
2
H
2
E
x
+ ( )
E
1
H
1
R E
2
H
2
+ ( ) R 1 ( )E
x
+ +
1 r
x
L x
------------ +
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- + =
Fig. 400-4 Hydraulic Profile: Line Pressure Fig. 400-5 Hydraulic Profile: Multistock Flow
(specific gravity stock B)
specific gravity stock A ( )
--------------------------------------------------------------
hydraulic gradient stock A ( )
hydraulic gradient stock B ( )
--------------------------------------------------------------------
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430 Line Sizing
Although different regulations and codes are involved, the following method for
sizing long cross-country pipelines for liquid hydrocarbons is also applicable to
natural gas transmission lines. It also applies to other pipelines which involve
special conditions. There will, however, be significant differences in the facilities
and economic factors.
This section is concerned with the pipeline itself and pumping facilities, not field
gathering systems, storage at either end, or terminals. It helps determine the most
economic system for a particular set of conditions; based on order-of-magnitude
cost estimates for the installed systems and for variable operating expenses.
Preliminary design and cost estimating are not two separate and independent proce-
dures; they are closely interrelated and must progress concurrently. Unlike process
plant piping, a pipeline system is extremely flexible and a given throughput can be
transported between two given points over a variety of routes and through different
sizes of pipes.
The range of possible pipelines is almost limitless, even within the restricted scope
of this guide. Consequently, the parameters, guidelines, design criteria and esti-
mating criteria presented here are not applicable in all cases. However, they provide
a starting point for a logical and realistic approach to the problem.
Note Short Lines. Relatively short lines such as field flow lines and gathering
lines normally do not require the line sizing procedure covered in the major part of
Section 430. Refer to Section 438 below for guidelines on sizing short lines.
431 Elements to Determine an Economic System
To size a pipeline, one must identify the significant elements necessary to evaluate
and compare alternatives, estimate costs, and perform an economic analysis of the
alternatives. Cost differentials for alternative line sizes must include the following
elements:
Annual throughput rates for the period selected as the analysis basis
Pipeline and pumping facilities with capacity to handle the throughput rates
Pumping energy to transport the stock at throughput rates
Alternative forecast throughputs often consist of a most-likely case, and less likely
cases at lower and higher rates. Sensitivity analyses should be made to determine
the effects of the other casesor a composite casegiven the line size selected by
the most-likely case analysis.
Sections 432 and 433 show how to establish the pipeline and pumping facilities for
the alternative line sizes, while Section 434 covers order-of-magnitude cost esti-
mates for the facilities. Section 435 discusses order-of-magnitude estimates for
operating cost (for pumping energy). (Data presentation and calculations for
multiple alternative designs and conditions can be greatly facilitated by using a
computer spread sheet such as Lotus 1-2-3.)
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Section 436 discusses economic analysis for line sizing. Sensitivity analyses may be
in order if the estimating basis for items such as construction costs and pumping
energy costs is uncertain.
In some situations, other elements may affect economic evaluation of alternatives,
such as:
Line routing
Heated-line facilities, heating method, initial line temperature, pipe insulation,
and heating energy
Sensitivity analysis may be appropriate if alternative routes involve uncertainties in
comparative construction costs or costs for permitting, right-of-way acquisition and
damages, or if heated-line systems involve uncertainties in line heat losses and
heating energy cost.
432 Preliminary Pipe Selection and Line Operating Pressure
Approximating Line Size
An initial approximation for pipe size for liquid hydrocarbon pipelines can be made
using the curves in Figure 400-6. These curves were not derived by a comprehen-
sive study, but represent judgment based on Company and others experience over a
period of years. Estimates should be made for at least three alternative pipe sizes.
Fig. 400-6 Design Flow vs. Nominal Pipe Size
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Pipe Wall Thickness
A preliminary determination of pipe wall thickness(es) is necessary since the cost of
pipe is based on tonnage, a function of diameter and wall thickness. A more
comprehensive discussion of pipe stress and wall thickness calculations is given in
Section 440.
The basic pipe hoop stress formula relating internal pressure, pipe wall thickness,
pipe diameter and stress value, as given in Section 404.1.2 of Code B31.4 for liquid
lines, is:
(Eq. 400-4)
where:
t = pressure design wall thickness, in.
P
i
= internal design gage pressure, psig
D = outside diameter, in.
S = allowable stress value, psi
Code B31.4, Section 402.3.1, establishes the allowable stress value S; Code B31.4,
Table 402.3.1(a), tabulates allowable stress values for pipe of various specifica-
tions, manufacturing methods and grades. As a preliminary design basis for line
sizing, API Specification 5L Grade X60 pipe is suggested, for which S = 0.72 x
60,000 = 43,200 psi. For oil lines, which normally do not require any corrosion
allowance, the nominal wall thickness t
n
equals the pressure design wall thickness t.
The hoop stress formula then becomes:
(Eq. 400-5)
Pipe wall thicknesses commonly manufactured are given in API SPEC 5L, Section
6, Table 6.2.
MinimumHandling Thickness
Pipe wall must be thick enough to resist damage and maintain roundness during
construction handling and welding. Other factors affect pipe wall thickness, but for
line sizing suggested minimum thicknesses are as follows:
t
P
i
D
2S
--------- =
NPS Min. Wall, in.
4 12 0.188
14 24 0.219
t
n
P
i
D
86,400
----------------- =
or P
i
86,400
t
n
D
---- =
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Other Pressure Level Factors
Mechanical limits on pump discharge pressures and ratings for valves and flanges
also influence maximum design pressure levels for the pipeline. Maximum oper-
ating pressure (MOP) ratings for carbon steel pipeline valves conforming to API
Spec 6D and valves and flanges conforming to ANSI Standards B16.34 and B16.5
often determine maximum pressure for pipeline design. Although valves and flanges
do not usually comprise a significant portion of the system cost, going to the next
higher rating to provide for only a slight increase in line pressures would not be
incrementally economic.
Section 402.2.1 of Code B31.4 states that pressure ratings shall conform to ratings
at 100F in the material standards. Accordingly, MOPs for valves and flanges are as
follows:
433 Hydraulic Profiles and Pump Station Locations
To plot hydraulic profiles for the feasible alternatives pump discharge pressures,
allowable pressures for pipe wall thicknesses, and pressure ratings for valves and
flanges must be converted to feet of fluid (head
ft
= 2.311 x P
psi
/specific gravity).
Developing reasonable hydraulic profiles may require several trials, but by using
parallel rules gradients can be drawn rapidly and adjustments made to develop alter-
native layouts. The principal characteristics of a reasonable layout are as follows:
Discharge pressures at pump stations are nearly balanced. Allow about 50 psi
above the bubble point for the suction to each station
Hydraulic gradients pass close to control points, minimizing the pressure differ-
ential needed for back pressure control
Gradients for expansion steps in capacity should be drawn to demonstrate the
need for future intermediate pump stations to provide increased throughput.
The corresponding throughputs should be shown
26 30 0.250
30 36 0.281
36 40 0.312
42 48 0.375
Class Valves API 6D
MOP, psi
Flanges ANSI B16.34
ANSI B16.5 MOP, psi
300 720 740
600 1440 1480
900 2160 2220
1500 3600 3705
NPS Min. Wall, in.
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Where back pressure control will cause high pressures in the pipeline beyond the
control point, perhaps necessitating heavier wall pipe, two remedies are available:
Install one or more pressure reducing stations to dissipate the pressure and
bring the gradient closer to the ground elevation
Reduce the pipe diameter to steepen the gradient
The second alternative may seem to be an economical solution, but is not suggested
for preliminary estimates. The smaller diameter is likely to be a bottleneck in
capacity expansion of the pipeline. However, it should be considered in a final
design stage. A scraper trap station will be needed at the point of size change so that
different size inspection pigs can be run. A power-recovery turbine should also be
considered as an alternative to wasting power through a control valve.
Figure 400-7 shows gradients for a reasonable line size, with station locations, for:
An initial design throughput requiring an intermediate pump station (otherwise
pump discharge head at the initial pump station would be excessive) and a pres-
sure-reducing station to reduce line pressures upstream of the terminal.
Future system expansion by addition of a pump station, resulting in a new
gradient and throughput rate. Pump discharge head at the intermediate pump
station is higher, but now matches the initial station discharge head. Although
the pressure-reducing station is not needed at the future maximum throughput,
pressure-control facilities will still be needed there and at the terminal to
prevent overpressuring the line at low flow rates in the lower-elevation section
and in the terminal piping.
Figure 400-7 also indicates the effect on gradients of a reduced size pipe as an alter-
native to the pressure-reducing station. Figure 400-8 shows gradients for a design
throughput for three alternative line sizes, and corresponding station facilities.
Pipe allowable pressures, determined by calculations described in Section 432 and
converted to head in feet of fluid, should also be shown on the hydraulic gradient
diagram, as indicated on Figure 400-9. The dashed line indicating the calculated
pipe allowable pressure for a particular wall thickness parallels the ground profile.
In Figure 400-9, for the section of the pipeline between the initial pump station and
the intermediate pump station, pipe with wall thickness a is needed for a distance
downstream of the initial pump station, but at higher elevations, this allowable pres-
sure rating is greater than required. Therefore, in the following section, thinner wall
pipe (b and c) is satisfactory. If the line were to be blocked while pumps were
running, the gradient at no flow would be horizontal, indicated as pump shut-off.
Pipe wall thickness should be selected so that pipe allowable pressures are equal to
or greater than line pressures under pump shut-off conditions. In Figure 400-9, only
wall thickness e fails to meet this criterion. In this example, wall thickness e
represents a considerable savings in weight and dollars compared to the wall thick-
ness required for the shutoff condition against intermediate station pumps.
In many cases, wall thicknesses of older pipelines were telescoped; that is, pipe
wall thickness for successive sections of line were only adequate for line pressures
at flow conditions, not for a blocked line situation. At a time when the higher
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J uly 1999 400-18 Chevron Corporation
strength grades of pipe were not available, appreciable savings could be realized by
telescoping. Telescoping is also done by using lower grades of pipe. However tele-
scoping introduces the hazard of overpressuring the line under pump shutoff condi-
tions and often limits system expansion by adding intermediate pump stations.
Telescoping should generally be avoided.
Pumping horsepower requirements for the various alternatives can now be calcu-
lated (Equation 400-6). For preliminary estimates a pump efficiency of 70% can be
used for centrifugal pumps in pipeline service. For reciprocating pumps, use 90%.
(Eq. 400-6)
Fig. 400-7 Hydraulic Profile: Initial and Future BPOD
bhp
Q
bpod
H
ft
SG
136,000 PE
---------------------------------------- =
Q
gpm
P
psi

