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Human Rights Education

A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions


Note
The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the
expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the APF concerning the legal status of any country,
territory, city or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.
ISBN 978-0-9873578-8-5 (print)
ISBN 978-0-9873578-9-2 (electronic)
Human Rights Education: A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
Copyright Asia Pacic Forum of National Human Rights Institutions July 2013
The APF permits the free reproduction of extracts from this publication provided that due acknowledgement
is given and a copy of the publication carrying the extract is sent to the following address:
Asia Pacic Forum of National Human Rights Institutions
GPO Box 5218
Sydney NSW 1042
Australia
Credits
United Nations photographs are the property of the United Nations, which holds all rights in connection
with their usage.
Cover photographs
Left: Kindergarten child in Myanmar. UN Photo by Kibae Park.
Centre: Adult education programme in India. UN Photo.
Bottom: Pupils at a high school in Kabul, Afghanistan, cheer in unison on the last day of Global Action
Week, an international campaign advocating free, quality education for all. UN Photo by Fardin Waezi.
i
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
Contents
Foreword iii
Acknowledgements iv
List of abbreviations v
Introduction for users vi
Part I Introduction to human rights education 1
Chapter 1: Human rights: An overview 2
Chapter 2: Human rights education: An overview 9
Chapter 3: National human rights institutions and human rights education 21
Part II Human rights education theory, principles and approach 31
Chapter 4: Human rights education theory and principles 32
Chapter 5: A human rights education approach 39
Part III Human rights education in practice 49
Chapter 6: Planning and designing human rights education 50
Chapter 7: Implementing human rights education 63
Chapter 8: Evaluating human rights education 72
Chapter 9: Working with the media 79
Chapter 10: Human rights education in early childhood education centres
and schools 91
Chapter 11: Human rights education in conict and post-conict situations 103
Part IV Tools and techniques 111
Tool 1: Force eld analysis 116
Tool 2: Feedback continuum 118
Tool 3: Street survey 119
Tool 4: Reef analysis 120
Tool 5: Community mapping 122
Tool 6: Photovoice 123
Tool 7: Sequencing 124
Tool 8: Organizing cycle 125
Tool 9: Learning curve 126
Tool 10: Facilitation techniques 128
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
ii
Tool 11: Mind mapping 131
Tool 12: Tree diagram 132
Tool 13: Theatre 133
Tool 14: Visual arts 135
Tool 15: Sample workshop on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 136
Tool 16: Workshop overview: Introduction to human rights 138
Tool 17: Workshop overview: Introduction to disability rights 139
Tool 18: Workshop overview: Sexual and racial harassment 141
Tool 19: Workshop overview: Bullying and harassment 142
Tool 20: Equality card game 143
Tool 21: World caf 145
Tool 22: Fireball game 146
Tool 23: Activity diary 147
Tool 24: Evaluation dartboard 148
Tool 25: Feedback wheel 149
Summary 151
Useful resources 155
Glossary 160
Appendices 163
Appendix 1: Logic Models applied to human rights education activities
in the Asia Pacic region 165
Appendix 2: Choosing an appropriate human rights education method 174
Appendix 3: Writing objectives 177
Appendix 4: Logic Model checklist 178
Appendix 5: Effective facilitation skills 180
Appendix 6: Four categories of learning experiences or styles 182
Appendix 7: Four types of thinking styles 183
Appendix 8: Self-evaluation, peer evaluation and external evaluation 184
Appendix 9: Guide questions for evaluating whether an activity meets
human rights education principles 185
Appendix 10: UNICEF framework for the development of rights-respecting
schools 186
Appendix 11: 4-A framework for education and international human rights
instruments 189
Appendix 12: United Nations Declaration on Human Rights Education
and Training 190
iii
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
Foreword
To claim their rights and seek redress for violations, people rst need to understand their rights. To
properly respect, protect and full the rights of those within their borders, agencies of the State and
other duty bearers need training and professional development.
Human rights education is essential to the long-term prevention of human rights abuses. It is a powerful
investment in the development of a strong human rights culture and, ultimately, in fairer and more just
societies.
National human rights institutions (NHRIs) have a crucial role to play in advancing human rights education
in their countries. It is a core part of their mandate.
The Paris Principles set out that NHRIs have a responsibility to assist in the formulation of programmes
for the teaching of, and research into, human rights and to take part in their execution in schools,
universities and professional circles.
The recently-adopted United Nations Declaration on Human Rights Education and Training also stresses
that NHRIs can play an important role, including, where necessary, a coordinating role, in promoting
human rights education and training by, inter alia, raising awareness and mobilizing relevant public and
private actors.
NHRIs in the Asia Pacic region have a long and rich tradition of delivering human rights education
programmes for a broad range of stakeholders. Some provide training in human rights law and practice
to the police, military and other law enforcement ofcials. Others work with their governments to
encourage the incorporation of human rights into national school curriculums. Of course, many also
undertake programmes at the grass-roots level to build the capacity of communities and civil society
organisations to advocate for human rights, especially for those most vulnerable to violations.
And as new technologies develop, NHRIs will continue to design innovative ways to share human rights
knowledge, skills, stories and perspectives with the many different groups with which they work.
This Manual seeks to draw together the principles and practice that are essential to effective human
rights education. It provides a thorough theoretical framework to assist NHRIs with the design, delivery
and evaluation of their human rights education programmes, as well as a broad range of case studies
showcasing good practice from NHRIs in the Asia Pacic region.
I trust this Manual will be of assistance to NHRIs in their important work.
Kieren Fitzpatrick
Director
Asia Pacic Forum of National Human Rights Institutions
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
iv
Acknowledgements
This Manual was written by Dr Jillian Chrisp, Senior Adviser Human Rights and Race Relations with the
New Zealand Human Rights Commission. Dr Chrisp has undergraduate and postgraduate qualications
in education and has worked as an educator in New Zealand and internationally. Since joining the
Commission, she has developed and facilitated human rights education programmes, led the review
of the Commissions human rights education programme and managed the national right to education
programme. Dr Chrisp is currently senior adviser to the Commissions human rights educators.
An NHRI peer reference group was constituted at the start of the project to inform the overall structure
and contents of the Manual. The following members of the peer reference group provided input and
feedback: Ariunaa Chuluunbaatar (Mongolia), Cristina Ricci (Australia), Eka Tanlain (Indonesia), Jaideep
Singh Kochher (India), Marc Titus Cebreros (Philippines), Shreeram Adhikari (Nepal) and Victorio Aleria
(Philippines).
The Manual was enriched through comments from the NHRIs of Australia and India, and from Sandra
Bernklau from the Pacic Islands Regional Right Resource Team.
Chris Sidoti, James Iliffe, Kieren Fitzpatrick, Lisa Thompson and Suraina Pasha from the APF also
contributed in their respective ways to the development of the Manual.
v
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
List of abbreviations
APF Asia Pacic Forum of National Human Rights Institutions
NGO(s) non-governmental organization(s)
NHRI(s) national human rights institution(s)
OHCHR Ofce of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
UNICEF United Nations Childrens Fund
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
vi
Introduction for users
PURPOSE OF THE MANUAL
The Human Rights Education Manual has been designed to be a resource for human rights educators
and national human rights institutions when they are planning to undertake a human rights education
programme or activity. It aims to support experienced, and not so experienced, human rights educators
by offering a theoretical and practical human rights education resource. The Manual does not propose a
template for human rights education, nor does it suggest that there is a correct way to do human rights
education. Rather it is suggesting that there are multiple ways of undertaking human rights education
and that the best people to decide what those ways may be, are those who are involved in the human
rights education activity and on whom the activity impacts.
ABOUT THE MANUAL
The Manual is divided into four sections. The rst introduces human rights, human rights education
and the role and mandate of national human rights institutions to provide human rights education. The
second section overviews the theoretical background to human rights education, its philosophy and
principles. It introduces an approach to the practice of human rights education that is strengthened by
several other human rights education frameworks. The third section focuses on doing human rights
education by introducing methods and processes for planning and designing an education activity,
implementing an activity and evaluating its outcomes. It includes a specic focus on formal education
of children and young people in schools and also introduces some of the considerations when working
in conict and post-conict zones. The nal section pulls together a variety of tools that can be used
for human rights education activities. The Manual concludes with a summary of each chapter and
a collated list of resources. The appendices build on the individual chapters and include the United
Nations Declaration on Human Rights Education.
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
1
Part I:
Introduction to
human rights education
Chapter 1: Human rights: An overview
Chapter 2: Human rights education: An overview
Chapter 3: National human rights institutions and human rights education
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
2 | Chapter 1: Human rights: An overview
Chapter 1:
Human rights: An overview
1
1. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF HUMAN RIGHTS
2
Human rights are said to be inherent, inalienable and universal. They are inherent, in that they belong to
every person because of their common humanity. They are inalienable, in that people cannot give them
up or be deprived of them. They are universal, in that they apply regardless of who someone may be.
Human rights are the basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled. They determine how
individual human beings live in society and with each other, as well as their relationship with the State
and the obligations that the State has towards them. Human rights require that everyone is equally
entitled to their human rights without discrimination. They set out the basis for the relationship between
the governed and those who govern.
3
Human rights aim to recognize and protect the dignity of all
human beings whatever their status or condition in life.
4
Human rights are universal and inalienable
Human rights are founded on respect for the dignity and worth of each and every person. They are the
rights of all people. Human rights should not be taken away, except in specic situations such as when
someone breaks the law, and only then according to due process.
1 Universal Declaration of Human Rights; preamble.
2 What are human rights?; OHCHR; available at www.ohchr.org/en/issues/Pages/WhatareHumanRights.aspx.
3 What are human rights?; New Zealand Human Rights Commission; available at www.hrc.co.nz/human-rights-environment/
what-are-human-rights.
4 Human Rights in New Zealand Today Nga Tika Tangata O Te Motu; New Zealand Human Rights Commission; 2004 (see
Chapter 2: The International Human Rights Framework).
KEY QUESTIONS
What are human rights?
Where do human rights come from?
What are the signicant international human rights instruments and what
human rights do they cover?
What are the formal human rights obligations of the State?
Recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of
all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and
peace in the world.
1
Part I Introduction to human rights education
Chapter 1: Human rights: An overview | 3
Human rights are interdependent, interrelated and indivisible
Human rights are intricately related to each other and none has priority over another. It is not acceptable
to respect some human rights and not others. The enjoyment of one right is often dependent on the
enjoyment of other rights. The violation of one right will often adversely affect other rights. Improving
accessibility to one right will often advance the accessibility of other rights.
Human rights are equal and non-discriminatory
Human rights prohibit discrimination on the basis of any human characteristic. The principle of non-
discrimination applies to everyone in relation to all human rights and freedoms. It is complemented by
the principle of equality, meaning that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.
Human rights are both rights and obligations
Human rights belong to everyone and are the responsibility of everyone. Every person in relation to
another and every group in relation to another, has a relationship of rights and obligations. States
assume particular obligations and duties under international law to respect, to protect and to promote
human rights.
2. THE HUMAN RIGHTS STORY
Human rights have existed for as long as humankind has existed. Most of the worlds major philosophies,
religions and cultures have recognized human rights concepts in one form or another for centuries.
These are what make up our human rights story. Some of the formal agreements that were forged
among peoples are listed below. These examples are not a complete list. There will be others that relate
specically to the countries and communities within which human rights educators work.
Sama Dilaut children, Zamboanga, Philippines. Photo by Jill Chrisp.
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
4 | Chapter 1: Human rights: An overview
INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS TIMELINE (C. 1750 BC 1919 AD)
5
c. 1750 BC: The Code of Hammurabi, Babylonia, drafted by the rst king
of the Babylonian Empire, is one of the rst known written codes of law in
recorded history. It included the idea of the presumption of innocence and
suggested that the accused and accuser should be given the opportunity to
provide evidence.
c. 1200100 BC: The Old Testament, also called the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh,
is an account of Gods dealings with the Hebrews. Along with the Ten
Commandments, Old Testament laws include respect for life and property
rights (for example, the obligation not to kill), the asylum tradition of
synagogues and the principle of the presumption of innocence.
c. 551479 BC: The teachings of Confucius include the twin principles of
[wh]at one does not wish for oneself, one ought not to do to anyone else;
what one recognizes as desirable for oneself, one ought to be willing to
grant to others.
c. 40100 AD: The New Testament provides an account of the life and
teachings of Jesus and his apostles. Central principles include forgiveness,
equality before God and compassion.
c. 644645 AD: The Koran is the Muslim holy book and is considered to
be the word of God as revealed to the prophet Muhammad by the Angel
Gabriel over a 23-year period. It shares many stories with the Bible,
including Noahs Ark and Moses leading the Israelites out of Egypt. It
includes the principles of privacy, freedom, dignity and equality.
1215: The Magna Carta is the charter of liberties signed by John I of
England after pressure from his nobles and the clergy. It introduced the
concepts of habeas corpus (due process of law) and no taxation without
representation, which became a central component of the Constitution of
the United States.
1400s: The Code of Nezahualcoyotl, a respected and inuential king of
Texcoco (now Mexico), brought the rule of law, scholarship and artistry to
his kingdom. He established a code of law, based on a division of power
and administered through councils of nance, war, justice and culture.
1648: The Treaty of Westphalia was the agreement that ended the Thirty and
Eighty Years Wars between Protestants and Catholics. It gave rise to the
modern notion of national sovereignty by allowing rulers to determine the
religion of their realms. It also gave some freedom of worship to religious
minorities.
1689: The English Bill of Rights was passed by the Parliament following the
overthrow of the monarchist, James II. It prevented royalty from suspending
laws or levying taxes without parliamentary consent and from interfering
with elections. It also guaranteed the right to freedom of speech within the
Parliament.
1776: The United States Declaration of Independence was adopted after the
beginning of the American Revolution. The Declaration became a central
statement of human rights to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
5 International Human Rights Milestones; New Zealand Human Rights Commission; 2008; available at www.hrc.co.nz/hrc_new/
hrc/cms/les/documents/10-Mar-2009_10-14-19_International_Milestones_Final.pdf.
Part I Introduction to human rights education
Chapter 1: Human rights: An overview | 5
1789: The French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen was part of the transition from
an absolute monarchy to a more democratic form of government. It listed the natural rights
of liberty, property, security and the rights to resist oppression. It also replaced aristocratic
privilege with the principle of equality before the law.
1863: The Emancipation Proclamation was issued by the President of the United States,
Abraham Lincoln, declaring the freedom of slaves.
1893: New Zealand became the rst nation to grant women the right to vote.
1919: The League of Nations Covenant, drawn up in the aftermath of World War I, sought to
prevent conicts and to promote international cooperation. League members agreed not to go
to war until all possible means of peaceful settlement had been explored. This was weakened
by the absence of the United States and the withdrawal of Japan, Italy and Germany.
3. THE INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS FRAMEWORK
While steps had been taken to recognize and codify some human rights, it took the atrocities that
occurred during World War II to galvanize the international community into developing common
standards and processes for the protection of human rights.
In 1945, the United Nations Charter was signed, laying out responsibilities to maintain peace and security
and to cooperate in solving economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems. Three years later, in
1948, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
6
was adopted by the United Nations, with 48 Member
States
7
voting in favour, the majority of which were non-Western countries, and eight abstaining. There
were no objections.
6 Available at www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml.
7 The following countries voted in favour of the Declaration: Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Burma,
Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Denmark, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia,
France, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Iceland, India, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Liberia, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand,
Nicaragua, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Thailand, Sweden, Syria, Turkey, United Kingdom, United
States, Uruguay and Venezuela.
UN exhibit in New York, March 1943. Close-up of photographic display and seals of the nations. Photo by Marjory Collins.
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
6 | Chapter 1: Human rights: An overview
The Declaration was followed by two major human rights treaties, adopted by the United Nations in 1966.
The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
8
includes the right to life and liberty, freedom
of expression, equality before the law and freedom from discrimination. The International Covenant on
Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
9
includes the right to participate in culture, as well as the right to
work, education, health, language and an adequate standard of living.
The human rights principles and standards set out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social
and Cultural Rights have been further rened in a series of other treaties or conventions that address
matters of concern to particular groups.
1951: Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees
10
The Convention denes who can be considered a refugee and outlines the rights of refugees, such as
freedom of religion and movement, the right to work, education and access to travel documents. It also
sets out the obligations of refugees towards their host Governments.
1965: Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
11
The Convention refers to persistent racial discrimination, particularly by Governments, and calls for the
elimination of all racial discrimination. It promotes education as a tool to increase understanding and
respect between people of different racial backgrounds.
1979: Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women
12
Along with recognizing womens rights to participate in political and public life, the Convention is the only
human rights treaty which afrms the reproductive rights of women. It also identies culture and tradition
as inuential forces shaping gender roles and family relations.
1984: Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or
Punishment
13
The Convention requires States to take effective measures to prevent torture within their jurisdictions. It
also forbids States to transport people to any country where there is reason to believe that they will be
tortured.
1989: Convention on the Rights of the Child
14
The Convention places a legal obligation on States to ensure that the provisions set out in the 1959
Declaration on the Rights of the Child are met, such as the right to food, clean water, health care, free
education, survival and development, and the right to childrens own culture, religion and language. It
emphasizes that children may not be used for cheap labour or as soldiers.
1990: Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of
Their Families
15
The Convention seeks to guarantee equality of treatment and the same working conditions for migrants
as those enjoyed by nationals. It is based on the fundamental notion that all migrants should have
access to a minimum degree of protection.
8 Available at www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CCPR.aspx.
9 Available at www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CESCR.aspx.
10 Available at www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/StatusOfRefugees.aspx.
11 Available at www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CERD.aspx.
12 Available at www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw.
13 Available at www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CAT.aspx.
14 Available at www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CRC.aspx.
15 Available at www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CMW.aspx.
Part I Introduction to human rights education
Chapter 1: Human rights: An overview | 7
2007: Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
16
The Convention represents an important shift from viewing persons with disabilities as objects of
charity, medical treatment and social protection to subjects who are active members of society with
rights. It emphasizes that they are capable of claiming those rights and making decisions for their lives.
2007: Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
17
The Declaration acknowledges that indigenous peoples have suffered from historic injustices as a result
of colonization and dispossession of their land and resources. It emphasizes the rights of indigenous
peoples to maintain and strengthen their own institutions, cultures and traditions and to pursue
development in keeping with their needs and aspirations.
3.1. The international human rights framework in practice
A treaty is an agreement by a country to be bound by particular rules. International treaties have different
names such as covenants, charters, protocols, conventions, accords and agreements. A treaty is legally
binding on those States that have consented to be bound by the provisions of the treaty in other
words, they have agreed to become a party to the treaty.
18
Even if a State is not party to a treaty, that State may still be bound by those treaty provisions that
have become part of customary international law or constitute rules of international law, such as the
prohibition against torture.
Once a State has agreed to be party to a treaty, it is obliged to implement the provisions of that treaty.
The international community has a role to ensure that this happens by seeking country reports and
contributing to the Universal Periodic Review process.
19
International Human Rights and the International Human Rights System: A Manual for National Human
Rights Institutions
20
provides a useful guide to understanding the international human rights framework.
16 Available at www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/CRPD/Pages/ConventionRightsPersonsWithDisabilities.aspx.
17 Available at www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/IPeoples/Pages/Declaration.aspx.
18 Human Rights for All, United Nations; available at www.un.org/en/globalissues/briengpapers/humanrights/index.shtml.
19 More information on the Universal Periodic Review is available at www.ohchr.org/en/hrbodies/upr/pages/uprmain.aspx.
20 The Manual was published by the APF in 2012. It is available at www.asiapacicforum.net/support/resources.
An Australian Indigenous performer at the opening of the UN Forum on Indigenous Issues eleventh session. UN Photo/Devra Berkowitz.
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
8 | Chapter 1: Human rights: An overview
KEY POINTS: CHAPTER 1
Human rights are the basic rights and freedoms to which all humans
are entitled. They determine how individual human beings live in society
and with each other, as well as their relationship with the State and the
obligations that the State has towards them.
While the formalization of common standards and processes for the
protection of human rights began in the middle of the 1900s, human rights
have existed for as long as humankind has existed. Most of the worlds
major philosophies, religions and cultures recognize and promote human
rights concepts.
The rst international human rights instrument to be adopted was the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. This was followed by
international treaties on civil and political rights and on economic, social
and cultural rights. A number of other treaties that address the human
rights of particular groups have also been developed.
States have an obligation to respect, protect, promote and full the
human rights of their citizens.
USEFUL RESOURCES
International Human Rights and the International Human Rights System:
A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions; APF; 2012
International Human Rights Milestones; New Zealand Human Rights
Commission; 2008; available at www.hrc.co.nz/hrc_new/hrc/cms/les/
documents/10-Mar-2009_10-14-19_International_Milestones_Final.pdf
What are human rights?; OHCHR; available at www.ohchr.org/en/issues/
Pages/WhatareHumanRights.aspx
Part I Introduction to human rights education
Chapter 2: Human rights education: An overview | 9
Chapter 2:
Human rights education: An overview
21
1. WHAT IS HUMAN RIGHTS EDUCATION?
1.1. Human rights education and the international human rights framework
The obligations on States to recognize, respect, protect, promote and full human rights are mandated
across the broad range of international human rights treaties. Human rights education is an essential
tool for meeting these obligations.
The preamble to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that every individual and every organ
of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote
respect for these rights and freedoms.
21 United Nations Declaration on Human Rights Education and Training; article 4.
Based on the principles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and
relevant treaties and instruments, human rights education and training aims
to:
(a) raise awareness, understanding and acceptance of universal
human rights standards and principles, as well as guarantees at the
international, regional and national levels for the protection of human
rights and fundamental freedoms;
(b) develop a universal culture of human rights, in which everyone is
aware of their own rights and responsibilities in respect of the rights
of others, and promoting the development of the individual as a
responsible member of a free, peaceful, pluralist and inclusive society;
(c) pursue the effective realization of all human rights and promoting
tolerance, non-discrimination and equality;
(d) ensure equal opportunities for all through access to quality human
rights education and training, without any discrimination;
(e) contribute to the prevention of human rights violations and abuses and
to the combating and eradication of all forms of discrimination, racism,
stereotyping and incitement to hatred, and the harmful attitudes and
prejudices that underlie them.
21
KEY QUESTIONS
What is human rights education?
How does the international human rights framework include human rights
education?
What is the purpose of human rights education?
Who is human rights education directed towards?
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
10 | Chapter 2: Human rights education: An overview
Article 26 provides that:
education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and the strengthening
of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance
and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the
United Nations for the maintenance of peace.
Human rights education is included in a number of international human rights instruments, including the:
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, 1965 (article 7)
22
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 1966 (article 13)
23
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, 1979 (article 10)
24
Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment,
1984 (article 10)
25
Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989 (article 29)
26
International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of
Their Families, 1990 (article 33)
27
Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, 2006 (articles 4 and 8)
28
United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 2007 (articles 14 and 15)
29
Efforts to promote human rights education formed part of the Vienna Declaration and Programme of
Action
30
and are central to a number of other initiatives of the United Nations,
31 32
including the United
Nations Decade for Human Rights Education (19952004).
On 10 December 2004, the General Assembly initiated the World Programme for Human Rights
Education. The goal was to promote a common understanding of the basic principles and
methodologies of human rights education and to provide a framework for action. The rst phase of
the World Programme for Human Rights Education (20052009) focused on primary and secondary
schools, while the second phase (20102014) focused on human rights education for higher education
and on human rights training programmes for teachers and educators, civil servants, law enforcement
ofcials and military personnel.
33

A seminal point in the history of human rights education was the adoption of the United Nations
Declaration on Human Rights Education and Training
34
in 2011. The Declaration reafrms the principles
and standards of previous human rights treaties and acknowledges the fundamental importance of
human rights education and training to the realization of all human rights.
22 Available at www2.ohchr.org/english/law/cerd.htm.
23 Available at www2.ohchr.org/english/law/cescr.htm.
24 Available at www2.ohchr.org/english/law/cedaw.htm.
25 Available at www2.ohchr.org/english/law/cat.htm.
26 Available at www2.ohchr.org/english/law/crc.htm.
27 Available at www2.ohchr.org/english/law/cmw.htm.
28 Available at www2.ohchr.org/english/law/disabilities-convention.htm.
29 Available at www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/IPeoples/Pages/Declaration.aspx.
30 See Part I, paras. 33-34 and Part II, paras. 78-82.
31 Declaration and Programme of Action of the World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related
Intolerance; see Declaration, paras. 95-97; and Programme of Action, paras. 129-139.
32 Outcome Document of the Durban Review Conference; paras. 22 and 107.
33 World Programme for Human Rights Education: OHCHR; available at www2.ohchr.org/english/issues/education/training/
programme.htm.
34 Available at www2.ohchr.org/english/issues/education/training/UNDHREducationTraining.htm.
Part I Introduction to human rights education
Chapter 2: Human rights education: An overview | 11
The preamble to the Declaration appeals to States to strengthen their efforts and commitment to human
rights education and training. The 14 articles in the Declaration set out:
the right to human rights education and training
the scope of human rights education and training
the principles that underpin human rights education and training
the responsibilities on States and others, as well as key roles to take action
guidelines on implementation, including by the international community.
1.2. Denitions of human rights education
Although there are many denitions of human rights education, they all include elements of awareness
raising, participation, empowerment and motivation to act.
Amnesty International: Human rights education is a deliberate, participatory practice aimed at
empowering individuals, groups and communities through fostering knowledge, skills and attitudes
consistent with internationally recognized human rights principles.
35
Asian Regional Resource Center for Human Rights Education (2003): Human rights education is a
participative process which contains deliberately designed sets of learning activities using human rights
knowledge, values and skills as content aimed at the general public to enable them to understand their
experiences and take control of their lives.
36
35 What is human rights education?; available at www.amnesty.org/en/human-rights-education.
36 Human Rights Education Pack: Asian Regional Resource Center for Human Rights Education; 2003; p. 22.
My Dream for Aotearoa. Contributions by Gisborne Girls High School, New Zealand. Photo by Karen Johansen.
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
12 | Chapter 2: Human rights education: An overview
Executive Director of Human Rights Education Associates, Felissa Tibbits: Human rights education is an
international movement to promote awareness about the rights accorded by the Universal Declaration
of Human Rights and related human rights conventions, and the procedures that exist for the redress
of violations of these rights.
37
Jordan National Centre for Human Rights: Human rights education is all learning that develops the
knowledge, skills and values that advance human rights, responsibilities and actions.
38
Ofce of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR): Human rights education
promotes values, beliefs and attitudes that encourage everyone to uphold their own rights and those
of others. It develops an understanding of everyones common responsibility to make human rights a
reality in each community.
39
El Centro de Estudios Democrticos de Amrica Latina (CEDAL): Human rights education, as critical
thinking, moral reection and meaningful experiences which contribute to an understanding of power-
relations and power-structures, is both a tool for and the process of the struggle for social change and
for the implementation of human rights.
40
United Nations Declaration on Human Rights Education and Training: Human rights education and
training comprises all educational, training, information, awareness raising and learning activities aimed
at promoting universal respect for and observance of all human rights and fundamental freedoms and
thus contributing to, inter alia, the prevention of human rights violations and abuses by providing persons
37 International Developments in the Field of Human Rights Education by Felisa Tibbitts in Comparative and International Education
Society Newsletter (No. 151); September 2009; available at www.cies.us/newsletter/sept%2009/Tibbits.html.
38 Prepared for a human rights education workshop in 2004.
39 Ofce of the High Commissioner for Human Rights; Human rights education and training; available at www2.ohchr.org/english/
issues/education/training/index.htm.
40 Towards a Pedagogy of Human Rights Education: International Consultation on the Pedagogical Foundations of Human Rights
Education; available at www.pdhre.org/dialogue/costarica.html.
The National Human Rights Commission of Nepal has developed a
structured course of instruction to support human rights defenders working
at the grass-roots level in Nepal.
The three-part programme, delivered over ve days, introduces human
rights defenders to:
foundational human rights issues, as well as the national and
international system for promoting and protecting human rights
the rights of specic vulnerable groups in Nepal , including women,
children and minority groups
human rights issues on the ground, through eld visits to prisons,
detention centres, childrens homes and other places.
The course also discusses the role and functions of human rights
defenders, human rights protection mechanisms, human rights dialogue
and advocacy and a human rights-based approach to development.
In addition, participants develop skills in report-writing to assist them
document human rights violations.
A 2012 training course conducted by the Commission brought together
26 human rights defenders from 11 districts across Nepal, representing a
broad range of NGOs and civil society organizations.
More information is available at www.asiapacicforum.net/news/nepal-nhrc-develops-
new-training-course-for-human-rights-defenders.
Part I Introduction to human rights education
Chapter 2: Human rights education: An overview | 13
with knowledge, skills and understanding and developing their attitudes and behaviours, to empower
them to contribute to the building and promotion of a universal culture of human rights.
41
Human Rights Centre, University of Minnesota: Human rights education is a process of acquiring relevant
knowledge, skills and values for knowing, asserting and vindicating ones rights based on international
human rights norms. This denition implies that human rights are empowerment tools By encouraging
the development of competencies and capabilities, [human rights education] can expand the meaning
of what it is to be human. Thus, education can and should be an empowering process, one that enables
those who have been marginalized in the economic, social, political and cultural spheres to claim their
status as full participating members of a community.
42
World Programme for Human Rights Education Second Action Plan (20122014): Human rights
education can be dened as education, training and information aimed at building a universal culture of
human rights. Effective human rights education not only provides knowledge about human rights and
the mechanisms that protect them, but also develops the skills needed to promote, defend and apply
human rights in daily life. Human rights education also fosters the attitudes and behaviours needed to
uphold human rights for all members of society.
43
1.3. Forms of human rights education
Human rights education is a lifelong process that involves all ages and levels. It includes all forms of
education, training and learning. It can take place in all settings: public or private, formal, non-formal or
informal.
Formal education extends from early childhood education, through primary and secondary
school to tertiary education. It is generally curriculum-based and includes general academic
studies and technical and professional training.
Non-formal education involves organized educational activity, usually outside the formal
education system. It is designed for specic learning groups, with particular learning objectives.
Non-formal education can include work-based education and training, as well as adult and
community education, advocacy for human rights, networking and community development.
Informal education is an unorganized and often unintentional lifelong process where individuals
acquire attitudes, values, skills and knowledge from their experiences and the educative inuences
and resources in their environment.
1.4. Principles that guide human rights education
Human rights education principles apply across all levels of human rights education activity, whether in
formal or non-formal settings. While specic settings will inuence how the educator approaches and
delivers human rights education, the following six principles have been developed as a guide for this Manual.
Human rights education:
is participant-centred and relevant
is enhanced by partnerships and collaborations
acknowledges participants as educators
deepens knowledge and experience
recognizes that societal change comes from thoughtful action
is empowering, guided by human rights principles of non-discrimination, equality and inclusion.
Chapter 4 addresses these principles in more detail.
41 Article 2.
42 Module 20: Education for Empowerment; available at www1.umn.edu/humanrts/edumat/IHRIP/circle/modules/module20.htm.
43 Available at www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/WPHRE_Phase_2_en.pdf.
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
14 | Chapter 2: Human rights education: An overview
1.5. The practice of human rights education
The practice of human rights education is consistent with, and guided by, human rights and education
principles. As a result, the activity of human rights education focuses on strengthening respect for the
human rights and dignity of participants and enabling their full and active participation in the learning
process.
Human rights education practice:
demonstrates human rights principles of equality, human dignity, inclusion and non-discrimination
uses facilitative and participatory methods, processes and techniques
is participant-centred
is innovative and adaptable to a wide range of learning environments
is relevant to the physical, emotional, social, intellectual, spiritual and cultural contexts of participants
respects and is enriched by the diversity of participants
aims at reecting on lived experience through a human rights viewpoint
prioritizes the specic challenges and barriers faced by, and the needs and expectations of,
persons in vulnerable and disadvantaged situations and groups
encourages critical thinking and problem solving
takes into account wider national and international human rights circumstances, while promoting
local initiatives.
2. WHY DO HUMAN RIGHTS EDUCATION?
Human rights education is both a means to achieving the protection of human rights as well as
a right in itself.
United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, 1996
2.1. The international human rights instruments
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights acknowledges the critical role of human rights education.
It states in its preamble that every individual and every organ of society shall strive by teaching and
education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and
international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance.
The purpose of human rights education is also articulated in article 1 of the United Nations Declaration
on Human Rights Education and Training:
1. Everyone has the right to know, seek and receive information about all human rights and
fundamental freedoms and should have access to human rights education and training.
2. Human rights education and training is essential for the promotion of universal respect for
and observance of all human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, in accordance with the
principles of the universality, indivisibility and interdependence of human rights.
Human rights education aims to develop an understanding of everyones common responsibility to
make human rights a reality in each community and in the society at large. In this sense, it contributes
to the long-term prevention of human rights abuses and violent conicts, the promotion of equality and
sustainable development and the enhancement of participation in decision-making processes within a
democratic system.
44

