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Critical and Creative Thinking - Bloom's

Taxonomy
What are critical thinking and creative thinking?

What's Bloom's taxonomy and how is it helpful in project planning?

How are the domains of learning reflected in technology-rich projects?
Benjamin Bloom (!"#$ developed a classification of levels of intellectual
%ehavior in learning& 'his taxonomy contained three overlapping domains(
the cognitive) psychomotor) and affective& Within the cognitive domain) he
identified six levels( knowledge) comprehension) application) analysis)
synthesis) and evaluation& 'hese domains and levels are still useful today as
you develop the critical thinking skills of your students&
Critical Thinking
*ritical thinking involves logical thinking and reasoning including skills such as comparison)
classification) se+uencing) cause,effect) patterning) we%%ing) analogies) deductive and
inductive reasoning) forecasting) planning) hypothesi-ing) and criti+uing&
*reative thinking involves creating something new or original& .t involves the skills of
flexi%ility) originality) fluency) ela%oration) %rainstorming) modification) imagery) associative
thinking) attri%ute listing) metaphorical thinking) forced relationships& 'he aim of creative
thinking is to stimulate curiosity and promote divergence&

While critical thinking can %e thought of as more left-%rain and creative thinking more right
%rain) they %oth involve /thinking&/ When we talk a%out H0'1 /higher-order thinking skills/
we're concentrating on the top three levels of Bloom's 'axonomy( analysis) synthesis) and
evaluation&
Knowledge
collect descri%e identify list show tell ta%ulate
define examine la%el name retell state +uote
enumerate match read record reproduce copy select
Examples: dates) events) places) voca%ulary) key ideas) parts of diagram) "Ws
Comprehension
associate compare distinguish extend interpret predict differentiate
contrast descri%e discuss estimate group summari-e order
cite convert explain paraphrase restate trace
Examples: find meaning) transfer) interpret facts) infer cause 2 conse+uence) examples
Application
apply classify change illustrate solve demonstrate
calculate complete solve modify show experiment
relate discover act administer articulate chart
collect compute construct determine develop esta%lish
prepare produce report teach transfer use
Examples: use information in new situations) solve pro%lems
Analysis
analy-e arrange connect divide infer separate
classify compare contrast explain select order
%reakdown correlate diagram discriminate focus illustrate
infer outline prioriti-e su%divide points out prioriti-e
Examples: recogni-e and explain patterns and meaning) see parts and wholes
Synthesis
com%ine compose generali-e modify invent plan su%stitute
create formulate integrate rearrange design speculate rewrite
adapt anticipate colla%orate compile devise express facilitate
reinforce structure su%stitute intervene negotiate reorgani-e validate
Examples: discuss /what if/ situations) create new ideas) predict and draw conclusions
Evaluation
assess compare decide discriminate measure rank test
convince conclude explain grade judge summari-e support
appraise critici-e defend persuade justify reframe
Examples: make recommendations) assess value and make choices) criti+ue ideas
Aective !omain
3omain 4ttri%utes( interpersonal relations) emotions) attitudes) appreciations) and values id
accepts attempts challenges defends disputes joins judges
contri%utes praises +uestions shares supports volunteers
Creative Thinking" Characteristics # Traits
Characteristics Associated $ith Creative %roccesses and
%roducts
'he list %elow focuses on cognitive and affective skills or a%ilities that creativity researchers
have associated with creative individuals) although there is clearly no consensus opinion that
all of these must %e present in a creative person or process& 1ome of these traits also
characteri-e successful critical thinking) and some are distinct yet not mutually exclusive&
5ost of the research that speaks to these characteristics has focused on industriali-ed western
nations and cultures&
0ne should also take into consideration 1tern%erg and 6u%art7s point that 8creativity is
hypothesi-ed to involve more than a simply sum of a person7s attained level of functioning
on each component&9 *ertain individuals and components may have thresholds a%ove and
%elow which creativity can or cannot take place: strengths in one area may %alance
weaknesses in others: and high levels of interactions %etween components can enhance
creativity %eyond a simple summing e+uation (1tern%erg !!!$&
.dea generation ; coming up with new ideas) new alternatives to solving pro%lems)
and new variations on a theme (flexi%ility) fluency) originality) divergent thinking$&
*uriosity ; wanting to know more a%out something: a desire to dig deeper into a
su%ject: an unwillingness to settle for conventional explanations&
.magination ; the faculty or action of producing ideas) especially mental images of