1714 PE
---------------------------- =
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Chevron Corporation 400-19 J uly 1999
where:
bhp = pump brake horsepower
Q
gpm
= flow rate, gpm
Q
bpod
= flow rate, BPOD
H = pump discharge head, ft
SG = specific gravity
P = pump discharge pressure, psi
PE = pump efficiency
Other features can be indicated on the hydraulic profile, such as pipe coatings,
major river crossings, line valves, scraper trap manifolds, cased crossings, and areas
with special construction problems.
434 Order-of-Magnitude Estimates for Investment Costs
For line sizing, order-of-magnitude investment cost estimates are necessary for the
overall systems, alternative line sizes and, possibly, alternative routes. Cost esti-
mating data are not included in this manual, but sources of cost information are
suggested). Besides Company sources, cost data is periodically published in the Oil
Fig. 400-8 Hydraulic Profile: Alternative Line Sizes
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J uly 1999 400-20 Chevron Corporation
and Gas Journal and other trade magazines. Costs that are functions of pipe size,
number of pump stations and installed pumping horsepower are more important
than costs that are essentially independent of line size. Cost analysis may also be
required for selection of route alternatives, involving costs that are functions of line
length, terrain, permitting and right-of-way problems, line access, construction
damages, etc.
Line sizing must be known to make project cost estimates, and is therefore done in
conjunction with cost estimates for feasibility studies and appropriation requests.
Fig. 400-9 Hydraulic Profile: Nominal Wall Thickness
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Chevron Corporation 400-21 J uly 1999
Line sizing estimates should focus on the elements of cost that constitute the bulk of
the investment cost differentials for the alternatives under consideration. Usually the
pipeline itself represents 75% to 85% of the investment, and pump stations, termi-
nals, etc., account for the balance. Consequently, a substantial error in estimating the
cost of pump stations will have a minor effect on the overall estimate.
The two major elements in the cost of a pipeline are the cost of the pipe and the cost
of construction. The cost of the pipe can generally be determined easily and quickly;
therefore, the major portion of the time available should be directed toward devel-
oping a construction cost.
Pipe Cost
The cost of the pipe generally represents 25% to 50% of the total line cost, and the
use of a reliable cost will go a long way toward assuring a realistic total estimate.
For mill runs purchasing can usually obtain informal quotes from steel mills, based
on total tonnage required, within a week. The price can be FOB mill or FOB desti-
nation. In the former case, freight charges from mill to destination must be obtained.
European and Japanese sources should be included, particularly for foreign projects.
Experience has shown that market fluctuations make it risky to use pipe costs from
previous jobs and escalate them by an index.
In calculating the tonnage of steel required, allow for heavier wall pipe for river and
highway crossings. Also allow for waste and for the difference between the hori-
zontal length of the line and its actual slope length. Even for lines laid through
mountainous terrain, an allowance of 1% to 2% is usually adequate. For short
producing field lines, both allowances combined (wastage and slope length) are
about 5%.
Coatings
Although final coating selection involves a thorough study of alternatives and
design conditions, order-of-magnitude coating costs for line sizing can usually be
based on the following:
For normal soils, preferably extruded plastic with fusion bonded epoxy (FBE)
primer, plant-applied fusion-bonded epoxy or extruded polyethylene
For hot lines, plant-applied extruded polyethylene up to 150F, fusion bonded
epoxy up to 200F, or extruded plastic with FBE primer to 230F
For wet or corrosive soil conditions, plant-applied extruded polyethylene, or
extruded plastic with FBE primer, or fusion-bonded epoxy
Reference should be made to Section 340 of this manual and to Section 920 of the
Coatings Manual for full descriptions of these coatings.
Purchasing can usually obtain informal quotes from coating material suppliers or
plant applicators within a few days. When the coating is plant-applied the applica-
tion cost as well as the material cost is included. The cost of unloading the bare pipe
from the delivery cars and reloading the coated pipe onto rail cars or stringing
trucks and the cost for shipping coated pipe to the job should be included.
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Where circumstances favor coating applied over the ditch, the labor cost of applica-
tion is part of the construction contract. When estimating the material cost allow-
ances should be included for waste (15% to 20%) and for shipping costs.
Miscellaneous Materials
Block valve installations, scraper traps, cathodic protection equipment, line markers,
casing pipe and other items of material may be required. It is generally accurate
enough to estimate all these items together as a percentage of pipe cost. The figure
should be at least 5%; for short lines or lines with an unusual number of appurte-
nances the figure can be as high as 10%.
Taxes and Duties
Applicable sales or use taxes must be determined and included as a part of the mate-
rial cost. In addition, foreign projects generally entail added costs for import duties,
permits and custom clearances. This can be a very significant item.
Pipeline Construction
A realistic estimate of the construction cost requires judgment in evaluating such
factors as terrain, weather, availability of labor and competent welders, access, and
remoteness from living and service facilities. In preparing an order-of-magnitude
estimate it is not possible to evaluate these individually, but their composite effect
on costs must be appraised.
The basic construction cost covers clearing and grading, stringing pipe, ditching,
welding, application of coating as required for the particular coating system,
lowering, backfilling, cleanup and testing. It is generally estimated on the basis of
dollars per linear foot. Unit construction costs for many existing pipelines are avail-
able from various sources, such as Company project cost statements and magazines
such as the Oil and Gas Journal which publish data on pipeline projects.
Methods for estimating basic construction cost include the following:
Review available data to find a similar size line crossing terrain similar to the
area in question. Use judgment to make adjustments for the particular condi-
tions
When time is available, consult with several pipeline contractors and obtain
informal estimates. Their figures should be realistic, particularly if they have
actual construction experience in the same geographical area
Develop a daily cost for the labor and equipment needed for a pipeline spread.
An estimate is then required of the rate of construction progress over the route
to determine the total length of the construction period. The daily spread cost
multiplied by the days to construct represents the construction cost. The daily
spread cost must include items such as contractors overhead and profit. On
foreign jobs there may be an additional lump sum to cover mobilization
A special situation occurs if the pipeline is located in city or suburban streets. The
contractor will be required to limit his daily operations to a short distance. He may
not be permitted to leave any ditch open overnight. Delays are likely on account of
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Chevron Corporation 400-23 J uly 1999
unanticipated underground interferences. He will therefore use a city spread that is
much smaller in terms of the amount of equipment and number of men than the
normal pipeline spread. Construction progress will be measured in terms of 500 to
1500 feet per day as compared to 5,000 to 10,000 feet per day for open country
terrain. Also, the removal and replacement of paving will be a significant cost item.
Installation costs for major river crossings, line valves and scraper traps, casing,
cathodic protection stations, and pipeline markers are generally estimated on a lump
sum per unit basis. Cost data for these items is available from past Company jobs
and the published data mentioned previously. By far the largest items are river
crossings, which require special equipment and involvement with government agen-
cies. If possible, contractors should be consulted in developing the lump sum cost
for a major river crossing.
Pipeline Technical Services
Pipeline technical services include the following:
Project management
Design engineering and drafting
Services for purchasing, inspection and expediting, governmental and public
relations, etc.
Outside specialist technical services for environmental surveys; geophysical,
geotechnical, hydrographic, hydrological and meteorological surveys; radio-
graphic inspection; etc.
Route and land surveys, including aerial photography
Field supervision and inspection, including travel and living expenses
For order-of-magnitude estimates it suffices to lump all these technical services
together and estimate their total cost as a percentage of total pipeline material and
construction costs. The percentage will generally be 5% to 20% depending on the
size and complexity of the pipeline. Experience on past Company jobs should be
used as a guide in determining the percentage to use.
Permitting, Right-of-Way and Land Acquisition
Permits and rights-of-way are needed for the pipeline, and land must be acquired for
stations and similar facilities. These costs are usually very difficult to estimate, and
all available sources should be consulted past projects, published data, and, above
all, Company land specialists and local operating organizations. Charges and
expenses for agents and personnel involved in developing land information and
acquiring rights-of-way and land are included in acquisition costs. For order-of-
magnitude estimates, permitting and right-of-way acquisition costs are usually esti-
mated in dollars per mile, and land for station and similar facilities in dollars per
acre.
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Construction Damages and Restoration
Construction damages pertain to the present use of the land, and the extent to which
construction will damage crops or developments. Although route restoration, such
as revegetation, is considered as a pipeline construction cost, the extent and type of
restoration is usually determined by the special conditions of the permits and rights-
of-way. Costs for construction damages and restoration are usually estimated in
dollars per mile for the specific sections of line affected.
Pump Stations
For the preliminary estimate, four major decisions must be made regarding pump
stations:
Type of pump. Although centrifugal pumps are the usual choice, reciprocating
pumps may be indicated for high viscosity stock because of the centrifugal
pumps low efficiency in this service. The Pump Manual provides criteria for
choosing a pump and the Mechanical and Electrical Systems Division of the
Engineering Technology Department can give advice
Type of driver. Electric motors are the usual choice unless electric power is
unavailable or some other fuel, such as natural gas, is available at a signifi-
cantly lower cost. Diesel engines can be modified to burn crude oil but this
generally requires a substantial investment in equipment to filter and condition
the crude oil. Turbines are used in remote areas where electric power is unavail-
able because they require fewer auxiliary facilities, have lower maintenance
requirements, and are adaptable to remote control
Type of operation. Remote operation of some or all intermediate pump stations
should be considered. This is common practice in the United States, where
labor costs are high. It is also desirable wherever nearby housing and associ-
ated facilities are unavailable
Amount of standby capacity. The initial design of a line usually must consider
standby capacity to assure the desired line operating factor. Standby capacity is
less necessary in subsequent expansions as the consequences of the loss of a
pump or even a station become less severe. The total installed horsepower is
the basis for estimating investment cost
The investment cost of pump stations can be estimated by breaking the facility into
components, as follows:
Fixed cost. This covers items that are largely independent of the amount of
horsepower to be installed. These are land, site development, buildings, living
quarters and maintenance facilities. These can be estimated as a lump sum
applicable to each station
Variable cost. The remaining station facilities, such as pumps and drivers,
manifolding, instrumentation, and power supply are related to the size of the
station. These can be estimated on the basis of dollars per installed horsepower.
This figure will also vary with the type of pump and driver. Diesel stations cost
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more than electric stations; reciprocating pump stations cost more than centrif-
ugal pump stations
Technical services. The fixed cost plus the product of variable cost times
installed horsepower equals the total station cost. These unit costs must include
an allowance for the technical services required to design and construct the
station, generally 10% to 25% of the total station cost
Other SystemFacilities
Pipeline system facility costs not required for line sizing include the following:
Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) facilities and associated
metering, instrumentation, and control facilities
Communications
Station tankage
Cathodic Protection
Contingency, Escalation
Contingencies must be provided for, including costs which have been overlooked
and factors contributing to cost that have not been realistically evaluated. The
percentage allowed for contingencies depends on the time available to prepare the
estimate and the confidence in the figures developed. The minimum contingency
should be 10%, although 15% is normally used and a higher figure may be appro-
priate.
If the pipeline is an unusually large project, requiring two or three years to design
and construct, an allowance for future escalation should be included. If no escala-
tion is included, this should be clearly stated in the estimate.
435 Order-of-Magnitude Estimates for Operating Costs
The operating cost component most important for comparing alternatives in line
sizing is the electric power or fuel required for pumping. Reduction in total
pumping horsepower and, possibly, the number of stations, form the basis for justi-
fying a larger line.
The cost of electric power is based on a rate schedule for demand and energy
charges. Where a schedule is not available, an equivalent must be developed, on as
sound a basis as possible, in conjunction with resources of the operations organiza-
tion. Where the drivers use the same gas or oil being transported in the line, the cost
is based on the value of the gas or oil at the point of consumption. The objective is
to develop a cost for pumping power per horsepower per year, or per kilowatt hour
per year.
Other operating costs, significant for comprehensive economic analysis but not for
line sizing analysis, include the following:
Direct labor for station operation
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Pipeline maintenance supplies, labor, and equipment
Pump station and terminal maintenance supplies, labor, and equipment
Property taxes
Management and administration
Services, such as communications
436 Economic Analysis for Line Sizing
The objective of an economic analysis for line sizing is to establish the comparative
attractiveness of different line sizes. Usually the system with the smallest feasible
line size requires the smallest investment. The first alternative that should be
analyzed is the system with the next larger line size, which costs more to build but
less to operate for a given throughput. Where Company-owned stock is used to fill
the line initially, the value of the line fill should be added to the estimated system
investment.
The analysis requires calculation of the incremental cost of building the larger line
and the incremental savings realized in operating it over the forecast life of the pipe-
line. Operating costs may vary over time for both the base and alternate cases if the
throughput varies (e.g., for an oil field with increasing, then declining production
rates), or if power costs change (due to energy costs, inflation, etc.). If an increase in
throughput requires adding pump stations or looping the line, the additional invest-
ment costs must be included at the time these facilities are required. Cost elements
which are the same for both cases (the incremental cost is zero) can be ignored for
this comparative analysis.
An economic analysis computer program such as CASHFLO (sponsored by Corpo-
rate Planning & Analytical) can calculate a rate of return (ROR) and payout (in
years) for the incremental cost of the larger line based on the annual savings in oper-
ating (pumping) costs. CASHFLO also incorporates the effects of depreciation and
taxes on the annual cash flow. If the ROR on the increment meets or exceeds current
standards for this type of investment, then the larger line size is economic. This
analysis can be repeated for successive line sizes until the ROR no longer justifies
the incremental investment.
437 Improving Cost Estimates
This section recommends additional design and estimating work useful in upgrading
order-of-magnitude estimates and making designs final. See also the design devel-
opment guidelines contained in other sections of this manual.
Route and Profile
The route and profile should be reviewed in detail. Detailed maps should be
obtained, if available. Taking a reconnaissance trip over the route is important. The
group making this trip should include someone familiar with right-of-way acquisi-
tion, and environmental permitting, a Company engineer or contractor representa-
tive familiar with construction problems, and the Company project engineer. They
may suggest desirable route changes and will obtain first-hand knowledge useful in
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estimating permitting, right-of-way acquisition, and construction costs more realisti-
cally.
During the trip information should also be gathered on pipe storage and handling
areas, construction camp sites, weather, labor availability, local regulations, import
requirements, availability of services and supplies, etc. Although some of these
items are not important on domestic projects, they are critical cost factors on foreign
projects.
Finally, the route should be analyzed from the viewpoint of construction progress.
What rate of pipe laying can be expected? Which sections are the most difficult?
Will construction be limited to a certain time of the year? What are the river condi-
tions that will dictate design and construction of crossings? How much preparation
work is needed? Must access roads be constructed? Are there environmental and
ecological considerations that will affect construction progress and timing?
Hydraulics
The fluid characteristics and volumes used in the preliminary design should be
reviewed and confirmed. The viscosity and pour point of a crude oil must be
accurate; if there is any doubt, samples should be obtained and a pumpability study
performed. Care should be taken to assure that the sample obtained is truly repre-
sentative. The volumes to be transported, particularly the forecast of future require-
ments, should be reviewed and confirmed. A forecast of future throughputs is
essential.
Pipe and Coating
Bids should be obtained for the pipe. These may be formal or informal, but should
be based on specific requirements. At the same time, such items as freight and
duties must be considered in detail. A proposed selection of the type of coating must
be made, and applicable costs developed. Finally, a detailed list of other material
requirements should be made and priced as accurately as possible.
Pipeline Construction
Improving the estimate for pipeline construction should have the highest priority.
Making a reconnaissance trip is particularly important, providing the engineer with
a first-hand appreciation of the various conditions that will determine the construc-
tion cost.
Preferably, one or more contractors should be asked to inspect the route and submit
informal figures on construction costs, but it is best if the engineer conducts the
inspection trip separately with each contractor. Contractors are generally willing to
provide this service because it gives them an early look at a potential project. Varia-
tions in the figures submitted by different contractors may reflect different evalua-
tions of construction difficulties, or a difference in their interest in doing the job (or
in their need for work). It is difficult but necessary to assess the effect of the overall
construction market on bids.
The engineer should make an independent estimate of construction costs after he
has seen the terrain and talked to contractors about the equipment and labor force
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they would use. Construction elements such as river crossings, block valves, scraper
traps, and cathodic protection facilities, should be re-estimated in light of any infor-
mation that has been developed. The estimating methods and sources of cost data
are the same ones discussed in Section 435. The daily spread method described
there is particularly useful.
Technical Services
To develop a detailed estimate for each technical service element it is first neces-