44 Denition adapted from the draft plan of action for the second phase (20102014) of the World Programme for Human Rights
Education (A/HRC/15/28; para. 1). The plan of action was adopted by the United Nations Human Rights Council on 30 September
2010 (resolution 15/11).
Part I Introduction to human rights education
Chapter 2: Human rights education: An overview | 15
2.2. Goals of human rights education
Human beings need to understand their experiences in order to take control of their actions and
circumstances. Human rights education aims to develop essential human rights knowledge, skills,
attitudes and behaviours that enable and motivate individuals, groups, communities and nations to
contribute to making human rights a reality for all.
Human rights education has three goals. It aims to provide experiences where participants learn about
human rights, learn through human rights and learn for human rights.
45
Learning about human rights encourages the understanding and application of human rights norms,
principles, values and mechanisms. It aims at ensuring that participants and learners know about
the history and structures of the international human rights system, treaties and declarations. It also
encourages an understanding among participants about how human rights relate to their own worlds
and it helps them to make connections between their own lives and the lives of others, particularly those
affected by human rights violations. Learning about human rights promotes understanding of, and the
practice of, human rights values.
Learning through human rights means ensuring that the way in which human rights education occurs
is in keeping with human rights principles and standards. This could include: the way that learners
and teachers, participants and facilitators behave toward each other; the nature of the education
environment; the processes and tools that are used for the education activity; its accessibility; and its
appropriateness to its context.
45 United Nations Declaration on Human Rights Education and Training; article 2.2.
Afghan refugee girls attend school in Varamin, Iran. UN Photo by Eskinder Debebe.
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
16 | Chapter 2: Human rights education: An overview
Learning for human rights involves building peoples ability to enjoy and exercise their own rights
and to respect and uphold the rights of others. It encourages people to act in response to human
rights violations and teaches them about the tools that could be used in that action. Human rights
education stimulates and engages learners, with the aim of transforming peoples lives, the environment,
the community and the broader society.
Specic outcomes for human rights education may include, but are not limited to:
the dissemination of knowledge and general awareness about human rights, such as:
the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights instruments
relevant domestic human rights legislation
the historical processes that have prevented the realization of human rights
the rights of specic marginalized groups
mechanisms for addressing human rights grievances
power relations and social forces.
building the capability of people to:
apply human rights knowledge and understanding to their own situations
apply international human rights standards to local, national and international contexts
translate United Nations legal and technical language and concepts into those appropriate to
their contexts
analyse structures and systems through a human rights lens
reect on their own actions and the consequences of their behaviours
identify those human rights issues that are most pertinent to their group, community or society
develop strategies to prevent and address human rights violations.
strengthening individuals and communities to take action toward human rights outcomes.
HUMAN RIGHTS EDUCATION CLUBS TO BE LAUNCHED IN HIGH
SCHOOLS IN INDIA
To instil awareness on human rights among the young generation, the
Institute of Parliamentary Affairs is to launch human rights education clubs
in 145 high schools across the state of Kerala. This is the rst state in the
country to start such clubs with a coordinator in every school. District
coordinators are also appointed to carry forward the project.
With the launch of clubs in 145 more schools, the total number will rise
to be 250. The effort is to make the young generation fully aware of their
rights. The teachers who coordinate the work of the club in schools are
delivering training-of-trainers programmes. We are planning to conduct a
state-wide expo on an insecticide issue and also student rallies on human
rights. Another plan is to conduct street dramas highlighting human rights
violations, said Sijo J Arrackal, district co-ordinator of Kannur district.
One of the projects a club in a Kannur school took up was to collect
pictures of major human rights violations that were reported from various
parts of the world. The students also have innovative ideas and they are
also made aware of violation of childrens rights, said Sijo.
HR education clubs to be launched in 145 high schools, The New India Express
(21 April 2013); available at newindianexpress.com/states/kerala/HR-education-clubs-to-
be-launched-in-145-high-schools/2013/04/21/article1554691.ece.
Part I Introduction to human rights education
Chapter 2: Human rights education: An overview | 17
3. WHO IS HUMAN RIGHTS EDUCATION DIRECTED AT?
Human rights education is for everyone. However, there are three identiable groups to whom human
rights education may be directed:
rights holders; those most vulnerable to human rights violations
duty bearers; those most able to defend or violate others rights
inuencers; those most able to inuence others opinions and actions.
Everyone is potentially a rights holder, a duty bearer and an inuencer. In a particular context, however,
there is usually a set of dynamics that can identify the specic position that each person or group
occupies. Using a structural analysis lens,
46
these groupings are based on power relations; who has the
power in a situation and who does not.
Before, we were afraid, because we did not know that we had any rights. Even if others treated
us badly, we did not ght back, because of fear. (Sama Dilaut/Bajau, Philippines)
Rights holders are those who are entitled to specic rights and protections. On an individual basis, a
rights holder may be such because of the relationship they have with a duty bearer; for example, a child
to a parent, a student to a teacher, a woman to a man, a disabled person to a non-disabled person,
a teacher to the school board, a soldier to the General, a Government to a multinational corporation.
In a society, whole groups of people may be the rights holders due to their marginalized status. The
specialized human rights treaties reect some of these groups; women, children and young people,
ethnic minorities, people with disabilities, migrants and refugees, indigenous peoples and prisoners.
Other groups that do not currently have specialized human rights treaties dedicated to them but are
nonetheless still covered under the protections offered by all core human rights treaties include older
people, people living in poverty and gay, lesbian, bisexual, transsexual and intersex people.
47
While
individuals within these groups may not specically encounter marginalization or discrimination, the
group they belong to does.
48
Duty bearers are individuals or institutions who are obligated to promote and protect the rights of
the rights holders. As with the rights holder, a duty bearer may be such due to their relationship with
someone who does not have power in that relationship. Institutionally, duty bearers are those with the
role and ability to uphold the human rights of others.
Being a member of the military, this project gave me a profound awareness of my job and I
learned how to protect the rights of every individual. (Philippines)
46 See p. 35 for an explanation of structural analysis.
47 There are also sets of international human rights principles relevant to certain groups, such as the Yogyakarta Principles which
apply to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex people.
48 Applying a Human Rights-Based Approach: An Inspirational Guide for Civil Society; Danish Institute for Human Rights; 2007.
A rights holder:
is entitled to rights
is entitled to claim rights
is entitled to hold the duty bearer accountable
has a responsibility to respect the rights of others.
48
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18 | Chapter 2: Human rights education: An overview
The overall responsibility for meeting human rights obligations rests with the State or legal duty bearers.
This responsibility includes all the agencies of the State, such as parliaments, ministries, local authorities,
judges and justice authorities, police and immigration services, defence forces, teachers, lecturers and
those involved in school communities. All are legal duty bearers.
Every other individual or institution that has the power to affect the lives of rights holders is a moral duty
bearer. Moral duty bearers could include the business sector, private companies, local leaders, civil
society organizations, international organizations and heads of households.
Inuencers have an important role to play in persuading the duty bearers to full their obligations and
the rights holders to understand and claim their rights. This group includes, among others, the media,
religious leaders, tribal and ethnic leaders, unions, NGOs, human rights defenders and NHRIs.
49
Following is a list of groups to which human rights education may be directed and why.
50
Young children and their families
A parent, grandparent or other signicant adult, is often a childs rst teacher. Educational research
51

shows that the rst 10 years in a childs life are signicant to the development of attitudes about equality
and human dignity. It is important then that a childs family and community also know about human
rights and how to apply them.
49 Educational institutions may also be in this category, except for their ability to determine the successful passage of a child or
young person through school.
50 Adapted from The Human Rights Education Handbook: Effective Practices for Learning, Action, and Change; Nancy Flowers et
al; 2000.
51 Early years, life chances and equality: a literature review; Paul Johnson and Yulia Kossykh, Frontier Economics; published by
the Equality and Human Rights Commission; 2008; available at www.equalityhumanrights.com/uploaded_les/research/7_
earlyyears_lifechances.pdf. Diversity and equality guidelines for childcare providers; Ofce of the Minister for Children (Ireland);
2006; available at www.dcya.gov.ie/documents/childcare/diversity_and_equality.pdf.
Philippines National Police and the Armed Forces of the Philippines at Human Rights Day 2008, Esperanza, Mindanao, Philippines.
Photo by Jill Chrisp.
Part I Introduction to human rights education
Chapter 2: Human rights education: An overview | 19
Teachers, principals, and educators
It is important that teachers have a fundamental grounding in human rights in what they teach and how
they teach it.
For teachers to effectively include human rights in the classrooms, they require the endorsement and
support of a whole educational system.
Doctors and nurses, lawyers and judges, social workers, journalists, police and military
ofcials
Some urgently need to understand human rights because of the power they have or the positions of
responsibility they hold. Human rights courses should be fundamental to the curricula of medical schools,
law schools, universities, police and military academies and other professional training institutions.
Vulnerable populations
Human rights education must not be limited to formal schooling. Many people never attend school.
Many live far from administrative centres. Yet they, as well as refugees, minorities, migrant workers,
indigenous peoples, people with disabilities and the poor, are often among the most powerless and
vulnerable to abuse. Vulnerable peoples need to understand their rights and the protection systems and
processes they may engage to protect and uphold their rights.
Activists and non-prot organizations
A solid grounding in the human rights framework strengthens the work of human rights activists.
Developing strategies for human rights activism strengthens human rights scholars. People working in
NGOs may not recognize that they are engaged in human rights work. Those who work on issues such
as fair wages, health care and housing may not understand their work in a human rights context or
how the human rights framework can be used to help achieve their aims. They may not recognize their
solidarity with other workers for social and economic justice.
Public ofce holders, whether elected or appointed
An understanding of, and support for, human rights is critical for those who serve the interests of the
people. All candidates for election should be required to make a public commitment to human rights and
human rights should be included in the orientation and ongoing development of all new ofce holders.
Power holders
This group includes members of the business and banking community, landowners, traditional and
religious leaders and anyone whose decisions and policies affect the lives of many people. As holders
of power, it is important that they understand that human rights benet the community and themselves
and that human rights provide the basis for long-term stability and further development.
Human rights education aims to strengthen the capacity of duty bearers to protect the rights of others. It
aims to empower rights holders to take control of their lives. The effective design and delivery of human
rights education requires an analysis of the power context of the participants.
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
20 | Chapter 2: Human rights education: An overview
KEY POINTS: CHAPTER 2
Human rights education is an essential tool for the realization of human
rights. It is a lifelong process that involves all ages and levels and
includes all forms of education, training and learning. Human rights
education occurs in many settings, including public, private, formal,
informal and non-formal situations.
Human rights education is included in a number of international human
rights treaties and declarations. The United Nations Declaration on
Human Rights Education and Training reafrms the principles and
standards of these treaties.
The purpose of human rights education is to disseminate knowledge
about human rights, build the capability of people to apply human rights
to their lives and to strengthen individuals and communities to take action
toward human rights outcomes.
Human rights education is for everyone. Participants can be divided into
three broad groups: rights holders, duty bearers and inuencers.
USEFUL RESOURCES
Human Rights Education Pack; Asian Regional Resource Center for Human
Rights Education; 2003 (2nd edition)
Understanding Human Rights: A Manual on Human Rights Education;
Wolfgang Benedek, European Training and Research Centre for Human Rights
and Democracy; 2012
Applying a Human Rights Based Approach; Danish Institute for Human
Rights; 2007
The Human Rights Education Handbook: Effective Practices for Learning,
Action, and Change; Nancy Flowers with Marcia Bernbaum, Kristi Rudelius-
Palmer and Joel Tolman, Human Rights Resource Center, University of
Minnesota; 2000
Part I Introduction to human rights education
Chapter 3: National human rights institutions and human rights education | 21
Chapter 3:
National human rights institutions
and human rights education
52
1. MANDATE AND ROLE OF NATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS
INSTITUTIONS
53
Human rights education is a central mandate of NHRIs. The Paris Principles
54
outline the minimum
standards relating to the status and functioning of NHRIs. Compliance with the Paris Principles is the
central accreditation requirement for NHRIs to be able to participate in discussions at the United Nations
Human Rights Council and other international human rights bodies.
According to the Paris Principles, NHRIs have three goals and functions that relate to promoting human
rights:
to inform and to educate about human rights
to foster the development of values and attitudes which uphold human rights
to encourage action aimed at defending human rights from violation.
Paris Principles-compliant NHRIs play a critical role in promoting the effective implementation of
international human rights standards at the national level.
52 United Nations Declaration on Human Rights Education and Training; article 9.
53 For more information, see Chapter 4 of A Manual on National Human Rights Institutions; APF; 2013.
54 Principles relating to the status of national institutions (General Assembly resolution 48/134). Further information on the Paris
Principles is available at www.asiapacicforum.net/members/international-standards.
KEY QUESTIONS
What does the international human rights framework say about the
mandate and role of NHRIs to deliver human rights education?
What do NHRIs need in order to deliver a quality human rights education
programme?
What are some examples of human education programmes around the
Asia Pacic region?
national human rights institutions can play an important role, including
where necessary a coordinating role, in promoting human rights education
and training by, inter alia, raising awareness and mobilizing relevant public
and private actors.
52
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22 | Chapter 3: National human rights institutions and human rights education
As part of their human rights promotion function, NHRIs have a responsibility to:
raise community awareness about their purpose, role and functions
build practical and applied understanding of human rights and enable and mobilize others to
become human rights actors and defenders
use their unique national position to build cultures of human rights across all levels and sectors
of society.
Although NHRIs have the autonomy to undertake human rights education in a way that is appropriate
to their national context, most will:
develop and distribute information on human rights
engage in public awareness sessions
provide specialized training to key constituents
use the media to promote understanding and awareness of human rights and of their own work
work toward ensuring that human rights are taught in schools.
55
The plan of action for the second phase
56
of the World Programme for Human Rights Education identies
NHRIs as one of the key bodies to work with State agencies in scoping, planning, implementing and
evaluating national human rights education plans. It is also the responsibility of NHRIs to monitor the
progress of their national human rights education plans and to report on progress to the United Nations
through human rights reporting mechanisms.
55 National Human Rights Institutions: History, Principles, Roles and Responsibilities; Professional Training Series No. 4 (Rev. 1);
OHCHR; 2010; p. 73.
56 Available at www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/WPHRE_Phase_2_en.pdf.
Participants in a recent APF regional training workshop on the rights of migrant workers. Photo by the APF/Suraina Pasha.
Part I Introduction to human rights education
Chapter 3: National human rights institutions and human rights education | 23
2. BASIC REQUIREMENTS OF NHRIs IN PROVIDING HUMAN
RIGHTS EDUCATION
As covered in the following chapters, human rights education involves a wide range of approaches and
activities. It is a lifelong process, involving all sectors of society. NHRIs, as independent institutions, are
well placed to provide human rights education across these sectors.
NHRIs promote understanding of human rights through their educational programmes and other
activities. They provide basic information about human rights but also go further and explain human
rights concepts and law. This requires much more than the production of posters, leaets and even
reports. It requires personal engagement and interaction through formal and non-formal educational
programmes and activities.
All NHRIs have considerable experience in the struggle to change attitudes. However, many have had
some successes. Attitudinal change requires more than educational courses and programmes. It can
often be accomplished through the ordinary activities of NHRIs in investigating and exposing human
rights violations. People come to question their own attitudes, and the attitudes of others in government
and in the community, when they are confronted with the experiences of those who have suffered
human rights violations. Most of the work of NHRIs can and should have an educational component.
NHRIs should be conscious of this and ensure that all their programmes and activities have a specic
component of human rights education. Some NHRI activities, such as national inquiries into situations
of human rights violation, have human rights education as one of their principal goals and one of their
main methodologies.
57
NHRIs should ensure that their human rights education programmes and activities have action
dimensions and action results. They can encourage and enable people to act for human rights by:
57 For more information, see Chapter 2 of the Manual on Conducting a National Inquiry into Systemic Patterns of Human Rights
Violation, APF and the Raoul Wallenberg Institute of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law; 2012.
The Australian Human Rights Commission, in partnership with the Sydney
Community Foundation, made 20 short lms to show how people have used
the law to change their lives and the lives of others.
The federal Disability Discrimination Act provides people with disabilities
and their relatives or associates with the opportunity to pursue a
complaint if they are treated less favourably than other people in a range of
areas of public life.
Going to school, catching a bus, watching a movie or entering a building
are things we do every day. But some of us have had to ght hard to be able
to do them, Disability Discrimination Commissioner Graeme Innes said.
He said the lms show that the biggest barrier Australians with a disability
face is not the disability, but negative attitudes towards disability.
Speaking at its launch, Australias Governor-General, Ms Quentin Bryce AC
CVO, said the lm series is of great practical import, lled with constructive
advice and valuable information for the way forward.
Twenty Years: Twenty Stories is available at: www.humanrights.gov.au/
twentystories/index.html.
More information is available at www.asiapacicforum.net/news/australia-videos-
showcase-achievements-of-people-with-disabilities.
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
24 | Chapter 3: National human rights institutions and human rights education
proposing action possibilities through human rights education programmes and activities
incorporating learning by action and reection in human rights education programmes and activities
assisting learners to develop human rights projects to follow up human rights education
programmes and activities
supporting learners to implement what they have learnt in human rights education programmes
and activities.
NHRIs produce materials that assist people to talk about human rights. Some of these materials are
purely informational but others are more specically directed towards education, for example, training
and education modules and manuals.
NHRIs also conduct programmes that develop human rights educators. Building the ability for others to
be human rights educators is an effective way for NHRIs with limited resources to maximize their impact
in communicating human rights messages. NHRIs cannot provide human rights education directly to
everyone. Equipping others to do so is one of the most effective and efcient means of broadening
human rights education. This is part of the action dimension of human rights education; training trainers
and educating educators to encourage others to take human rights action. Human rights education
programmes conducted or sponsored by NHRIs should develop strategies for this to occur.
The three basic requirements of NHRIs in providing human rights education include:
a planned, strategic and resourced human rights education programme
skilled human rights educators
effective resources.
2.1. A planned, strategic and resourced human rights education
programme
A successful human rights education programme moves individuals beyond knowledge into action.
In order to achieve this, the programme needs to be strategic, cooperative and leveraged.
58
An NHRI
will not, nor should not, have the resources available to meet a countrys human rights education
requirements. It therefore needs to ensure that its human rights education programme maximizes its
impact by identifying and focusing on priorities, partnering with others involved in human rights activity
and motivating and enabling others to be human rights educators.
The key aspects of a good human rights education programme include:
a focus on researched, assessed and prioritized human rights issues
contributing to the NHRIs strategic direction and priorities, including identifying where it can
make a unique contribution and have the most signicant impact
attention to both the formal education system and the non-formal sector
human rights curricula and resources that are audience-focused, well researched, current and
constantly revised
internal expertise and capability in formal and non-formal education methodologies, processes
and tools
collaboration with others through informal or formal partnerships, perhaps as part of the
development of a national human rights action plan or a national human rights education plan
a focus on duty bearers, rights holders and inuencers
a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation mechanism.
59
58 National Human Rights Institutions: History, Principles, Roles and Responsibilities; Professional Training Series No. 4 (Rev. 1);
OHCHR; 2010; p. 55.
59 A framework to measure the impact of education and training programmes has been developed by the International Council on
Human Rights Policy. See Assessing the Effectiveness of National Human Rights Institutions; 2005; pp. 35-38.
Part I Introduction to human rights education
Chapter 3: National human rights institutions and human rights education | 25
2.2. Skilled human rights educators
The role of the [human rights] educator is to present to people in a challenging form, the issues
they have raised in a confused form.
Mao Tse Tung
With the adoption of the United Nations Declaration on Human Rights Education and Training,
discussion has begun about whether an internationally standardized qualication for human rights
educators should be developed. Competency sets for human rights educators have been suggested
by a number of organizations. The following broad set is offered as a guide. It does not include generic
competencies, such as project management, achieving results, leadership, critical thinking, information
and communications technology, self-management and relationship management.
60
Knowledge
competencies
Human rights knowledge of:
human rights in general, their promotion and protection
international and domestic human rights frameworks and legislation
mechanisms, and mechanisms for addressing human rights grievances
human rights-based approaches
60
human rights as they apply to duty bearers, rights holders and inuencers
how societies function with regard to the realization of human rights.
Education and training knowledge of:
theory and principles of education in general, and human rights education
specically
education methodologies, processes and tools related to formal and non-
formal environments and across all ages.
Technical and
professional
practice
competencies
Ability to:
apply a human rights-based approach
plan, implement and evaluate context-appropriate human rights education
programmes in formal and non-formal environments and across all ages
use a broad range of human rights education methods and tools, such as
information dissemination, training, facilitation, advocacy for human rights,
networking and community development
work with diverse groups and communities.
Personal
competencies
ability to reect on and improve professional practice
ability to recognize personal identity and standpoint and the impact that this may
have on others
motivation to promote and defend human rights, both locally and globally.
2.3. Adequate human rights education resources
The third basic requirement of an NHRI in providing human rights education is adequate resourcing. The
most important resource is its people its human rights educators. Each NHRI has a responsibility to
commit budget and human resourcing to ensure that its promotion mandate can be met. Most NHRIs
in the Asia Pacic region have a team with dedicated education staff. Some also ensure that a level of
education capability is included in other operational areas, such as complaints and investigations and
policy development.
60 For an explanation of a human rights-based approach, see p. 45.
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
26 | Chapter 3: National human rights institutions and human rights education
NHRIs will produce materials for education purposes. The nature and use of the resources, both the
content and the medium, will vary according to its education purpose. Core education materials may
include:
general information about the NHRI, what it does and how to contact it
general information on human rights and principles
targeted information about specic rights and for specic groups
publication of the NHRIs activities, for accountability reporting, education and advocacy
resources developed from published research and outcomes of investigations and inquiries
ongoing and updated information related to a particular sector or topic, such as newsletters,
websites and social media sites
model human rights education curricula and human rights training modules.
Other resource considerations may include administration and communications systems, equipment
and technologies.
3. EXAMPLES FROM THE ASIA PACIFIC REGION
The following examples describe some of the human rights education programmes offered by NHRIs in
the Asia Pacic region.
3.1. Australian Human Rights Commission
61
The Australian Human Rights Commissions community engagement and human rights education
programme works to build understanding and respect for rights at home, at school, at work and in the
community.
Under the Australian Governments Human Rights Framework, the Commission received funding over
four years (20102014) to expand its community education and engagement role. Activities have
included:
promoting the integration of human rights education in schools as part of the development of
a new national curriculum, as well as providing rightsED teaching resources for teachers and
human rights information for students
using social media to involve the Australian community in human rights discussions that move
people to take action
62