what is not present or had not %een experienced: the a%ility to consider alternative
points of views: ways of life: and %eliefs %oth across time and across social and
physical space& .magination is also the a%ility to pose counterfactuals (8what ifs9$) to
suppose) and to reason through the implications of such alternative scenarios&
<easoning %y metaphor and analogy ; finding homologies: recogni-ing common
traits across otherwise dissimilar phenomena: interpreting or communicating
something that is unfamiliar or am%iguous %y means of comparing it to something
more familiar and recogni-a%le&
=la%oration ; related to curiosity is the desire and a%ility to extend an insight) story or
discovery -- to consider repercussions) to push an argument to its extremes) to
8unpack9 statements and o%servations&
*omplexity ; a%ility to identify and recogni-e non-o%vious pro%lems: +uestion
assumptions: see multiple paths of causation: consider multiple varia%les: formulate
numerous hypotheses: recogni-e missing elements: tolerate am%iguity&
1ynthesis and com%ination; a%ility to %ring together disparate %its of information and
facts in order to tell a coherent story or provide a logical argument: 8connecting the
dots:9 applying knowledge and techni+ues from one discipline to solve or consider
pro%lems in another discipline (x-disciplinary thinking$: utili-ing knowledge in a
different or new context&
4%straction and simplification ; the a%ility to formulate general concepts %y
a%stracting common properties of specific instances: the a%ility to pose overarching
8theories)9 and the capacity to see the 8%ig picture9 ; identify fundamentals) first
principles) general structures&
'olerance for am%iguity ; the a%ility to perceive value in the highly complex or
asymmetrical&
3ivergent 'hinking ; the a%ility to go against the grain of the usual or expected&
>luency ; the a%ility to extend an idea&
>lexi%ility ; the a%ility to cross conceptual %oundaries&
*oncentration; the a%ility to disregard peripheral material and concepts in order to
focus on the task or pro%lem at hand&
?ersistence ; the a%ility to pursue a solution to a pro%lem) etc& even when faced with
difficulties) road%locks) negative feed%ack) and other forms of resistance&
=ntrepreneurship ; the a%ility to go outside the approved or recogni-ed conceptual
%oundaries of a situation or context in order to solve a pro%lem) or pursue an idea&
.ntrinsic motivation ; the desire to do something %ased on the enjoyment of the
%ehavior iteself rather then relying on or re+uiring external reinforcement&
<isk taking ; the willingness to undertake a venture that may result in a loss or
damage to oneself&
?rojection,empathy ; the indentification with and understanding of anothers feelings)
situation) or motivations&
0riginality ; creating something new and useful to a discipline) domain) community&
1tory telling ; using spoken or written language in narrative form to make sense of
something) to theori-e a%out something) and,or communicate something to others&
>low -- the automatic) effortless) yet highly focused state of consciousness when
engaged in activities) often painful) risky or difficult) which stretch a person7s
capacity while involving an element of novelty or discovery& 1uch activity can %e
%ased on the following nine elements( clear goals) immediate feed%ack) %alance
%etween challenges and skills) merging of action and awareness) elimination of
distractions) lack of fear of failure) lack of self-consciousness) distortion of sense of
time) autotelic activity (enjoyment for its own sake$ (*siks-entmihalyi !!#$&
Critical Thinking" Characteristics # Traits
4ccording to the authors of the 3elphi ?roject <eport) critical thinking is comprised of the
following skills(
&nterpretation
-categori-ation
-decoding significance
-clarifying meaning
Analysis
-examining ideas
-identifying arguments
-analy-ing arguments
Evaluation
-assessing claims
-assessing arguments
&nerence
-+uerying evidence
-conjecturing alternatives
-drawing conclusions
Explanation
-stating results
-justifying procedures
-presenting arguments
Sel-regulation
-self-examination
-self-correction
We generated our own list and agreed to draw from the following skills to develop our
ru%rics& 'his list reflects areas of overlap %etween elements of creative and critical thinking&
3iscerning
.magining
@isuali-ing
?redicting
4nticipating
<ecogni-ing *ause and =ffect
<ecogni-ing ?resuppositions
<ecogni-ing 4ssumptions
<ecogni-ing >oundations
1electing important info
?rioriti-ing
4naly-ing
=valuating
4ssessing
'aking things apart
3econstructing
0wning
Being aware of role
5aking meaning
*ontextuali-ing
*onceptuali-ing
.mplying
1ynthesi-ing
4nticipating larger implications
<ecogni-ing thinking
=ngaging in honest in+uiry
*onnecting (*ompare) *ontrast) *oncatenate$
5aking linkages
<e-collaging
'aking perspectives
<ecogni-ing multiple viewpoints
'aking a meta-cognitive stance
>ocusing
.nferencing
Being precise
Being 4accurate
<ecogni-ing of potential +uestions (of reader$
Being aware of audience (minds$
?articipating in a dialog