sary to prepare a schedule and a Company manpower forecast for the design and
construction phases of the project.
The construction period is fixed by the availability of pipe and the completion date.
This dictates the number of spreads required for the job, which, in turn, affects the
number of Company personnel assigned to the field for supervision and inspection.
Engineering and drafting. In estimating the cost of engineering and drafting for
design, include the time already spent on preliminary estimates and feasibility
studies.
Purchasing and expediting. The percentages of material costs to be used in calcu-
lating purchasing, inspection and expediting burdens should be defined.
Specialists. A schedule and contracting plan for outside specialists should be made,
and the anticipated scope of work for each defined. Reference to previous projects,
informal discussions with technical service contractors, and consultation with
Company organizations involved in environmental affairs and technical investiga-
tions are recommended.
Pump Stations, SCADA, Communications, Etc.
A piping and instrument diagram (P&ID) and plot plan should be prepared for each
pump station. With these, a detailed estimate can be made in the same way as for
process plants. Material and equipment is priced out and the construction cost is
estimated as a percentage of each material category. Project cost statements on past
projects will provide guidance on typical percentages. Technical services should be
estimated as described above.
Permitting, Right-of-Way and Land Acquisition
After the route reconnaissance trip, a schedule and scope for permitting, right-of-
way and land acquisition should be developed, and detailed advice on costs solic-
ited from local Company Land Department people. It is usually difficult to develop
an accurate estimate until the acquisition of right-of-way is well along. Be conserva-
tive: common sense is likely to produce a figure that is too low, because land-
owners often do not use common sense in granting rights of way. Costs for
preparation and processing of an Environmental Impact Report (EIR) should also be
estimated.
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438 Sizing of Short Lines
As explained at the beginning of Section 430, the preceding sections apply to long-
distance cross-country oil pipelines. Sizing of short lines (say, under 10 miles) such
as field flow and gathering lines is normally much simpler for the following
reasons:
Route selection is straightforward.
The terrain usually does not have large elevation differences.
Throughput forecasts are probably better defined.
Only one stock at a time is in the line.
No intermediate pump stations are required.
Cost elements are not as complex and are limited to differentials for pipe and
coating, pipeline construction, pump station installed horsepower, and oper-
ating power costs. All other costs are not significantly affected by pipe size or
pumping requirements.
On short lines attention must still be given to:
Fluid properties, particularly if the temperature entering the line is higher than
ambient, as from a production wellhead or gas compressor, and the fluid is
cooled in the pipeline. See the Fluid Flow Manual, Section 900.
Hydraulic calculations and hydraulic profiles for alternative line sizes and
corresponding pumping requirements. Note that pumping may not be required
if adequate initial pressure is available. See the Fluid Flow Manual, Section
400.
Economic analysis involving pipeline and pump station costs, and operating
power costs using criteria suitable for local conditions.
440 Line Design
441 Pipe and Coating Selection
Section 430 establishes line size based on a preliminary choice of pipe grade and
coating, and wall thickness. Further studies are needed to make final selection of
pipe and coating for the length of the pipeline. Selection must meet Code B31.4 or
B31.8 requirements, and will be influenced by economics and timely availability of
materials.
See Sections 310 and 630 regarding pipe and welding. Generally, economics will
dictate use of the higher grades of line pipe, with resultant thinner wall and lower
tonnage; the effect of incremental cost per ton for the higher grades is small
compared to reduced tonnage of pipe. Also, consideration must be given to
providing sufficient wall thickness to resist mechanical damage and structural
flexing in handling during construction. If Grade X70 and higher pipe is considered
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(or for sour service Grade X60 and higher) consultation with the Materials and
Engineering Analysis Division of the Engineering Technology Department is
suggested.
442 Pipe Stress and Wall Thickness Calculations for Liquid Pipelines per
ANSI/ASME Code B31.4
The following sections of Code B31.4 Chapter II (Design) are particularly impor-
tant for pipeline design:
Part 1, Conditions and Criteria
Section 401, Design Conditions
Section 402, Design Criteria
Part 2, Pressure Design of Piping Components
Section 403, Criteria for Pressure Design of Piping Components
Section 404, Pressure Design of Components
Allowable Pipe Stresses
Section 402.3.1(a) of Code B31.4 establishes the allowable stress value S for new
pipe as:
S = 0.72 E SMYS
(Eq. 400-7)
where:
0.72 = Design factor based on nominal wall thickness t
n
. In setting this
design factor, the code committee gave due consideration to and
made allowance for the underthickness tolerance and maximum
allowable depth of imperfections provided for in the specifica-
tions approved by Code B31.4
E = Weld joint factor per Section 402.4.3 and Table 402.4.3 of Code
B31.4. For pipe normally considered for new lines, E = 1.00
SMYS = Specified minimum yield strength, psi
Although mill tests for particular runs of pipe may indicate actual minimum yield
strength values higher than the Specified Minimum Yield Strength (SMYS), in no
case where Code B31.4 refers to SMYS shall a higher value be used in establishing
the allowable stress value; (Section 402.3.1(g) of Code B31.4).
Table 402.3.1(a) of Code B31.4 tabulates allowable stress values for pipe of various
specifications, manufacturing methods, and grades, based on the above, for use with
piping systems within the scope of Code B31.4.
Sections 402.3.1(b),(c), and (d) of Code B31.4 cover allowable stresses for used
(reclaimed) pipe, pipe of unknown origin, and cold-worked pipe that has subse-
quently been heated to 600F or higher. Section 402.3.1(e) limits allowable stress
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values in shear and bearing. Section 402.3.1(f) limits tensile and compressive stress
values for pipe and other steel materials when used in structural supports and
restraints.
Section 402.3.2 of Code B31.4 covers allowable stress values due to sustained loads
and thermal expansion for the following stresses:
Internal pressure stresses. The calculated stresses due to internal pressure
shall not exceed the applicable allowable stress value S determined by 402.3.1
(a), (c), or (d) except as permitted by other subparagraphs of 402.3.
External pressure stresses. Stresses due to external pressure shall be consid-
ered safe when the wall thickness of the piping components meets the require-
ments of 403 and 404.
Allowable expansion stresses (as for heated oil lines). The allowable stress
values for the equivalent tensile stress in 419.6.4(b) for restrained lines shall
not exceed 90% SMYS of the of the pipe. The allowable stress range, S
A
, in
419.6.4(c) for unrestrained lines shall not exceed 72% of SMYS of the pipe.
Additive longitudinal stresses. The sum of the longitudinal stresses due to
pressure, weight, and other sustained external loadings (see 419.6.4(c)) shall
not exceed 75% of the allowable stress value specified for S
A
under allowable
expansion stresses.
Additive circumferential stresses. The sum of the circumferential stresses
from both internal design pressure and external load in pipe installed without
casing under railroads and highways [see Code Section 434.13.4(c)] shall not
exceed the applicable allowable stress value S determined by Code Section
402.3.1(a), (b), (c), or (d).
Section 402.3.3 of Code B31.4 covers limits of calculated stresses due to occa-
sional loads in operation and test conditions.
Wall Thickness Calculations
Section 404.1.2 of Code B31.4 gives the basic pipe hoop stress formula relating
internal pressure, pipe wall thickness, pipe diameter and stress value:
(Eq. 400-8)
where:
t = pressure design wall thickness, in.
P
i
= internal design gage pressure, psi
t
P
i
D
2S
--------- =
or
P
i
2St
D
-------- =
400 Design Pipeline Manual
J uly 1999 400-32 Chevron Corporation
D = nominal outside diameter, in.
S = allowable stress value, psi, (per Section 402.3.1(a) of Code
B31.4)
Per Section 404.1.1 of Code B31.4 the nominal wall thickness t
n
of straight sections
of steel line pipe shall be equal to or greater than the sum of the pressure design wall
thickness, and allowances for threading and grooving, corrosion, and prudent
protective measures:
t
n
t + A
(Eq. 400-9)
where A = sum of allowances for:
Threading and grooving (per Section 402.4.2 of Code B31.4) (zero for welded
line)
Corrosion (per Section 402.4.1 of Code B31.4) (zero if the line is protected
against internal and external corrosion per Chapter VIII of Code B31.4). For
stocks where corrosion (or slurry erosion) is expected, a corrosion allowance
must be provided, and consultation with the Materials and Engineering Anal-
ysis Division of the Engineering Technology Department is recommended
Increase in wall thickness as a reasonable protective measure (under Section
402.1 of Code B31.4) to prevent damage from unusual external conditions at
river crossings, offshore and inland coastal water areas, bridges, areas of heavy
traffic, long self-supported spans, and unstable ground, or from vibration, the
weight of special attachments, or abnormal thermal conditions
The nominal wall thickness shall not be less than the minimum required by
prudence to resist damage and maintain roundness during handling and welding.
The appropriate minimum should be evaluated for the particular installation condi-
tions. As a rough guide, the following is suggested:
0.188 inch wall for sizes up to and including NPS 12
0.219 inch wall for NPS 14 through 24
A maximum D/t
n
ratio of 120 for pipe over NPS 24
These represent minimums for reasonable cross-country laying conditions. Consid-
eration must also be given to buckling of double-jointed lengths of pipe and to
fatigue stresses if extensive cyclical loading is possible during transport from the
mill to the job site. The latter problem is discussed in API Recommended Practices
RP 5L1, Railroad Transportation of Line Pipe; RP 5L5, Marine Transportation of
Line Pipe; and RP 5L6, Transportation of Line Pipe on Inland Waterways.
Canadian Standard CAN3-Z183, Oil Pipeline Systems
Canadian Standard CAN3-Z183 is similar to ANSI/ASME B31.4. The engineer
must consult CAN3-Z183 to ensure compliance with it. In Alberta there is a lower
allowable stress factor for sour service.
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Chevron Corporation 400-33 J uly 1999
443 Pipe Stress and Wall Thickness Calculations for Gas Transmission
Pipelines per ANSI/ASME Code B31.8
The organization and some aspects of the design procedure in Code B31.8 differ
from Code B31.4. See especially Code B31.8 Chapter IV, Design, Installation, and
Testing, Sections 840 and 841.
Population Density Index and Location Classification
Code B31.8 relates calculations for allowable design pressures to damage resulting
from the failure of a gas pipeline, and classifies locations by population density. For
each mile of the pipeline, Section 840.2(a) of Code B31.8 defines a zone one
quarter-mile wide (centered on the pipeline) and one mile long. Within each zone
buildings intended for human occupancy are counted, with each separate dwelling
unit in a multiple-dwelling-unit building counted as a separate building. Each zone
is classified by the number of buildings it contains, as follows:
Class 1. 10 or fewer buildings; for example, wasteland, deserts, mountains,
grazing land, farmland, sparsely populated areas, and offshore
Class 2. More than 10 but less than 46 buildings; for example, fringe areas
around cities and towns, industrial areas, and ranch or country estates
Class 3. 46 or more buildings (except where a Class 4 location prevails); for
example, suburban housing developments, shopping centers, residential areas,
industrial areas, and other populated areas not meeting Class 4
Class 4. Areas where multistory buildings are prevalent, traffic is heavy, and
where there may be numerous other utilities underground. Multistory is defined
as four or more floors above ground, including the first or ground floor
A Class 2 or 3 location that consists of a cluster of buildings may be terminated one-
eighth mile from the nearest building in the cluster. Section 192.5(f) of 49 CFR 192
further provides that Class 4 locations end one-eighth mile from the nearest building
with four or more stories.
Section 840.3 of Code B31.8 advances additional criteria that take into account the
possible consequences of failure near a concentration of people, such as in a church,
school, multiple dwelling unit, hospital or organized recreational area. In estab-
lishing location classes consideration must also be given to the possibility of future
developments.
Steel Pipe Design Formula
Section 841.11 of B31.8 gives the hoop stress formula (Equation 400-10) relating
internal design pressure, pipe wall thickness, pipe diameter, and factors applied to
the specified minimum yield strength (SMYS) to establish a pipe stress value.
400 Design Pipeline Manual
J uly 1999 400-34 Chevron Corporation
(Eq. 400-10)
where:
P = design pressure, psig
D = nominal outside diameter, in.
t = nominal wall thickness, in.
S = specified minimum yield strength (SMYS), psi, stipulated in the
Specifications to the manufacturer
F = construction type design factor per Code B31.8 Table 841.1A,
ranging from 0.72 to 0.40, for four construction types, deter-
mined from Tables 841.15A, .15B, and .15C, and Sections
841.122 and 841.123. In setting the values for F, due consider-
ation has been given and allowance has been made for the various
underthickness tolerances provided for in the specifications
approved by Code B31.8
E = longitudinal joint factor per Code B31.8 Table 841.1B. For pipe
normally considered for new lines, E=1.0
T = temperature derating factor per Code B31.8 Table 841.1C. For
temperatures of 250For less, T=1.0
Although mill tests for particular runs of pipe may indicate actual minimum yield
strength values higher than the SMYS, in no case where Code B31.8 refers to
SMYS shall a higher value be used in establishing the allowable stress value (see
Section 841.121(f) of Code B31.8).
Code B31.8 Section 841.121(d) warns that the minimum thickness, t, required for
pressure containment by Equation 400-10 may not be adequate to withstand trans-
porting and handling during construction, the weight of water during testing, and
soil loading and other secondary loads during operation, or to meet welding require-
ments. Table 841.121(d) gives least nominal wall thickness for all sizes through
NPS 64, but Company practice is more conservative. Code B31.8 Section 816
requires pipe with a D/t ratio of 70 or more to be loaded in accordance with API RP
5L1 for rail transport, API RP 5L5 for marine, or API RP 5L6 for inland waterway.
If it is impossible to establish that transporting has been done in accordance with the
appropriate recommended practice, special hydrostatic testing must be done.
Code B31.8 makes no specific reference to internal corrosion allowance, but Section
863 in Chapter VI, Corrosion Control, discusses internal corrosion control in
general.
Code B31.8 Section 841.121(b) limits the design pressure P for pipe not furnished
to specifications listed in the Code or for which the SMYS was not determined in
P
2St
D
-------- F E T =
t
PD
2S F E T
------------------------------ =
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Chevron Corporation 400-35 J uly 1999
accordance with Section 811.253 of the Code. Section 841.121(e) covers allowable
stress for cold-worked pipe that has subsequently been heated to 900F for any
period of time or over 600F for more than one hour.
Section 841.13 of the Code B31.8 covers protection of pipelines from hazards such
as washouts, floods, unstable soil, landslides, installation in areas normally under-
water or subject to flooding, submarine crossings, spans, and trestle and bridge
crossings.
Canadian Standard CAN/CSA-Z184, Gas Pipeline Systems
The provisions of Canadian Standard CAN/CSA-Z184 are similar to those of
ANSI/ASME Code B31.8. The engineer must consult CAN/CSA-Z184 to ensure
compliance with it. In Alberta there is a lower allowable stress factor for sour gas
service.
444 Coating Selection
See the Coatings Manual and Section 340 of this manual for coating selection.
Different coatings may be required to suit different terrain and soil conditions along
the line. There are often a number of acceptable coatings, and the type and applica-
tion method will depend primarily on the following:
Ground corrosivity and effectiveness of cathodic protection
Line temperature
Cost of coating
In selecting coatings, attention should be given to factors such as:
Data obtained from a field soils resistivity survey made early in the design
phase of the project
Level of ground water table throughout the year
For cohesive clay soil, data on pipe-to-soil friction
In rock excavations, damage to the coating caused by the pipe hitting the trench
walls while being lowered, and by rocks in the backfill
In tropical locations, termite attack
Potential damage to plant-applied coating in transit to job site
For plant-applied coating:
Cost of plant application, and incremental shipping and handling costs
Incremental field handling costs, and cost of repairs in the field
Cost of field joint materials and application
Availability, feasibility, and cost of setting up and operating a modular
coating plant near the job site
For over-the-ditch coating:
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J uly 1999 400-36 Chevron Corporation
Cost of coating materials, and shipping and storage costs
Construction costs for coating, including pipe cleaning
Capability of a construction contractor to apply the coating satisfactorily
Standard over-the-ditch coatings are far less reliable than plant-applied
systems, particularly at higher-than-ambient temperatures and under wet
conditions
Use of additional coating thickness or higher quality coatings at highway, road
and railroad crossings, either cased or uncased, and in developed areas
Service life anticipated for the pipeline
Comparative quality of the coatings over the service life the pipeline
Differential cost, if any, for the cathodic protection system
445 BurialRestrained Lines and Provision for Expansion
Long cross-country pipelines are generally buried for several obvious reasons:
Allows surface use of land by private owners and the public
Protects the line from accidental and intentional damage
Protects the line against temperature expansion and contraction from ambient
temperature changes and radiant energy gains and losses
Minimizes effects of temperature changes on fluid viscosity
Provides restraint along the length of line
Aboveground installation may not be allowed by governmental authorities
On the other hand, in undeveloped areas some major pipelines and, often, flow and
gathering lines are designed and installed aboveground for one or more of the
following reasons:
Economy of construction, especially where ditching is costly, since there are
savings in both excavation and pipe coating
Benefit of solar radiation in keeping waxy oils above the pour point
Use of insulation and tracing arrangements on heated lines that would not be
feasible for burial
Designs of hot lines and aboveground lines need to incorporate restraints and provi-
sion for thermal expansion, and must be examined individually.
Burial Cover
Sufficient cover to protect the pipeline should be provided both for existing condi-
tions and for any anticipated grading, cultivation, or developments that would
require a very costly lowering of the line in the future. Company practice in many
areas, especially for production field lines, is to increase cover over required mini-
Pipeline Manual 400 Design
Chevron Corporation 400-37 J uly 1999
mums, since the cost of a deeper ditch in normal excavation is small compared to
the added protection; five feet is recommended. Deeper burial is usually required for
heated lines to provide restraint, and water and slurry lines should be buried below
the ground frost depth.
In some areas, it is advisable to place a yellow warning tape about a foot above the
pipe to serve as a marker to anyone excavating across the right-of-way. Yellow
Terra-Tape is one such tape and can be purchased with a metallic strip for burial
over fiberglass pipe.
Minimum Cover for Liquid Lines. Section 434.6 of Code B31.4 requires the
cover over the top of a line to be appropriate for surface use of the land and for a
normal depth of cultivation, and sufficient to protect against loads imposed by road
and rail traffic. Code B31.4 Table 434.6(a) gives minimum requirements for cover.
See Figure 400-10.
If these minimums cannot be met, additional protection must be provided to with-
stand anticipated loads and minimize damage by external forces.
Minimum Cover for Gas Lines. Section 841.142 of Code B31.8 gives minimum
covers for gas transmission lines and discusses special considerations. See
Figure 400-11.
Fig. 400-10 Minimum Cover Requirements for Liquid Lines
Normal Excavation
Blasted Rock
Excavation
LPG and NH
3