engaging with business and industry to promote human rights principles as an everyday part of
their operations
working with employers to build understanding of their legal responsibilities and put in place
strategies to create discrimination-free workplaces
supporting the national Play by the Rules programme, which promotes inclusive, safe and fair
sport.
3.2. Commission on Human Rights of the Philippines
63
We were able to build condence since the [human rights] issues and concerns within the tribe
were given attention by different agencies. (Higaonon, Philippines)
61 More information is available at www.humanrights.gov.au/human-rightseducation-and-community-engagement.
62 The Commissions social media initiatives include www.tellmesomethingidontknow.gov.au and www.somethingincommon.gov.au.
63 Philippine Human Rights Education Decade Plan: A sectoral compilation 19982007; Commission on Human Rights of the
Philippines. More information is available at www.chr.gov.ph.
Part I Introduction to human rights education
Chapter 3: National human rights institutions and human rights education | 27
The mission of the Commission on Human Rights of the Philippines is [to] evolve a human rights
culture through the institutionalization of a continuing multi-sectoral and multi-disciplinary human rights
education programme in the formal, non-formal and community-based sectors.
3.3. Indonesian National Commission on Human Rights (Komnas HAM)
64
To carry out its functions in the elds of education and information, Komnas HAM has mandate and duty to:
disseminate human rights principles and information to the Indonesian public
endeavor to enhance public awareness of human rights through formal and non-formal education
institutions and various other circles
cooperate with organizations, institutions or other parties at the national, regional and international
levels in the eld of human rights.
3.4. Jordan National Centre for Human Rights
65
In its 20102012 Strategic Plan, the Jordan National Centre for Human Rights described its goal
to promote and enhance human rights through awareness raising programmes, communications,
education and training by:
disseminating human rights education on the widest possible scale
promoting and disseminating best practices in the eld of human rights
promoting internal complaint mechanisms within public institutions and among civil servants
integrating human rights education in formal and non-formal education, including university education
developing and maintaining human rights materials
intensifying awareness raising and educational campaigns.
64 More information is available at www.komnasham.go.id.
65 More information is available at www.nchr.org.jo/english/AboutUs/StrategicPlan/StrategicPlan20102012.aspx.
Children inside a classroom near Mafraq, Jordan. UN Photo by Mark Garten.
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
28 | Chapter 3: National human rights institutions and human rights education
3.5. National Human Rights Commission of India
A training division has been established within the National Human Rights Commission of India to
spread human rights literacy and to sensitize people belonging to various sections of society on all
aspects relating to human rights. While the focus is necessarily on the public functionaries, so that they
are sensitized and motivated to full their duties regarding the protection of human rights of the public
at large, efforts are also required to target young people at universities/colleges and schools in order to
build a society fully aware of human rights issues.
The Commission places a large focus on human rights education programmes for police, which responds
to the signicant number of complaints received by the Commission based on police behaviour. Other
public functionaries targeted for sensitization on human rights issues include the judiciary, prison ofcials,
government functionaries in other departments, doctors, paramedical staff, nurses, paramilitary forces,
the army and teachers/principals/education ofcers. Members of media and human rights defenders are
also included in these programmes.
66
3.6. National Human Rights Commission of Korea
67
The National Human Rights Commission of Korea has a mandate to provide human rights education
and training for the promotion of public awareness on human rights. The Commission:
makes efforts to integrate human rights principles into the curricula of every educational institution,
including primary and secondary schools and universities
arranges a variety of educational activities to make human rights important criteria for selections
and evaluations, including civil service exams
builds a culture of human rights in society through publications and the development of cultural
contents
operates a human rights library to provide access to the human rights information.
The Commission also recommends:
human rights education for prosecutors and prison and police ofcers
the operation of human rights research schools
the operation of human rights education centres
the development of human rights educational materials for primary and secondary schools
production and distribution of human rights lms and animations.
3.7. New Zealand Human Rights Commission
The New Zealand Human Rights Commission identies human rights education as a signicant way to
full its mandate by:
being an advocate for human rights and promoting and protecting, by education and publicity,
respect for, and observance of, human rights
promoting, by research, education and discussion, a better understanding of the human rights
dimensions of the Treaty of Waitangi and their relationship with domestic and international human
rights law.
Encouraging community action (using human rights education as a key approach) is one of three cross-
cutting approaches which the Commission uses to achieve its priorities.
68
66 More information is available at www.nhrc.nic.in/Documents/TrgGuidelinesdated17Dec2012.pdf.
67 More information is available at www.humanrights.go.kr/english/activities/education01.jsp.
68 More information is available at www.hrc.co.nz/human-rights-environment/human-rights-education.
Part I Introduction to human rights education
Chapter 3: National human rights institutions and human rights education | 29
3.8. APF
69
The training-of-trainers blended learning course, piloted in 2012 by the APF and run again in 2013,
provides staff from NHRIs in the Asia Pacic region with core skills and knowledge on the development,
delivery and evaluation of human rights training courses. The course uses a blended-learning format,
combining online learning and interaction with a face-to-face workshop. It aims to build the capability
of participants who, through an optional follow-on Master Trainer programme, will receive mentoring
from senior APF trainers and be invited to assist with the facilitation of future APF training programmes.
69 More information is available at www.asiapacicforum.net/support/training/training-of-trainers.
Te Huia Bill Hamilton from the New Zealand Human Rights Commission and Panglima Buhali Bulaka Ajilani, leader of the Sama Dilaut, greet each
other with a traditional Maori hongi (pressing of noses). Photo by Jill Chrisp.
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
30 | Chapter 3: National human rights institutions and human rights education
KEY POINTS: CHAPTER 3
Undertaking human rights education is a core requirement of NHRIs, as
set out in the Paris Principles and the World Action Plan for Human Rights
Education.
NHRIs need three things in order to offer a quality human rights education
programme: a planned, strategic and resourced human rights education
programme, skilled human rights educators and adequate human rights
education resources.
There are a number of effective human rights education programmes
being delivered by NHRIs in the Asia Pacic region.
USEFUL RESOURCES
Assessing the Effectiveness of National Human Rights Institutions;
International Council on Human Rights Policy; 2005
National Human Rights Institutions: History, Principles, Roles and
Responsibilities; Professional Training Series No. 4 (Rev. 1); OHCHR; 2010
A Manual on National Human Rights Institutions; APF; 2013
Part II:
Human rights education
theory, principles and approach
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
31
Chapter 4: Human rights education theory and principles
Chapter 5: A human rights education approach
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
32 | Chapter 4: Human rights education theory and principles
Chapter 4:
Human rights education
theory and principles
70
This chapter discusses the theory and principles that provide the foundation for the design,
implementation and evaluation of an education activity. There are many theories about education. Those
that are important to human rights education are about encouraging individual and societal change
through developing human rights knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviours. Designing, implementing
and evaluating human rights education seeks to achieve this result.
The rst half of this chapter brings together some ideas developed by educators who focus on education
that is based on empowerment, equality and justice.
71
The human rights education principles outlined in
the second half of the chapter have been developed from this thinking.
1. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR HUMAN RIGHTS EDUCATION
Education has the potential to empower people, encouraging them to become active and responsible
members of society. So it is with human rights education. For human rights education to work toward
freedom, justice and peace, it must challenge the way things are, including violations of human rights.
Human rights education must also facilitate and expect positive transformation across all sectors and
levels of society.
Listed below are concepts developed by theorists that are committed to education that is empowering
and transformative. A number of these concepts come from the popular education/educao popula
movement that uses education to improve the conditions of the poorest and most marginalized people.
70 Father Fernando Cardenal, Director Literacy Campaign, Nicaragua, 1980.
71 This section is informed by the works of selected education theorists, including Sylvia Ashton-Warner, Augusto Boal, Franz Fanon,
Paulo Freire, Michel Foucault, Ivan Illich, Malcolm Knowles, Maria Montessori and A.S. Neil.
KEY QUESTIONS
How can human rights education be empowering and transformative?
What are some of the theoretical concepts that guide human rights
education?
What are some of the principles that guide human rights education?
Education is not only political but it is based on the political sense that
emerges from love and the political sense that attempts to build a world
of justice and community. ... This love of course is not purely sentimental
emotion but it is the kind of love that is concerned with transforming the
degrading living conditions to which fellow human beings are subjected.
Politics is the love by which people work together to transform inhumane
and unjust conditions; it is part of the noble quest and struggle for dignity
and justice.
70
Part II Human rights education theory, principles and approach
Chapter 4: Human rights education theory and principles | 33
Banking education:
72
Some education relies on information-giving as the only method. In this form of
education, the educator is seen as the authority of the knowledge. The participants are treated as if they
have no knowledge or experience that can contribute to the leaning. Human rights education delivery is
at risk of becoming a banking process if the only methods used are giving information.
Bottom-up/top-down perspective: The bottom-up/top-down dimension describes the behaviour
of an individual or group when it imposes its views and ideas onto another individual or group. This
is particularly so when the relationship is hierarchical and power-based. A top-down process can
be important and effective; a department of education, for example, may decide that all teachers will
include human rights education in the curriculum. Effective human rights education, however, relies
signicantly on a bottom-up approach, where people are encouraged to understand human rights in
their own way and develop their own behaviours and actions accordingly.
Figure 4.1: Bottom-up/top-down perspective
Critical pedagogy:
73
It is important to encourage participants to think critically about their own
situations and to make connections between their individual problems and experiences and their wider
contexts. A critical pedagogy of education involves encouraging a deep understanding of the world and
events. It also includes taking action. The role of the human rights educator is to provide an opportunity
for participants to identify common problems, analyse them and nd agreed and practical solutions.
Dialogical education: Real learning happens when people communicate, and listen to, different
experiences, thoughts and ideas. Through genuine dialogue, everyone is a learner and a teacher. The
role of the human rights educator is to create a genuine learning community where those involved,
included the educator, are able learn from each other.
Human rights education pedagogy:
74
In order for human rights education to contribute to equality,
non-discrimination and justice, the human rights educator ensures that education activities respect the
human dignity of all those involved. In this way, both the content and the process of education results in
individual and collective empowerment and transformation.
Insider/outsider perspective:
75
Human rights education emphasizes the role and the contribution
of the participants. The concept of insider/outsider is one way of explaining the dynamics involved in
developing and delivering human rights education. In this approach, the participants are the insiders.
They are the ones involved in the education activity. Those not involved in the activity are the outsiders.
72 A term coined by Paulo Freire in Pedagogy of the Oppressed (1968).
73 Ibid.
74 The term pedagogy most commonly refers to the science and art of education for all ages. However, since the term derives from
the Greek word for child, some use the term andragogy to refer to adult education.
75 Maranga Mai! Human Rights Community Development by Jill Chrisp in the Australian New Community Quarterly (Vol. 9, No. 1);
Autumn 2011.
Top-down
Bottom-up
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
34 | Chapter 4: Human rights education theory and principles
The outsiders may have a legitimate interest and an investment in the education activity, but it is not
about them. The task of the human rights educator is to ensure that the knowledge and experience of
the insiders guides the education activity. Sometimes the educator is an insider to the participant
group; for example, a young person working with youth participants or a police ofcer working with
other police ofcers. If the human rights educator is an outsider to the participant group for example,
a non-indigenous person working with an indigenous group or a man working with a group of women
it is important that insider collaborations or partnerships are formed.
Participatory approach: Using a participatory approach to human rights education involves participant
and stakeholder contribution to the planning, implementation and evaluation of an activity. The benets
of this are many.
It strengthens group, organization and community capacity.
Programmes are developed effectively and efciently.
Mutual learning happens through the sharing of information, skills and experiences.
It generates a greater understanding of the human rights issues to be addressed.
It builds broader support for programmes and activities.
It takes advantage of knowledge and expertise that might otherwise be overlooked.
It identies possible controversial aspects of an issue and helps bring together different points of
view to achieve consensus in a collaborative manner.
76
Praxis: Action will be effective if it is connected with review and reection. Praxis involves not only taking
action but thinking about what actions are being taken. It involves not only thinking but taking action on
those thoughts.
76 Adapted from Participatory Methods Toolkit: A Practitioners Manual; Dr Nikki Slocum; joint publication of the King Baudouin
Foundation and the Flemish Institute for Science and Technology Assessment, in collaboration with the United Nations University
Comparative Regional Integration Studies; 2003.
The Palestinian Independent Commission on Human Rights has held
workshops in the West Bank and Gaza to raise awareness around
reproductive rights and how they apply to the local setting. The workshops
were a follow-up activity to a major regional consultation in June 2011.
The Commission hosted two workshops to provide staff members with an
opportunity to discuss the principles and concept of reproductive rights.
Staff also developed a number of suggestions for integrating reproductive
rights into the work of the Commission, such as:
conducting joint research projects with the United Nations Population
Fund
reviewing draft legislation for consistency with reproductive rights, and
incorporating reproductive rights into training programmes.
In addition, the Commission hosted a workshop in Gaza in October to
draw attention to the issue of violence against women in the Palestinian
territories.
More information is available at www.asiapacicforum.net/news/palestine-building-
awareness-of-reproductive-rights.
Part II Human rights education theory, principles and approach
Chapter 4: Human rights education theory and principles | 35
Relevance: People will act on issues for which they have strong feelings. Education activities should be
about those issues that are important to the participants, as there is a close link between emotion and
the motivation to act. The role of the human rights educator is to learn about, and from, the participants
so that the education activity is meaningful to them.
Structural analysis: This approach analyses the structures and power relations in society in order to
identify the most effective interventions that will facilitate positive change to human rights conditions.
Transformative education: The opposite of banking education, transformative education involves
participants in transforming individual lives, the environment, community and society. The human rights
educator works to build the ability and commitment of each person to be actively engaged in creating
change. Transformative education is empowering.
2. PRACTICE PRINCIPLES FOR A HUMAN RIGHTS EDUCATION
METHODOLOGY
Human rights education principles apply across all levels of human rights education activity, whether
in formal or non-formal settings. While specic settings will inuence what, and how, the educator
develops and delivers human rights education, the following principles are presented as a guide.
2.1. The six principles of human rights education
The six principles have been developed specically for this Manual but are informed by the work of
educationalists, human rights educators and by the contributions of NHRIs in the Asia Pacic region.
Figure 4.2: The six principles of human rights education
Human rights education is ...
Relevant to
participants
Probing
Collaborative
Participatory
Empowering
Thoughtful
action
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
36 | Chapter 4: Human rights education theory and principles
Principle 1: Relevant to participants
Human rights education is participant-centred and relevant.
No human rights education activity occurs in isolation. It will occur in a moment or period of time and in
a particular environment, whether this is place-based or Internet-based. It will involve people who bring
with them their own perceptions, experiences, viewpoints, priorities, preferred ways of learning and
levels of knowledge. It will also be inuenced by the structures and relationships that exist.
The relevant to participants principle requires the human rights educator to have a thorough
understanding of the participants; who they are, the environments in which they live, they way they
learn and the human rights issues they face. The human rights educator needs to be innovative and
adaptable to ensure that the education activity is relevant and meaningful to the participants.
Principle 2: Collaborative
Human rights education is enhanced by partnerships and collaborations.
In order to develop and implement a human rights education activity that is relevant to participants
and that will have a lasting impact, the human rights educator uses the knowledge and connections of
others. These are collaborators or partners.
Sometimes the collaboration may be formalized through a partnership agreement; for example, between
an NHRI and a department of police in the delivery of human rights education programme for police
ofcers. However, for the most part, these will be informal connections made between the educator, the
NHRI and those who may have information that will enhance the education experience.
The collaborative principle requires the human rights educator to identify others who will usefully
engage with the activity as partners or collaborators.
The Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) has worked in
partnership with the National Human Rights Commission of India to deliver
sensitization programmes in human rights for police ofcers.
In December 2009, a Memorandum of Understanding was signed between
the IGNOU and the Commission to launch the programmes at three levels: a
basic course for constables/sub-inspectors, an advanced course for middle
level police ofcers and a training-of-trainers programme.
Programmes were offered in both distance education and online modes,
followed by interactive workshops.
IGNOU developed a human rights training portal, along with interactive self-
instruction materials. It also provided technical online support.
The Commission supported the initial development of the courses through
resource support and funding the development of course materials, printing,
development of audio-visual materials and video lectures.
More information is available at: www.asiapacicforum.net/news/india-nhrc-to-launch-
human-rights-training-for-police.html.
Part II Human rights education theory, principles and approach
Chapter 4: Human rights education theory and principles | 37
Principle 3: Participatory
Human rights education ensures that people fully participate in the education activity.
Real education occurs when people experience that who they are their priorities, thoughts, and
questions is valued and contributes meaningfully to the learning. The human rights educator looks for
authentic and respectful ways to engage participants.
A participatory approach to education is characterized by:
knowledge that is dynamic and changing, as participants contribute their experiences and
perspectives
people becoming actively engaged in learning
people learning about themselves
the educator acting as a facilitator, rather than the source of knowledge
a relationship with the educator that is based on interaction
learning through interaction, rather than memorizing knowledge through repetition
a focus on analysis, synthesis and application, rather than facts and information.
77
The participatory principle requires the human rights educator to ensure that participants are fully and
actively engaged in the education activity.
Principle 4: Probing
Human rights education deepens knowledge and experience.
Human rights education encourages the discovery, sharing and understanding of participants
experiences. Participants are supported to talk about their own experiences and knowledge, make
comparisons with other information and understand why things are as they are.
The probing principle requires the human rights educator to use education processes, techniques and
tools that encourage participants to consider human rights issues and concepts in a meaningful way.
Principle 5: Thoughtful action
Human rights education recognizes that the realization of human rights comes from considered
and thoughtful action.
Human rights education involves both action and reection. It encourages critical thinking and problem
solving. It encourages reective practitioners. Learning takes place when participants are able to reect
critically on what they are doing. True reection leads to action and that action will be most effective if
there is critical reection on its consequences.
Reection without action is mere verbalism.
Action without reection becomes pure activism.
78
Figure 4.3: Thoughtful action
77 Adapted from the Human Rights Education Pack; Asian Regional Resource Center for Human Rights Education; 2003 (2nd
edition); p. 36.
78 Pedagogy of the Oppressed; Paulo Freire; 1968 (translated into English in 1970).
Action
act
plan
Reection
observe
review
Action
act
plan
Reection
observe
review
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
38 | Chapter 4: Human rights education theory and principles
The thoughtful action principle requires the human rights educator to develop for themselves, and for
the participants, ways of thinking about what they do and how it impacts on their actions.
Principle 6: Empowering
Human rights education is empowering, encouraging non-discrimination, equality and inclusion.
Human rights education is empowering, guided by human rights principles of non-discrimination, equality
and inclusion. Transformative education encourages participants to actively participate in analysing their
situations through a human rights lens, identifying their priority human rights issues and developing
strategies to act on these in a way that is consistent with human rights standards and principles.
The empowering principle requires the human rights educator to ensure that both the process and
content of the education experience is empowering.
The remaining chapters in the Manual offer practical suggestions about how these principles may be
put into practice.
KEY POINTS: CHAPTER 4
In order for human rights education to contribute to the realization of
human rights, it must:
be relevant to the participants
involve partnerships and collaboration with appropriate individuals and
groups
recognize that the participants are important contributors to the
education activity and that the human rights educator is also a learner
deepen and strengthen the knowledge and experience of participants
combine action with reection by building in processes of review and
evaluation
focus on individual and societal empowerment and transformation.
USEFUL RESOURCES
Human Rights Education as Empowerment: Reections on Pedagogy by
Garth Meintjes in Human Rights Education for the Twenty-First Century;
George J. Andreopoulous and Richard Pierre Claude, eds.; 1997
Human Rights Education for the Twenty-First Century; George J.
Andreopoulous and Richard Pierre Claude, eds.; 1997
Human Rights Education Pack; Asian Regional Resource Center for Human
Rights Education; 2003 (2nd edition)
Maranga Mai! Human Rights Community Development by Jill Chrisp in the
Australian New Community Quarterly (Vol. 9, No. 1); Autumn 2011
Participatory Methods Toolkit: A Practitioners Manual; Dr Nikki Slocum;
joint publication of the King Baudouin Foundation and the Flemish Institute for
Science and Technology Assessment, in collaboration with the United Nations
University Comparative Regional Integration Studies; 2003
Pedagogy of the Oppressed; Paulo Freire; 1968 (translated into English in 1970)
Part II Human rights education theory, principles and approach
Chapter 5: A human rights education approach | 39
Chapter 5:
A human rights education approach
79
This chapter introduces an approach to human rights education that has been developed to meet
multiple situations, needs, strengths and outcomes. It is built on the concepts and principles of the
previous chapter and uses three frameworks the human rights-based approach, the 4-A framework
and the Learning Pyramid as guides for strengthening the approach.
1. THE MULTI-METHOD APPROACH TO HUMAN RIGHTS
EDUCATION
80
The Multi-Method approach encourages NHRIs to use the full range of methods available to them and
to develop effective practice in each. It combines human rights standards with education theories and
principles to produce a framework to guide the planning, design and implementation of a human rights
education activity. The Multi-Method approach complements the various other functions of NHRIs and,
at times, merges with them.
The approach recognizes the role of, and obligation on, NHRIs to:
strengthen the ability of rights holders to claim their rights
sensitize duty bearers to human rights issues and their obligations to respect, protect and full
human rights.
79 William Glasser. Further information is available at www.wglasser.com.
80 This approach has been adapted from the work of the New Zealand Human Rights Commission when it reviewed its human rights
education provision in 2006.
KEY QUESTIONS
What is the responsibility of NHRIs when deciding the most appropriate
human rights education approach?
How can human rights education planning, implementation and evaluation
respond to diverse participants, contexts and purposes?
What are some of the frameworks that can strengthen a human rights
education approach?
Education is the process in which we discover that learning adds quality to
our lives. Learning must be experienced. Tests have shown that we learn:
10% of what we read
20% of what we hear
30% of what we see
50% of what we see and hear
70% of what we discuss
80% of what we experience
95% of what we teach others.
79
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
40 | Chapter 5: A human rights education approach
The Multi-Method approach uses the human rights education concepts and principles in Chapter 4. It
is based on the key human rights considerations of non-discrimination, participation, accountability and
empowerment.
The Multi-Method approach identies six ways of conducting human rights education activities.
1.1 Information sharing: Passing on human rights information
Information sharing includes giving out information about human rights to individuals, groups and
communities of focus, as well as informing the NHRI about human rights matters affecting individuals,
groups and communities of focus. The human rights educator has a communication role, distilling
human rights information and distributing it in a way that it is most effectively received by the intended
audience.
1.2. Training: Imparting human rights skills and knowledge
Training focuses on ensuring that people are able to reiterate human rights information and demonstrate
how to act in a human rights manner. It is based on a prescribed set of learning outcomes. The
human rights educator has a teacher role, developing appropriate methods and experiences that most
effectively teach people human rights content and skills.
1.3. Facilitation: Strengthening and supporting others to take action to
improve human rights conditions
Facilitation is process-based and content-based. In the Multi-Method approach, facilitation aims at
encouraging learners to evaluate their own experiences and, through personal and group empowerment,
contribute to the realization of human rights in their worlds. The human rights educator has a facilitator
role, developing processes that enable people to identify human rights issues that impact on them and
on others, and to nd ways of addressing those issues.
In 2009, the Malaysian Human Rights Commission (SUHAKAM) worked
with 30 to 50 immigration ofcers to train them on how to assist smuggled
persons and victims of trafcking. They were equipped with skills in
interviewing, communicating and counselling. It was hoped that these
skills would enable them to differentiate between victims of trafcking and
those who entered the country illegally, said Suhakam Chairperson Tan Sri
Hasmy Agam. He said training was necessary if the Government intended
to incorporate the smuggling of migrants in amendments to the Anti-
Trafcking Act 2007.
Suhakam also launched a pamphlet on anti-trafcking in persons, available
in English and Bahasa Malaysia, which aimed to build awareness of
trafcking in persons to the public, potential victims and victims.
Hasmy said the pamphlet would be translated into various Asian languages
and distributed to NGOs in Malaysia and ASEAN countries, foreign
embassies, government departments, airports and courthouses.
More information is available at www.asiapacicforum.net/news/malaysia-suhakam-to-
train-ofcials-on-human-trafcking.html.
Part II Human rights education theory, principles and approach
Chapter 5: A human rights education approach | 41
1.4. Relationship management: Working with others toward shared
human rights outcomes
Relationship management involves creating authentic and results-focused partnerships with those
people, groups or sectors most able to impact on human rights situations. The relationship can involve
one or multiple parties and has mutual benet to all. The human rights educator has a networker role,
identifying key players, whether they are duty bearers or rights holders, to promote action to address an
identied human rights situation.
1.5. Advocacy for human rights:
81
Promoting the role and value of human
rights and encouraging people to act
While there are several forms of advocacy, most are aligned with social justice advocacy, working for
structural and lasting changes that increase the power of those who are most disadvantaged. The
human rights educator has a promoter role, supporting those most disadvantaged to use human
rights and human rights tools to take action to realize these rights and educating those in power to
respect, protect and full these rights.
81 NHRIs use advocacy to lobby for certain identied outcomes, such as creating changes in the policies and practices of duty
bearers. The method in this approach refers to education about human rights that leads towards advocacy. See also Emerging
models of human rights education by Felisa Tibbitts, available at www.hrea.org/index.php?doc_id=558.
In June 2012, the Australian Human Rights Commission launched a national
campaign to encourage young people to support their friends targeted by
cyberbullying.
Commission spokesperson Dr Helen Szoke said the BackMeUp campaign
aimed to encourage people to take positive action when they saw
somebody being cyberbullied.
Bystanders are crucial to dealing with cyberbullying. Taking positive action
to support those who are being bullied leads to less social and mental
health problems, as well as an increased sense of safety at schools, said
Dr Szoke.
The BackMeUp campaign was based on research by some of Australias
foremost experts on bulying, including Professor Donna Cross and Dr Laura
Thomas from Edith Cowan University Child Health Promotion Research
Centre.
Research on bullying has found that the vast majority of bullying incidents
occur in front of bystanders, the majority of whom either feel powerless to
act or actually encourage the bullying.
The central focus of BackMeUp was a video competition where teenagers
were encouraged to make a video about how they could help someone who
is being cyberbullied.
The campaign was supported by a wide range of partners. More information on the
BackMeUp campaign is available at www.facebook.com/2012backmeup.
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
42 | Chapter 5: A human rights education approach
1.6. Community development: Strengthening communities to address the
human rights issues which affect their lives
82
Human rights community development involves building self-reliant and respectful communities where
individuals and groups are able to identify, examine, address and monitor human rights issues and
to advocate for the realization of the communitys human rights priorities. It involves principles of
empowerment, participation, inclusion, self-determination and partnership. The human rights educator
has a multi-function role that involves project management, leadership development, mentoring,
facilitation, teaching, networking, advocacy and communication.
While each of the above methods has its own methodology and practice principles, it is recognized that
some of these methods encompass all or part of the others. Human rights community development,
for example, could involve all of the other methods; education and advocacy could involve training,
information dissemination and relationship management; and training could involve information
dissemination. Chapter 7 discusses the roles that the educator would play using each of these methods.
The methods used in the Multi-Method approach are not exclusive to human rights education. Some
are used for other mandated functions of NHRIs. Communications and media work, for example, can
include information sharing and advocacy, while policy analysis and legal intervention can use
advocacy, facilitation and information sharing. Similarly, relationship management is used across
all functions of the organization.
82 Community in this context could refer to a sectoral or geographic community such as a workplace, a school, a group of people
with disabilities, a street, a village or a region and involve rights holders, duty bearers and inuencers.
White Ribbon Day. Stopping violence against women and children. East Coast, New Zealand. Photo by Jill Chrisp.
Part II Human rights education theory, principles and approach
Chapter 5: A human rights education approach | 43
Figure 5.1: Methods used in the Multi-Method approach to human rights education
Figure 5.2: Multi-Method approach to human rights education
The Multi-Method approach to human rights education encourages the practitioner to match an
education method to the participants, as well as to the context and the purpose of the human rights
education activity.
Part III explains how the Multi-Method approach can be used in practice.
Information
sharing
Passing
on of
human rights
information
Training
Imparting
human rights
skills and
knowledge
Facilitation
Empowering
others to
understand
their role as
co-creators
in societal
transformation
Relationship
management
Working
with others
toward shared
human rights
outcomes
Advocacy for
human rights
Promoting
the role and
value of
human rights
and
encouraging
people to act
Community
development
Strengthening
individuals
and
communities
to address
the human
rights issues
which affect
their lives
Multi-Method
approach to
human rights
education
Communications
media
Legal
intervention
Policy
analysis
Information sharing
Training
Facilitation
Relationship management
Advocacy for human rights
Community development
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
44 | Chapter 5: A human rights education approach
2. FRAMEWORKS TO STRENGTHEN THE MULTI-METHOD
APPROACH
The Manual identies three frameworks that contribute to strengthening the Multi-Method approach to
human rights education:
the 4-A framework
the human rights-based approach
the Learning Pyramid.
2.1. The 4-A framework
The late Katarina Tomaevski, former UN Special Rapporteur on the right to education (19982004),
developed a set of four broad standards as a framework from which the realization of the right to education
could be assessed. While the 4-A standards were written as a right to education framework, they are
usefully transferable to human rights education.
Availability: That human rights education is State-provided in the formal sector and provided
by others in the non-formal sector; that there are skilled educators able to support education
delivery.
Accessibility: That human rights education is non-discriminatory and accessible to all; that
positive steps are taken to include the most marginalized.
Acceptability: That the content is relevant, non-discriminatory, culturally appropriate and of
quality; that the education environment itself is safe and educators are professional.
Adaptability: That human rights education should evolve with the changing needs of society and
contribute to challenging inequalities and that it can be adapted locally to suit specic contexts.
83
Further work was undertaken in 2004 and 2005, through a national assessment of human rights in New
Zealand, to identify indicators for each standard (see Figure 5.3).
In the formal sector, the 4-A framework recognizes that the Government is the primary duty bearer.
However, it also places duties on others in the education process; the child as the privileged subject of
the right to education and the bearer of the duty to comply with compulsory-education requirements;
the childs parents who are the rst educators; and professional educators, namely teachers.
84
NHRIs
also have a role to support the State and others in the provision of quality and effective human rights
education.
The approach emphasizes human rights in education, which recognizes the right to access quality
human rights education. It also emphasizes human rights through education, which identies the role of
human rights education as a means of achieving broader human rights.
The rst level of the 4-A framework provides clear, simple but effective standards that have a high
level of transferability and application. They may be used by the human rights educator to develop a
programme just as easily as they may be used to develop a human rights education method, tool or
resource.
The second level indicators are aimed more at the total human rights education programme. However
individual indicators such as the elimination of barriers, meeting quality standards, reecting human
rights content and taking diversity into account have utility for the design of activities.
83 For the purpose of this Manual, the meanings included in this chapter have been slightly adapted from the original. The original
descriptors are available at www.right-to-education.org/node/226.
84 See the Right to Education Project at www.right-to-education.org.
Part II Human rights education theory, principles and approach
Chapter 5: A human rights education approach | 45
Figure 5.3: The 4-A framework for human rights education
2.2. The human rights-based approach
The human rights-based approach was adopted by the international development community in the
early 2000s. It is made up of an agreed set of standards developed from the Universal Declaration of
Human Rights and other international human rights instruments.
85
These standards include:
universality and inalienability
indivisibility
interdependence and interrelatedness
equality and non-discrimination
participation and inclusion
empowerment
accountability and the rule of law.
While the origins of the human rights-based approach are in international development work, the
approach is now used more broadly. The following gure links six elements of a human rights-based
approach with human rights education.
86
85 The Statement of Common Understanding of the human rights-based approach was developed in 2003 by a meeting of
agencies and organizations. The UN Practitioners Portal on Human Rights-Based Approaches to Programming is available at
http://hrbaportal.org.
86 This gure has been informed by A Human Rights-Based Approach to Education for All; United Nations Childrens Fund and the
United Nations Educational, Scientic and Cultural Organization; 2007.
The provision of
human rights
education takes into
account the diversity
of human experience
4-A
framework
for
human rights
education
Availability Accessibility
Acceptability Adaptability
Human rights
educators
experience
good working
conditions
Human rights
education content
and settings
reect human
rights standards
Steps are
taken to
include the
most
marginalized
Sufcient
appropriately
skilled, qualied
human rights
educators
available
Human rights
education is equitably
available to all
Barriers to human
rights education are
eliminated
Human rights
education
promotes the
achievement
of full human
potential
The provision of
human rights
education meets
quality standards
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
46 | Chapter 5: A human rights education approach
Figure 5.4: Six principles of a human rights-based approach
Decision-making and human rights
standards
Are decisions that are made through the
human rights education activity process
aligned with international human rights
standards?
Participation
Are those involved in the human
rights education activity able to
actively and meaningfully participate
in, and contribute to, its planning,
implementation and evaluation?
Non-discrimination and equality
Does the human rights education
activity ensure that:
everyone involved is treated equally
and is entitled to their rights without
discrimination?
priority is given to the most
marginalized?
power imbalances are addressed?
Does the content of the human rights
education activity address issues of
discrimination and equality?
Empowerment
Does the human rights education
activity strengthen the capability of
individuals and communities to:
demand and use their human
rights?
hold those responsible to account?
change their own lives, improve
their own communities and
inuence their own destinies?
Accountability
Does the human rights education
activity build the capacities of duty
bearers to meet their obligations and of
rights holders to claim their rights?