Normal Excavation
Developed areas 36 in. 24 in. 48 in.
River and stream
crossings
48 in. 18 in. 48 in.
Drainage ditches at
roads and railroads
36 in. 24 in. 48 in.
Any other area 30 in. 18 in. 36 in.
Fig. 400-11 Minimum Cover Requirements for Gas Lines
Blasted Rock Excavation
Location Normal Excavation NPS 20 and Smaller Over NPS 20
Class 1 24 in. 12 in. 18 in.
Class 2 30 in. 18 in. 18 in.
Class 3 and 4 30 in. 24 in. 24 in.
Drainage ditches at
roads and railroads 36 in. 24 in. 24 in.
400 Design Pipeline Manual
J uly 1999 400-38 Chevron Corporation
Restrained Lines
It is important to examine the effect of temperature differentials in a heated line
restrained by burial or equivalent anchorage, and the resulting combination of
tensile (positive) hoop stresses and compressive (negative) longitudinal stresses.
Section 419 of Code B31.4 deals with expansion and flexibility; the following anal-
ysis will indicate whether detailed study is advisable. The Materials and Engi-
neering Analysis Division of the Engineering Technology Department can assist in
these calculations.
The net longitudinal compressive stress due to the combined effects of internal pres-
sure and temperature rise are computed using the following equation from Section
419.6.4(b) of Code B31.4:
S
L
= E T S
H
(Eq. 400-11)
where:
S
L
= longitudinal compressive stress, psi
S
H
= hoop stress due to fluid pressure, psi (=PD/2t)
T = T
2
- T
1
T
1
= temperature at time of installation, F
T
2
= maximum operating temperature, F
E = modulus of elasticity of steel, psi (= 30 10
6
psi)
= Linear coefficient of thermal expansion of steel, in./in./ F (= 6.5
10
-6
/ F)
= Poissons ratio for steel (= 0.3)
so:
S
L
= (30 10
6
6.5 10
-6
T) - 0.3 S
H
= 195 T - 0.3 S
H
If the temperature rise is great enough, the compressive stress caused by the
restraint on pipe growth will exceed the tensile stress due to internal pressure. If the
net longitudinal stress, S
L
, becomes compressive, then absolute values are used for
pipe stresses in accordance with the Tresca Maximum Shear Theory, as follows:
| S
H
| + | S
L
| = equivalent tensile strength allowable stress
(Eq. 400-12)
Adding the absolute values of hoop stress and longitudinal stress when the values
are of opposite sign to arrive at an equivalent tensile stress is a departure from sepa-
rately comparing hoop stress and longitudinal stress to allowable values.
Pipeline Manual 400 Design
Chevron Corporation 400-39 J uly 1999
The allowable value for equivalent tensile stress is limited to 90% of SMYS (per
Section 402.3.2(c) of Code B31.4). Using this limit and Equations 400-11 and
400-12 the maximum temperature difference (F) for a fully restrained pipe oper-
ating at a maximum allowable pressure at 0.72 SMYS is:
T
max
= 0.002 SMYS
(Eq. 400-13)
If the design temperature difference is greater, the maximum allowable pressure will
have to be reduced below 0.72 SMYS, or, alternatively, higher grade pipe used.
When lowering or repositioning pipelines, or in portions of a restrained line above-
ground, beam bending stresses must be included in the net compressive longitu-
dinal stress calculation.
The burial depth required to provide restraint is a function of pipe diameter, soil and
backfill strength properties, bend configuration (overbend or sidebend), bend radius
and angle, temperature difference, and pipe-soil friction. Given operating tempera-
ture and soil type, diagrams for a specific pipeone for overbends and one for side-
bendsshould be developed relating depth of cover to angle of bend, as indicated
in Figure 400-12. See Appendix F for method used to develop these diagrams.
Provision for Expansion or Anchoring
The pipeline transition zone from underground to aboveground represents a change
in conditions from fully restrained to unrestrained, and deserves a discussion of the
deflections and stresses encountered. Determining the longitudinal stresses and
deflections due to internal pressure and temperature change is important in the
layout and design of aboveground piping because, if economic methods cannot be
found to provide enough flexibility to accommodate the deflections, anchors must
be designed to constrain movements.
Fig. 400-12 Depth of Burial vs. Angle of Bend (See
AppendixF)
Fig. 400-13 Transition from Underground to Above-
ground Pipe
400 Design Pipeline Manual
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Consider a pipeline in the transition zone without anchors (see Figure 400-13). The
transition of stress and strain between points A and B is assumed to be linear, with
the length L dependent on the longitudinal resistance of the soil (pipe-soil friction),
as follows:
At point A:
Net longitudinal stress S
L
= E T - S
H
= 200T - 0.3S
H
(compressive)
Longitudinal strain = 0
(Eq. 400-14)
At point B:
Net longitudinal stress S
LB
Longitudinal strain
=
=
(Eq. 400-15)
The length L over which the transition occurs depends on the longitudinal soil resis-
tance (pipe-soil friction) F
s
, and can be determined by:
=
(Eq. 400-16)
=
S
H
2
-------(tensile)

B
= T
S
L
B
E
----------
S
H
E
---------- =
E T
S
H
2
------- 0.3S
H
+


E
200T 0.2S
H
+
E
---------------------------------------


L A
pm
S
LB
S
LA
( )
F
s
-------------------------------ft =
A
pm
S
H
2
------- 200T 0.3S
H
+


F
S
--------------------------------------------------------- =
A
pm
200T 0.2S
H
+
F
s
--------------------------------------



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Chevron Corporation 400-41 J uly 1999
where:
A
pm
= Area of pipe metal, in.
2
It is recommended that a soils consultant or the The CRTC Fitness For Service/Civil
Structural Team in Material and Equipment Engineering be consulted for appro-
priate values of soil resistance F
s
, since F
s
is highly variable with type of soil. For
rough approximations of soil resistance in sand and clay, the following can be used.
Sand
F
s
= 2.25 D H
(Eq. 400-17)
where:
F
s
= soil resistance, lb/ft
D = outside diameter of pipe, in.
H = burial cover, ft
Sand density assumed to be 100 lb/ft
3
Clay
(Eq. 400-18)
where:
S
u
= cohesion, lb/ft
2
The value of S
u
can range from 75 lb/ft
2
in loose disturbed clay to 1500 lb/ft
2
for
compacted stiff clay. A range of 200 to 300 lb/ft
2
is suggested for general soils.
The total movement at point B will be the average strain from point A to point B
over the length L, or:
L = (
B
/2) L
If the expected expansion L at point B has adverse effects on aboveground piping
or support arrangements that cannot be accommodated by providing flexibility, then
anchors must be designed to constrain the deflection. The force F acting on the
anchor simply becomes the stress difference across the anchor times the metal area
of the pipe, or:
F = A
pm
(S
LA
- S
LB
)
= A
pm
[(200 T - 0.3 S
H
) + 0.5 S
H
]
= A
pm
(200T + 0.2 S
H
)
This force can be very great. The design of the anchor itself should be in accor-
dance with good practices of civil engineering including consultation with a
F
S

2
--- S
u
=
400 Design Pipeline Manual
J uly 1999 400-42 Chevron Corporation
geotechnical consultant. Considerations should include soil friction and lateral
bearing pressure, transfer of loads from the pipe to the anchor, transfer of loads from
the anchor to the soil, and whether other loads from aboveground piping should be
superimposed. The CRTC Fitness For Service/Civil Structural Team in Material and
Equipment Engineering may be consulted if problems are encountered.
446 Seismic Considerations
The major seismic hazards for pipelines are:
Differential fault movement and ground rupture
Landslides
Liquefaction
Ground shaking is a major design consideration for station and terminal facilities
and aboveground sections, but not for buried lines, since the pipeline moves with
the ground with no relative displacement. A more pressing concern is the ability of
the pipeline to accommodate the curvature, deformation, and strains that it will
undergo as a result of burial.
Where a pipeline crosses or lies within a seismic zone, the adequacy of the line to
withstand the effects of earthquake action must be assessed. Comprehensive treat-
ments of this subject are contained in Guidelines for the Seismic Design of Oil and
Gas Pipeline Systems and Seismic Design of Oil Pipeline Systems (see Section 480),
which present the available (1983) earthquake practices.
Geotechnical and seismological consultants with knowledge of pipeline perfor-
mance in seismic zones should be consulted early in the project so that pipeline
routing and designs can minimize risks from earthquakes and mitigate effects of an
earthquake on the pipeline. The design level of the earthquake, nature and impor-
tance of the project, cost implications, and risk assessment of items such as public
safety, loss of product or service, and damage to the environment must be consid-
ered. The extent of geotechnical investigations should be consistent with risks and
consequences of seismic activity. These investigations would include the following:
Fault location and expected movement
Soil stability on slopes during earthquakes
Locations of soils prone to liquefaction
Passive pressures of backfill material
Fault Movement
It is critically important to design pipeline for possible fault movement and the
accompanying ground ruptures which can occur along an extended length of the
fault. The pipeline must be capable of moving laterally, vertically, and longitudi-
nally relative to the soil so as to accommodate differential movement. Fault move-
ment is not necessarily confined to a single fault plane or zone, but may occur at
substantial distances from the main trace of the fault. For a given fault offset, the
probability of pipe rupture depends on burial depth, fault crossing geometry, type
and strength of surrounding soil, and pipeline material properties.
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Pipeline alignment in fault zones should be such that the expected fault movement
will produce tensile strains in the pipenot compressive strains, which are likely to
promote buckling failure. Pipeline rupture due to buckling is a non-ductile behavior
and should be avoided to the extent possible. When strained in tension the pipeline
is very ductile and is capable of undergoing large strains before rupture. However,
strain concentrations (resulting from weld flaws, nonuniformity in wall thickness,
etc.) could reduce the ductility of the pipeline. Therefore, tight quality control is
necessary to assure near uniformity of pipe properties and to minimize weld flaws
along the region of pipe strongly affected by fault movement. Pipelines should be
laid in relatively straight sections in areas of potential faulting and ground rupture,
crossing the fault at an angle of between 60 and 80 degrees, without sharp changes
in direction and elevation that could act as anchors. Features such as pipeline bends,
tees, valves, or rigidly connected foundations that could anchor the pipeline should
also be located at a conservative distance from the fault. The fault movement
capacity of the pipeline is greater when the anchor points are located further away,
because the required pipeline elongations may be accommodated over a greater
distance.
Friction between the pipeline and the soil should be minimized in order to maxi-
mize the fault movement capacity. Friction force is most readily controlled by the
type of backfill material, degree of compaction, pipeline coating, and depth of
cover. The pipeline should be buried in a shallow trench with sloping sides, and the
depth of cover over the pipe should be minimized to reduce soil restraint during
fault movement. The backfill should be a uniformly graded, cohesionless, loose to
medium granular material without cobbles or boulders. Backfill material should be
placed in the trench with zero compactive effort. If native soil differs substantially
from this, oversize trenches should be excavated for a distance of about 200 feet on
each side of and through the fault zone. Use of heavier wall pipe in the fault zone
will increase the pipes tolerance for fault displacement at a given level of maximum
tensile strain, as will a hard, smooth coating such as fusion-bonded epoxy. It is
suggested that heavy wall pipe and epoxy coating, with controlled backfill and
cover, be used for a distance of 1000 feet on each side of and through the fault zone.
Appendix J of this manual gives procedures that can be used to verify the adequacy
of a given pipeline design, buried or abovegrade, to accommodate predicted fault
movement. Necessary input parameters include:
estimated fault movement displacements,
pipeline fault crossing geometry,
complete elasto-plastic stress-strain relationships for the pipeline material, and
soil-pipeline friction properties.
This procedure is only applicable for pipelines undergoing tensile deformation.
Other, more exact, methods are available (which could incorporate compressive
deformation if necessary). However, these methods are more computationally
demanding and are not within the scope of this manual. Consult the CRTC
Civil/Structural Technical Service Team if more detailed analysis is required.
400 Design Pipeline Manual
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Landslides
Landslides are mass movements of the ground and can be triggered by seismic
shaking. Landslides are taken to include rockfalls, relatively shallow slumping and
sliding of soil, and deep rotation and translation of soil or rock. Slopes showing
signs of recent movement and instability may be seismic risk areas, depending on
the nature of ground movement. If slope instability involves deep translations and
rotational displacement, the potential ground movements in the vicinity of the pipe-
line may be very large. In light of the substantial costs required to stabilize such
slopes, relocation of the pipeline must be considered. If, on the other hand, insta-
bility involves slumps and shallow slides, slope stabilization may be an effective
means of correcting the difficulties and promoting long-term performance. When
crossing a zone of potential instability, it is generally better to locate the line along a
contour of constant elevation at a relatively shallow burial depth. This minimizes
grading and slope disturbance, and lessens the chance of compressive strains
imposed by slope movement at oblique angles to the pipeline.
Liquefaction
Liquefaction is the transformation of a saturated cohesionless soil, such as loose to
medium-dense sands and nonplastic silts, from a solid to a liquid state as a result of
increased pore pressure and loss of shear strength. Liquefaction can lead to lateral
ground spreading, flow failure, loss of bearing, and uplift of buried objects due to
buoyancy. Areas that are particularly vulnerable to liquefaction include loose fills
near waterfronts, toe areas of alluvial fans and deltas, active flood plains, river chan-
nels, and saturated colluvial deposits. The combined consequences of lateral ground
spreading and buoyancy create a severe condition for a buried line, and it is diffi-
cult to pinpoint zones of potential spreading within a region susceptible to liquefac-
tion. Under these conditions, it seems prudent to evaluate pipeline performance for
the entire region in terms of its response to lateral spreading. Pipelines that can
accommodate moderate amounts of lateral spreading should be able to sustain
deformations from buoyant forces. A suggested design solution is to design the line
to be buoyant under earthquake condition, with shallow burial so that its upward
movement is limited. In areas where landslides or liquefaction may occur, it may be
prudent to locate line block valves or check valves, as appropriate, on either side of
the seismic hazard zone.
Most of the pipeline design considerations for fault crossings may also be appli-
cable for crossing liquefiable soil regions. However, the differential movements in
such regions are generally not expected to be as abrupt as are the movements at fault
crossings, therefore the design requirements may not be as severe. Orienting pipe-
lines for tensile rather than compressive deformation is generally beneficial. Siting
pipelines parallel to natural surface contours will promote elongation and bending of
pipelines subjected to downslope movement, and this kind of orientation reduces the
chance for compressive pipe wall wrinkling. Liquefaction of the underlying soil can
lead to loss of support for a section of pipeline and, in turn, lead to severe relative
deformation and straining of the pipeline. Various site improvement procedures,
including soil densification, can be employed to stabilize sites.
Pipeline Manual 400 Design
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Design Level Earthquake Selection
The ASCE Guidelines propose that design criteria for important oil and gas pipe-
lines encompass two levels of earthquake hazard. The lower level, the probable
design earthquake (PDE), normally has a return period of approximately 50 to 100
years. The pipeline system should be able to operate through and following such an
earthquake. The higher level (stronger) event, is the contingency design earth-
quake (CDE). It has a longer return period, of about 200 to 500 years or more.
Special considerations for safety or structural integrity may make it desirable to
require return periods for the CDE of greater than 500 years. The Guidelines
suggest that in some situations it may be expedient to use only the CDE level, and
this is the basis for most Company installations. It is possible that the larger level
(CDE) earthquake might cause limited damage to the pipeline, and/or temporary
interruption in operation after severe seismic activity. Operation would be resumed
after careful inspection of facilities, and appropriate repair measures or pipe replace-
ment as might be needed.
The ASCE Guidelines point out that in the dual design earthquake concept, the
lower level PDE should be considered the earthquake for which design criteria in
regulations and codes are intended; current codes are for earthquakes that have
return periods of the same order as other extreme environmental conditions asso-
ciated with wind, rain, snow, etc. These events are likely to occur during the life of
the pipeline and should be resisted in a manner that maintains the integrity of the
pipeline. The higher level (and less likely) CDE, however, is associated with a
design level that may go beyond the intent of codes. Under these conditions code
stress criteria should be relaxed somewhat and strain criteria should be introduced.
The strain criteria used generally allow the pipeline to take advantage of available
ductility without rupture.
Allowable Strain Criteria
A primary concern is the ability of buried pipelines to accommodate abrupt ground
distortions from faulting, landslides, lateral spreading, and liquefaction. For welded
steel pipelines, the most common approach to accommodate fault movement is to
utilize the ability of the pipeline to deform well into the inelastic region in tension in
order to conform to the ground distortions without rupture. Because fault displace-
ment is considered to be a maximum credible or contingency level event with a low
probability of occurrence during the service life of the pipeline, it is common prac-
tice to employ a design philosophy in which straining of the pipe beyond yield is
allowed with permanent deformation of the pipe. This permanent deformation
constitutes acceptable behavior so long as the possibility of pipe rupture is mini-
mized. As a result, it is necessary to estimate the ability of the pipeline to withstand
the strains associated with fault displacement without rupture of the line. These
strains may be sufficiently large so as to necessitate repair of the pipeline after fault
movement. The most important requirement is to prevent rupture. Table 4.5 of the
Guidelines (Figure 400-14) summarizes recommended allowable pipeline strains.
400 Design Pipeline Manual
J uly 1999 400-46 Chevron Corporation
Guidelines Sections 5.2, Pipeline Performance under Large Differential Ground
Movements; 5.3, Analysis of Pipelines Subjected to Fault Movements; and 5.4,
Factors Affecting Pipeline Performance at Fault Crossings should be referred to for
situations where pipelines cross known fault zones, or are in likely areas of lateral
movement. Section 5.5, Special Fault Design Considerations, discusses approaches
to pipeline fault-crossing strategies, and assesses the consequences, cost, and reli-
ability of particular fault crossing designs. Some special design concepts discussed
include placement of the line in an aboveground berm constructed of low-strength
soil, placement of the line in oversized trenches surrounded by low-strength, crush-
able material or selected backfill, casing the line in buried oversize culverts, place-
ment of the line on aboveground sliding supports, and increasing wall thickness to
improve ductile behavior.
447 Crossings
Nearly all pipelines involve water crossings, highway and railroad crossings, and
crossings of other pipelines. Permits are always required from regulatory agencies
and owners of existing facilities, and requirements set forth in the permits must be
met.
General guidelines for design are included in the following Codes:
ANSI/ASME Code B31.4 for liquid lines
Section 434.6, Ditching
Section 434.13, Special Crossings
ANSI/ASME Code B31.8 for gas transmission lines
Section 841.13, Protection of Pipelines and Mains From Hazards
Section 841.143, Clearance Between Pipelines or Mains and Other Under-
ground Structures
Section 841.144, Casing Requirements Under Railroads, Highway, Roads
or Streets
Section 862.117, Casings
Fig. 400-14 Recommended Allowable Strain Criteria for Above Ground and Underground Oil
and Gas Pipelines and Piping
Strain Component Allowable Strain
Internal pressure, live and dead loads, plus
local, nonvibratory induced loads such as
faulting, slope instability, and liquefaction.
Tension: 2% to 5%. Only applicable to
straight sections of pipe. In regions and
field bends, more restrictive criteria should
be used.
Compression: Onset of wrinkling.
Internal pressure, live and dead loads, plus
shaking effects due to the CDE
50% to 100% of the onset of wrinkling.
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Chevron Corporation 400-47 J uly 1999
River and StreamCrossings
Any river or stream crossing involves unique design and construction consider-
ations, and is usually influenced by conditions imposed by regulatory agencies. In a
conventional installation the pipeline is laid in a trench excavated in the river bed
and bank. However, the horizontal directional drilling method offers distinct advan-
tages, and should be the first choice for major riversunless the line can be laid
across a dry river bed. In some cases an overhead crossing on a bridge or self-
supported span is indicated.
In addition to topographic surveys to develop cross section profiles of the river bed
and banks in the area of a proposed crossing, investigations should be made to
determine composition of the bottom, scouring, bank variation and stability,
seasonal variations of water depth and current velocity, and environmental restric-
tions such as fish spawning seasons. Particular attention should be given to
geophysical and hydrological investigation to predict the river scour zone and to
provide data for horizontal drilling techniques. Lines should be laid 5 to 7 feet
below the scour zone, regardless of installation method. Except for small stream
crossings, consideration must be given to obtaining access and sufficient land on
one or both sides of the river for fabricating pipe sections and for construction
equipment needed to install the line.
The significant advantages of the horizontal drilling method are as follows:
The line lies in undisturbed soil well below the scour zone
There is no environmental impact such as the silting and disturbance of river
bottom and banks that accompanies trenching in a moving stream
Weight-coating or other protection from mechanical damage is not needed
Disadvantages include the following:
Potentially higher cost
Limited number of qualified contractors
In the hydraulic drilling method, a pilot hole is drilled, directionally controlled, and
followed by a larger reamer. Then the full length of pipe is pulled through the hole.
Drilling muds are used to facilitate drilling, stabilize low-cohesion soils, and facili-
tate pipe installation. Heavier wall pipe is usually but not necessarily used at the
crossing. Coating should be fusion-bonded epoxy to provide a durable, smooth
surface on the pipe. See Model Specification COM-MS-4042 in the Coatings
Manual.
Heavier wall pipe is nearly always used at trenched river crossings to provide addi-
tional protection from mechanical damage and to keep pipe stresses within limits
during installation. The heavier wall also provides some additional weighting of the
pipe to obtain stability of the submerged line. The weight of the installed pipe, filled
with the operating fluid or gas, must be greater than the buoyancy produced by the
displaced water or the cohesionless fluid soil backfill that may be placed or natu-
rally settle around the pipe.
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J uly 1999 400-48 Chevron Corporation
For all gas lines and for larger oil lines (say, over NPS 10) additional weighting is
usually required. As a guide, a submerged weight (negative buoyancy) of at least 5
lb per lineal foot should be provided. Weighting may consist of concrete weight
coating applied over the pipe coating or concrete weights clamped on at intervals. If
the line is to be pulled across the river bottom, continuous concrete-weight coating
is preferable to clamped on weights. Set-on weights, without bolting, are not recom-
mended except for larger lines in dry flood plain areas.
The required additional weight-coating W
c
above pipe weight W
p
needed to achieve
a design submerged weight Ws calculated as follows:
(Eq. 400-19)
For which the outside diameter, D
c
, of the weight-coated pipe will be
(Eq. 400-20)
where:
A = cross-sectional area of corrosion-coated pipe of outside diameter
D (without weight-coating), ft
2
= 0.00545 D
2
W
s
= submerged weight of pipe and coating, lb/ft
W
c
= weight of concrete in air, lb/ft
W
p
= weight of pipe in air, lb/ft
D = diameter, ft
t
c
= concrete thickness, ft