Balance of rights
Does the human rights education
activity:
balance individual and collective
rights?
try to balance conicting rights
so that everyones rights are
respected?
give priority to the rights of the
most vulnerable?
2.3. The Learning Pyramid
The Learning Pyramid is attributed to the work of Kurt Lewin,
87
who argued that learning was best
accomplished through facilitated group dialogue, advocating open-minded appreciation and inclusion
of differences. He also argued that learning by experience, rather than by absorbing information, such
as listening to a lecture or passive reading, was the most ideal method for changing behaviours.
The Learning Pyramid identies seven educative activities that relate to levels of effectiveness. The
studies leading to the development of this approach clearly demonstrate that active participation in
the learning process results in more effective consolidation and retention of learning. This approach
suggests that, in order to be effective, human rights education activities must ensure that participants
are actively engaged in the learning process.
87 Information about Kurt Lewin is available at www.psychology.sbc.edu/Kurt%20Lewin.htm.
Part II Human rights education theory, principles and approach
Chapter 5: A human rights education approach | 47
In order to be relevant to the work of human rights educators, a further layer has been added which links
the Learning Pyramid with the following three models of human rights education practice.
88
The Values and Awareness Model focuses on sharing knowledge about human rights and
encouraging its general awareness. Methods for this model include lectures, media campaigns
and general distribution of information. There is little emphasis placed on the development of
skills, behaviours or transformational change.
The Accountability Model focuses on building the capability of people already involved in human
rights promotion or defence. It concentrates on content and skill development for human rights
practitioners and duty bearers. Content could include human rights law, protection mechanisms,
lobbying and advocacy skills, as well as sensitizing agents of the State, such as the judiciary,
police, and military. This model is also aimed at professional groups, such as educators, lawyers,
health professionals and the media.
The Transformational Model focuses on empowering individuals and communities to recognize
human rights abuses and make a commitment to their prevention.
Figure 5.5 shows that lower-level education methods are required for mass education purposes and
higher-level education methods are necessary for personal or social transformation.
Human rights education throughout the world has tended to be dominated by values and awareness
raising/seeing and hearing methods, even when target numbers are small. The Learning Pyramid
encourages the human rights educator to deepen the education experience, enable participative
engagement and aim at transformative and sustainable outcomes.
Figure 5.5: The Learning Pyramid
88 This work has been developed by Felisa Tibbitts, Director of the Human Rights Education Associates. See Emerging models of
human rights education, available at www.hrea.org/index.php?doc_id=558.
Passive methods
Participatory methods
Values and awareness
Accountability
Transformation
5% lecture
10% reading
20% audio visual
30% demonstration
50% group discussion
75% practice by doing
90% passing on to others
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
48 | Chapter 5: A human rights education approach
KEY POINTS: CHAPTER 5
NHRIs have the responsibility to identify the most appropriate human
rights education approach to meet diverse participants, contexts and
purposes.
A Multi-Method approach to education involves six broad methods:
information sharing, training, facilitation, relationship management,
advocacy for human rights and community development.
Three frameworks strengthen the Multi-Method approach: the 4-A
framework, the human rights-based approach and the Learning Pyramid.
USEFUL RESOURCES
Human Rights-Based Approach to Education for All; United Nations
Childrens Fund and the United Nations Educational, Scientic and Cultural
Organization; 2007
Applying a Rights-Based Approach: An Inspirational Guide for Civil Society;
Danish Institute for Human Rights; 2007
Practising Social Change, Practitioners Journal; Institute for Applied
Behavioural Science, National Training Laboratories; available at
www.ntl-psc.org
Right to Education Indicator based on the 4 A Framework: Concept Paper;
Gauthier de Beco for the Right to Education Project; 2009
Right to Education Project; available at www.right-to-education.org
UN Common Learning Package based on the human rights-based approach;
available at http://hrbaportal.org/archives/resource-types/learning-training-
materials/
Part III:
Human rights education
in practice
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
49
Chapter 6: Planning and designing human rights education
Chapter 7: Implementing human rights education
Chapter 8: Evaluating human rights education
Chapter 9: Working with the media
Chapter 10: Human rights education in early childhood education centres and schools
Chapter 11: Human rights education in conict and post-conict situations
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
50 | Chapter 6: Planning and designing human rights education
Chapter 6:
Planning and designing
human rights education
89
1. INTRODUCTION
Every human rights education activity, no matter how small or large, will involve three key stages: planning
and design, implementation and evaluation. This chapter talks about the rst stage: planning and design.
The gure below shows these three stages in a cycle because one human rights education activity will
often lead to another. When this happens it is hoped that the evaluation of the previous activity will help
improve the planning and implementation of the following activity, resulting in continuous improvement,
relevance and outcomes.
Figure 6.1: Planning and design stage in a human rights education activity
89 Situation Analysis: An Approach and Method for Analyzing the Context of Projects and Programmes; Global M&E Initiative;
available at http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/approach_and_method.pdf.
KEY QUESTIONS
What are the main elements for planning and designing a human rights
education activity?
How can a Logic Model be used for planning and designing a human
rights education activity?
Plan and
design
Implement Evaluate
If you dont know where youre going, any path will get you there. The point
is to know, better than before, which path you are taking and why.
89
Part III Human rights education in practice
Chapter 6: Planning and designing human rights education | 51
Human rights education does not take place in isolation. All human rights education activities occur in
a context that is affected by many, and sometimes conicting, factors. It is important that the human
rights educator consider these factors in the planning and design process and the inuence they may
have on the activity.
Where possible, participants will be included in the planning and design process. This can happen in
a minor way; for example, by asking participants to take part in an initial needs assessment or more
completely, by having participants plan and design their own learning experience. Most human rights
education happens somewhere in between.
With some activities, such as delivering a presentation, facilitating a workshop and being interviewed by
the media, the process of planning and design may be short. In others, such as organizing a campaign
or implementing a community development project, it may be longer.
2. A LOGIC MODEL
90
As a planning, implementation and evaluation tool, the Logic Model is useful for a range of human rights
education activities and programmes. In its simplest form, a Logic Model is a framework; a systematic
and visual way to link the elements of an education activity. It develops the story about what outcomes
are wanted from the education activity and how to achieve them. It involves four elements: situation
analysis, inputs, outputs and outcomes.
Figure 6.2: A Logic Model
90 Also known as Intervention Logic and Theory of Change.
that
SITUATION ANALYSIS
INPUTS
OUTPUTS
OUTCOMES
The resources required to carry out and
evaluate a human rights education activity.
The type of human rights education activity
carried out and the participants and
stakeholders involved.
The results sought from the human rights
activity against which the activity will be
monitored and evaluated.
An assessment of a human rights situation
that provides information for planning,
carrying out and evaluating a human rights
education activity.
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
52 | Chapter 6: Planning and designing human rights education
The Logic Model guides each of the three stages of a human rights education activity:
During the design and planning stage, the Logic Model helps identify what the activity is trying
to do; its outcomes, resources and timelines.
During the implementation stage, the Logic Model provides a management plan. The educator
is able to monitor whether the activity is reaching its objectives and, if it is not, to make the
necessary adjustments.
During the evaluation stage, the Logic Model helps report achievements, organize data, prepare
reports and identify any inconsistencies between the planned activity and the actual activity.
A Logic Model can apply to many levels of human rights education activity; a national, community or
organizational activity, a project plan, an hour-long workshop or an individual work plan. As long as it
includes the key elements, a Logic Model can be constructed in any shape that works best for those
involved and the resources available. For example, a Logic Model could be drawn on big sheets of
paper, with sticky notes on a wall, on a computer screen or in some other form. However they are
created, they need to be able to last the life of the activity.
The Logic Model that is developed at the planning stage of a human rights education activity is also the
monitoring and evaluation tool.
3. USING THE LOGIC MODEL TO PLAN AND DESIGN AN
EDUCATION ACTIVITY
91
During the design and planning stage, the Logic Model helps identify what the human rights activity
is trying to achieve and how it should be done. It identies the resources, the participants and the
potential collaborators. It also determines the methods and tools that will be used and the processes
for monitoring and evaluation.
The situation analysis
92
element of a Logic Model assesses the context of a particular human rights
issue or activity. It gathers background information on the relevant individuals, groups and communities.
The information is used to identify needs, strengths, barriers and supports. It builds knowledge of the
context in which the activity will be implemented. A situation analysis may ask questions, such as those
below.
What are the human rights priorities in a
situation?
What are the external factors that impact on the
context?
What is the human rights issue or focus that is to
be addressed by the activity?
What type of human rights activity would be most
relevant to the issue and the participants?
91 A Logic Model checklist is available at Appendix 4. It provides a list of points to consider when using the Logic Model to plan and
design a human rights education activity.
92 This can also be called scoping or needs assessment.
SITUATION ANALYSIS
An assessment of a human rights situation
that provides information for planning,
carrying out and evaluating a human rights
education activity.
Part III Human rights education in practice
Chapter 6: Planning and designing human rights education | 53
Who should be involved in the human rights
education activity the participants?
What are characteristics of the participant group
their roles, experiences, prior knowledge,
potential barriers, constraints and contributions?
What are the expectations, needs and strengths
of the stakeholder group?
What are the expectations, needs and strengths
of the participant group?
Who has an interest in the human rights issue or
focus the stakeholders?
Who are the other actors? Who else is involved in
addressing this human rights issue?
Who would be useful to engage as partners?
The answers to these questions will provide the educator with baseline data about the situation, prior to
the education activity taking place. It will give information that can be used to plan what is to be achieved
(the outcomes) and how to achieve that (the type of activity to be designed and the audience/participant
group that will be involved). The information from the situation analysis will provide a benchmark against
which the effectiveness of the activity can be monitored and evaluated.
There are various ways that the situation analysis can occur. Ideally, participants and other stakeholders
will be involved in the assessment. This ensures that it is participant-centered; that it is about the
participants, not the educator. Effective human rights education is carried out with others, not to others.
The greater the shared understanding of the human rights issues, and the greater the desire and ability
to address them, the greater the likelihood of bringing about positive change.
It is not always possible or practical to fully involve participants and other stakeholders in the situation
analysis, particularly if the activity is short and non-intensive. The amount of resources and the time
involved in this step will also vary according to the size and complexity of the activity. The challenge
for the human rights educator is to create ways and processes that involve participants and other
stakeholders as much as possible. It may mean an email or phone exchange with someone who can
provide the information or it may mean more intensive engagement and research through focus groups,
community meetings, reading reports and so on.
The inputs element of a Logic Model explores what resources are required and available to carry out a
human rights education activity.
The most important resource for any human rights education activity is people; human rights educators,
administrators, communications people, partners, participants and other experts. The situation analysis
will have identied the capacities and strengths that are available in an individual, community or
organization and those with whom collaboration would be benecial to guide, support, contribute to or
partner the activity. Making time to engage with others, to listen to their views and to take their views
into account signicantly improves the strength and quality of these relationships, which in turn impacts
positively on the achievement of outcomes.
that
INPUTS
The resources required to carry out and
evaluate a human rights education activity.
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
54 | Chapter 6: Planning and designing human rights education
Other resource considerations include:
nancial resources
support systems, including administration, language (for example, translations, sign language
and plain language) and interpreters
research and information
materials, equipment, technologies and resources to ensure access for people with disabilities
time
environmental requirements, such as an accessible venue, childcare, refreshments and work
spaces
communications.
Human rights education is carried out in many environments, particularly when, as is ideal with most
models of human rights education, the educator is prepared to go to where the participants are located.
It is up to the educator to be creative with the resources available. The activity may be controlled by
existing resources or it may be necessary to gain additional resources through funding applications or
by attracting resources from partners or stakeholders.
As NHRIs have education and promotion as a key mandate, adequate internal resources should be
available for at least a basic level of human rights education programming. If there are limited resources,
it may be necessary to seek donor support or to modify the activity and its expectations.
The outputs element of a Logic Model includes two aspects: the human rights education activity itself
and the people who will be involved in it (the participants and stakeholders). The planning and design
stage involves deciding what type of activity will be used (the methods and tools) and identifying the
participants. It uses information that has been gathered through the situation analysis.
3.1. What human rights activity will be carried out?
The range of human rights education activities that are possible is endless. Most activities are enhanced,
or limited, by the creativity of the educator. Unfortunately, human rights education can become
templated, where the same education content or process is used for everyone. It is particularly
tempting for an educator who has run an excellent workshop, given a powerful speech or developed an
effective resource to use the same approach again and again.
Finding adequate time to plan and design can be difcult. However, it is surprising how effective an
activity can become when the educator takes time to develop ideas and trusts others, particularly
participants and stakeholders, to contribute to the process.
The rst step in designing the education activity is to decide the appropriate method, or group of
methods, that will most effectively address the human rights issue. The Multi-Method approach, in
Chapter 5, outlines six different ways of carrying out a human rights education activity: information
sharing, training, facilitation, relationship management, advocacy for human rights and community
development.
OUTPUTS
The type of human rights education activity
carried out and the participants and
stakeholders involved.
Part III Human rights education in practice
Chapter 6: Planning and designing human rights education | 55
The next step is to decide the type of activity that will be used; for example, writing a media release,
organizing a campaign, running a blended learning course, establishing a network, working with a
community to build its human rights capacity or giving a presentation. Appendix 2 provides a guide to
selecting the most relevant method and activity. The activity will also include objectives.
Objectives are specic, short-range statements that describe a plan for reaching the outcomes and
achieving the goal. They focus on the activities and interventions that will need to happen in order to
achieve the outcomes.
Writing effective objectives can take time, particularly if they are being written collaboratively with
participants and stakeholders. A commonly used tool for developing quality objectives and outcomes is
SMART. This acronym identies the ve key elements of quality objectives.
Beginning a learning objective with a strong verb can help guide the development of an activity because
it focuses attention on what participants are supposed to be able to do or demonstrate. Appendix 3
uses an adaptation of Blooms Taxonomy of education objectives and matches learning domains with
verbs and associated activities.
93
In addition to being SMART, the objectives also need to be exible and responsive to the changing
needs or focus of the participant and stakeholder groups. The objectives for a formal activity, such as
the delivery of a human rights curriculum in a school, may be predetermined and xed. However the
objectives for the development of a media campaign may be more subject to change, while the objectives
for a group seeking change in their community will need to be fully exible, renegotiable and responsive.
Once the overall method and the type of human rights education activity have been selected, and the
objectives written, there are other matters to plan.
Content
This is what the activity will include; its subject matter. To develop this content the human rights educator
will need to consider:
what the activity is seeking to achieve
who the participants and stakeholders are, such as children, women, members of a religious
minority group, indigenous leaders, people with disabilities, community members involved in
post-conict reconstruction or government ofcials
the prior knowledge and abilities of the participants
time and resource allocation.
93 Adapted from Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classication of Educational Goals; Handbook I: Cognitive Domain;
Benjamin Bloom et al; 1956.
Specic What exactly are we going to do, with or for whom? Is the objective clear and
well dened?
Measurable Is it possible to assess progress and know when the objective has been
achieved? Will it result in tangible outcomes?
Achievable Is the objective realistic within the availability of resources, knowledge and time?
Relevant Is the objective appropriate, acceptable and signicant to the participant or
other stakeholder groups? Will the objective lead to the desired outcomes?
Time-bound Has the objective a realistic and achievable timeframe?
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
56 | Chapter 6: Planning and designing human rights education
Structure
This is the plan for the activitys content and its process. It may be a session plan for a workshop, the
outline of a website or written resource or an agenda for a meeting. Part IV of the Manual includes
several techniques for structuring an activity.
Environmental considerations
This is about where the activity will take place and understanding what impacts the environment may
have on the activity. What possibilities or opportunities does the environment offer? Does it create
barriers to accessibility for some people?
Logistics
This includes all the arrangements that are required to ensure that the activity runs smoothly. This may
include developing a formal agreement with a partner group, booking a venue, organizing catering,
ensuring that people know how to get to a venue, informing the media of the activity and holding a
meeting with the planning group.
The educator is often juggling many things at the time. Although there are a number of planning tools
and instruments available, a basic list of what needs to happen, when it needs to happen and who will
make it happen will usually be enough.
OBJECTIVES INCLUDED IN THE COURSE OF INSTRUCTION
FOR HUMAN RIGHTS DEFENDERS, NATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS
COMMISSION OF NEPAL
The National Human Rights Commission has developed a course of
instruction to support human rights defenders working at the grass-roots
level in Nepal. The course is divided into three parts. The rst part aims to
train defenders in defending human rights in general. The second part aims
to support defenders to defend the rights of particular groups of people,
such as women, children, minority and disadvantaged groups. The third
part focuses on practical learning in the eld.
Course objectives
By the end of the course human rights defenders will be able to:
outline foundation human rights issues, as well as the national and
international system for promoting and protecting human rights
identify the rights of specic vulnerable groups in Nepal, including
women, children and minority groups
describe human rights issues on the ground, through eld visits to
prisons, detention centres, childrens homes and other places
discuss the role and functions of human rights defenders, human rights
protection mechanisms, human rights dialogue and advocacy and a
human rights-based approach to development
document human rights violations more effectively.
More information is available at http://nhrcnepal.org/nhrc_new/doc/newsletter/NHRC%20
Newsletter%20March%20issue16Apr_2012(1).pdf.
Part III Human rights education in practice
Chapter 6: Planning and designing human rights education | 57
Communications and reporting
This sets out who needs to know about the activity, how and when to inform them and who should
be the communicator. Communication should be relevant and accessible. It is also about ensuring the
educator receives information that may be relevant to the activity during all its stages.
94
Monitoring and evaluation plan
This is about knowing whether the activity has made progress toward its outcomes. Developing an
evaluation plan is an important part of the design stage of an activity. It will be guided by the outcomes and
the indicators of the activity. It will involve methods and tools appropriate to the content and process.
95
3.2. Who will the activity work with?
There are three groups who could be involved in a human rights education activity:
rights holders; those most vulnerable to human rights violations
duty bearers; those most able to defend or violate others rights
inuencers; those most able to inuence others opinions and actions.
96
Participants are those who take part in an activity. They may be active participants contributing to the
thinking, knowledge and decision making (as members of a project team, those in a community meeting
or a workshop or participatns in an online discussion) or they may be non-active participants taking
in information without asserting any inuence over it (such as readers of a newsletter, attendees at a
presentation or watchers of a demonstration). Participants are also stakeholders.
94 Communication can be with internal and external stakeholders and be outwards and inwards, sent and received. The level
of formality and structure will depend on the nature of the activity. For example, a session with a class of students may only
require email as needed, while a major activity may require a structured communications plan. One of the most important
aspects of communication for a human rights educator is to report important human rights information gathered from individuals,
organizations and communities back to her or his managers in the NHRI.
95 Further information on monitoring and evaluation is provided in Chapter 8.
96 These three groups are discussed in Chapter 2.
The Maldives Commission conducting training with police. Photo by the Human Rights Commission of the Maldives.
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58 | Chapter 6: Planning and designing human rights education
Stakeholders are those who have an investment in an activity. They may impact on it or be impacted
by it, such as the local authority in an area where an education activity is taking place or factory workers
whose conditions may change as a result of employer education. Stakeholders may or may not be
participants in the education activity.
However the participant group is identied, this Manual cannot emphasize enough the importance of
their involvement in the planning, implementation and evaluation of the activity. It is: Nothing about us,
without us.
The outcomes element of the Logic Model is about identifying the results that are expected from the
activity. In the planning stage, the human rights educator will develop what the activity will achieve and
what measurable steps (indicators) need to be put in place to show what progress has been made.
The denitions and language of goals, objectives and outcomes vary and can sometimes be conicting
and confusing. This Manual uses the terms in the following ways.
Outcomes indicate the desired change as a result of a human rights education activity. They dene
what the result will look like if the activity is successful and how that success will be measured.
Outcomes are often developed with a long-term aim in mind. This is the goal. Goals are broad, brief
statements that create the vision that inspires the activity. While goals are not generally achieved, they
provide the framework for setting the outcomes and the objectives around which strategies or activities
can be organized.
If the overriding human rights goal is the achievement of human rights for all, then the overall human
rights education goal would be the development of essential knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviours
that enable and motivate individuals, groups, communities, and nations to contribute to making human
rights a reality for all.
As discussed in Chapter 2, human rights education has three clusters of goals. It aims to provide
experiences where participants learn about human rights, learn through human rights and learn for
human rights.
97
Based on these goals, it is the task of the human rights educator to develop clear
outcomes for each activity or programme of activities. Ideally, this happens in collaboration with the
participant and stakeholder groups.
Examples of goals from human rights education activities undertaken by NHRIs in the Asia Pacic region
include:
The capacity of human rights defenders primarily working at district levels is increased; National
Human Rights Commission of Nepal
98
A human rights culture in general, and the rights of the child in particular, is promoted in Qatari
schools; National Human Rights Committee of Qatar
99
The ability of Disabled Persons Organizations and government representatives in the Pacic to
progress disability issues is increased; Australian Human Rights Commission.
100
97 United Nations Declaration on Human Rights Education and Training; article 2.2.
98 Course of instruction for human rights defenders; National Human Rights Commission of Nepal; January 2012.
99 Human rights education programme in schools; Qatar National Human Rights Committee; 2012.
100 Building capacity and knowledge of Disabled Persons Organizations and government representatives in the Pacic to progress
disability issues: Activity report; Australian Human Rights Commission; 2012.
OUTCOMES
The results sought from the human rights
activity against which the activity will be
monitored and evaluated.
Part III Human rights education in practice
Chapter 6: Planning and designing human rights education | 59
The goal guides the development of the outcomes. These will describe what the human rights situation
will be like during the progress of the activity or when the activity has been completed and the objectives
have been achieved.
101
Outcomes also need to be SMART.
Now, I observe that the soldiers are disciplined and no longer abusive. Members of the Citizen
Armed Forces Geographical Unit no longer bear arms in public. (Higaonon, Philippines)
If the human rights activity is implemented over a long period of time, outcomes can be organized into
short-term, medium-term and long-term timeframes. It is difcult, and not advisable, to generalize about
periods of time for achievement of outcomes. However, as a guide:
short-term outcomes tend to result in new knowledge and increased awareness
medium-term outcomes tend to result in increased skills and changes in attitudes, behaviour,
decisions or policies
long-term outcomes tend to result in changes in a situation.
Not all education activities will include medium-term and long-term outcomes. A comprehensive and
complex activity, such as raising national awareness about the rights of migrant workers, will include
all outcomes levels. A less complex activity, such as a presentation to a group of local ofcials on the
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women may include short-term
outcomes only. The model below shows an example of the difference between short-term, medium-
term and long-term outcomes.
101 Aspects have been adapted from the Logic Model Workbook; Innovation Network; available at www.innonet.org/client_docs/File/
logic_model_workbook.pdf.
Human rights education capacity building with the Jordan National Centre for Human Rights. Photo by Jill Chrisp.
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60 | Chapter 6: Planning and designing human rights education
3.3. Developing indicators
102
Once the outcomes have been nalized, it is important to develop a way to measure whether these
outcomes have been achieved. In the model above, for example, how can it be shown that:
the school knows about students human rights and its responsibility to address bullying?
the school has the ability to develop bullying prevention strategies and intends to take action?
the school has taken action and bullying is reduced?
One of the ways to do this is by using indicators. Indicators are measures or markers that give
information about how well the activity is progressing toward its outcomes. Indicators should not be
complex. They are simple and tangible measures.
There are two main types of indicators: quantitative and qualitative.
Quantitative indicators measure those things that can be counted; that is, numbers or facts. In
relation to human rights education activities, quantitative indicators could be the number of:
participants involved in a human rights education workshop
organizations that developed a human rights action plan as part of a community development
programme
comments on a youth rights website
organizations involved in a disability rights network.
Qualitative indicators assess the quality of the change that is being measured. They deal with peoples
opinions, judgements or viewpoints and are therefore more difcult to establish. In relation to human
rights education activities, examples of qualitative indicators could be:
participant group feedback about a human rights education workshop
the feasibility of human rights action plans developed as part of a community development
programme
the content of public comments on a youth rights website
the type of organizations involved in a disability rights network.
102 Building Human Rights Communities in Education He Whakat u Tika Tangata-a-Iwi Whanui; Amnesty International (New
Zealand), Development Resource Centre, New Zealand Human Rights Commission, Ofce of the Childrens Commissioner and
the Peace Foundation; 2007.
TEACHER-TO-STUDENT AND STUDENT-TO-STUDENT BULLYING IN A SCHOOL
102
Activity: The NHRI provides human rights information about bullying to a
school.
Short-term outcome: The school knows about students human rights and
its responsibility to address the bullying.
Activity: The NHRI works with school leaders and students to develop skills,
attitudes and behaviours to prevent bullying in the school.
Medium-term outcome: The school has the ability to develop bullying
prevention strategies in the school and intends to do so.
Activity: The NHRI works with the school to plan, implement and evaluate
an anti-bullying strategy.
Long-term outcome: The school takes action and bullying is reduced.
Part III Human rights education in practice
Chapter 6: Planning and designing human rights education | 61
Both quantitative and qualitative indicators have their strengths and weaknesses. Quantitative indicators
are easy to recognize but do not give in-depth information. Qualitative indicators are more difcult to
establish but give more valuable information. It is ideal to use a combination of both, such as below.
At an end-of workshop survey, [percentage] of participants said that they were very satised or
satised with a human rights education workshop.
[Number] of organizations developed achievable human rights action plans as part of a community
development programme.
Of the [number] of comments received on a youth rights website, [percentage] indicated an
interest in undertaking more action.
Of the organizations involved in a disability rights network, [percentage] of these were managed
and operated by disabled people.
Milestones
Human rights education activity that is implemented over an extended period of time may also include
milestones. Milestones are markers in time. They say what will be achieved by the activity, by a certain
time. An example of how to use milestones is included in the case study below.
103
Here the National
Human Rights Commission of Korea held an outreach tour for migrant workers at the Ansan Foreign
Residents Center. In this example, the milestones relate to the outcomes that were established during
the planning stage of the project.
103 With thanks to the National Human Rights Commission of Korea for this case study. Note that the milestones were not provided
by the Commission but have been developed to illustrate this point in the Manual.
NATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION OF KOREA: OUTREACH
TOUR FOR MIGRANT WORKERS AT THE ANSAN FOREIGN RESIDENTS
CENTER
Outcome sought:
To provide advice on human rights and labour laws and regulations
relating to migrant workers and members of their families.
To collect information collected during the tour to be used for policy
review and research in order to understand and improve the human
rights situation of migrant workers in the country.
Milestone indicators:
By [short-term date]: [Number] public meetings held involving lawyers,
labour attorneys and public servants from the Immigration Ofce and
the Ministry of Employment and Labour; [number] of people attended
the meetings.
By [medium-term date]: Information collected from the tour presented in
a report to the Immigration Ofce and the Ministry of Employment and
Labour.
By [long-term date]: Information from the review incorporated into
government policy.
More information is available at www.asiapacicforum.net/news/south-korea-outreach-
tour-targets-migrant-workers.
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
62 | Chapter 6: Planning and designing human rights education
KEY POINTS: CHAPTER 6
Planning and designing a human rights education activity involves
identifying and assessing a human rights situation and deciding what
human rights education activity may have an impact on the situation.
A Logic Model is a useful tool for this purpose. It involves four elements:
situation analysis; an assessment of a human rights situation
inputs; the resources required to carry out and evaluate an activity
outputs; the type of activity and the participants and stakeholders
involved
outcomes; the results sought from the activity.
A Logic Model can apply to many levels of human rights education;
national, community or organizational activities, a project plan, an hour-
long workshop or an individual work plan.
USEFUL RESOURCES
A Human Rights-Based Approach to Education for All; United Nations
Childrens Fund and the United Nations Educational, Scientic and Cultural
Organization; 2007
Assessing the Effectiveness of National Human Rights Institutions;
International Council on Human Rights Policy; 2005
Enhancing Participatory Non-formal Education among Cambodian Human
Rights NGOs; Richard Pierre Claude (for the Asia Foundation); 1999; available
at www.hrea.org/erc/Library/research/TAFreport.html
Introduction to Health Promotion Planning; Health and Communication Unit,
Centre for Health Promotion, University of Toronto; 2001
Qualitative and Quantitative Indicators for the Monitoring and Evaluation
of the ILO Gender Mainstreaming Strategy; Tania Bastia; 2000; available at
www.womeng.net/wp/library/Methodology%20Indicators.pdf
Situation Analysis: Module 1; United Nations Economic and Social
Commission for Asia and the Pacic; available at www.unescap.org/stat/
meet/rrg3/twsa-module1.pdf
Understanding Human Rights: Manual on Human Rights Education;
Wolfgang Benedek, European Training and Research Centre for Human Rights
and Democracy; 2012 (3rd edition)
Part III Human rights education in practice
Chapter 7: Implementing human rights education | 63
Chapter 7:
Implementing human rights education
104
By the implementation stage, the educator will have planned and designed an activity that is grounded
on human rights education principles and approaches. The activity will be relevant to the needs, issues
and focus of the participant group. Others will have been involved in the design of the activity, through
informal or formal partnerships.
Figure 7.1: Implementation stage in a human rights education activity
104 Pedagogy of the Oppressed; Paulo Freire; 1968 (translated in English in 1970); pp. 43 and 25.
KEY QUESTIONS
What are the key considerations of a human rights educator when
implementing a human rights activity?
What are the functions and roles of a human rights educator?
How should a human rights educator manage diverse learning styles?
What is the importance of pacing an activity?
How can language impact on the implementation of an activity?
How does the human rights educator know that an activity is progressing
toward its outcomes?
Plan and
design
Implement Evaluate
Transformation is only valid if it is carried out with people, not for them...
Liberation is like childbirth, and a painful one. The person who emerges is a
new person, no longer oppressor or oppressed, but a person in the process
of achieving freedom.
104
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64 | Chapter 7: Implementing human rights education
This chapter focuses on implementation. It does not provide a template for human rights education
activity but rather concentrates on the features of successful implementation. (For those looking for
ideas to build into an education programme, Part IV includes a range of activities for various contexts.)
At this point, it may also be useful to revisit the principles of human rights education discussed in
Chapter 5.
As with previous stages, participants should be involved in contributing to the implementation of the
education activity. The extent to which this is possible, or appropriate, will vary according to the education
context. For example, in a presentation to a gathering of new teachers at a college graduation, having
participants indicate with a show of hands their familiarity with human rights, or taking one minute to
discuss a human rights topic with the person they are sitting next to, may be as much participation as is
possible. On the other hand, a workshop with a group of women in a community experiencing gender
discrimination will be mostly, if not completely, interactive and participatory.
It is generally agreed that using effective participatory processes is critical for empowering disadvantaged
individuals or groups to identify and claim their rights and for strengthening the knowledge and ability of
duty bearers to act on their responsibilities.
This chapter focuses on the elements necessary to ensure that human rights education implementation
is effective and that the participation of all is maximized.
The elements include:
identifying and carrying out the appropriate human rights educator role and function
recognizing diverse learning styles
creating effective learning environments for an activity
pacing/timing an activity
the language and messaging used in written and oral communications
monitoring and reviewing an activitys progress
the human rights educators reective practice, supervision and self-care.
These elements are applicable across all human rights education activities but it will take creativity to
apply them to some circumstances. How would you ensure, for example, that an educational pamphlet
meets diverse learning styles or creates an effective learning environment? How will you clearly dene
the human rights education role with an online course that has a large social media component?
1. THE ROLES AND FUNCTIONS OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS
EDUCATOR
Human rights education requires the educator to have a number of roles and functions: communicator,
trainer, facilitator, networker, advocate for human rights and community developer. Each of these requires
a different set of skills and each will result in a different outcome. The planning and design stage outlined
in Chapter 6 will have analysed the human rights situation (situation analysis), identied the resources
required (inputs), decided on the human rights education method and who the participants are (outputs)
and what the activity seeks to achieve (outcomes).
In order to effectively implement the activity, the educator will need to identify the most appropriate role
to take in order to reach that desired goal, objective and outcome.
The overall role of the human rights educator is to encourage human rights knowledge, skills, attitudes,
behaviours and actions. In order to do this effectively, the human rights educator must be exible and
change the specic role that he or she will play according to the human rights education method.
The roles listed below are linked to the six methods of the Multi-Method Approach outlined in Chapter 5
and Appendix 2: Choosing an appropriate human rights education method.
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Chapter 7: Implementing human rights education | 65
1.1. Communicator
The communicator distils human rights information and distributes it in a way that it is most effectively
received by the intended audience. This role involves having interpersonal communication skills that
allow for the effective exchange of information with other people. Basic communication skills include
being able to pass on information and to listen to information that is given. Communication can be verbal
or non-verbal, between individuals or with innite numbers of people.
Human rights educators should also understand and use different communication techniques and
activities. This involves keeping up with rapid changes in mass media and ways of exchanging ideas,
while at the same time nding creative ways to communicate with those who may not have access to
mass media outlets. Communication techniques can include the media, as discussed in Chapter 9,
audio-visual materials and traditional activities, such as folk theatre, dances, puppet shows and popular
poetry.
105
1.2. Trainer
The trainer develops appropriate methods and experiences that most effectively teach people human
rights content and skills. The role involves planning experiences that are focused on individuals gaining
human rights knowledge and learning specic human skills and behaviours. The trainer is a content
expert and, while continually developing new methods, techniques and tools to support participants
achieve the learning outcomes, is not necessarily an expert in group processes. The trainer mostly
focuses on actual, discrete job performance or tasks and may be involved in implementing and analysing
pre- and post-activity assessments.
105 Adapted from Communication: A Key to Human Development; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations;
available at www.fao.org/docrep/t1815e/t1815e01.htm.
Women are receiving awareness sessions and health education on family planning in rural areas of Hodaidah governorate, Yemen.
UN Photo by the United Nations Population Fund/Fouad Al-Harazi.
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66 | Chapter 7: Implementing human rights education
1.3. Facilitator
The facilitator develops processes that enable participants to identify the human rights issues that
impact on them and on others and then nd ways to address them. The facilitator draws out the wisdom
of the learners, building their capacity to intervene, to compare, to judge, to decide, to choose and to
act in the interests of human rights. The facilitator is a process expert; creating methods and techniques
that are empowering and that foster positive relationships, ensuring that the group members works with
each other in a way that is fair, respectful and accountable. The facilitator is not necessarily a content
specialist but is an expert in many forms of group process. See Appendix 5.
1.4. Networker
The networker connects specic individuals or organizations by creating and maintaining networks of
information and contacts. Networking can occur through face-to-face interactions or through media,
such as print, telecommunications and the Internet. The networker role may involve facilitating the
exchange of information, developing concepts or ideas or social organizing through generating mass
action.
1.5. Advocate
We learned how to exercise the principle of participation by being involved in the monitoring of
infrastructure projects in the barangay e.g. construction of pathways and bridges. (Kankana-ey,
Philippines)
The advocate uses education to support individuals or groups to exercise their human rights and to
encourage them to take action. When human rights educators undertakes advocacy, they are mostly
involved with assisting others to improve their situation by knowing more about human rights and
knowing how to seek support for their human rights issues.
1.6. Community developer
The community developer uses empowerment models to work alongside communities, supporting their
efforts to identify and address the issues that affect them. The community developer uses human rights
principles and approaches to encourage self-reliant and respectful communities, where individuals and
groups are able to identify, examine, address and monitor local human rights abuses and to advocate
for the realization of their communitys human rights priorities. The role frequently involves addressing
inequality and projects often target communities perceived to be culturally, economically or geographically
disadvantaged. Community developers can also help link communities with local government and other
statutory bodies.
2. RECOGNIZING DIVERSE LEARNING STYLES
Research shows that people learn in a variety of different ways and that people will learn most successfully
if they are able to do so using their preferred learning style. The human rights educator should be aware
of participants diverse learning styles and work to ensure that activities are implemented in ways that
they are inclusive and accessible. This also includes the ways that people prefer to receive information.
Many models have been developed that demonstrate these learning styles. Two models are included
in the Appendices. Lawsons four learning styles (Appendix 6) and Gregorcs four thinking styles
106

(Appendix 7). Other frameworks used by educationalists focus on personality type, such as Carl
106 More information is available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthony_Gregorc.
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Chapter 7: Implementing human rights education | 67
Jungs Myers Briggs Type Indicator
107
and Rudolf Steiners Four Temperaments.
108
In addition, Kolb
and Fry have developed a Learning Style Inventory
109
and Neil Fleming
110
and Howard Gardner
111
have
created models of multiple intelligences.
It is easier to adapt education techniques and tools to meet participants diversity of learning styles
when using face-to-face methods of education, such as workshops, presentations and projects. It is
more difcult when using indirect education methods, such as preparing written resources and using the
media. However, it is possible to ensure that the way in which different resources are developed helps
meet diverse learning styles.
3. CREATING EFFECTIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS FOR THE
ACTIVITY
The human rights educator should be aware of the learning environment when implementing the activity.
Research shows how environments impact on the education process and the shape of the learning
community.
112

Educators use multiple environments, involving both physical and virtual spaces. The task of human
rights educators is to assess the impact that an environment may have on participants engagement
and to reduce any negative impacts there may be.
Factors that can help create a positive learning environment real or virtual include:
the participants relationships with each other and the educator
Do the participants feel welcomed, valued, accepted and respected?
Does this include their diversities?
the accessibility of the environment
Are there factors that may exclude participation for some?
the acceptability of the environment; the quality, look and feel of the space
Is it the best available in the circumstances?
Is it comfortable and inviting?
Does it encourage belonging?
Is it safe or as safe can be, given the context?
If food is part of the activity, is this acceptable to diverse tastes and beliefs?
the adaptability of the environment
Does the environment t with the context and purpose of the activity?
Is it focused on the participants and adaptable to them?
107 More information is available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myers-Briggs_Type_Indicator.
108 More information is available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_temperaments.
109 Toward an applied theory of experiential learning in Theories of Group Process; Cary Cooper, ed.; 1975. See also David A. Kolb
on experiential learning by M.K. Smith; 2001; available at http://infed.org/mobi/david-a-kolb-on-experiential-learning/.
110 More information is available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neil_D._Fleming.
111 The different types of intelligence include linguistic intelligence, logical-mathematical intelligence, visual-spatial intelligence,
musical intelligence, bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, interpersonal or social intelligence and intrapersonal or intuitive intelligence.
More information is available at www.infed.org/thinkers/gardner.htm.
112 For example, see Maria Montessori (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montessori#Prepared_environment) and Reggio Emilia (http://
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reggio_Emilia_approach#The_Environment_as_a_third_Teacher).
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68 | Chapter 7: Implementing human rights education
4. PACING THE ACTIVITY
Education activities are undertaken over a time-bound period, whether all participants are engaged at
a specic time or whether it is asynchronistic, with participants going at their own pace. The educator
needs to monitor the timing of the activity to ensure that both content and process are balanced, as
appropriate to the method and diverse learning styles of the participants. Internet-based technologies
are increasingly able to create opportunities for virtual learning communities that allow learners to study
at their own pace.
BUILDING HUMAN RIGHTS COMMUNITIES
Taku Manawa (My Human Rights) is an initiative through which the
New Zealand Human Rights Commission works with communities to
promote human rights. It uses a human rights community development
approach to engage with a particular community over a period of at least
three years.
The Commission works with individuals, organizations and agencies in
the community to identify the human rights issues they consider to be of
greatest importance to them. These groups then nominate people who they
think are best able to address these human rights issues by participating in
the programme.
Participants begin their involvement with Taku Manawa by taking part in
an extensive capability-building course that builds their understanding
of human rights and their facilitation skills. A nationally-recognized
qualication is included in the course and the Commission partners with a
local tertiary institution for this part of the programme.
For the rst year after the course, Taku Manawa human rights workers
deliver activities in their regions that highlight and explore the human rights
issues they have identied as being important. These activities can include
running public events, advocating on behalf of individuals and groups and
working with organizations to incorporate human rights principles into their
planning. The aim is to build condence and capacity so that communities
can act on their human rights responsibilities. The Commission provides
hands-on mentoring and support, as well as a budget to cover costs.
At the end of the rst year, Taku Manawa human rights workers and
organizations may choose to undertake more in-depth human rights
projects. The Commission continues to provide support, guidance, budget
and resources for at least another two years. The relationship among Taku
Manawa human rights workers grows through mutual support and resource
sharing. The relationship between the Commission and the community is
strengthened through the initiative, while building community capacity so
that human rights work can be carried out more independently.
The Commission has been undertaking human rights community
development work since 2003. Taku Manawa now operates in six regions.
Since the initiative began, 114 community participants from diverse
backgrounds have become Taku Manawa human rights workers. Over
600 community-based activities have been reported to the Commission,
ranging from relatively straightforward events, such as workshops and
presentations, to more complex activities, such as community festivals.
Further information and case studies are available at www.hrc.co.nz/wp-content/
uploads/2011/09/Taku-Manawa-Building-Human-Rights-Communities-2011.html.
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Chapter 7: Implementing human rights education | 69
5. LANGUAGE AND MESSAGING USED IN WRITTEN AND ORAL
COMMUNICATIONS
Language expresses messages about thoughts, beliefs and culture. It can carry open and hidden
messages to the participant about what is valued and privileged. It communicates to the listener what
is acceptable and can enhance their sense of inclusion or exclusion.
English, French and Spanish, for example, include many words that highlight gender and, it is argued,
privileges male terminology over female. In English, for example, man is often used as a generic term.
The terms chairman, policeman and congressman can imply that these roles are for men, not
women. The same can apply to language that indicates racial colour. In English, whitewash means
to gloss over or cover up something bad, while a black mark is given to someone who has done
something wrong and will be remembered for it.
One of the serious mis-messages that was recorded in history books and taught in New Zealand schools
for many decades was that Captain Cook discovered New Zealand. This ignored the indigenous
peoples who were living in the country before that time. The language and messages of the human
rights educator, including in any materials used, must be carefully constructed and reviewed so that no
unintended exclusionary or prejudicial messages are given.
Human rights language is full of uncommon terms and concepts. The challenge for the educator is to
ensure that the language that is used is accessible and appropriate to the context. Some examples of
translating articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights into plain language are listed below.
113
United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights Plain language translation
All are equal before the law and are entitled without any
discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled
to equal protection against any discrimination in violation
of this Declaration and against any incitement to such
discrimination. (Article 7)
The law is the same for everyone; it should
be applied in the same way to all.
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his
privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks
upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right
to the protection of the law against such interference or
attacks. (Article 12)
You have the right to ask to be protected
if someone tries to harm your good name,
enter your house, open your letters or bother
you or your family without a good reason.
Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience
and religion; this right includes freedom to change his
religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community
with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion
or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.
(Article 18)
You have the right to profess your religion
freely, to change it and to practise it, either
on your own or with other people.
Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including
reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays
with pay. (Article 24)
Each work day should not be too long, since
everyone has the right to rest and should be
able to take regular paid holidays.
113 United Nations Declaration of Human Rights: Plain Language Version; United Nations Cyber School Bus; available at www.
un.org/cyberschoolbus/humanrights/resources/plain.asp.
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70 | Chapter 7: Implementing human rights education
6. MONITORING AND REVIEWING PROGRESS
Chapter 8 focuses on evaluation techniques, however it is important to note that monitoring and review
is also an essential part of the implementation process. The Logic Model described in the previous
chapter provides the framework to assess whether the activity is achieving the results it set out to
achieve.
The planning stage involves developing indicators that can be used to measure progress toward the
outcomes. Time should be set aside during implementation to monitor whether progress is being made
and to identify whether there are any risks to achieving the outcomes. If a review process is undertaken
effectively, it is most likely that it will result in some adjustment of the activitys process and content.
Documenting the review outcomes is as important as documenting the nal evaluation outcomes. It
helps gather critical information that demonstrates the progress that has been made and contributes to
the data for the nal evaluation.
7. REFLECTIVE PRACTICE, SUPERVISION AND SELF-CARE
Human rights education work can be challenging, demanding and exhausting. It is important for the
educator to evaluate his or her own performance, develop self-awareness, monitor the potential for
burn out and ensure adequate self-care. This is part of reective practice.
There are a number of ways of doing this and educators will decide what approach best suits their
circumstances. Strategies may include seeking feedback, undertaking individual or group supervision,
reective journaling, using stress management techniques and arranging times for fun and relaxation.
Community-based human rights work. Opotiki, New Zealand. Photo by Jill Chrisp.
Part III Human rights education in practice
Chapter 7: Implementing human rights education | 71
KEY POINTS: CHAPTER 7
The key considerations for a human rights educator when implementing a
human rights activity are:
identifying the specic role of the educator
recognizing and responding to the diverse learning styles of participants
creating effective learning environments
matching the pacing of an activity with the participants and the context
using language that is inclusive and easily understood
monitoring the progress of an activity
being aware of personal workload and other stress and seeking
appropriate support when needed.
USEFUL RESOURCES
All Different All Equal: Education Pack; Council of Europe; 1995
Community Organisers Toolbox; Education and Training Unit for
Democracy and Development; available at www.etu.org.za/toolbox/docs/
building/webtraining.html
Enhancing Learning for Effectiveness; Train4Dev; 2011
Facilitation Skills for Interpersonal Transformation; Ron Kraybill, Berghof
Research Center for Constructive Conict Management; 2004
Facilitators Toolkit; Action for the Rights of Children/Reach Out; 2005;
available at https://icvanetwork.org/system/les/versions/ro_28_toolkit.pdf
Methodology for Human Rights Education for the Police; National Human
Rights Commission of Korea; 2008
Reclaiming Voices: A Study on Participatory Methodologies in the Asia
Pacic; Asian Regional Resource Center for Human Rights Education; 2004
Training for Transformation: A Handbook for Community Workers; Anne
Hope and Sally Timmel; Books 1, 2 and 3 (1984) and Book 4 (1999)
We can teach the way we were taught, or we can teach the way people
learn; Sierra Training Associates; 2007; available at http://sph.bu.edu/otlt/
teachingLibrary/Learning%20Theory/adultlearning.pdf
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72 | Chapter 8: Evaluating human rights education
Chapter 8:
Evaluating human rights education
114
The third process in the practice of human rights education is evaluation. Evaluation involves gathering
information, either during or after an activity, which contributes to the ongoing improvement of outcomes
or performance. This chapter describes the purpose and types of evaluation, and offers a range of
methods and techniques for different human rights education activities.
Figure 8.1: Evaluation stage in a human rights education activity
114 Evaluating Human Rights Training Activities: A Handbook for Human Rights Educators; OHCHR and Equitas; 2011; p. 17.
KEY QUESTIONS
What is evaluation and why is it important for human rights education?
What are evaluation criteria?
How can evaluation be carried out?
How can evaluation results be reported and to whom?
Plan and
design
Implement Evaluate
As practitioners of human rights education, it is imperative that we take
a fresh look at the role of educational evaluation. How can educational
evaluation benet our work? Is it enough to distribute questionnaires at
the end of a human rights training session to see if participants learned
something or can evaluation play a greater role than this? Exploring the
concept of educational evaluation can expand our idea of what evaluation
is and how it can enhance our human rights education work.
114
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Part III Human rights education in practice
1. WHAT IS EVALUATION?
Evaluation of human rights education is the deliberate and planned assessment of an activity during and
at the end of its implementation. Evaluation enables the educator to measure the contribution that the
education activity makes to the expected outcomes. It provides information that can be used to:
improve the progress and effectiveness of the activity
contribute to the improvement of future activities
enhance the practice of human rights educators
ensure accountability to funders, including the NHRI providing the education
provide information that may be useful for others undertaking human rights education.
It is important that evaluation is designed for each human rights education activity and is carried out
during and at the end of the activity. When evaluation is undertaken during the activity it can be called
formative evaluation, monitoring or review. When it is at the end of an activity it can be called summative
evaluation.
Formative evaluation involves ongoing and regular checking during the implementation of an activity
to:
assess the progress of an activitys implementation and whether it is likely to reach the planned
outcomes
identify changes that may be required to the activity design and implementation and the practice
of the educator, in order to improve progress.
Summative evaluation involves making an assessment at the end of an activity, or at the end of an
activity component, to:
tell the story of its effectiveness and impact
provide information about how to improve the effectiveness of future education activities.
Evaluation focuses on the effectiveness of the activity, as well as the performance of the educator or the
NHRI involved in planning and implementing the activity. It is as relevant to a short presentation as it is
to a longer project. There is no single format for effective evaluation. The art of evaluation is choosing a
process that both gives the educator the information that is needed and, at the same time, is feasible
for the educator, group or organization to carry out.
115
2. CARRYING OUT EVALUATION
Although there are many ways to evaluate human rights education, there is a process that many methods
will follow. In their manual on evaluating human rights training activities, OHCHR and Equitas suggest
ve basic steps:
understanding the change that is needed
describing the desired change
increasing the effectiveness of the activity; formative evaluation
assessing the change that has occurred; summative evaluation
communicating the results of the evaluation.
116
The evaluation process is closely tied to the planning and design process. The Logic Model, outlined in
Chapter 6, guides the planning of the evaluation process. The situation analysis provides information
about the human rights situation and how it inuences the design of the human rights education activity.
115 Evaluating Human Rights Training Activities: A Handbook for Human Rights Educators; OHCHR; 2011; p. 33.
116 Evaluating Human Rights Training Activities: A Handbook for Human Rights Educators; OHCHR and Equitas; 2011; pp. 34-35.
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74 | Chapter 8: Evaluating human rights education
The outcomes identify the expected results of the activity. The inputs (the resources) and the outputs
(the type of human rights activity and participant group) describe how the outcomes will be achieved.
When designing and implementing the evaluation, the human rights educator will need to decide the
criteria and methods.
2.1. Criteria for evaluation
Common criteria used to evaluate human rights education activities are listed below. While not all of
these criteria will be applicable to every activity, they are a useful guide.
117
Relevance Does the activity align with the priorities of the participant group and other
applicable stakeholder groups?
Appropriateness Does the activity align with the characteristics of the participants and the
context in which it is implemented?
Effectiveness How well have the objectives and outcomes of the activity been achieved?
Efciency Is the effort and resourcing that has gone in to planning, designing and
implementing the activity appropriate to the level of impact it may have?
Impact How well has the activity contributed to the overall human rights objective?
Sustainability Will the outcomes of the activity be lasting once the activity has come to an
end?
117
2.2. Methods of evaluation
There are three broad types of evaluation: self-evaluation, peer evaluation and external evaluation. Any
or all of these types of evaluation may be used on their own or in combination with the others. In deciding
whether to use a self-evaluation, peer or external process, or a combination, it is important to consider:
the purpose of the evaluation
the scope, length and complexity of the activity
the experience and knowledge of the educators
whether there are external stakeholders or funders requiring accountability
whether the activity would benet from an independent or fresh perspective
whether there is a need to triangulate information (i.e. to validate the evaluation ndings by using
more than one source or using more than one methodology).
As a rule, more attention is given to evaluating more complex and externally accountable activities.
In a multifaceted activity, self-evaluation can be effectively complemented by, and contribute to, peer
evaluation and external evaluation. Appendix 8 includes a breakdown of self-evaluation, peer evaluation
and external evaluation and their advantages and disadvantages.
There are many evaluation methods available and deciding which one to use can be daunting. The task
of the educator is to develop an evaluation method that is appropriate to the activity type, objective/
outcome, context and resource availability. Some of these are listed below.
117 This criterion is more appropriate to longer in-depth activities.
Chapter 8: Evaluating human rights education | 75
Part III Human rights education in practice
Case study An account of an event or experience that is analysed to understand a real-
life situation.
Diarying A written record of signicant activities, events or processes that occur
during the life of the activity. It gives information about the activity and the
participants experience of it.
Flow diagram A visual diagram that tells the story of an activity, showing proposed and
completed activities/interventions and outcomes.
Focus groups Small discussion groups guided through a facilitated discussion on a clearly
dened topic and used to collect in-depth insights. They can provide rich
data as a result of the group dynamics and interactions that occur during
the discussions. Data are primarily qualitative.
Interviews Structured or semi-structured discussions with key stakeholders. Interviews
may be conducted in person or over the phone, with one person or several
people simultaneously. Information can be quantitative and/or qualitative.
Literature/le review Gathering and analysing information from published or unpublished material
on a specic context or situation.
Mapping Using pictures or graphics to show the focus and types of changes to be
evaluated.
Observation Documenting behaviour through watching and listening. Through
observation it is possible to see what people are doing, when they do it,
where they do it and how they do it.
Oral histories Stories that capture progress by focusing on an individual, group or
community account of change.
Photography/lming Photos that capture changes in a specic context or situation that have
occurred over time.
Statistical analysis Gathering and analysing statistical information on a specic context or
situation.
Storytelling A story told about an activity. This aims to give meaningful information that
highlights the strong points and weaknesses of an activity.
Survey/questionnaire A structured series of questions designed to gather information relevant to
an activitys objectives and outcomes. Data from surveys can be quantitative
and/or qualitative and can capture knowledge, attitudes, behaviours and
reactions. Surveys are usually written but can be conducted by phone,
online, face-to-face or on paper.
Voting Participants provide their assessment of an activity, or component of an
activity, by giving it a quantitative value.
Part IV of this Manual includes further and more specic evaluation tools and techniques.
Appendix 9 provides a tool that will assess how well an activity has been designed, implemented and
evaluated using the human rights education principles in Chapter 4.
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76 | Chapter 8: Evaluating human rights education
3. REPORTING THE EVALUATION OUTCOMES
Each evaluation is unique in that it tells the story of a specic activity, undertaken with specic
people, in a specic context. (OHCHR/Equitas Handbook)
The nal step of an evaluation process is to communicate the results. Who the results are to be
communicated to and how they are communicated will vary according to the nature and purpose of the
human rights education activity. In any event, evaluation results should be reported to those who have
participated in the evaluation.
Evaluation outcomes may be documented in a number of ways, such as data collection, tables,
graphs, videos, newsletters, press releases, portfolios, photos and graphics. Creative methods, such
as photography, art, music and drama, can be very powerful, if appropriate. The most common means
for communicating the results of a nal, summative evaluation is through a written report.
It may also be appropriate to have a mixed method, where an evaluation reported to a community may
be in a creative form and involve members of that community, while the evaluation to a funder may be
in the form of a written report. As OHCHR and Equitas note:
Report writing enables you to tell the story of a training session to different audiences and
stakeholders. By organizing and interpreting the data that are collected, you make the results
of your work accessible to others, enabling different people to learn from your experiences,
both negative and positive. Writing an evaluation report is an opportunity to highlight the results
achieved by your human rights training and to articulate any contributions you are making to
broader social change.
118
When recording the success of an activity, the focus should be on documenting the outcomes rather
than the outputs of the activity. It is, of course, useful to acknowledge the outputs; that is, how many
participants were involved, how many meetings were held, how many organizations were involved in a
network or how many website hits were received.
118 Evaluating Human Rights Training Activities: A Handbook for Human Rights Educators; 2011; p. 116.
Nida Buhali of Tampalan, Basilan, Mindanao, Philippines, collating project evaluation results. Photo by Jill Chrisp.
Chapter 8: Evaluating human rights education | 77
Part III Human rights education in practice
Implementing an activity is not the same as achieving results from the activity. It is important to know
whether the activity has achieved the outcomes that were set and whether it has had a successful
impact on the human rights situation.
Reporting on the effectiveness of an activity should focus on documenting the results rather than the
amount of activity. The Logic Model will have developed the results indicators. It is against these that the
outcomes of the activity are reported.
Activity Outputs Outcomes
Designing and distributing
information pamphlets
about how to contribute
to the Universal Periodic
Review (UPR) process
[No.] pamphlets distributed [No.] people/organizations who contributed
to the UPR process as a result of reading
the pamphlet
Running awareness training
workshops on the UPR
process
[No.] workshops
[No.] participants in
workshops
[No.] people reporting an increased
awareness of the UPR process as a result
of the workshop
Running education events
on the UPR process
[No.] events
[No.] participants in events
[No.] people/communities/groups who
have scoped their human rights issues and
contributed these to the UPR process as a
result of the education events
Using networks to gain
support for engaging in the
UPR process
[No.] people/organizations
communicated with
[No.] people/organizations who contribute
to the UPR process as a result of being
contacted through the network
KEY POINTS: CHAPTER 8
Evaluation of human rights education tells whether an activity is
progressing toward its outcomes and what improvements can be made. It
can happen during or at the end of an activity.
A common set of criteria for evaluating human rights education includes:
relevance
appropriateness
effectiveness
efciency
impact
sustainability.
Not all of these criteria will be used all the time.
There are many methods for carrying out an evaluation. It is important that
the evaluation method is appropriate to the context of the activity and the
participants involved.
Evaluation results should always be reported to those who have
participated in the evaluation. It may also be important to communicate
them to a funder or other stakeholders.
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78 | Chapter 8: Evaluating human rights education
USEFUL RESOURCES
Assessing the Effectiveness of National Human Rights Institutions;
International Council on Human Rights Policy; 2005
Documenting Progress and Demonstrating Results: Evaluating Local
Out-of-School Time Programs; Harvard Family Research Project; 2002;
available at www.hfrp.org/publications-resources/browse-our-publications/
documenting-progress-and-demonstrating-results-evaluating-local-out-of-
school-time-programs
Evaluating Human Rights Training Activities: A Handbook for Human Rights
Educators; OHCHR and Equitas; 2011
Evaluation and Types of Evaluation; National Science Foundation; 2000
External Evaluation: Are we doing the right things? Are we doing things
right?; Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation; 2000
Handbook on Planning, Monitoring and Evaluating for Development
Results; United Nations Development Programme; available at http://web.
undp.org/evaluation/handbook/ch7-4.html
Monitoring and Evaluation; CIVICUS World Alliance for Citizen Participation;
available at www.civicus.org/new/media/Monitoring%20and%20Evaluation.pdf
Monitoring and Evaluation; World Bank; available at http://siteresources.
worldbank.org/INTBELARUS/Resources/M&E.pdf
Reect and Improve Tool Kit: Section 5, Development and Implementing an
Evaluation Plan; Innovation Center for Community and Youth Development;
2005; available at www.theinnovationcenter.org/les/doc/B5/RI%20pp%20
68%20Evaluation%20Methods.pdf
Study on the Advances in Civic Education in Education Systems: Good
Practices in Industrialized Countries; Audrey Osler and Hugh Starkey,
Centre for Citizenship and Human Rights Education, University of Leeds, and
Institute of Education, University of London; 2004
The Monitoring and Evaluation Framework: Part 1; United Nations
Development Programme; available at http://web.undp.org/evaluation/
documents/HandBook/part_1.pdf
Together is Better: Collaboration, Assessment, Evaluation and Reporting;
Anne Davies, Caren Cameron, Colleen Politano and Kathleen Gregory; 1992
Useful Tools for Engaging Young People In Participatory Evaluation; Meg
Gawler, 2005; available at www.artemis-services.com/downloads/tools-for-
participatory-evaluation.pdf
Part III Human rights education in practice
Chapter 9: Working with the media | 79
Chapter 9:
Working with the media
119
1. INTRODUCTION
Strong and inclusive communities are built on the foundations of human rights: dignity, fairness and
respect for people, no matter their age, gender or background. However, for this to happen, it is essential
that the community understands what human rights are and how they apply to daily life.
The media
120
is a critical tool in shaping public opinion and setting a social, political and economic
agenda. While the rapid growth of social media provides new ways for people and organizations to
connect directly with each other and share information, the reality is that many people, especially those
with limited access to the Internet, continue to seek news and opinions from traditional media sources.
The media management, editors and journalists decide what constitutes news. They lter and
frame the issues and provide the context for people to understand the events that are reported. While
the media might not tell us what to think, they do play a large role in telling us what to think about.
Human rights issues have become increasingly newsworthy. The media have become interested not
only in violations of human rights, but in the institutional apparatus that has been designed to promote
and protect human rights.
121
Accurate, informed and sustained media coverage of human rights for example, on issues related to
torture, gender-based violence or the treatment of refugees can help shape community attitudes and
contribute to genuine changes in law, policy and practice.
On the other hand, some media reporting can perpetuate stereotypes that further entrench social
disadvantage and discrimination in a community.
NHRIs have a responsibility to capitalize on and make use of new information and communication
technologies, as well as the media,
122
to build public awareness of the human rights issues facing their
communities.
119 This chapter was written by James Iliffe, author of the Media Handbook for National Human Rights Institutions; APF; 2013.
120 In this chapter, the media describes the broad range of organizations that collect and publish or broadcast news or news-related
programmes to mass audiences. It includes newspapers, television, radio, magazines, journals and news agencies. These can
operate online or at a local, provincial, national or international level.
121 Journalism, Media and the Challenge of Human Rights Reporting; International Council on Human Rights Policy; 2002; p. 16.
122 United Nations Declaration on Human Rights Education and Training; article 6.
KEY QUESTIONS
Why should NHRIs engage with the news media?
What human rights education outcomes can they achieve?
How can NHRIs work effectively with the media to build community
awareness and promote action on human rights issues?
How can NHRIs use social media to exchange information with
stakeholders and promote action?
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80 | Chapter 9: Working with the media
To perform this role effectively, NHRIs need to understand how the media operates, the different
audiences they reach, the limited knowledge some journalists may have about human rights, the multiple
pressures they can face when reporting on certain issues and the constant demand to be the rst with
breaking news.
While NHRIs communicate with the public in a variety of ways, the media are one of the most inuential
carriers of information generated by NHRIs and the most powerful gatekeepers between these
organizations and the wider public.
123
The challenge for NHRIs is two-fold. The rst is to present human rights issues in a way that will engage
the media and result in accurate and compelling coverage. The second is to work cooperatively with
media outlets and individual journalists to support informed reporting on human rights.
It is no longer the priority of human rights organizations today to generate new information or
establish its credibility. There is usually more than enough information and it is all too believable.
Their real priority is to understand and improve what is done with this information.
124
2. PROMOTING COMMUNITY UNDERSTANDING OF HUMAN
RIGHTS
Building community awareness of and support for human rights is a fundamental rst step towards
preventing violations and discrimination from occurring.
National and international human right laws set out clear standards that promote and protect the rights
of individuals and place on States the responsibility to uphold those rights.
By educating the community about these standards, and the mechanisms in place to protect their
rights, individuals:
are better able to assert their own rights
are empowered to stand up for the rights of others
can hold governments and decision-makers to account for their actions and advocate for changes
to laws, policies and practices.
The Paris Principles require NHRIs to publicize human rights and efforts to combat all forms of
discrimination by making use of all press organs.
125