c
= density of weight-coating, lb/ft
3
(approx. 140 for normal concrete
weight-coating)

w
= density of water or cohesionless backfill, lb/ft
3
To calculate the submerged weight for pipe that is already weight-coated:
W
c
W
s

w
A W
p
+
1

w

c
-------
---------------------------------------- =
D
c
13.5
W
s

c
A W
p
+

c

w

-------------------------------------- =
13.5
W
c

c
-------- A + =
t
c
D
c
D
2
----------------- =
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Chevron Corporation 400-49 J uly 1999
(Eq. 400-21)
Highway and Railroad Crossings
See API Recommended Practice 1102, Recommended Practice for Liquid Petro-
leum Pipelines Crossing Railroads and Highways, (see Section 2300) which covers
both cased and uncased crossings. API RP 1102 gives guidelines for design and
construction, sets forth minimum cover requirements, and includes the formula,
graphs and nomographs for determining circumferential stresses in uncased line
pipe. It includes a table for minimum wall thickness for casing, but Company prac-
tice is to use greater minimums: 0.188 inch up through NPS 16, 0.250 inch for NPS
18 through 36, and 0.312 inch over NPS 36. API RP 1102 can also be used to design
casing for gas transmission lines. Also, see Appendix I of this manual for the calcu-
lation of bending stress in a buried pressurized pipeline due to external loads.
Highway or railway authority requirements given in the crossing permit must be
met and may be more stringent than API RP 1102. It is advisable to provide a
drawing for each crossing, showing the crossed facility, ground profile, pipe or
casing cover, casing length (for cased crossings), casing diameter and wall thick-
ness, spacers and end seals, vent details (if required), and, for uncased crossing, the
line pipe wall thickness, coating, and installation method.
Uncased Crossings. It is preferable to make highway, road and railroad crossings
without using a casing, and uncased crossings are becoming accepted by the
controlling authorities. Generally, thicker pipe walls are used to provide for external
loading by crossing traffic and to reduce the possibility of maintenance repair at the
crossing during the service life of the pipeline. A high-quality coating is used on the
crossing section consisting of fusion bonded epoxy, often with an outer coating of
smooth concrete. Where traffic cannot be diverted to allow open trenching, the line
pipe is installed by the same boring and jacking method used for casing installation.
External loading due to traffic over the line must be carefully assessed and, if neces-
sary, depth of burial, pipe wall thickness or both increased. Sections 402.3.2(e) and
434.13.4(c) of Code B31.4 for oil lines requires that the sum of circumferential
stresses due to internal design pressure and external load shall not exceed the appli-
cable allowable stress value S determined by Code B31.4 Section 402.3.1. Metal
fatigue by cyclical loading at crossings subject to high-density heavy traffic must
also be considered. Code B31.8 for gas transmission lines approaches design for
uncased crossings by adjusting to the construction type design factor F in accor-
dance with Code B31.8 Table 841.15A.
Cased Crossings. Pipeline crossings of highways and railroads have traditionally
been made by installing a casing pipe, at least two sizes larger than the line pipe, by
boring and jacking. Short sections of casing pipe are sequentially welded to the
casing during the jacking process; usually the casing pipe is not coated. The line
pipe can then be pushed through the casing, supported on electrically non-conduc-
tive spacer supports. The annular openings at both ends of the casing are sealed with
W
S
W
p
W
c
+ ( )
w
W
c