Working with the media can be a very effective way of reaching a large number of people with information
about human rights, especially given the nancial constraints that many NHRIs face. Not only is media
coverage free, it is also generally seen as being more reliable than the information presented in
advertising or promotional campaigns.
NHRIs can use media coverage to pursue a range of interconnected goals, including:
exposing systemic discrimination or human rights violations and building community awareness
of the issues
challenging negative stereotypes that exist within the community, particularly in relation to
vulnerable or marginalized groups
advocating for changes to laws, policies and practices and explaining why this is necessary
encouraging the public to take action on a particular issue or to contribute to the work of the
NHRI.
123 Journalism, Media and the Challenge of Human Rights Reporting; International Council on Human Rights Policy; 2002; p. 18.
124 Ibid; p. 17.
125 Paris Principles; 3(g).
Part III Human rights education in practice
Chapter 9: Working with the media | 81
An NHRI be it new or established may also seek media coverage to explain its role, functions and
priorities to the community. For example, it can describe the types of human rights complaints it is able
to receive, how individuals can make a complaint and the process it follows to resolve those complaints.
Regular media coverage can also help to strengthen the reputation of the NHRI within the community
as an independent, authoritative and trustworthy contributor to public discussions.
While the media plays a central role in reecting and shaping community values, it is important to
recognize that it is only one part of a complex system of social exchange that contributes to social and
attitudinal change.
In other words, while the media can raise issues, tell stories and promote public debate, media coverage
can only do so much to change the hearts and minds of individuals. As such, NHRIs should see media
engagement as one part of a broader, integrated human rights education programme.
Malaysian Commission Chairperson, Tan Sri Hasmy Agam, giving a media interview. Photo by the Human Rights Commission of Malaysia.
NHRIs should be aware of the risks involved in working with the media in
environments where freedom of the press is under threat. If the public is
sceptical of information published or broadcast by certain media outlets,
then they will be just as sceptical about information on the activities of
the NHRI carried by those outlets. This can also serve to undermine public
condence in the independence of the NHRI. Of course, NHRIs also have
a critical role to play in working with the media and others to promote and
defend freedom of expression
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82 | Chapter 9: Working with the media
3. UNDERSTANDING NEWS VALUES
The news media in many countries have a positive record in covering human rights issues, even if they
dont cover all such stories. Journalists are genuinely interested in the stories and information that NHRIs
have to share. However, [o]verriding everything is whether or not a story is news: new, unexpected,
affecting current affairs both large and small.
126
For NHRIs, understanding what news is those elements that dictate whether a story is splashed
across the front page or a minor item buried deep inside the newspaper is crucial to how well they
can engage the media.
Understanding news values helps NHRIs to better frame their work as stories that will interest editors
and journalists and result in prominent media coverage of their issues.
3.1. Top 10 news values
1. Impact The more people involved in or affected by an event or an issue, the greater its
newsworthiness.
2. Timeliness The more recently an event happened, the more newsworthy it will be.
3. Negativity Bad news will generally receive more coverage than good news.
4. Unexpectedness The unusual, unexpected and quirky capture the news medias attention.
5. Unambiguous Events that are easy to explain will be given greater prominence than stories with
a complex background.
6. Conict Controversy and clashes between different groups or individuals has dramatic
impact.
7. Personalization Human interest stories grounded in strong emotions grief, fear, overcoming
adversity have broad appeal.
8. Relevance News stories need to resonate with the values, interests and expectations of the
audience.
9. Prominence Stories that involve culturally important people or places dominate the news
agenda.
10. Visualness Strong images photos or video that capture an event or help explain an issue
increase the newsworthiness of a story.
126 Journalism, Media and the Challenge of Human Rights Reporting; International Council on Human Rights Policy; 2002; p. 17.
News values guide what is selected as news and the prominence given to a
particular story. Events will generally be more newsworthy than issues.
Part III Human rights education in practice
Chapter 9: Working with the media | 83
4. SETTING EXPECTATIONS
The media is a marketplace of competing ideas. Every day there are a huge number of organizations
and interest groups trying to capture the medias attention and sell a message or story to the public.
In turn, media consumers will generally look for and select only those news stories that interest them.
In this context, building community awareness of a human rights issue and changing attitudes takes
time and sustained coverage across multiple media outlets.
It is important that NHRIs set realistic expectations about what can be achieved through media coverage
of the issues they are seeking to promote.
What you can expect to achieve:
set a news agenda and frame the public discussion
get people thinking and talking about the issue
encourage individuals, or certain groups, to take specic action
advocate for solutions and inuence decision-makers.
What you cant expect to achieve:
communicate all your messages to all your target groups
create unanimous support for your agenda
produce social and attitudinal change without supporting laws, programmes, policies and
partners.
5. PLANNING FOR MEDIA ENGAGEMENT
As with any human rights programme, it is important for the NHRI to set out the short- and long-term
goals it wants to achieve through media coverage of specic human rights issues.
Firstly, the NHRI needs to identify the overall goal for its media engagement, such as:
advocating for changes to government laws and policies
advocating for changes to the practices of government or private sector organizations
building community understanding about a particular human rights issue
encouraging individual or community action on a particular issue.
In June 2012, the New Zealand Human Rights Commission released
Caring Counts, a report that highlighted unequal pay rates for workers in
the aged care sector. The report was prepared by Dr Judy McGregor, the
Equal Employment Opportunities Commissioner. As part of the research,
Dr McGregor spent a week working undercover in an aged care facility
to develop an understanding of the physically and emotionally demanding
work done by carers. When the report was released, journalists were
particularly interested to hear about her rst-hand experience as a carer
because it helped personalize the issues and was a unique approach for
an NHRI to take in conducting its research. The extensive media coverage
that followed helped generate broad public awareness and support for the
Commissions recommendations.
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84 | Chapter 9: Working with the media
Having identied the overall goal, the NHRI is better placed to identify the decision-makers and other
target audiences that it needs to reach.
Some useful questions to ask are:
What is the specic problem we are highlighting?
What solution are we proposing?
Who can make the solution possible? Whose support do we need?
What do we need to do or say to get the attention of decision-makers and our target audience?
5.1. Identifying the right media outlets
A common misconception about the media is that it operates as a single entity and follows a single
agenda. In reality, the news media is made up of a plethora of media outlets and commentators, from
traditional media, such as television, newspaper, radio, news agencies and magazines, through to
online journals, Twitter feeds and bloggers.
The range of media outlets operating today is enormous, as are the type of issues they cover, the way
they cover stories and the audiences they reach.
It is important that NHRIs are familiar with the various media outlets and the individual journalists who
report on its activities. NHRIs should know the type of audience that each outlet reaches and the way
that these outlets have covered human rights issues in the past. This background knowledge helps the
NHRI to determine what stories would appeal to which outlets and increases the chances of securing
positive coverage of the issues.
5.2. Getting the right message
Effective communication is based on getting the right message to the right group of people. The starting
point is the audience, not the message.
Before developing the message, the NHRI rst needs to:
understand what their target audience knows about the issue
appreciate what their audience thinks and feels about the issue
engage with the issue from their audiences perspective.
If the goal is to encourage people to change how they think or act, then the message will need to
include a positive motivation to change. It should resonate with the audience and generate a head nod
response, where people recognize that the NHRIs position is reasonable and credible.
NHRIs should expect that they will face some criticism of, or resistance to, what they say or propose;
after all, no social or policy change will ever meet with unanimous support. It is important then to
anticipate which groups might be critical and what they might say.
Conict draws the medias attention and NHRIs can use this as an opportunity to refute any inaccurate
or unfair criticisms that have been made and then draw community attention back to the human rights
issue under discussion. NHRIs should use facts and stories to restate their key messages and should
never attack an opponent through the media.
5.3. Knowing when to engage and when not to
There will be times when it is not appropriate for the NHRI to speak publicly on an issue. There may
be legal reasons (for example, court proceedings may be underway or a report may be before the
parliament) or it may be more effective to work towards an outcome or reform through condential
negotiations or specic human rights training programmes.
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The decision about whether or not to engage with the media on a particular issue must be strategic.
Weighing up the advantages against the potential risks either to the reputation of the NHRI or the
misrepresentation of a human rights issue will help the NHRI to make that choice and determine how
it will respond to requests for comment from the media.
6. ELEMENTS OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
Human rights issues can be dense and complex to explain. This can pose challenges in gaining
media coverage as journalists generally prefer to report on issues or events that are black and white.
The language of human rights legal, technical and full of acronyms can also be a barrier to clear
communication.
NHRIs have a responsibility to translate and present their work and issues in ways that journalists and
the public can understand and relate to on a human level.
Use plain language: Avoid jargon and speak simply. Use words and ideas that resonate with the target
audience and accord with their values. For example, human rights can be expressed as respect;
equality as fairness; and humane treatment as dignity.
Tell stories: Give a human dimension to the issues. Share the experiences of individuals, families and
communities. Help people connect to the issue on an emotional level and put themselves in the shoes
of another person.
Use images: Have photographs and videos that can bring the issues to life and help people to see
things differently. A striking image can stay with people for a long time.
Offer solutions: It is essential that NHRIs expose human rights violations and systemic discrimination.
It is equally important that they present and advocate for sensible, credible solutions to those problems.
Encourage people to act: If there is something people can do to promote or protect human rights, ask
them to do it. Find simple ways to connect people to the NHRI, to partner groups or to events taking
place within their local communities.
Most NHRIs have developed media policies that set out an internal process
for receiving and responding to requests from journalists for information or
interviews. The media policy may also identify which Commission members
and staff have authority to speak on behalf of the NHRI on certain topics.
In a crowded media space, repetition is the key to ensuring that a message
is heard and, ultimately, acted upon. Media engagement to promote
human rights awareness cannot be a one-off event. It requires consistent
promotion, across multiple media outlets, over a sustained period of time.
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7. MONITORING YOUR COVERAGE
It is crucial that NHRIs monitor how different media outlets cover the human rights issues that they raise.
It is equally important that NHRIs monitor the coverage that other groups receive when they talk on the
same issues.
Monitoring the media helps NHRIs to:
see how the media covered the story was it favourable or critical?
address any inaccuracies were there errors that should be corrected?
chart what allies and opponents have said how were their views covered?
listen to community feedback on the issue are they supportive? If not, why not?
rene the message was your message confused or at odds with community views?
advance the issue to the next step what needs to happen next to achieve the overall goal?
Monitoring the media can be time-consuming but it is a vital part of the media engagement cycle. It
helps NHRIs to review how effectively they have engaged the media, as well as to plan how they can
continue to promote the issues and build community awareness.
8. CREATING HUMAN RIGHTS CONTENT FOR THE MEDIA
A challenge that all NHRIs face is to ensure that the human rights issues they seek to raise are reported
accurately. Another challenge is to ensure that the issues receive consistent media coverage.
In response, a number of NHRIs have established cooperative relationships with media outlets
television and radio outlets, in particular to prepare, record and broadcast human rights spots and
programmes and promote community awareness about the role of the NHRI.
This approach ensures that NHRIs have a regular place in the media to talk about human rights issues,
to invite community feedback and to describe what people can do to take practical action to uphold
their own rights and protect the rights of others.
Many NHRIs report that these initiatives can be very effective in reaching out to different groups in
the community, such as older people and people living in areas where, because of staff and nancial
resources, the NHRI might not be able to visit regularly.
Delivering information by radio and television is also an effective and accessible way to overcome
barriers around literacy.
The Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission prepares short
information spots and longer programmes on human rights issues for
broadcast on radio and television. The programmes address a range
of issues for example on the rights of women, children or people with
disabilities and may include interviews with Commission members or
staff, representatives of civil society groups and victims or relatives. They
also include case studies that depict the reality of human rights violations
in the country.
The Commission has established partnerships with many television and
radio stations across Afghanistan, which broadcast the Commissions
programmes free of charge. The Commission says that television and radio
is a valuable way of communicating human rights information to men,
women and children in a country where there are high rates of illiteracy.
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NHRIs should also be aware of the changing media environment in their respective countries and the
opportunities this provides to develop media-ready content for news outlets, which are increasingly
operating on smaller editorial budgets.
Affordable, accessible and easy-to-use technologies such as digital cameras, smart phones, video
cameras, audio recorders and editing software allow NHRIs to prepare broadcast-quality material for
journalists to include in their reports.
It also provides NHRIs with a degree of editorial input that can further promote and protect human rights;
for example, by ensuring that images taken of people who have experienced human rights violations do
not expose them to retaliation or further discrimination.
While some journalists and editors will accept and use this material, others may be justiably wary
of accepting pre-packaged resources from NHRIs or other human rights groups, concerned that the
material they are providing is biased towards their advocacy or interests.
To address these concerns, the NHRI should be transparent about its aims, about the provenance of
the material it is distributing and about the standards it uses in its own information-gathering.
127
9. CONNECTING TO COMMUNITIES THROUGH SOCIAL MEDIA
The rapid growth in social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Flickr, Google+ and
Storify, to name a few presents new opportunities for NHRIs to bypass the traditional media and
connect directly with communities.
These popular sites allow NHRIs to share information, stories, videos and photographs, as well as
engage in a real-time conversation with the public. They can also be powerful tools to mobilize people
in collective action to promote and protect human rights.
127 Whose News? The Changing Media Landscape and NGOs; Carroll Bogert, Human Rights Watch; January 2011; p. 7.
A participant takes photos with a smart phone during the UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues eleventh session. UN Photo by Devra Berkowitz.
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Using social media effectively involves more than simply posting a new comment or item every few days.
It requires a clear rationale and a comprehensive strategy to guide its use.
NHRIs also need to develop a social media policy so that those responsible for updating the sites and
responding to comments do so in a way that upholds the independence and integrity of the organization.
It is important to remember that everything posted online is public comment and may be treated as
such.
As with all education and outreach activities, social media has its limitations. In general, messages or
stories will only be viewed by people who choose to follow or like the NHRI. In other words, the NHRI
can end up talking only to its supporters.
There remains a broad range of people in the community for example, those who dont know about or
are interested in the NHRI, those without access to the Internet and those who dont use social media
with whom the NHRI still needs to communicate.
Their power to reach diverse audiences, and having responsibilities as duty bearers, means that NHRIs
should continue to engage with the mass media, as well as embrace the many benets that social
media has to offer.
10. SUPPORTING JOURNALISTS IN THEIR WORK
The media is a key shaper of community attitudes. It also plays a vital accountability role. Often described
as the fourth estate, the media has long been viewed as a key mechanism through which the public
can hold their governments to account.
By drawing attention to human rights violations and systemic discrimination, the media can bring
these issues to the centre of public debate, raise community awareness and demand a response from
governments and decision-makers.
However, a report by the International Council on Human Rights Policy
128
found journalists faced a
number of challenges in reporting on human rights, including:
ignorance of what human rights are; many journalists and editors, as with others in the
community, are not familiar with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other key
international human rights standards
confusion about where human rights are; there can be a tendency to view human rights
violations as something that takes place elsewhere and overlook domestic issues where
international human rights standards apply, such as the treatment of women, indigenous people,
people with disabilities, refugees or gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender or intersex people
limited awareness about the scope of human rights; while there is broad awareness of
certain key civil and political rights, understanding of economic, social and cultural rights such
as the right to housing, health and education is generally low.
Given this limited awareness of human rights, journalists can miss important human rights stories or
fail to see the human rights dimensions of stories that they might prepare on topics such as education,
transport, health or the environment.
NHRIs can support the media to be accurate and condent reporters of human rights. An important
starting point is for NHRIs to open a dialogue with media professionals so that both can better understand
their different roles and responsibilities.
128 Journalism, Media and the Challenge of Human Rights Reporting; International Council on Human Rights Policy; 2002; pp. 113-117.
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For example, NHRIs can organize meetings or seminars with media organizations and journalists
groups to discuss:
the challenges and concerns around human rights reporting in the country
how best the NHRI can provide journalists with accurate and reliable information or resources on
human rights
how both groups can cooperate to create the legal, political and social conditions required for
independent journalism.
Some NHRIs in the region have also established awards programmes to recognize and promote
excellence in media reporting on human rights issues.
The National Human Rights Commission of India has established an
Advisory Group on Media and Human Rights to provide counsel on how
best to work with the media to promote human rights in the country. This
group includes senior editors/executives of the print and electronic media,
as well as news agencies. A training workshop was also organized by
the Commission to sensitize media personnel regarding the mandate and
functions of the Commission, as well as to emphasize the importance of
covering human rights issues in the media.
Since 1987, the Australian Human Rights Commission has held an annual
Human Rights Medal and Awards programme to recognize outstanding
contributions to the promotion and protection of human rights in the
community. Among other categories, the programme includes Human
Rights Awards for excellence in print journalism, radio journalism and
television journalism, with an independent panel of experts assessing
the nominations and selecting a winner. The Awards recognize the very
important role of the media in uncovering human rights violations, bringing
these issues to public attention and helping drive positive change.
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KEY POINTS: CHAPTER 9
The media plays a central role in reecting and shaping public opinion
and setting a social, political and economic agenda.
Accurate, informed and sustained media coverage of human rights issues
can help shape community attitudes and contribute to changes in law,
policy and practice.
NHRIs need to understand how the media operates in order to present
human rights issues in a way that will engage journalists and lead to
accurate and compelling coverage.
Media engagement to promote human rights awareness cannot be a one-
off event. It requires consistent promotion, across multiple media outlets,
over a sustained period of time.
NHRIs should seek opportunities to work cooperatively with media
outlets and individual journalists to support informed reporting on human
rights.
USEFUL RESOURCES
Journalism, Media and the Challenge of Human Rights Reporting;
International Council on Human Rights Policy; 2002
Media Handbook for National Human Rights Institutions; APF; 2013
Whose News? The Changing Media Landscape and NGOs; Carroll Bogert,
Human Rights Watch; 2011
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Chapter 10:
Human rights education in
early childhood education centres
and schools
129
1. INTERNATIONAL OBLIGATIONS
Article 29 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child provides that education should be directed at:
the development of the childs personality, talents and mental and physical abilities to their fullest
potential
the development of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and for the principles
enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations
the development of respect for the childs parents; his or her own cultural identity, language and
values; for the national values of the country in which the child is living; the country from which he
or she may originate; and civilizations different from his or her own
the preparation of the child for responsible life in a free society, in the spirit of understanding,
peace, tolerance, equality of sexes, and friendship among all peoples, ethnic, national and
religious groups and persons of indigenous origin
129 Nayland College, New Zealand; cited in Building Human Rights Communities in Education He Whakatu Tika Tangata-a-Iwi;
Amnesty International (New Zealand), Development Resource Centre, New Zealand Human Rights Commission, Ofce of the
Childrens Commissioner and the Peace Foundation; 2007.
KEY QUESTIONS
What are the international obligations relating to the right to education of
the child?
Why should early childhood education centres and schools engage in
human rights education?
How do human rights education principles relate to early childhood
education centres and schools?
What are some of the human rights education approaches and tools
available for early childhood education centres and schools?
Human rights education has given the students a maturity of thought and
a capacity for critical thinking. They are able to think outside of the school
environment about the needs of other students and other communities.
129
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the development of respect for the natural environment.
130

Education is both a human right in itself and an indispensable means of realizing other human rights.
Education is essential for the development of human potential, enjoyment of the full range of human
rights and respect for the rights of others. It is the primary vehicle by which economically and socially
marginalized adults and children can lift themselves out of poverty and obtain the means to participate
fully in their communities.
The right to education involves learning about rights and responsibilities. It is also about creating
high-quality teaching and learning environments where there is freedom from violence, bullying and
harassment; where individuality and diversity are respected; and where all those involved are able to
participate fully. The right to education encompasses civil and political rights, as well as economic, social
and cultural rights.
131
All children and young people have the human right to benet from an education that will meet their
learning needs in the best and fullest sense, an education that includes learning to know, to do, to live
together and to be.
132

Rights and responsibilities are reected through treaties, legislation and through relationships. The United
Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights maintains that the right to education is an
indispensable means of realising other human rights.
133
As such, it straddles the division between civil
and political rights and economic, social and cultural rights.
134
All stakeholders involved (government agencies, NGOs, teacher education institutions, unions and
professional organizations, student and parents associations, NHRIs, business communities, religious
leaders, the media and indigenous and minority ethnic groups) are obliged to protect and defend the
human rights of children and young people in education.
In 2004, the United Nations initiated the World Programme for Human Rights Education in order to
promote a common understanding of the basic principles and methodologies of human rights education
and to provide a framework for action. Since then, two plans of action have been implemented.
The rst phase of the World Programme (20052009) focused on primary and secondary schools and
proposed specic strategies in four stages for the national implementation of human rights education.
It promoted a holistic, rights-based approach aimed at ensuring that all components and processes of
education were conducive to learning about human rights.
The World Programme established ve areas of focus:
ensuring that appropriate educational policies are developed
planning for the implementation of those policies
ensuring that the learning environment is conducive to human rights learning
addressing the teaching and learning processes
providing professional development for teachers and other educational personnel.
NHRIs were identied as having a role in all ve areas of focus.
135
130 The right to education is set out in a number of international human rights treaties, the most signicant of which are the International
Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (articles 13 and 14) and the Convention on the Rights of the Child (articles
28 and 29). Others include the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (articles 5(e) and
7), the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (article 10), the Convention on the Rights
of Persons with Disabilities (article 24), and the UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education. The United Nations
Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples also refers to the right to education (article 14).
131 Human Rights in New Zealand 2010 Nga Tika Tangata O Aotearoa 2010; New Zealand Human Rights Commission; 2010 (see
Chapter 12. The Right to Education).
132 The Dakar Framework for Action Education for All: Meeting our Collective Commitments; adopted by the World Education
Forum; Dakar., Senegal; 2628 April 2000; para. 3.
133 General comment No. 13 (1999) on the right to education; para. 1.
134 E/CN.4/2001/52; para. 6.
135 National Human Rights Institutions: History, Principles, Roles and Responsibilities; Professional Training Series No. 4 (Rev. 1);
OHCHR; 2010; pp. 55-73.
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There is debate about the extent to which these aspirations have been realized. There have been
signicant differences among countries and the levels of support that Governments gave to the rst
phase of the World Programme. The second phase of the World Programme, which began in 2010, is
focused on human rights education for higher education and on human rights training programmes for
teachers and educators, civil servants, law enforcement ofcials and military personnel. Nonetheless,
the focus on early childhood education and schools is no less important and NHRIs remain responsible
to ensure that education activity continues in these sectors.
2. HUMAN RIGHTS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS
It is impossible to talk of respect for students, for the dignity that is in the process of coming to
be, for the identities that are in the process of construction, without taking into consideration
the conditions in which they are living and the importance of the knowledge derived from life
experience, which they bring with them to school.
Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of Freedom
While the denition of free and compulsory education in international human rights conventions is limited
to primary education
136
, this chapter broadens the scope to include early childhood education, primary
and secondary schooling. There is clear evidence to show that early childhood education impacts
signicantly on the ability of a child to successfully engage in higher levels of education. Likewise, there is
evidence to show that building human rights into school curricula, practices and environments increases
participation and enables young people to leave school condent in their ability to live, learn and work in
their communities and the wider world.
136 International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; article 13(2a).
Primary school children in class, Harar, Ethiopia. UN Photo by Eskinder Debebe.
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Human rights education in schools involves both:
human rights through education; ensuring that all the components and processes, including
curricula, materials, methods and training include, and are conducive to, learning about human
rights
human rights in education; ensuring that the human rights of all people in early childhood centres
and schools are respected and practised.
The goal of the human rights educator is to work with schools and school communities to facilitate a
whole-of-school approach to human rights.
International evidence shows that children and young people in a human rights-based school:
know their rights
understand their responsibilities and the rights of others
have greater self-esteem
are more accepting of diversity
have higher achievement rates.
137
Teachers use more democratic styles of teaching, report better classroom behaviour and are able
to spend more time on teaching.
138
A New Zealand baseline study of ten early childhood education
centres and schools
139
found the characteristics of early childhood education centres and schools that
demonstrated best human rights education practice included:
a whole-of-centre/school approach, where students, teachers, leaders, managers and governors
model human rights
a positive and active relationship with the centre/school community
support and encouragement for the members of the centre/school parent community to
understand, and model, human rights
the centrality of community to the strategic direction, priorities, planning and resourcing of the
centre/school
participation of children and young people in decision-making
encouragement of children and young people to be outwardly-focused on local, national and
global issues
interweaving human rights education throughout the whole curriculum
innovative approaches to student management, such as restorative justice principles, peer
mediation, student engagement initiatives, consistently reinforced across the whole school
community
a physical environment that reected and encouraged diversity and learner-centeredness.
137 Hampshire County Council, United Kingdom; as cited in Building Human Rights Communities in Education He Whakatu Tika
Tangata-a-Iwi; Amnesty International (New Zealand), Development Resource Centre, New Zealand Human Rights Commission,
Ofce of the Childrens Commissioner and the Peace Foundation; 2007.
138 See, for example, LIFT OFF! Ireland (available at www.amnesty.org.uk/content.asp?CategoryID=748); the RRR Initiative, United
Kingdom (available at http://hants.gov.uk/education/hias/childrensrights) and Childrens Rights Centre, Canada (available at
www.crin.org/resources/infodetail.asp?ID=4328).
139 Building Human Rights Communities in Education He Whakatu Tika Tangata-a-Iwi; Amnesty International (New Zealand),
Development Resource Centre, New Zealand Human Rights Commission, Ofce of the Childrens Commissioner and the Peace
Foundation; 2007.
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3. HUMAN RIGHTS EDUCATION PRINCIPLES AND EARLY
CHILDHOOD EDUCATION AND SCHOOLS
140
Human rights education principles guide the work that NHRIs undertake in early childhood education
centres and school communities, as well as with departments of education. In the content of human
rights education, the educator enables and motivates early childhood education centres and schools to
know and practise human rights. In the delivery of human rights education, the educator applies the six
principles of human rights education to her or his work.
Principle 1: Relevant to participants
Participant-centred human rights education in early childhood centres and schools recognizes that
children and young people come from diverse backgrounds, have different learning styles and varying
learning needs and strengths. To avoid marginalization, the dominant culture and the environment of
the human rights education activity must recognize and be inclusive and valuing of these differences.
A young boy learning to read came home from school one day with this poem and drawing.
The child lived with his mother and her female partner. His mother was the wage earner in the
family.
His experience was that his school and his teacher believed that normal was a heterosexual
nuclear family where Mum looked after the children and Dad went out to work.
He was not normal.
141

140 See also the discussion of human rights education principles in Chapter 4.
141 Case study, New Zealand.
This is Dad. This is Mum.
This is Me.
And that makes three.
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Principle 2: Collaborative
Human rights education in schools is not effective if it is conducted in isolation. In other words, a lesson
or series of lessons on human rights will have no impact on the child or young person in a school where
there is no respect for human rights. It is hard to talk about human dignity in an environment where there
is bullying and harassment or where some students feel isolated and excluded. The success of human
rights education in an early childhood education centre or school relies on the effective partnerships
developed with the whole school community, including teachers, management, teaching staff, students,
the parent community and the departments of education.
Principle 3: Participatory
Children and young people are valued as essential contributors in the decisions that affect them,
and in the planning and delivery of services that support and meet their needs so that all
children have the best start in life. We must never underestimate the contribution they can make
and the fresh approach they bring. All children, young people and families have a right to the skills
and opportunities that enable them to make good life choices, support themselves and the needs
of others, and achieve more than they thought possible.
John Coughlan, Director of Childrens Services, Hampshire, United Kingdom
Participation and respect for the student voice is a cornerstone of the Convention on the Rights of the
Child, which makes particular reference to the rights of children and young people to participate in
decisions that affect them.
142
All children have the right to an opinion and for that opinion to be heard in
all contexts. Likewise, children and young people are valued as meaningful contributors to, and active
participants of, their human rights learning. The educator takes a facilitator role, replacing rote learning
with dynamic and interactive processes.
Principle 4: Probing
Whatever children see in the classroom becomes a part of their experience and a part of the
growing process.
143
Human Rights Commission of Sri Lanka
The probing principle refers to the way that human rights education is facilitated in schools. It challenges
the educator to nd participatory and experiential processes that will encourage children and young
people to learn about their human rights and responsibilities; to relate this learning to their school,
homes, and communities; to connect what they have learned to others realities and experiences; and
to make sense of what this learning means to their attitudes and behaviours.
Principle 5: Thoughtful action
The community of the classroom or school is a dynamic and active place where interactions can be
rights-respecting or rights-violating. It offers a fertile environment where, if children and young people are
encouraged to reect critically on their actions, rich learning can occur. Case studies show that where
students are encouraged to use a human rights lens to reect on their behaviours and environments
144

they take of ownership of their learning and behaviour; show a greater concern for themselves, each
other and children in other parts of the world; use less adversarial approaches to resolving conict with
each other and adults; bully others less; and have more positive attitudes towards diversity in society
and reduced levels of prejudice.
142 Convention on the Rights of the Child; articles 4 and 1217.
143 Human Rights Education in Schools Mandate; Shirani Rajapaksa, Human Rights Commission of Sri Lanka; available at www.
hurights.or.jp/archives/pdf/education12/hreas-12-03-srilanka.pdf.
144 Hampshire County Council, United Kingdom; as cited in Building Human Rights Communities in Education He Whakatu Tika
Tangata-a-Iwi; Amnesty International (New Zealand), Development Resource Centre, New Zealand Human Rights Commission,
Ofce of the Childrens Commissioner and the Peace Foundation; 2007
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Principle 6: Empowering
The empowering principle requires the human rights educator to ensure that both the process and the
content of the education experience educates for change, encouraging each student to be an actor
in realizing human rights in their worlds. In order for this to occur, human rights education must take
place in an environment that is trustworthy, child- and youth-friendly, secure, non-discriminatory and
democratic.
145
4. APPROACHES
There are different ways of working in early childhood education centres and schools and, as indicated
in the following section, NHRIs in the Asia Pacic region have had much experience in doing so. The
human rights education frameworks in Chapter 5 are also relevant for this work. They recognize the whole
school the curriculum, the policies and practices and the environment as the locus for encouraging
children and young people to become actors for change. Appendix 10 sets out UNICEFs framework for
assessing the level to which human rights are a part of a school environment.
5. CASE STUDIES FROM NHRIs IN THE ASIA PACIFIC REGION
The Asia-Pacic Human Rights Information Centers most recent annual review of human rights
education in Asian schools
146
shows there is much human rights activity in schools across the region.
147148
145 Guidelines for Human Rights Education in Secondary School Systems; Ofce for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights; 2012.
146 Human Rights Education in Asian Schools; Asia-Pacic Human Rights Information Center; (Vol. 12), 2009; available at www.
hurights.or.jp/archives/human_rights_education_in_asian_schools.
147 More information available at www.hurights.or.jp/archives/pdf/education12/hreas-12-01-afghanistan.pdf.
148 More information is available at www.asiapacicforum.net/news/myanmar-human-rights-to-be-added-to-school-curriculum.
AFGHANISTAN INDEPENDENT HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION
147
Key focus on human rights education in the school system includes:
integration of human rights issues into the curricula of educational
and academic centres in the country and the removal of references to
violence and discrimination
ltering of intermediate school textbooks for violence and discrimination
and integration of human rights principles.
partnerships with the Ministry of Education, Ministry of Higher Education, universities and
teacher training higher education institutions.
MYANMAR NATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION
148
Human rights will be added as a minor subject in the curriculum for elementary, middle and
high levels of basic schools in Myanmar. The initiative is the result of cooperation between the
Commission and the Ministry of Education. The Commission notes that schools have taught
knowledge of human values for some decades but that it is important that human rights be
taught as a separate subject. Schools will require assistance and support in order to teach
human rights in the classroom.
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149

150

151

152

153

154
149 More information is available at www.hurights.or.jp/archives/pdf/education12/hreas-12-02-jordan.pdf.
150 More information is available at http://nhrc.nic.in.
151 More information is available at www.hrc.co.nz/human-rights-environment/human-rights-education/education-projects.
152 Ibid. See also, for example, Te Wairoa Reorua 2040 at www.hrc.co.nz/human-rights-and-the-treaty-of-waitangi/te-wairoa-reorua
-2040.
153 More information is available at www.hrc.co.nz/disabled-people/disabled-childrens-right-to-education.
154 More information is available at www.hrc.co.nz/hrc_new/hrc/cms/les/documents/01-Sep-2009_14-08-40_Human_Rights_
School_Violence_FINAL.pdf.
JORDAN NATIONAL CENTRE FOR HUMAN RIGHTS
149
Working in partnership with the Ministry of Education, through a
Memorandum of Understanding, the current focus of the Centre is on
instruction toward the implementation of the national action plan on human
rights education including:
developing curriculum and textbooks
training staff of the Ministry of Education and instruction on human
rights, especially implementing the human rights training-of-trainers programme
organizing extracurricular activities on human rights, such as competitions, camps and
poster-making
establishing human rights-related clubs in schools
educational information using televised media.
NATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION, INDIA
150
Some of the initiatives taken by the Commission for students of schools and universities,
include:
a source book on human rights published in 1996 to provide background material on
human rights for teachers and students
a handbook for sensitizing teachers and teacher educators Discrimination Based on Sex,
Caste, Religion and Disability published in 2003
a book entitled Human Rights Education for Beginners, published in 2005
a module on Human Rights Education for Teaching Professionals for those working in
primary, secondary and higher secondary levels, published in 2007
model curriculum on Human Rights for universities and colleges, published in 2007
regular internship programmes for university/college students, giving exposure on human
rights issues
a moot court competition on human rights issues for law students
sensitization programmes for school principals on human rights issues.
NEW ZEALAND HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION
Activity since 2005 has involved:
a national baseline study of good practice in New Zealand schools
151
development of schools and early childhood centres as human rights communities
152
research and reporting on children with disabilities and their right to education
153
analysis on school violence, bullying and abuse.
154
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155

156

157
155 More information is available at www.hurights.or.jp/archives/pdf/education12/hreas-12-04-philippines.pdf.
156 Information provided by the National Human Rights Committee of Qatar.
157 More information is available at www.hurights.or.jp/archives/pdf/education12/hreas-12-03-srilanka.pdf.
COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS OF THE PHILIPPINES
155
Two decades of promoting human rights in schools through:
interagency cooperation
the development of human rights teaching exemplars and nationwide
implementation
teacher training and capability building
children, parents, and educators empowerment programmes
one-off events such as a National Youth Forum on Peace and Human Rights; a nationwide
On-the-Spot Painting/Drawing Contest on childrens rights for elementary, secondary
and tertiary levels; and a national educators conference on human rights
NATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS COMMITTEE OF QATAR
156
Launched a programme for human rights in schools in March 2012. The programme:
involved 12 schools of different educational stages
aimed to promote a human rights culture in general and the rights of the child in particular,
as well as instil values of loyalty, belonging and participation in the students
included a number of educational lectures on human rights for schools students on the
denition of human rights in general, the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
included a Human Rights Day in all the participant schools, involving drawing and writing
contests on human rights issues, theatrical performances and a Rights of the Child in
Qatar panorama
included a school event for girls to honour the winners.
HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION OF SRI LANKA
157
The Commission focuses on different groups, including preschool children, school children
(junior and upper secondary schools that include the age limits of 13 to 18 years) as well as
the educators (school principals, teachers, and others). It has adopted different methodologies
to educate students in a sustainable manner. Since 2005, this has included:
collaboration with the National Institute of Education on the integration of human rights
education into the general school curriculum and on a human rights education programme
for the teachers, university students and school students
introduction of human rights units in schools
concert on the indivisibility of human rights organized with the participation of students
from multi-ethnic groups and including dramas and cultural activities
an art competition including 500 paintings that expressed the students perspectives on
peace and equal treatment, following by an exhibition and an open dialogue to share the
views of the students
using international days as occasions to promote human rights in the schools.
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6. INTERNATIONAL INITIATIVES, CURRICULUM MATERIALS AND
RESOURCES
Outside of NHRIs in the region, there a many other useful initiatives that provide materials and resources
for human rights education in schools.
Amnesty Internationals Human Rights in Schools Programme
158
and the Ofce for
Democratic Institutions and Human Rights
159
both focus on human rights education core
competencies under three headings: knowledge and understanding; attitudes and values; and
skills.
The Childrens Rights Centre at the University College of Cape Breton, Nova Scotia,
Canada
160
has undertaken extensive pre- and post-teaching research.
Equitas International Centre for Human Rights Education
161
has, since 2004, been
developing human rights education tools and programmes that develop awareness and
encourage participation of children and young people. It is a non-formal programme in which
primary school aged children are introduced to human rights education through after-school
programmes and summer camps known as Play it Fair!. The programme aims to raise human
rights awareness in children and educate them against discriminatory attitudes and behaviours,
thus equipping them with skills to confront them.
LIFT OFF! A Cross Border Human Rights Education Initiative
162
is an initiative involving
primary schools in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.
163

MelJol
164
operates in Mumbai and in six districts of the state of Maharashtra. The Convention on
the Rights of the Child provides its conceptual framework and its mission is to create a civil society
based on the spirit of coexistence and achievement. It does this by fostering healthy attitudes
among children and building the spirit of entrepreneurship and developing childrens citizenship
skills by focusing on childrens rights and responsibilities. It works on creating awareness of the
different needs of children from different backgrounds. Initiated in 1991, MelJol works in the
schools of Mumbai through a twinning programme. Focusing mainly on children aged 10 to 15
years, it currently works in primary and upper-primary schools run by the Government and with
teacher training colleges.
Peoples Movement for Human Rights Education,
165
while not focused specically on
schools, has an extensive website dedicated to human rights resources and tools.
Rights, Respect and Responsibility; Hampshire, United Kingdom
166
works to improve
children and young peoples overall well-being, including their academic attainment. It places the
Convention on the Rights of the Child at the heart of a schools ethos and offers a framework for
teaching and learning. Its website provides examples of teachers planning, which incorporates a
rights dimension, whole-of-school approaches, material for parents and case studies of schools.
158 More information is available at www.amnesty.org.nz/get-involved/human-rights-schools.
159 Guidelines for Human Rights Education in Secondary School Systems; Ofce for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights; 2012.
160 More information is available at www.cbu.ca/crc/sites/cbu.ca.crc/les/images/Art_Curriculum--_English.pdf.
161 More information is available at www.equitas.org/en.
162 More information is available at www.liftoffschools.com.
163 The following organizations are involved in the initiative: Irish National Teachers Organisation, the Ulster Teachers Union,
Amnesty International, Education International, Curriculum Advisory Support Service, the Curriculum Council and Education and
Assessment, National Council for Curriculum and Assessment, Department of Education, Department of Education and Science,
Irish Human Rights Commission and Northern Ireland Human Rights Commission.
164 More information is available at http://meljol.net/india/.
165 More information is available at www.pdhre.org.
166 More information is available at www3.hants.gov.uk/education/hias/childrensrights.
Part III Human rights education in practice
Chapter 10: Human rights education in early childhood education centres and schools | 101
The Student Voice Project
167
describes the perspectives and actions of young people. It gives
students the ability to inuence learning including policies, programmes, contexts and principles.
UNICEF
168
has developed and championed rights, respect and responsibility programmes
throughout the world (see Appendix 10). In the United Kingdom, UNICEF has initiated a holistic
framework as a tool for developing and assessing the state of human rights in schools. It is
based on an award system, where each school shows evidence that it has reached the required
standard in four categories, all of which contain elements contributing to the development of an
active global citizen:
leadership and management for embedding the values of the Convention on the Rights of the
Child in the life of the school
knowledge and understanding of the Convention on the Rights of the Child
rights-respecting classrooms.
students actively participate in decision-making throughout the school.
167 More information is available at http://student-voice-project.com.
168 More information about the Rights Respecting Schools initiative is available at http://e-activist.com/ea-campaign/action.
retrievestaticpage.do?ea_static_page_id=1362.
School children show their artwork at UNICEF Seoul headquarters, Republic of Korea. UN Photo by Evan Schneider.
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USEFUL RESOURCES
Childrens Rights Information Network; available at www.crin.org
Compasito: Manual on human rights education for children; European Youth
Centre in Budapest; available at www.eycb.coe.int/compasito/chapter_1/2_
wha.html
Evaluation of UNICEFs UKs Rights Respecting Schools Awards; Judy
Sebba and Carol Robinson; 2010
Guidelines for Human Rights Education in Secondary School Systems;
Ofce for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights; 2012
Human Rights in New Zealand 2010 Nga Tika Tangata O Aotearoa 2010;
New Zealand Human Rights Commission; 2010
Law into Action: Economic, Social and Cultural Rights in Aotearoa
New Zealand; Margaret Bedggood and Kris Gledhill (eds.), Human Rights
Foundation of New Zealand; 2011
National Human Rights Institutions: History, Principles, Roles and
Responsibilities; Professional Training Series No. 4 (Rev. 1); OHCHR; 2010
Rights Respecting Schools Initiative; UNICEF; available at http://e-activist.
com/ea-campaign/action.retrievestaticpage.do?ea_static_page_id=1362
Teaching Childrens Rights Through Art; Diane Lewis Childrens Rights
Centre, Cape Breton University; 2007
KEY POINTS: CHAPTER 10
Article 29 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child focuses
specically on the right to education for the child.
Research shows that children and young people in human rights-based
schools know their rights, understand their responsibilities and the rights
of others, have more self-esteem, are more accepting of diversity and
have higher achievement rates.
Human rights education principles should guide the work that NHRIs
undertake in early childhood education centres, with school communities
and with departments of education.
NHRIs in the Asia Pacic region are actively engaged in human rights
education with schools, universities and departments of education.
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Chapter 11: Human rights education in conict and post-conict situations | 103
Chapter 11:
Human rights education in
conict and post-conict situations
169170
1. THE IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATION IN CONFLICT AND
POST-CONFLICT SITUATIONS
Education is signicant to lessen the impact of conict and to restore peace in conict and post-
conict regions.
Education is a fundamental right that should be maintained at all times, even in the most difcult
circumstances. This is not simply an ideological statement. Where education is maintained in the
midst of conict, it may provide an important mechanism for the protection of children against
abuse.
Education is an essential tool for human development and the eradication of poverty. Children
rarely get a second chance at education. Where the opportunity of education has been lost due
to conict, it is not just a loss to the individual but a loss of social capital and the capacity of a
society to recover from the conict.
Education can be part of the problem, as well as part of the solution. Policies and practices at all
levels within the education system need to be analysed in terms of their potential to aggravate or
reduce conict.
171
169 Sections of this chapter are drawn from National Human Rights Institutions: History, Principles, Roles and Responsibilities;
Professional Training Series No. 4 (Rev. 1); OHCHR; 2010; and also from the Toolkit for collaboration with National Human Rights
Institutions; United Nations Development Programme and OHCHR; 2010.
170 Randa Siniora, Director General of the Palestinian Independent Commission for Human Rights; interviewed by the APF; November
2012; available at www.youtube.com/watch?v=pNWUyU1Wajc&feature=youtu.be.
171 The Inuence of Education on Conict and Peace Building; Alan Smith; 2010 (paper commissioned for the Education for All Global
Monitoring Report 2011).
KEY QUESTIONS
What is the importance of education in conict and post-conict
situations?
What is the education role of NHRIs in conict and post-conict
situations?
What initiatives are NHRIs in the Asia-Pacic region currently undertaking
in conict and post-conict situations?
We should not forget that we are under occupation and the people have lost
trust in human rights because their rights are being violated every day so
this is really affecting the educational programmes that we do.
170
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2. THE EDUCATION ROLE OF NHRIs IN CONFLICT AND POST-
CONFLICT SITUATIONS
NHRIs operate in countries with very different histories, cultures and traditions but conict and post-
conict situations present particular challenges.
172
While the education functions and mandate are
consistent across all NHRIs, the priorities for NHRIs in conict and post-conict situations may vary.
They may take on roles that are unique to their situations and to modify normal programme functions
to respond to the specic situations they face.
173
What makes promotion of human rights incredibly difcult but for the same reason absolutely
critical is that attacks on human rights are often at the very heart of these conict situations.
174

In situations of conict, the education focus of NHRIs may be more concentrated on community-based
training, especially with regard to the need to respect the rights of minorities. Women, children and
people with disabilities, as those most vulnerable, may become the key participant groups, with civil and
political rights the critical rights focus.
Education methods will require careful consideration. Where there has been an extended period of
conict, for example, education systems may have broken down and there may be high levels of illiteracy.
Where large numbers of people are displaced by the conict, human rights education may also be
required to ensure that the population in areas to which persons are displaced is sensitive to their
situation and their rights. Similarly, NHRIs and other institutions in neighbouring countries may have to
conduct public education on the rights of refugees.
175
The NHRI may also wish to increase its efforts in community-based human rights training, especially
with regard to the need to respect the rights of people who may not share the same political view or
belong to the same cultural, ethnic or language group as the majority.
176
In post-conict situations, the education work of the NHRI can contribute to the prevention of further
violence and the restoration of peace through:
promotion of human rights, tolerance and respect to help ensure that local issues are resolved
without recourse to violence
creating processes to facilitate closure from previous violence and abuses
supporting reintegration through community-centred awareness programmes
supporting special initiatives for child soldiers and child abductees, including:
comprehensive programmes to allow them to deal with the trauma they have experienced,
which may have included sexual abuse
special education and training initiatives, because their age and other factors may make
returning to regular classrooms unrealistic
the establishment of alternative care programmes for children with no family
special efforts to promote the acceptance of these children back into the community which,
for a variety of reasons, may be reluctant to have them back.
177
172 National Human Rights Institutions: History, Principles, Roles and Responsibilities; Professional Training Series No. 4 (Rev. 1);
OHCHR; 2010; p. 38.
173 Ibid; p. 143.
174 Conict Resolution and Human Rights: Contradictory or Complementary; Baroness Helena Kennedy QC; 2001; published in
Human Rights Education Pack, Asian Regional Resource Center for Human Rights Education; 2003.
175 Toolkit for collaboration with National Human Rights Institutions; United Nations Development Programme and OHCHR; 2010;
pp. 61-62.
176 Ibid; p. 62.
177 National Human Rights Institutions: History, Principles, Roles and Responsibilities; Professional Training Series No. 4 (Rev. 1);
OHCHR; 2010; pp.143-144.
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178
178 Ibid; p. 44.
CHALLENGES FOR NHRIs AND THEIR EDUCATION FUNCTION
A country that has experienced long periods of violence and upheaval is
unlikely to have developed a strong human rights culture or will have had
that culture severely weakened. NHRIs may therefore consider general
human rights awareness training to be a priority. People who have lived
under such conditions may also be unaware of and/or distrustful of ofcial
mechanisms, including a newly-created NHRI. In these situations, NHRIs
will have to develop education programming to publicize what they do and
establish their credibility.
Human rights defenders, including NGO activists, are often targeted during
conict. Many may have been killed as a consequence of their activities;
many more will have gone into exile and may not return immediately, if at all.
This is a serious loss for the countrys human rights culture and NHRIs may
determine that there is a particular need to support the creation of NGOs in
post-conict situations and to develop their capacity.
Many conicts are caused or exacerbated by real or perceived inequities
suffered by religious, ethnic, social, cultural, political or other minorities. To
the extent that this is the case, NHRIs operating in a post-conict situation
will develop specic education programmes directed towards ensuring that
minority rights are understood and respected.
Armies and/or police forces are often implicated in human rights abuse,
particularly during a period of conict, when normal conditions of discipline
and accountability may have been relaxed or ignored. In addition, a peace
agreement, or simple political reality, may require the integration of former
combatants into such forces. In all circumstances, but especially if rebel
forces have become integrated, professional training for the army and police
will likely be a priority for NHRIs operating in post-conict situations.
178
A UN Military Liaison Ofcer talks about the security situation with a family in Fatumean, Timor Leste. UN Photo by Martine Perret.
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3. VOICES FROM NHRIs IN CONFLICT AND POST-CONFLICT
SITUATIONS
3.1. Palestine Independent Commission for Human Rights
The following excerpts were taken from an interview conducted by the APF in November 2012 with
Randa Siniora, Director General of the Palestinian Independent Commission for Human Rights.
Focus on decentralization of activities
In the Commissions programme, the eld workers, the research workers and the managers of the
regional ofces are the ones that implement the awareness and educational programmes. Its not
centralized. Its decentralized. There are almost 30 staff members out of the 56 or 57 of the Commission
that are focused on awareness building and educational programmes.
Two-way process
The Commission works within the regions doing hearings, workshops and open days to discuss issues
of human rights, focused on the thematic issues that we choose to address. Its like a two-way thing.
We do these awareness and educational programmes and from them we get complaints. But at the
same time, from the complaints, we know where are the patterns of violations that we need to address
in our educational programmes.
Use of the media
The media is an important medium as it is cheaper and accessible to all the community. We use the
TV and the local radio talks shows a lot because we think these are more useable than others, and
everybody listens to them or sees them and they are available and accessible to everyone. A Human
Rights Quarterly is produced in Arabic, with the main objective being to address different human rights
issues. The Commission also has a special corner in two of the main newspapers, one in the West Bank
and one in the Gaza Strip.
Priority focus on vulnerable groups
Women and girls: Increased violations against women, such as arrest, torture, arbitrary arrest.
Training, awareness and educational programmes are focused on issues related to gender-based
violence, access of women to justice and political participation of women.
People with disabilities: The Commission is launching its rst national inquiry on the rights of
persons with disabilities to work. Training will also be focused on that issue.
Children: The Commission is working to mainstream or integrate a child rights ombudsman within
the organization.
Priority rights areas
Suppression of the rights of persons to freedom of expression and of the right to association
Hoping to develop greater capacity to monitor and promote economic, social and cultural rights.
Priority collaborations
There is a vibrant NGO sector in Palestine, including womens organizations and other organizations.
They are very much involved in many of the human rights advocacy and the education programmes
that we undertake. We also try to focus our efforts in training and capacity programmes for government
ofcials to ensure respect for human rights when they undertake their work.
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With regard training for government ofcials, you dont perhaps sense the change at rst. For example,
one of the security agencies told me one time, I use to torture people but after your training,
whenever I wanted to raise my hand on somebody to beat him or torture him, I remember that this is a
personal responsibility and it doesnt fall with the passage of time. The priority focus for 2013 is high
ranking ofcials, as it is they who give the orders.
Education policy
The Commission expects that each member of staff should be an advocate for human rights and be
involved in educational programmes. Everyone is expected in their eld of specialisation to be involved
in the Commissions awareness building and training programmes.
3.2. Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission
The following excerpts were taken from an interview conducted by the APF in November 2012 with
Ahmad Zia Langari, Commissioner with the Afghanistan Independent Commission for Human Rights.
The Commissions education programme is aimed at schools, police, Attorney-Generals staff members,
judges, NGO workers, local shura or local councils and village council members. It has several areas of
focus.
Child rights
The Commission trains school teachers about child rights and understanding how to treat children.
Education is also carried out with police on how they should treat children.
First day of school in Gaza. UN Photo by Shareef Sarhan.
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Priority on awareness raising in schools and colleges
There is a misperception among colleges that human rights principles are against Islam. When we
organize a training workshop or an awareness raising meeting, at the end of the meeting we receive
very good comments and [participants] say that both Islam and human rights principles are the same.
Islam wants justice, equality and human rights also want justice, equality. So the principle is the same,
just the approach may be different. Our focus on raising the awareness of colleges is because they are in
close contact with people and they have access in different parts of the country. Over the past ve years,
human rights messages have been included in the text books of schools from Grade 1 up to Grade 12.
So its a very good achievement. At the moment its very difcult to convince the Ministry of Education
to include a human rights book in the curriculum. However messages have been included into social
science and languages text books in the form of short stories or poetry.
The Commission has a Memorandum of Understanding with several universities to include human rights
as a subject in their curriculum. The law faculties in particular are teaching human rights as a separate
subject.
Understanding the general principles of human rights and the compatibility of human rights
principles and Islamic religious principles
The Commissions programme has been appreciated by different colleges. So the issues are raised
during preaching and prayer. Raising the rights of women and children, and the general principle of
human rights, at the daily or weekly preaching is very effective in changing the perception of common
people about human rights.
Participants in an educational programme on community development and peace building, Nili, Afghanistan. UN Photo by Eric Kanalstein.
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Public outreach through the media
Many people in Afghanistan are illiterate and so TV and radio are useful media. These programmes are
in audio-visual form and everyone should understand them. Most TV and radio channels broadcast
human rights programmes freely. A media ofcer from the Commission prepares short TV programmes
with a good message on human rights, womens rights, child rights, rights of persons with disability, so
that all persons in the country should understand it. This may include a short interview with a lawyer, a
human rights activist, a NGO worker or a victim. A programme about a child, for example, may show
the public cases of children suffering from hard work, cleaning or washing clothes, working in the car
repair shops or begging on the street. Fortunately in Afghanistan there are about 30 TV organizations
now active within the country, so most of them are connected to international satellite system that many
people in Afghanistan can see our programme. In many rural areas where there is not power, people are
using solar panels and so many houses have TV and many can see the programmes.
Training workshops
For others, such as NGO workers, lawyers, prosecutors, school teachers, university teachers, we are
organising training workshops. Generally in all our education programmes we consider human rights as
a civic responsibility because one of the problems in Afghanistan in relation to human rights violation, or
disrespecting human rights, is the low understanding among people of their civic responsibility.
PEACE BUILDING INITIATIVES IN AFGHANISTAN
According to Ahmad Fahim Hakim, years of war, occupation and Taliban
control has created a culture of violence that has become entrenched in
nearly all parts of the countrys social and political life.
It is evident in the systematic militarization of the education curriculum. For
example, children learn to add and subtract by using examples involving boxes
of bullets, he says. So the mentality is directed towards violence and everyone
is very aggressive in their behavior and the way they approach others.
At the community level, conicts often stem from the fact that records
related to land tenure, water or birth rights have been lost or destroyed and
that traditional ways of dealing with these issues through the Shura or
local council no longer function effectively.
Through Cooperation for Peace and Unity (www.cpau.org.af), a non-prot
organization that he led, Fahim sought to equip local communities with the
skills, knowledge and mechanisms to resolve their disputes peacefully and
to address other systemic issues, such as violence against women and
ethnic divisions.
At the heart of the approach was the establishment of peace councils,
which had an inclusive membership, allowing all members of the community
to participate and have a voice.
We would never try to impose solutions. Instead our aim was to be
a catalyst, to help them consider the issues that were dividing their
community and how they could resolve conicts peacefully, says Fahim.
I was working with people whose lives had been very disrupted. So when they
would come back and say we have the capacity and we can deal with these
things ourselves, it was very inspiring and genuine community empowerment.
At the community level, he adds, peace building initiatives, development
work and human rights advocacy are very closely interlinked.
More information is available at www.asiapacicforum.net/news/ahmad-fahim-hakim-afghanistan.html.
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USEFUL RESOURCES
Conict Resolution and Human Rights: Contradictory or Complementary;
Baroness Helena Kennedy QC; 2001; published in Human Rights Education
Pack; Asian Regional Resource Center for Human Rights Education; 2003
Education and Reconciliation: Exploring Conict and Post-conict
Situations; Julia Paulson (ed.); 2011
National Human Rights Institutions: History, Principles, Roles and
Responsibilities; Professional Training Series No. 4 (Rev. 1); OHCHR; 2010
Quality Education in Conict Affected Countries: Facilitators Manual;
United Nations Educational, Scientic and Cultural Organization; 2005;
available at http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001433/143319E.pdf
The Inuence of Education on Conict and Peace Building; Alan Smith; 2010
(paper commissioned for the Education for All Global Monitoring Report
2011)
Toolkit for collaboration with National Human Rights Institutions; United
Nations Development Programme and OHCHR; 2010
KEY POINTS: CHAPTER 11
Education in conict and post-conict regions is important to lessen the
impact of conict and to restore peace.
In conict and post-conict regions, NHRIs may be required to take on
roles that are unique to their situations and to modify normal programme
functions to respond to the specic situations facing different groups in
the society.
Part IV:
Tools and techniques
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111
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
112
Introduction to Part IV
This section of the Manual includes a collection of resources, tools and techniques that can be used for
planning, implementing and evaluating human rights education activities. They have been taken from
many sources and are referenced where their origin is known.
Human rights educators using this Manual will have many additional resources and tools that they have
found useful.
The table below lists these tools and identies where they could best be used in the three stages of the
human rights education cycle. It provides an overview of their purpose and the average amount of time
involved for each.
179
The table also describes the skill level required to use the tool and is based on the
human rights educator competencies listed in Chapter 3.
Knowledge competencies
Human rights knowledge of:
human rights in general, their promotion and protection
international and domestic rights frameworks and legislation mechanisms, as well as mechanisms
for addressing human rights grievances
human rights-based approaches
human rights as they apply to duty bearers, rights holders and inuencers
how societies function with regard to the realization of human rights.
Education and training knowledge of:
theory and principles of education in general, and human rights education specically
education methodologies, processes and tools related to formal and non-formal environments
and across all ages.
Technical and professional practice competencies
Ability to:
apply a human rights-based approach
plan, implement and evaluate context-appropriate human rights education programmes in formal
and non-formal environments and across all ages
use a broad range of human rights education methods and tools, such as information dissemination,
training, facilitation, advocacy for human rights, networking and community development
work with diverse groups and communities.
Personal competencies
ability to reect on and improve professional practice
ability to recognize personal identity and standpoint, and the impact that this may have on others
motivation to promote and defend human rights, both locally and globally.
179 The timeframes that are included here are a guide only. Depending on the context of the human rights education activity and the
nature of the participants, they may take more or less time.
Part IV Tools and techniques
113
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Part IV Tools and techniques
115
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Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
116
Tool 1:
Force eld analysis
When to use Purpose Time
Educator
skill level
Planning and
evaluation
A tool to identify outcomes and plan strategies
to achieve them.
Two hours
one day
Intermediate
The force eld analysis assists the educator to assess the context for the education activity and to plan
and design an education activity. It identies the present situation (baseline data), the goal and the forces
working against, or supporting, the achievement of the goal.
The tool can be used as an individual or group exercise. It may involve sheets of paper and markers,
lines in the sand, stick-it notes on your desk or computer graphics. It can be used for planning and
designing all methods of human rights education activity, from the simple to the more complex.
Process
1. Outline, and discuss if appropriate, the present situation/context (see situation analysis in
Chapter 6). Dene briey and write in the place indicated above the vertical line.
2. Identify the major goal or outcome sought. Write this above the vertical line.
3. Think about the factors in the context that support movement toward the goal. Draw these as
longer or shorter arrows indicating the force or impact they have.
4. Think about the factors in the context that hinder movement toward the goal. Draw these as longer
or shorter arrows indicating the force or impact they have.
5. The human rights education activity is designed to increase the supporting factors and reduce the
hindering factors. Choose either one of the supporting factors to strengthen or one of the hindering
factors to reduce or weaken.
EXAMPLE
A goal to reduce the human rights abuse of prisoners may involve
a human rights workshop for an NGO working in prisons (increase
supporting factor) AND/OR a workshop with prison ofcers to
recognize the impact of their actions on prisoners (decrease hindering
factor).
A goal to write an resource on the Convention on the Rights of
Persons with Disabilities may involve using the expertise of people
with disabilities (increase supporting factor) AND/OR ensuring that the
resource is accessible (decrease hindering factor).
Part IV Tools and techniques
117
The force eld analysis may also be used as an evaluation tool to assess the movement of the current
situation in relation to the goal and to identify the impact of the supporting and hindering factors on this
movement. The overall questions addressed by this type of analysis are:
What is the current situation?
Has there been a change in the current situation? Is it closer to, or further away from, the overall
goal?
How has the activity impacted on reducing the hindering factors?
How has the activity impacted on strengthening the supporting factors?
What actions need to be taken as a result of the evaluation outcomes?
Supporting
factors
Current
situation
Hindering
factors
Outcomes
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
118
Tool 2:
Feedback continuum
When to use Purpose Time
Educator
skill level
Planning and
evaluation
A tool for nding out the prior knowledge of
participants and then assessing how they are
progressing toward the activitys outcomes.
15 minutes
one hour
Beginning
The feedback continuum has multiple uses. It can gather information that contributes to a situational
analysis by scoping peoples views about a certain issue or topic. It can assess prior learning before a
workshop and it can be used for review or evaluation. It can be used as a one off or over a period of
time.
In the photograph below, the continuum was drawn on paper with two questions:
Participants used stick-it notes with their own identier (a symbol or a word) to position themselves in
relation to each question. They did so on the rst day of a seven-day workshop, revisited it during the
workshop and then again at the end.
Continuums can be set up anywhere, using whatever resources are at hand (for example, a line in the
sand, the position between two trees, a oor or a window). Educators can use the tool to explore any
question that is relevant to the group or to the activity.
Nothing
How much do you know about human rights? Enough to
teach others
Nothing
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facilitate
condently
How much do you know about facilitation?
Photo by Jill Chrisp.
Part IV Tools and techniques
119
Tool 3:
Street survey
180
When to use Purpose Time
Educator
skill level
Planning and
evaluation
A tool for learning about or analyzing a situation
(situation analysis), gaining feedback or
evaluating a service.
Minimum
one day
Experienced
Street surveys (or community gathering surveys, bus-stop surveys, market surveys) use a variety of
techniques and resources. The context of an activity, the availability of resources and the creativity of
the human rights educator, will all play a part in deciding the most appropriate survey process to use.
The New Zealand Human Rights Commission undertook street surveys using a combination of
community mapping, continuum and comment to identify the key human rights issues. Language was
chosen carefully to make the tool accessible: What is fair? What is not fair? Tools used included
paper, stick-it notes, pens, human rights information and resources and several educators and support
workers.
180 This tool was used by the New Zealand Human Rights Commission in 2004 for the development of its national human rights
action plan.
Street survey in the main street of Gisborne, New Zealand. Photo by Jill Chrisp.
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
120
Tool 4:
Reef analysis
181
When to use Purpose Time
Educator
skill level
Planning and
implementation
A tool for understanding varying power
relations and diverse experiences of a specic
situation. It also helps identify how others may
be experiencing or inuencing a situation.
One two hours Experienced
The reef analysis is a popular education tool that can be used in community development and adult
education. It is a useful prompt for group discussion and can be applied to all education methods.
It works best when participants are trying to understand the same situation and have a common
experience.
The common experience might be:
a community experiencing a particular human rights issue
a workshop with a group of duty bearers, a group of marginalized people or both.
Questions that may be asked:
1. Who is in the boat? (Think of groups of people rather than individuals.)
2. What are the waves (or issues) that are rocking the boat?
3. What is the reef that creates the waves that toss the boat on the sea? (Think of the factors that
inuence or control the human rights issue.)
4. In which picture do you see yourself? Why? In which picture do you see others? Why?
5. How did people get into the boat? (Consider colonization, treaties, assimilation policies,
immigration policies, policies on multiculturalism, economic policies, or discrimination based on
class, place of origin, gender, ability, sexual orientation and age.)
6. How did people survive, or not survive, in the boat?
7. While it is easy to see the pictures in the reef analysis, is there another analogy that you can apply
to you/your organization/your community? Describe it.
181 Responding to Diversity; Maureen Collins; 2006; available at www.muttart.org/sites/default/les/Collins_M_Responding%20to
%20Diversity.pdf.
Part IV Tools and techniques
121
The reef analysis








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Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
122
Tool 5:
Community mapping
182
When to use Purpose Time
Educator
skill level
Planning and
evaluation
A tool that enables participants to tell the story
about what is happening in their place, be
it a workplace, school, community, region or
country.
Various Beginning
Based on a visual stimulus (such as a drawing, map or photo), community mapping is a powerful tool
because:
it encourages diverse groups of people to describe what is happening in their community, region
or country
it communicates this story to a broad audience, immediately and graphically.
Mapping encourages a high level of participation (exercises are often led and run entirely by local people)
and the recorded, visual output can be used immediately to bridge any verbal communication gap that
might exist.
The mapping exercise can be used to generate discussions about local priorities and aspirations. During
the implementation of a project, changes can be recorded on maps made during the project planning.
When evaluating a project, comparative maps show whether or what change has been made.
Mapping can happen during a workshop, as part of a community meeting or over a period of time, such
as during a street or bus stop survey (as in the photo below) where people gather.
182 This tool was used by the New Zealand Human Rights Commission in 2004 for the development of its national human rights
action plan.
Main street in Gisborne, New Zealand. Photo by Jill Chrisp.
Part IV Tools and techniques
123
Tool 6:
Photovoice
183
When to use Purpose Time
Educator
skill level
Planning,
implementation
and evaluation
A tool that uses photography for education,
creating community action, evaluating the
outcomes of an activity.
Various Experienced
Photovoice is a method that works well with human rights community development. Participants are
asked to represent their community or point of view by taking photographs of their surroundings or a
particular theme, discussing them together and developing stories and an understanding of what the
photos are showing. Photovoice was popularized in 1992 by Caroline Wang with a project involving rural
village women in Yunnan Province in China. There are many examples of the power of this technique.
Films or touring exhibitions can be a very effective way to introduce the human rights issue and
participants to a broader audience. However, they also require resources that are beyond the reach of
most organizations.
A more feasible option may be to post photos to Flickr (www.ickr.com) or videos to YouTube (www.
youtube.com/watch?v=3xXsHJRjO04) and create an online exhibition.
183 A comprehensive explanation of Photovoice and how to use it is available from the Community ToolBox; available at http://ctb.
ku.edu/en/tablecontents/chapter3_section20_main.aspx.
A well-known example of the use of Photovoice can be seen in the lm
Born into Brothels, which won an Academy Award for best documentary in
2005. Photographer Zana Briski, in the course of documenting the lives of
sex workers and their children in the red light district of Calcutta, decided to
give several of the children cameras and ask them to document their world.
Their sensitive and often striking photos, and the lm that resulted from
them, gave rise to Kids With Cameras and Kids With Destiny
(www.kids-with-cameras.org/home) which continues Briskis work and
has opened doors to a new life for many of the children involved.
Hutong to Highrise (http://english.cri.cn/3100/2006/08/31/63@133236.htm)
is a Photovoice project that documents the resistance of hutong dwellers in
Beijing to the destruction of their neighborhoods. Some families of hutong
dwellers have lived in their houses for many generations. Being relocated
to high-rise apartment buildings, where they know no other tenants, leaves
them without the social networks and supports that have enriched their
lives. They have documented their way of life and their surroundings, as well
as the demolition of the neighbourhoods they cherished.
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
124
Tool 7:
Sequencing
When to use Purpose Time
Educator
skill level
Planning and
implementation
For a human rights educator (and participants,
if appropriate) to use when deciding the order
of activities in group work.
N.A. Beginning
Depending on the nature of the activity, a few or all of the following activity types may be used.
Ice breaker activities
De-inhibitizer activities
Trust activities
Communication activities
Decision-making activities
Social change activities
Part IV Tools and techniques
125
Tool 8:
Organizing cycle
184
When to use Purpose Time
Educator
skill level
Planning and
implementation
For a human rights educator (and participants,
if appropriate) to use when deciding the order
of activities in group work.
N.A. Intermediate
This tool outlines the steps that may be used to facilitate human rights education activities. It is suitable
for training, education, advocacy and community development.
184 Adapted from Get Organized! Stories and Reections on Community Organizing; Jo Hann Tan and Roem Tomatimasang (as
included in Reclaiming Voices; Asian Regional Resource Center for Human Rights Education; p. 29).
1.
Start from
the people
6.
Evaluate action
5.
Awareness
towards action
4.
New awareness,
attitude and
knowledge
3.
Analyzing together
and establishing
common
understanding
2.
Provoke thought
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
126
Tool 9:
Learning curve
When to use Purpose Time
Educator
skill level
Implementation
and evaluation
For a human rights educator (and participants,
if appropriate) to use when facilitating a
participatory activity. It aims to identify and
apply the learning that is gained by the activity.
Various Beginning
This tool has been designed to encourage the educator to recognize both content and process elements
in an activity and to allow opportunity for reection on a learning event or stimulus and application to
participants lives. It is relevant to most education methods and, while the ve stages of the learning
curve may not be completed, the educator could set up the potential for them to be completed outside
of the activity.
1. Brief: Give information required to engage in the activity.
2. Act: Facilitate the activity.
3. Debrief: Encourage participants to express their initial reactions to the activity.
4. Reect: Encourage participants to think about the learning they may have gained from the
activity.
5. Apply: Encourage participants to link the learning they have gained to their own life/practice/
behaviours.
Brief