c
-------- A +



=
400 Design Pipeline Manual
J uly 1999 400-50 Chevron Corporation
end caps of electrically non-conductive material. Electrically insulating the line pipe
from the casing pipe is critical in order to properly maintain the line under cathodic
protection. See Section 364 for descriptions of casing insulators and seals.
Company preference is for uncased crossings wherever feasible and acceptable to
the authority because, over time, differential settlement between the casing and line
pipe has been known to damage the nonconductive spacers, end seals and pipe
coating. This results in failure of cathodic protection on the line, and requires very
costly maintenance to repair or replace the crossing. Government regulations require
correction of shorted casings, with fines assessed if corrections are not made in a
timely fashion.
Crossings of Other Pipelines
Clearance. Spacing between crossing pipelines should be provided to minimize (1)
the risk of damage to either line during construction or maintenance, and (2) the
effect of one lines cathodic protection system on the other. Section 434.6(c) of
Code B31.4 requires a minimum of 12 inches between lines or from any buried
structure. Section 841.143 of Code B31.8 requires at least 6 inches clearance wher-
ever possible, but Section 192.325 of 49 CFR 192 requires a minimum of 12 inches.
Company practice is to provide 12 inches, with sandbags or compacted backfill
between the lines so that the clearance is maintained.
Cathodic Protection Test and Bonding Leads. It is the usual and recommended
practice to install test and bonding leads to both the line under construction and the
existing line. Reference should be made to Section 465 of this manual and to the
Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy Manual.
448 Special Considerations
This section alerts the engineer to some problems involving pressure surges, slurry
pipeline erosion and corrosion, and crack arrestors.
Pressure Surges
The pressure surges that result from rapid shutoff of liquid flow in a pipe are
normally not severe for pipelines. Section 800 of the Fluid Flow Manual gives a
simplified method for calculating pressure surges. Section 402.2.4 of Code B31.4,
RatingsAllowance for Variations from Normal Operations, requires that surge
calculations be made, along with adequate provision to ensure that the level of pres-
sure rise does not exceed the allowable design pressure at any point in the system by
more than 10%. Section 454 of this manual discusses line pressure control and
relief.
Erosion/Corrosion Allowance for Slurry Pipelines
The abrasive action of solids in a slurry pipeline, often combined with some corro-
sive action, requires pipe wall thickness beyond that required for internal design
pressure. Besides an allowance applied to the entire length of the line, attention
should be given to additional allowance for conditions such as:
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Chevron Corporation 400-51 J uly 1999
High velocity at the walls of sharp bends and at steep downhill sections where
slack flow may occur
High oxygen content in the water leaving the slurry-preparation station, (subse-
quently reduced by chemical reaction with the pipe steel). The Materials and
Engineering Analysis Division of the Engineering Technology Department has
reference files on this
Greater abrasion leaving the slurry-preparation station (until solid particles are
smoothed in transit)
Crack Propagation Control
Localized mechanical damage to high pressure (ANSI Class 600 and above) gas
pipelines, caused, for example, by excavating equipment, can result in critical fail-
ures involving longitudinal cracking along many hundreds of feet of pipe. This type
of failure is termed dynamic ductile fracture. Research on this type of crack prop-
agation has been conducted and continues in the United States, Canada, Europe and
Japan. In the United States Batelle, Columbus Laboratories has, in association with
the Pipeline Research Committee of the American Gas Association, led in this
investigation and in designs to arrest cracking.
Pipelines in high-pressure gas or supercritical fluid service require pipe toughness
and sufficient wall thickness to avoid crack propagation. In open country, crack
arrestors are used in lighter-wall sections to minimize damage should a propagation
crack occur.
Pipe dimensions and grade, and material properties including steel toughness,
internal pressuring medium and external environment are parameters used to predict
whether or not unstable fracture propagation will occur and at what fracture speed.
See Section 313 for a more detailed discussion and the toughness required by ANSI
and recommended by Chevron.
When crack arrestors are indicated by semi-empirical calculations or experimental
testing, mechanical sleeve collars, joints of heavier wall pipe, or both can be placed,
as necessary or as prudent, at intervals and at critical locations such as river and
highway crossings and line valves. Both were used on the Chevron-managed 16-
inch CO
2
pipeline constructed in 1985 from Rock Springs, Wyoming, to Rangely,
Colorado. See Figure 400-15 for the crack arrestor installation guidelines for that
project.
450 Pipeline Appurtenances
Section 360 describes piping components for pipelines. This section gives guide-
lines for application of these items and other pipeline appurtenances. Requirements
of governmental jurisdictions should be determined at an early design stage in
designs, so the facilities will be in compliance.
Design and selection of all line valves, mainline bends and fittings must provide for
passage of scrapers and inspection pigs. See Sections 452 and 453 of this manual.
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J uly 1999 400-52 Chevron Corporation
For gas transmission systems, it should be noted that in Location Class 1 areas
where the Type A construction design factor F of 0.72 applies to line pipe design,
Section 841.122 of ANSI/ASME B31.8 requires that fabricated assemblies such as
line valve manifolds and scraper traps be designed with a Type B factor F of 0.60.
451 Line Valves
Through-conduit line valves spaced at intervals are used to sectionalize the pipeline
for one or several of the following purposes:
Initial hydrostatic testing (see Section 770 of this manual) and subsequent
inservice hydrostatic testing (see Section 830 of this manual)
Isolation of a section of line to reduce the quantity of fluid drained, or volume
of gas to be depressured in the event of:
Maintenance work to repair or replace a portion of the line
Damage to or rupture of the line
As block valves at station plot limits (usually the fence lines)
These valves may be manually operated, remotely controlled, or automatically actu-
ated, depending on the purpose and the need for fast closing in the event of line
damage or rupture. Consequences of closing valves against line flow must be
considered, particularly pressure surges produced by fast-closing valves. See
Section 800 of the Fluid Flow Manual and Section 454 of this manual.
Through-conduit check valves are often used with block valves to provide imme-
diate control of draining or depressuring in the section of line downstream of a
damaged or ruptured section.
Fig. 400-15 Crack Arrestor Installation-Rangely CO
2
Pipeline (1 of 2)
A. General
Crack arresting collars are to be installed at certain locations along the CO
2
pipeline for the purpose of
arresting ductile fractures which may occur in the event of a mechanically-induced pipeline rupture. These
arrestors are intended to protect rivers, paved roads and other sensitive areas from damage, and to minimize
the extent of damage in the cross-country sections of the pipeline should a propagating crack occur. Note
that these collars offer backup arresting capability to 0.438 inch wall joints of pipe installed at 1000 foot inter-
vals in thinner sections of pipeline. The 0.438 inch wall and thicker pipe is expected to self-arrest cracks.
B. Scope of Work
Contractor shall provide all materials and installation of crack arresting collars as described herein.
C. Crack Arresting Collars
The collars shall be fiberglass-reinforced plastic, as provided by Arco Pipeline Company. They will be 16.9
inch (0.075 inch) I.D., 15 inches long, and will have a wall thickness of approximately 1/2 inch. A hole, 1/2 inch
in diameter, will be drilled 4 inches from one end of each arrestor.
D. Locations and Spacing
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Chevron Corporation 400-53 J uly 1999
Line valves should be located near roads or other easily accessed locations so they
can be quickly reached for emergency operation and are conveniently accessible for
maintenance. The valve manifold assemblies should preferably be above grade
within a fenced enclosure. This provides good maintenance access, and any leakage
at flanges or connections is readily visible. Where this is not practical for larger
sizes or not allowed by permitting restrictions, the valves must be installed in
below-grade boxes or vaults.
Below-grade installation poses the problems of ground water and run-off water
drainage, as well as the possibility of an explosive condition developing in a
confined space. Alternatively, the main line valves and branch piping can be coated
and buried, with the pump-around valves, pressure gage connections, and main line
valve handwheels or operators above grade within a fenced enclosure. This arrange-
ment is suitable for ball valves, but less satisfactory for gate valves. Risk of
vandalism may be a consideration for any aboveground facility.
Block Valves in Liquid Lines
Section 434.15 of Code B31.4 covers requirements and guidelines for mainline
block valves in liquid lines, as follows:
Water Crossings. At major river crossings and public water supply reservoirs,
a block valve on the upstream side of the crossing, and a block valve or a check
valve on the downstream side. (For water crossings, 49 CFR 195.260(e) states
that block valves are required wherever the crossing is more than 100 feet wide
from high-water mark to high-water mark)
The collars will be installed at tie-in points only. Specific locations will be tie-ins on either side of all cased
road crossings, river crossings, valves, and scraper traps. In addition, crack arrestors are to be installed at
intervals no greater than 6,000 feet from the beginning of the line to the end of the 0.406 inch wall pipe near
MP92. From that point to the end of the 0.375 inch wall pipe near MP127 the interval shall be no greater than
8,000 feet, and for the remainder of the line into the Rangely Field the interval shall be no greater than 12,000
feet.
E. Installation
At specified tie-in points, arrestors will be slipped over the taped pipe and placed as far from the weld area as
necessary to be out of the welders way. Two bands of Polyken 930 hand-wrap tape will be wrapped round the
pipe, over the existing coating, spaced approximately nine inches apart so the centers of the bands are
approximately 15 inches apart. These bands will be from 2-8 layers thick, as determined in the field, to
produce a snug fit when the arrestor is slid over them. The arrestor will then be centered over these two
bands so that approximately three inches of each band extend beyond the end of the arrestor. The arrestor
will be positioned so that the hole will be on the downhill side on the bottom, to act as a drain. If, due to ovality
of the pipe, a uniform snug fit cannot be obtained, a soft plastic wedge shall be inserted between the arrestor
and the Polyken 930 tape to make a snug fit. Wedges shall only be employed on the top third of the pipe
between the 10 oclock and 2 oclock positions. Polyken 930 hand-wrap tape will then be wrapped around the
ends of the arrestor to prevent dirt from entering the annulus between the tape and the arrestor.
F. Materials
Crack arrestors shall be as previously described. The hand-wrap tape shall be 6-inch wide Polyken 930, or as
approved by Company. The plastic wedges shall be approved by Company.
Fig. 400-15 Crack Arrestor Installation-Rangely CO
2
Pipeline (2 of 2)
400 Design Pipeline Manual
J uly 1999 400-54 Chevron Corporation
Other Locations. A block or check valve (where applicable to minimize pipe-
line backflow) at other locations, as appropriate for the terrain. In industrial,
commercial, and residential areas maximum spacing of block valves for other
than LPG or liquid anhydrous ammonia shall be 10 miles. Where construction
activities pose a particular risk of external damage, provisions shall be made for
the appropriate spacing and location of mainline valves consistent with the type
of liquids being transported. For LPG and liquid anhydrous ammonia,
maximum spacing of block valves in industrial, commercial, and residential
areas shall be 7.5 miles
Pipeline Facilities. At pump stations, tank farms, and terminals, block valves
on the line entering and leaving the station, whereby the station can be isolated
from the pipeline
Remotely Controlled Facilities. At remotely controlled pipeline facilities, a
remotely controlled mainline block valve shall be provided to isolate segments
of the pipeline
At mainline block valves on oil lines the usual Company practice is to provide
valved connections on each side of the block valve so that when a section of line
must be drained, a portable pump can be connected, discharging either to the other
section of line or to tank trucks. A typical manifold is indicated in Figure 400-16.
Block Valves in Gas Transmission Lines
Sections 846.1 and 846.2 of Code B31.8 covers requirements and guidelines for
sectionalizing block valves in gas transmission lines, as follows:
Spacing between valves. This shall not exceed:
20 miles in predominantly Class 1 areas
15 miles in predominantly Class 2 areas
10 miles in predominantly Class 3 areas (49 CFR Part 192.179(a) limits
this to 8 miles)
5 miles in predominantly Class 4 areas
Spacing may be adjusted slightly to permit installation in a more acces-
sible location, with continuous accessibility as the primary consideration
Other factors influencing spacing. These involve the conservation of gas,
time required to blow down the isolated section, continuity of gas service,
necessary operating flexibility, expected future development within the valve
spacing section, and significant natural conditions that may adversely affect the
operation and security of the line
Automatically actuated valves. These are not a Code requirement, and their
use is at the discretion of the operating company
Blowdown valves. These shall be provided so that each section of pipeline
between mainline valves can be blown down as rapidly as practicable. 49 CFR
192.179(c) further requires that the blowdown discharge be located so the gas
can be blown to the atmosphere without hazard and, if the transmission line is
Pipeline Manual 400 Design
Chevron Corporation 400-55 J uly 1999
adjacent to an overhead electric line, so that the gas is directed away from the
electrical conductors
A typical mainline block valve manifold with provision for blowdown is indicated
in Figure 400-17. Often a removable blowdown vent stack is brought to the loca-
tion and connected only when blowing down. Optional installation of a smaller
bypass valve between the blowdown connections allows better control than the
mainline valve when pressuring or depressuring the entire length of line. For gas
lines in cold climates aboveground piping will probably require special materials.
452 Scraper Traps
Scraper trap manifolds provide for insertion and removal of scrapers (also called
pigs) or spheres at intervals along the line. Series of scrapers are run through the
line as part of the construction program and for initial dewatering of the line. Inser-
vice scraper runs are determined by the nature of the fluid(s) transported and by the
expected fouling buildup on the pipe walls and at sagbends, which influences selec-
tion of the type of scraper, spacing between scraper trap manifolds, and frequency
of runs. For relatively clean fluids spacing may typically be on the order of every 75
miles. Reference [3] is a comprehensive text on pipeline pigging.
A typical station scraper trap manifold for liquid hydrocarbon service is depicted in
Figure 400-18. See Section 363 of this manual for descriptions of closures and
appurtenances for scraper traps. The trap barrel must have a pressure indicator and
means to relieve the pressure before opening the barrel. See 49 CFR 195.426.
Scraper traps are installed at the initial pump station, most intermediate pump
stations, and at the terminal. If spacing between the intermediate pump stations
Fig. 400-16 Mainline Block Valve Manifold with
Pumparound Valves
Fig. 400-17 Mainline Block Valve Manifold with
Blowdown Connections
400 Design Pipeline Manual
J uly 1999 400-56 Chevron Corporation
eventually installed is considerably closer than needed for scraper runs, it is possible
to arrange valving and pump operation so that scrapers will run through the main-
line valves at the station without an incoming trap on the suction side of the station
and an outgoing trap on the discharge side of the station.
Cross-country pipelines should have permanent facilities to run scrapers, even
though expected operating conditions may never or only very infrequently require
scraper runs. Where permanent scraper traps are not installed, or if pipeline
construction sequence dictates initial scraper runs in sections where designs do not
provide for a scraper trap, temporary removable scraper traps can be used, usually
designed and provided by the construction contractor.
Design of Scraper Trap Manifolds
Design of scraper trap manifolds depends on several key factors.
Scraper Type. The type of scrapers to be run, both for operation and maintenance
inspection, influences manifold design. There are four basic types of scrapers, all
moved along the line by the fluid flow:
A series of disc cups, usually with sealing lips on the circumference, mounted
on a central shaft, often with wire brushes or blade scrapers for cleaning
A cylindrical plastic plug (usually polyurethane) with a variety of surfaces from
plain foam to hard plastic with grit or wire embedded
A sphere, inflated to slightly larger diameter than the line ID
Inspection pigs, propelled by disc cups and containing electronic equipment to
measure and record pipe wall thickness
The length of the scraper trap barrel should easily accommodate the length of
scraper to be run. Usually the barrel length will be determined by the length of an
inspection pig. If several scrapers are to be run in a spaced series, the barrel of the
Fig. 400-18 Scraper Trap Manifold
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Chevron Corporation 400-57 J uly 1999
incoming scraper trap must accommodate at least two. Also, there must be clear-
ance at the end of the barrel to handle a scraper for insertion or removal.
The length and mechanical configuration of scrapers and inspection pigs also will
determine the minimum radius of bends in the main line, whether at scraper trap
manifolds or anywhere else in the main line. If spheres are ever to be used, branch
tee connections should not be larger than about 60% of the mainline diameter or
there is a risk that flow will pass around the sphere, and the sphere will not move
past the branch. For large lines where scrapers cannot be readily lifted by one or two
men, davits or trolleys should be provided.
Material Scraped From Pipe Walls. Waxy sludge that accumulates ahead of
scrapers in lines carrying waxy crude oils is of particular concern: the barrel volume
must be sufficient to contain a sludge plug as well as the scraper. Often the volume
of the sludge plug can be reduced using a bypass pig, which allows some flow
through the scraper to dilute the wax accumulation, or wax chopper grates on the
outlet connection from an incoming barrel to break up the sludge flowing to booster
pump suction or on down the line.
Pigging on gas transmission lines is usually done to remove dust, dirt, and small
amounts of liquid. In remote locations, the dirty gas ahead of the scraper can often
be discharged to the atmosphere, but at other locations dust collecting facilities must
be provided for pollution control.
Stock Drained From the Scraper Trap Barrel. The scraper trap barrels on liquid
lines must be drained before opening the barrel to insert or remove scrapers. Most of
the liquid can usually be drained to a station sump, with the sump pump discharging
to the incoming line, station tankage, or to a tank truck. At remote scraper traps
where there are no other facilities a permanent or portable pump can be used to
transfer oil from the scraper trap barrel to the main line or to a tank truck. Some
liquid will still drain when the barrel is opened and from the scraper when it is
removed. To contain this drainage, a slab with containment curb and drain should be
provided, with a grating above the slab as a walking surface.
Scraper Trap Foundations. Scraper traps generally only require sufficient support
to hold the barrel and fluid weight. However some pipelines may require special
foundations to account for:
Expansion of hot lines
Uplift forces generated by impact of liquid slugs in gas lines
Branch Tee Connections
Branch tee connections from the main line that are larger than about 25% of the line
diameter should be provided with bar grates so that scrapers will pass along the
main line without getting caught at the branch. See Standard Drawing GA-L99880,
Standard Detail of Bars at Pipeline Tee Connections, in this Manual.
Scraper Detectors
Scraper trap manifolds usually include a mechanical device to indicate passage of a
scraper. The indication may be visual at the device, or electrically transmitted to a
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local panel or remote location. On outgoing traps the device is normally installed
downstream of the trap block valve and normal-flow tee. On incoming traps the
device is normally installed in a short section of line-size pipe downstream of the
trap block valve. Sometimes a second device is located a distance upstream to give
an advance signal of an incoming scraper.
Code References
Section 434.17 of Code B31.4 gives general guidelines for scraper traps; Code
B31.8 has no specific reference to scraper traps. For gas lines in cold climates
aboveground piping will likely require special materials. Special attention must be
given to sour lines since it may be necessary to provide a nitrogen purge before
opening the scraper trap panel.
453 Electronic Inspection Pigs
Inspection pigs are primarily used to detect pipe wall thickness anomalies, record
them electronically for playback at the end of the run, and determine the location of
observed defects along the length of the line. Crack detection, hard spot detection,
geometry, camera, leak detection, and mapping smart pigs are also available. Capa-
bility to run inspection pigs should be provided in the design of the pipeline and
appurtenances. Input should be obtained from one or more inspection services as to
limitations affecting design of a particular pipeline, such as:
Minimum radius of bends, and corresponding minimum pipe internal diame-
ters. (Offshore risers should have a minimum radius of bends of at least five
diameters.)
Minimum length of straight pipe between bends
Spacing between branch connections, size of side taps, and if the side taps are
barred
Length of the inspection pig
Duration of batteries and maximum memory data storage capability (to deter-
mine length of line that can be inspected in one run for a given flow rate)
Installing permanent position markers for locating the position of the pig along
the line
The types of valves (check, gate, ball, etc.) and the minimum bore of the valves
through which the inspection pig will have to pass.
454 Line Pressure Control and Relief
The primary function of facilities for main line pressure control is either to main-
tain a full line downstream of hydraulic control points on liquid pipelines
(preventing slack-line conditions) or to protect the pipeline from overpressuring in
the event of inadvertent or emergency closing of a mainline block valve. Overpres-
sure protection (relief valves or shutdown switches) on pump or compressor
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discharge piping should be provided as part of station facilities so that station
discharge pressure does not exceed maximum allowable operating pressure for the
line.
Section 402.2.4 of Code B31.4 for liquid pipelines requires protective equipment to
be provided so that variations from normal operations do not cause a pressure rise of
more than 10% of the internal design pressure at any point in the piping system and
equipment.
Section 845 of Code B31.8 for gas transmission lines covers Control and Limiting
of Gas Pressure. Section 845.212 describes types of protective devices, and Section
845.3 covers design requirements for pressure relief and pressure limiting installa-
tions. Section 845.411 requires pressure relief facilities to have the capacity and be
set to prevent line pressure from exceeding the MAOP plus 10%, or the pressure
which produces a hoop stress of 75% of SMYS, whichever is lower.
Referring to the hydraulic profile for a liquid pipeline system, the hydraulic gradient
at no-flow, with pumps still operating, becomes a horizontal line as indicated in
Figure 400-19. Prudent pipe design usually provides sufficient wall thickness so that
allowable pipe stress is not exceeded by closing a block valve against operating
pumps or compressors. However, there are situations where, because of a large
ground elevation differential, it is economic to provide pipe wall thickness adequate
for normal operating line pressures rather than substantially greater wall thickness
needed for shutoff conditions. Line relief must then be provided, discharging into
tankage specifically assigned to relief at the terminal or at relief stations.
Fig. 400-19 Hydraulic Profile: Normal Operation, Shutoff, Relief Flow
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The hydraulic profile for a line relief situation is indicated in Figure 400-19. In this
example, the line pipe is of the same grade and wall thickness for the entire length,
and, with no-flow shut-off at the terminal, the pipe at the lower elevations upstream
of the terminal would be overpressured. The hydraulic gradient that keeps line pres-
sures below the maximum allowable pressure establishes the maximum relief set-
pressure and the minimum relief flow that the relief system must handle. To be
conservative, the relief facility should be designed for somewhat lower set pressure
and greater flow than indicated in Figure 400-19.
For pressure control equipment, see the Instrumentation and Control Manual, or
consult with the Instrumentation and Control Group of the Engineering Technology
Department. For line relief, if needed to prevent overpressuring of liquid pipelines
under shutoff conditions or to limit surge pressure rises, the Grove Flexflow valve
system, manufactured by Grove Valve and Regulator Company of Oakland, Cali-
fornia, or similar equipment, is recommended. This type of valve is designed for
pipeline application, for which conventional safety valves are not normally suitable.
455 Slug Catchers
For pipelines carrying mixed-phase fluids (usually gas, oil, and water) or wet gas
from which water or condensate may accumulate at sagbends, fluctuating liquid
slugs that are either carried with the flow in normal operation or swept ahead of
scrapers must be handled at the end of the line. Slug catchers of various designs are
installed at the end of the line or at intermediate points to separate the liquids and
provide volume for liquid level fluctuations. Typically, the slug catcher may be a
knockout vessel, or banks of pipe lengths, called a harp, which act as long hori-
zontal separators (see Figure 400-20).
Fig. 400-20 Slug Catcher
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Design of the slug catcher must both effect vapor-liquid disengagement and provide
sufficient volume to contain the slug. Hence, one must make a realistic determina-
tion of the largest possible slug relative to the capacity of the liquid outlet line, and
then be generous in sizing the slug catcher. Where slugs are expected with scraper
runs, the frequency of scraper runs will be a factor in establishing the slug volume.
The pressure rating of the slug catcher should be the same as the pipeline upstream
of the slug catcher. Often, the harp is more economic than a heavy-wall large vessel.
The incoming pipeline is manifolded into the harps parallel lengths of pipe, which
are slightly inclined so as to drain toward the vapor and liquid outlets on each pipe.
These outlets are manifolded to vapor and liquid headers. This arrangement allows
for future increase in capacity by adding more parallel lengths of pipe.
456 Vents and Drains
Installation of vents and drains is to be avoided on cross-country pipelines unless
there are exceptional circumstances, such as a line installed on a bridge where the
pipe can be isolated by block valves at each end of the crossing. Properly designed
line scrapers will adequately sweep the line, both for full-filling with liquid and for
dewatering with gas following a hydrostatic testsituations that require vents and
drains in plant piping. However, installation of vents at liquid line high points is
needed where scrapers cannot be run. Otherwise, air or other gas might be trapped,
resulting in decreased flow capacity.
457 Electrical Area Classification
Electrical area classifications for scraper traps, block valve assemblies, and other
facilities on the pipeline should comply with the guidelines contained in API
Recommended Practice 500C, Classification of Locations for Electrical Installa-
tions at Pipeline Transportation Facilities.
458 Line Markers
Pipeline location markers and signs indicate the location of buried pipelines to
protect against damage to the line by others working in the area and to give notice
regarding the line service and proper contacts. Section 434.18 of Code B31.4 and
Section 851.7 of Code B31.8 require installation of line markers, and API Recom-
mended Practice 1109 gives guidelines for their installation.
Markers should be located at each side of highway and road crossings, railroad
crossings, water crossings, fence lines, and wherever feasible at such intervals that
at least one marker can be seen anywhere along the route.
Aerial patrol markers are used on cross-country pipelines to guide aircraft patrol-
ling the pipeline route and aid in identifying locations along the route. At one mile
intervals these markers have milepost signs visible from the air, and at changes in
direction of the route, signs show arrows indicating the new direction.
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At stations and facilities along the route such as block valves and scraper trap mani-
folds, there should be signs showing the name of the operating company and contact
information.
460 Corrosion Prevention Facilities
461 General
External corrosion of pipelines is controlled by application of a pipe coating and
nearly always by a cathodic protection (CP) system requiring design and installa-
tion of facilities along the line. Cathodic protection is required by regulations for
pipelines under governmental jurisdiction.
Control of internal corrosion, if anticipated to be a problem, is handled either by
internally lining the pipe, or by injecting a corrosion inhibitor into the fluid. In
either case, no facilities along the pipeline are required. The following sections
briefly describe cathodic protection facilities for pipelines so that they can be incor-
porated in overall system design.
There are two types of cathodic protection systems: impressed current and galvanic
anode. Generally, for long cross-country pipelines, the impressed current system is
the economic choice. However, an economic analysis should be made to determine
the proper choice.
Data on soil resistivity is important for the design of a cathodic protection system. A
field survey along the route early in the project design phase is usually warranted,
and should be made in conjunction with the geotechnical survey. For design princi-
ples and details refer to the Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy Manual, and to
the Materials and Engineering Analysis Division of the Engineering Technology
Department. In many cases it is advisable to engage a technical contractor special-
izing in cathodic protection.
462 Impressed Current Systemfor Cathodic Protection
In the impressed current system, a drain cable connects the pipe to the negative
terminal of the DC source, and an anode cable from the positive terminal connects
to nearby buried anodes. Power sources spaced at intervals along the line are used to
provide a DC current. These are usually rectifiers supplied with AC either from
station power, or public utility power at intermediate points. Spacing is influenced
by soil conditions and the quality of the pipe coating. At remote locations where
power is not available, solar photovoltaic systems and wind-powered generators
have been successful. If possible rectifier stations should be readily accessible.
463 Galvanic Sacrificial Anodes for Cathodic Protection
In this system galvanic anodes (aluminum, magnesium, or zinc) connected by cable
to the pipe are buried at close intervals along the line, either near the pipe or
attached directly to the pipe. The anodes are consumed as current is produced, and
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thus must be designed to be sufficient for the life of the pipeline. See Section 900
for a discussion of bracelet anodes for offshore pipelines.
464 Insulating Flanges and J oint Assemblies
Insulating flanges or joint assemblies are used to electrically isolate the cathodi-
cally protected pipeline from connecting lines and station and terminal piping. Insu-
lating gaskets and stud sleeves and washers are incorporated in a flanged
connection, preferably a pair of standard line flanges that are separate from a valve.
Manufactured insulating joint assemblies, welded into the line, are available, and for
smaller pipe insulating couplings or unions can be used.
Insulating flanges and joint assemblies should be installed above ground wherever
possible so they will remain dry and can be readily inspected. If it is necessary to
install them below grade, they must be either in a readily accessible, well-drained
dry box, or carefully encapsulated with an insulating coating and buried.
The insulating gasket, sleeves and washers should not be painted, since the paint
film might be of sufficiently low resistance to allow current across the insulating
flange. Similarly, dust and dirt settling between flange faces can affect the insu-
lating effectiveness. This can be prevented by wrapping insulating tape around the
flange circumferences to cover the gap between flange faces.
465 Cathodic Protection Test Stations and Line Bonding Connections
Electrical test leads are connected to the pipe at intervals between rectifier stations
or galvanic anodes, often as close as one mile apart, to determine the level of
cathodic protection by measuring pipe-to-soil potentials and flow of current in the
line, and to make other electrical measurements. Leads are also connected between
parallel or crossing pipelines to determine the potential between separate systems or
to bond the cathodic protection systems. The leads are usually brought up to a test
box that is mounted on a post. Test stations should be located so as to avoid interfer-
ence with land use and be reasonably accessible.
The physical connection of wires to the pipe is done with a thermite weld kit, such
as the CAD weld system. See the Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy Manual,
Section 500.
470 References
1. Guidelines for the Seismic Design of Oil and Gas Pipeline Systems. Committee
on Gas and Liquid Fuel Lifelines. ASCE Technical Council on Lifeline Earth-
quake Engineering. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers, 1984.
2. Kennedy, R.R. et al. Seismic Design of Oil Pipeline Systems, Journal of the
Technical Councils of ACSE, Vol. 105, No. TC-1. New York: American
Society of Civil Engineers, April, 1979.
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3. J.N.H. Tiratsoo. Pipeline Pigging Technology. Houston: Gulf Publishing
Company, 1987.