Act Debrief
Reect
Apply
Brief
Act Debrief
Reect
Apply
Part IV Tools and techniques
127
Learning curve in action
185

186
Stages APF Training-of-trainers
blended learning course
185
Advocacy project Workshop activity
Wind of UDHR
186
Brief Explanation of how the
programme will operate
and what is required from
participants.
A group meets to discuss a
human rights issue they may
have. A decision is made to
undertake some research
about the issue.
The activity is explained,
including what is required
from participants.
Act Information and activities
provided (using an online
platform and a face-to-face
regional workshop).
Research is undertaken. Wind of UDHR game is
played.
Debrief Feedback sought from
participants about their
experience of the learning
(evaluation/online chat
space).
Group meets to check how
progress is being made.
Opportunity is given
for participants to give
feedback on the activity
using a card they held.
Reect Participants provided with a
framework and tools to think
further about their learning.
Group assesses whether
there is enough information.
Using coloured cards
participants discuss the
learning from the game in
groups.
Apply Participants encouraged
to apply their learning to
their own work, through the
presentation of face-to-face
workshop materials and the
opportunity to become an
APF Master Trainer.
The group decides to
use the information they
have found to inform the
strategies they need to take
in response to the issue.
Participants discuss the
relevance of the learning to
their own countries and/or
work.
185 More information is available at www.asiapacicforum.net/support/training/training-of-trainers.
186 Contributed by Eka Christiningsih Tanlain from the Indonesian National Commission on Human Rights.
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128
Tool 10:
Facilitation techniques
187
When to use Purpose Time
Educator
skill level
Implementation
and evaluation
A list of techniques that can be used for
facilitating groups of people. They apply to
a number of human rights methods and
purposes.
Various All levels
Mirroring
Mirroring is repeating, in a condensed version, what a person said. It speeds up the tempo of a slow-
moving discussion and is often used during brainstorming.
Gathering ideas
If the pace is slow, with many gaps between contributions, or if the group is slowed down by too much
discussion, try quickly building a list of ideas. This is a time to gather the ideas, not to discuss them. If it
is the groups rst time listing ideas, spend a little time discussing freely.
For example: For the next activity, I would like everyone to feel free to express their opinion, even the
most creative or unpopular ones. So please let it be a time of idea generation, not a time of judgment.
The discussions can come after we have nished making the list.
Making space
This technique sends a message to the quiet participants that there is always a space for them to speak,
should they choose. As a facilitator, watch the quiet members of the group and be aware of their body
language and facial expressions which indicate their desire to speak. Invite them to speak: You look like
you might want to say something . If they decline, be gracious and move on. If necessary, hold others
off. For example: Lets have one person speak at a time. Abdul, why dont you go rst. If participation
is very weak, try a structured go around to give each person a chance to speak.
Drawing people out
This is a way to encourage people to take the step to clarify and rene their ideas. The most basic
technique of drawing people out is to paraphrase the speakers statement and then ask open-ended,
non-directive questions, such as: Can you say more about that?
Paraphrasing
This is a fundamental listening skill which has both a calming effect and reassures speakers that their
ideas are worthy. It also gives speakers a chance to hear how their words are being heard by others.
187 Participatory Techniques and Tools; World Food Programme; 2001; available at http://toolkit.ineesite.org/toolkit/INEEcms/
uploads/1033/Participatory_Techniques_EN.pdf.
Part IV Tools and techniques
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Preface your paraphrase with: It sounds like what you are saying is ... or This is what Im hearing you
say ... or Let me see if I understand what you are saying Ask for clarication from the speaker until
you understand what was meant.
Stacking
This technique helps everybody take turns when there are several people who want to speak at once.
It also signals to everybody that they are going to have their turn to speak. So instead of competing for
speaking time, people are free to listen to the discussion without distraction.
Stacking has four steps:
The facilitator rst asks those who want to speak to raise their hand.
A speaking order is created by assigning a number to each person with a hand raised.
People are called upon to speak by number.
When the last person has spoken, the facilitator asks if anybody else wants to speak. If so,
another round of stacking is done.
Tracking
In many discussions, there are a number of ideas being discussed at once. This is because there are
many aspects to each issue. However, people often focus only on the particular issue that interests
them.
Tracking lets the whole group see the different aspects of the topic being discussed and treats each with
equal validity. This relieves the anxiety often felt by people who wonder why the group is not responding
to their ideas.
Tracking has three steps:
The facilitator indicates that she or he is going to step back from the conversation and summarize
it.
The facilitator summarizes the different conversations. For example: It seems one conversation
is about food distribution points, another about the committee and another about the food
packages.
The facilitator asks for clarication. For example: Are these the three items being discussed?
Encouraging
Creating an opening in a discussion without putting any one individual on the spot is part of the technique
of encouraging.
Often during a meeting, one or more people may not appear to be engaged by the discussion. With
a little encouragement, they often discover an aspect of the topic that holds meaning for them. This
is especially relevant when facilitating mixed groups of men and women. Encouraging is especially
important at the early stages of a discussion. As people become more engaged, they dont need as
much encouragement.
Listening for common ground
When group members become polarized on disagreements, the situation becomes difcult. However,
most disputes contain elements of agreement. This technique validates the groups areas of disagreement
and focuses on their areas of common ground.
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130
Listening for common ground has four steps:
Indicate that you are going to summarize the groups differences and similarities. For example:
Let me summarize what I am hearing from each of you. I am hearing a lot of differences but also
a lot of similarities.
Summarize the differences. For example: It sounds like one group wants to put the food delivery
at the edge of the village, while the other group wants to locate it in the centre of the village.
Note the areas of common ground. For example: You both seem to agree that you want the
marginalized families to have easy access to the food delivery.
Check for accuracy. For example: Have I got it right?
Balancing
The direction of a discussion often follows the lead set by the rst few people who speak. Using the
technique of balancing, a facilitator helps the group to round out its discussion by asking for other
viewpoints that may be present but unexpressed.
Balancing not only assists individual members who need a little support for their ideas, it also has a
strong positive effect on the norms of the group as a whole by sending the message: It is acceptable
here for people to speak their mind, no matter what opinions they hold.
Try using phrases such as:
Now we know where two people stand. Does anyone else have a different position?
Are there other ways of looking at this?
Does everyone agree with this?
Intentional silence
Intentional silence consists of a pause, usually lasting no more than a few seconds, to give speakers that
brief extra quiet time to discover what they want to say.
Stay focused on the speaker. Say nothing and do not nod or shake your head. Just stay relaxed and pay
attention. If necessary, hold up your hand to keep others from breaking the silence.
Sometimes everyone in the group is confused, agitated or having trouble focusing. At such time, silence
may be very helpful. For example: Lets take a minute of silence to think what this means to each of us.
Brainstorming
188
Brainstorming involves a period of free thinking, which is used to articulate ideas, followed by more
rigorous discussion of these ideas.
Brainstorming brings new ideas about how to tackle a problem, as the free-thinking atmosphere
encourages creativity. Sometimes it can reduce conict, as it helps participants to see other points of
view and possibly change their own perspective on problems. It can also bring humour and help break
the ice. Brainstorming is useful to gather a lot of ideas, prior to scenario analyses, problem-solving,
decision-making or planning.
188 Participatory Methods Toolkit: A Practitioners Manual; Nikki Slocum; 2003; available at http://archive.unu.edu/hq/library/
Collection/PDF_les/CRIS/PMT.pdf.
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131
Tool 11:
Mind mapping
When to use Purpose Time
Educator
skill level
Planning,
implementation
and evaluation
A tool that can be used to develop thinking
about a central idea, concept or issue.
30 minutes to
one hour
Beginning
A mind map is a diagram used to visually outline connected thoughts. It usually begins with a few words
an idea, concept or issue placed in the centre and then associated ideas and concepts are added.
The ideas are connected to each other in a way that tells a story. Mind maps can be drawn by hand,
as rough notes during a meeting or on a large sheet of paper on a wall, or as higher quality pictures
when more time is available.
The following guidelines are suggested for creating mind maps:
189
1. Start in the centre
with an image of the
topic, using at least
three colors.
2. Use images,
symbols, codes
and dimensions
throughout your mind
map.
3. Select key words and
print using upper or
lower case letters.
4. Each word/image is
best presented alone
and sitting on its own
line.
5. The lines should be
connected, starting
from the central
image. The central
lines are thicker;
organic and thinner as they radiate out from the centre.
6. Make the lines the same length as the word/image they support.
7. Use multiple colors throughout the mind map, for visual stimulation and also to encode or group.
8. Develop your own personal style of mind mapping.
9. Use emphasis and show associations in your mind map.
10. Keep the mind map clear by using radial hierarchy, numerical order or outlines to embrace your
branches.
189 More information is available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mind_map.
Population solutions mind map, available at www.learningfundamentals.com.au.
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Tool 12:
Tree diagram
When to use Purpose Time
Educator
skill level
Planning,
implementation
and evaluation
A multi-purpose visual tool that can be used
for understanding issues and priorities and
developing outcomes and strategies.
Two hours or
more
Intermediate
Information is organized into a tree-like diagram. The main issue is represented by the trees trunk and
the relevant factors, inuences and outcomes will show up as systems of roots and branches. In a
project context, tree diagrams can be used to guide design and evaluation systems. It can be used by
an individual or a group.
As a community
participation exercise,
tree diagrams can help
people to uncover and
analyse the underlying
causes of a particular
problem or to rank and
measure objectives in
relation to one another.
In the agency context,
less elaborate trees
are often made in the
form of diagrams to
illustrate a network
of factors. Tree
diagrams are often
part of participatory
planning methods, for
example in stakeholder
workshops.
190
190 Participatory Methods Toolkit: A Practitioners Manual; Nikki Slocum; 2003; available at http://archive.unu.edu/hq/library/
Collection/PDF_les/CRIS/PMT.pdf.
Wayne Food Initiative Logic Model, available at http://waynefoods.wordpress.com/home/program-logic-model.
Part IV Tools and techniques
133
Tool 13:
Theatre
When to use Purpose Time
Educator
skill level
Implementation Uses drama, acting, role play, simulation, and
lm to raise awareness of and explore human
rights issues or situations.
Various Intermediate
experienced
Theatre is a powerful tool for human rights education. Drama, acting, role play, simulation and lm is
particularly useful way to:
cross language barriers
broaden participants access to the concepts
deepen participants awareness of human rights issues and situations and create strategies to
address them.
They are many methods and techniques for using theatre in human rights education. Several examples
are listed below.
Role play/simulation
191
This is a learning method that involves changing a participants behaviour to act out an adopted role.
Participants take on the role proles of specic characters or organizations in a contrived setting. Role
play is designed primarily to build rst person experience in a safe and supportive environment. It is
widely acknowledged as a powerful teaching technique in face-to-face teaching. Role play can also be
used online.
Playback theatre
192
Playback practitioners use the method to address social issues, such as bullying (students tell stories
about their experiences in relation to bullying and explore ways to create a respectful and safe school
environment), or to provide a forum for the exchange of diverse experiences. A project in Afghanistan
(2010) trained victims of violence to enact each others stories in the context of transitional justice.
A project in Melbourne, Australia (2011) trained young people to enact stories of refugee youths
experiences in the context of interactions with police and to enact stories of police experiences in the
context of interactions with refugee youth the purpose being to bridge understanding between these
two groups.
Image theatre
193
Image theatre uses still images (where individuals or groups invent body-shapes or postures) to explore
abstract concepts such as relationships and emotions, as well as realistic situations. Participants rapidly
sculpt their own or each others bodies to express attitudes and emotions.
191 More information is available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Role-playing and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roleplay_simulation.
192 More information is available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Playback_Theatre.
193 More information is available at http://dramaresource.com/strategies/image-theatre.
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134
These images are then placed together and brought to life. The method is often used to explore internal
or external oppression, unconscious thoughts and feelings. Image theatre is a exible tool for exploring
issues, attitudes and emotions, both with groups who are condent with drama and those with little or
no experience. No one has lines to learn or has to act in front of others. Ideas, feelings and experiences
can be explored in a less confronting way.
Film festivals
A growing number of lm festivals dedicated to the promotion of human rights and dignity are being held
around the world. Some NHRIs also organize or support human rights lm festivals as an education tool.
The Human Rights Film Network
194
supports the activities of individual festivals and creates new platforms
and joint projects. It promotes the distribution of lms with human rights themes at festivals worldwide. It
also assists the establishment of new festivals. As such, the network creates an international supportive
environment of human rights lms and lmmakers.
194 More information is available at www.humanrightslmnetwork.org.
Founded in 1967 by Cecile-Guidote Alvarez, the Philippine Educational
Theater Association is an organization of creative and critical artist-
teacher-cultural workers committed to artistic excellence and a peoples
culture that fosters both personal fullment and social transformation.
It roots its foundation in the use of theatre that is distinctly Filipino as a
tool for social change and development. The company has lived by this
principle as it continues to evolve with the changes that have occurred
within and around it. It continues to push for rst-rate quality theatre while
never taking for granted that the art it produces and teaches always serves
a greater purpose.
Its vision is to develop excellent theatre aesthetics and pedagogy towards
the empowerment of people and society.
More information is available at http://petatheater.com/about-peta.
Part IV Tools and techniques
135
Tool 14:
Visual arts
When to use Purpose Time
Educator
skill level
Implementation
and evaluation
Uses painting, sculpture, printmaking,
photography, crafts and other visual media to
explore issues or situations.
Various All levels
There are many ways that visual arts/media can be used as powerful human rights education tools.
Some examples are given below.
Images from a 2006 quilt competition organized by the New Zealand Human Rights Commission. Photos by Jill Chrisp.
My Drawing, My Rights contest held by the Asian Regional Resource Center for Human Rights Education in 1998.
Reproduced from Focus, March 1999, Vol. 15, Hurights Osaka available at
www.hurights.or.jp/archives/focus/section2/1999/03/from-the-eyes-of-the-child.html.
Cover of the Australian Human Rights
Commissions Social Justice Report
2008. The cover features a photograph
by Pierre Pouliquin taken on
National Sorry Day, 25 May 2008,
commemorating the history of
forcible removals and its effects.
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136
Tool 15:
Sample workshop on the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
195
When to use Purpose Time
Educator
skill level
Implementation A sample workshop using interactive processes
to facilitate learning about the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights.
Two hours Beginning
This is a sample workshop using interactive processes to facilitate learning about the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR).
Step 1: Denition and principles of human rights
1. The facilitator introduces herself or himself to the participants and explains the aims and objectives
for the activity.
2. The facilitator asks participants to introduce themselves, including their name, job, their
expectations for the activity and what they think human rights are. She or he writes down the
points on the ipchart.
3. The facilitator reads the participants understanding of human rights.
4. Using a PowerPoint presentation, the facilitator provides an overview of human rights, the UDHR
and the principles of human rights.
5. The facilitator asks one of participants to read the preamble to the UDHR to show its purpose.
Step 2: Human rights as dened by the UDHR
1. A circle of chairs is set up. There are enough chairs for each participant, minus one.
2. The facilitator distributes human rights cards to all participants. Each card includes one human
right.
3. The facilitator explains the rules of the game, Wind of UDHR.
Participants are asked to stand around the circle of chairs.
Music is played and when the music stops, the participants must race to sit in a chair. The
participant who did not get a seat will be the instructor for the game. After participants sit,
they must ask and memorize the human rights included on the cards held by the person on
their right and on their left.
The instructor addresses the participants with one of three directions.
Wind of UDHR blowing to the right!: Each participant must state the human right on the
card held by the person on their right.
195 Contributed by Eka Christiningsih Tanlain from the Indonesian National Commission on Human Rights.
Part IV Tools and techniques
137
Wind of UDHR blowing to the left!: Each participant must state the human right on the card
held by the person on their left.
Tornado! All the participants (including the instructor) stand up and race to nd a new chair.
They cannot remain in the same chair.
The person who did not manage to nd a chair is the new instructor. The game is repeated
until around three instructors have had their turn.
4. When the game is nished and participants return to their regular seats, the facilitator asks each
participant to name the human rights on his or her card.
5. Using a PowerPoint presentation, the facilitator explains all the human rights in the UDHR.
Step 3: Two major group of human rights: economic, social and cultural
rights and civil and political rights
1. The facilitator describes the two major group of human rights: economic, social and cultural rights
and civil and political rights.
2. Participants form into random groups. The articles of the UDHR are divided among the groups.
Each group is given two cards, each with a different colour (such as blue and green). Groups go
through the articles of the UDHR and decide which are economic, social and cultural rights and
which are civil and political rights.
3. Each group presents their results.
Step 4: Wrap-up
1. The facilitator recaps the workshop and guides any discussion that may occur.
2. A workshop evaluation activity is facilitated, with participants asked whether the session met their
expectations.
3. The facilitator closes the activity.
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138
Tool 16:
Workshop overview:
Introduction to human rights
When to use Purpose Time
Educator
skill level
Implementation An overview of a workshop that uses interactive
processes to provide an introduction to
domestic and international human rights.
Two hours Beginning
Objectives
By the end of the workshop, participants will have:
been introduced to human rights and the international human rights framework
been introduced to domestic human rights law
had the opportunity to apply human rights to their own work/issues
been introduced to the NHRI, its roles, responsibilities and services
been introduced to the NHRIs complaint handling process.
Timeframe
This is a two-hour workshop that can be adapted to t shorter or longer timeframes.
Audience
This workshop has been designed for an audience with limited understanding of human rights, domestic
human rights legislation and the NHRI.
Time Activity
00.00 Introductions
00.10 Tool Box exercise: Each person writes one thing they can contribute and one thing they would like
to get out of the workshop. Share these with the group.
00.15 Introduce workshop
00.20 Brainstorming exercise on human rights.
00.30 Mapping exercise: Participants draw their home community, region or workplace. Using green and
blue stick-it notes, they identify three things that are great and three things that are not fair. Present
these to the group.
01.00 PowerPoint presentation on the human rights framework.
01.20 Using the issues raised in the mapping exercise, make links to the human rights framework.
01.30 Hand out case studies relating to specic domestic and international human rights issues.
Newspaper clippings, participant experiences, scenario cards could be used. In groups, discuss
the relevant human rights issues. Report back to the whole group.
01.50 Evaluation
02.00 Finish
Part IV Tools and techniques
139
Tool 17:
Workshop overview:
Introduction to disability rights
When to use Purpose Time
Educator
skill level
Implementation An overview of a workshop that provides an
introduction to disability rights.
Two hours Beginning
Objectives
By the end of this workshop, participants will have:
been introduced to disability rights
identied discrimination and barriers to participation for people with disabilities
been introduced to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
considered practical ways to reduce discrimination experienced by people with disabilities
been introduced to the NHRIs complaint handling process.
Timeframe
The workshop should be tailored to each audience. Some audiences may require more time for
welcomes and to making sure that the environment is comfortable and/or culturally appropriate. Some
audiences may benet from more time at the end to discuss their particular issues and courses of action
they may wish to take. It is important that the facilitator ensures that the structure and timing of the
workshop provides a safe place for people to participate fully.
As a rough guide, the workshop can be between two to four hours.
Audience
The workshop provides an introduction to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The
topic of this workshop is human rights for people with disabilities. It is suitable for people with disabilities
and people who do not have disabilities. For example, service providers and workplace staff can benet
from understanding the Convention and its relevance to the work of their organizations.
Approach
This workshop aims to empower participants by making information on the rights of people with
disabilities accessible and easy to understand. By providing clear and simple messages about these
rights, it is hoped that this information will stay with participants and be translated into action. Action
may be as simple as having a conversation with someone about the rights of people with disabilities
after the workshop, or an organization may change their policies to become more disability-friendly. All
action, big or small, is effective.
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
140
The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities covers all areas of life. The pace of the
workshop should reect the interests and concerns of the audience. Some individuals or groups will
naturally want to focus on those rights that are most important to them. Time should be allowed for
these discussions, as it makes the issue relevant to their daily lives.
Part IV Tools and techniques
141
Tool 18:
Workshop overview:
Sexual and racial harassment
When to use Purpose Time
Educator
skill level
Implementation An overview of a workshop that provides an
introduction to sexual and racial harassment.
Two hours Beginning
Objectives
By the end of the workshop, participants will have:
reected on their own attitudes to sexual and racial language, images and relationships in the
workplace
considered the conditions that exist when an organizations collective ethos differs from the
expectations of the community
described sexual and racial harassment
been introduced to the legal issues and processes around sexual and racial harassment,
discussed perspectives of power imbalance and analysed the issues
discussed sexual and racial harassment case studies and identied the issues and resolutions
identied good practice approaches to preventing and addressing sexual and racial harassment.
Timeframe
The workshop is designed to be completed within two hours. However, the facilitator should expect to be
available well beyond that time in order to talk privately with participants who have immediate concerns.
Audience
This workshop has been developed for workplaces and other organizations, such as adult education
providers. Care has to be taken that condentiality is maintained. It should be noted that
an evaluation of the safety of the workplace is lled in prior to the workshop and that some
participants may wish to do that completely privately
participants are asked not to discuss personal experiences at all in the workshop
the facilitator has to be prepared for participant distress and another room should be available for
separation and privacy.
Approach
The workshop is fast and interactive. It requires some specic reection on personal attitudes to sexual
and racial attitudes, images and relationships in the workplace. The initial brainstorm/two-person work
on behaviours, images and language that can be considered sexual and/or racial harassment must be
well controlled and respectful. The workshop concludes with a personal and collective understanding
of, and commitment to, transparent and appropriate structures and processes for safe workplaces.
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142
Tool 19:
Workshop overview:
Bullying and harassment
When to use Purpose Time
Educator
skill level
Implementation An overview of a workshop that provides an
introduction to bullying and harassment.
Two hours Beginning
Objectives
By the end of the workshop, participants will have:
described bullying and harassment
identied the effects of bullying and harassment, from the perspective of the bully and the person
being bullied
been introduced to the legal issues and processes around bullying and harassment
identied the signs of bullying in the workplace
considered how to prevent and deal with bullying and harassment in the workplace.
Timeframe
The workshop is designed to be completed within two hours. However, the facilitator should expect
to be available well beyond that time in order to talk privately with participants who have immediate
concerns.
Audience
This workshop has been developed for workplaces. Care has to be taken that condentiality is
maintained. It should be noted that:
an evaluation of the safety of the workplace is lled in prior to the workshop starting and that
some participants may wish to do that completely privately
participants are asked not to discuss personal experiences at all in the workshop.
Approach
The workshop is fast and interactive, with the emphasis on participants identifying and describing issues
around bullying and harassment in the workplace. It asks the participants to evaluate the safety of their
own workplace and identify collective and personal solutions to the problem of the bullying.
Part IV Tools and techniques
143
Tool 20:
Equality card game
196
When to use Purpose Time
Educator
skill level
Implementation An experiential activity that simulates the
inequalities that exist in society.
One four hours Experienced
This tool can be used for training, education and the education components of community development.
It requires ten or more participants.
Time required
The time required for this activity will vary, according to the programme, the participants and the
objective. It could take 20 minutes or continue for hours.
Equipment
You will need a pack of playing cards. If there are more than 50 participants, you will need another pack.
Objective
The game is designed to create a simulated experience of the inequalities that exist in society. It is set
up in such a way that participants will be given an identity and status that reects societal inequality and
be required to interact with others. It is useful when working with issues of discrimination and inequality.
Brief
Each participant is given a playing card that they use to form groups of four participants. The suit
determines what group they are able to join. That is, each group must be either all Hearts, or Diamonds,
or Clubs or Spades. The cards also carry a point value:
Joker = can be any suit, worth 50 points
Ace = 25 points
King = 13 points
Queen = 12 points
Jack = 11 points
All other cards in the pack indicate their own number value.
That is, 10 = 10 points, 9 = 9 points, etc.
1. Count the number of participants in the group.
2. Choose the same number of playing cards. Ensure that the cards you choose carry a variety of suits
and points value. Choose cards that will enable some groups to form and others not. For example,
you may give out three cards that are Hearts. Participants with Hearts cards will not be able to form
a group of four participants. Make sure a Joker is one that you choose. This card has the highest
points and can be any suit.
196 Jill Chrisp. Game in this context involves a simulation of real life. It requires skilled facilitation in order that a challenging but
safe environment is created within which participants can experience the reality experienced by others or be reminded of their own.
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
144
3. Hand a card to each participant. Ask them not to reveal their cards.
4. Once each participant has a card you explain the rules. Do/promise whatever you like to build the
desire to win.
They have [designated time ten minutes, one hour ] to form groups of four.
Each group must be of the same suit and have the highest value to win.
Participants can choose whether to reveal their card or not.
The groups must be evident when time is up, such as by linking arms or standing separate from
another group.
Act
5. Announce game begins. Be accurate with your timing. Announce two minutes to go, one minute to
go and then count down the last ten seconds. Note: sometimes groups form very quickly and then
there is a pause if this happens dont be tempted to end the game. The energy will pick up again
as participants try to sabotage a group or try to form another. Anything can happen!
6. You are observing what is happening. Take notes if you wish but it is crucial that you maintain the
energy and the tension of the game while ensuring that no one is having unacceptable difculty. You
may choose to have an observer.
7. When time is up, no participant must be still.
8. Count up the group scores.
Debrief
Give the group time to talk about what happened, laugh, be indignant whatever comes up. It is
important that participants engage with their feelings. Ask participants to return their cards to a central
pile and say out loud, or to themselves, I am not [card] anymore.
Reect
Facilitate a discussion about what participants had gained from the activity; what was the learning or the
analysis. Make sure they dont drop back into discussion about what happened in the game.
For example, the discussion could explore:
what was going on
what they thought about their own role and what they did with it
what roles were being played out
how these roles are reected in the real world
who in the real world could be Joker/two Spades/the group of cards with high suit ...
Apply
This is the so what?. What does this mean to the lives of participants at work/school/play?
For participants who already experience inequalities in their world, you will
need to manipulate the cards so they dont play themselves (i.e. do not
give a low-value card to someone who experiences, or is vulnerable to,
discrimination).
Part IV Tools and techniques
145
Tool 21:
World caf
197
When to use Purpose Time
Educator
skill level
Implementation
and evaluation
A participatory activity that facilitates dialogue
and the sharing of knowledge and ideas.
One two hours Intermediate
The world caf is a creative process for facilitating collaborative dialogue and sharing knowledge and
ideas to create a living network of conversation and action.
In this process, a caf ambiance is created with participants discussing a question or issue in small
groups around caf tables. Participants move to a new table at regular intervals. One table host remains
and summarizes the previous conversation to the new table guests.
In this way, the proceeding conversations are cross-fertilized with the ideas generated in former
conversations with other participants. At the end of the process, the main ideas are summarized in a
plenary session and follow-up possibilities are discussed.
Purpose
The world caf process is particularly useful:
to engage large groups (more than 12 people) in an authentic dialogue process
when you want to generate input, share knowledge, stimulate innovative thinking and explore
action
to identify and discuss possibilities around real life issues and questions
to engage people in authentic conversation, whether they are meeting for the rst time or have
established relationships with each other
to conduct in-depth exploration of key strategic challenges or opportunities
to deepen relationships and mutual ownership of outcomes in an existing group
to create meaningful interaction between a speaker and the audience.
Approach
Participants explore an issue by discussing and drawing in small groups or tables for multiple
consecutive sessions of 20 30 minutes. Participants change tables after each session in order to
cross-fertilize their discussions with the ideas generated at other tables. The event is concluded with a
facilitated plenary session, where the key ideas are gathered and conclusions are established.
197 Most of the information here is taken from The World Caf: A Resource Guide for Hosting Conversations That Matter; Juanita
Brown; 2002; cited in Participatory Methods Toolkit: A Practitioners Manual; Nikki Slocum; 2003; available at http://archive.unu.
edu/hq/library/Collection/PDF_les/CRIS/PMT.pdf.
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146
Tool 22:
Fireball game
198
When to use Purpose Time
Educator
skill level
Implementation An interactive activity to recap a topic
previously discussed.
10 20 minutes Beginning
This tool is used to review a topic.
The facilitator asks participants to stand in a circle and explains the rules of the game. The facilitator will
give the hot ball to one participant. This ball is made from sheets of paper. Each sheet has a question
written on it.
The ball is passed around the participants while music plays. The participant who is holding the ball
when the music stops unwraps a sheet of paper and answers the question on it. The game continues
until all questions are answered.
198 Contributed by Eka Christiningsih Tanlain from the Indonesian National Commission on Human Rights.
Part IV Tools and techniques
147
Tool 23:
Activity diary
199
When to use Purpose Time
Educator
skill level
Implementation
and evaluation
A tool for recording the signicant activities and
events that occur during a an extended human
rights education activity or project.
Ongoing Beginning
A project diary is a written record of signicant activities, events or processes that occur during the life
of a project.
It is highly recommended that project staff keep some sort of diary to record their insights and experiences
during a projects planning and implementation, as these insights are important to collect and reect
upon in order to improve the way future projects are run.
Diaries can provide a meaningful reection of the time that may be needed to implement a project. For
example, diaries can provide a more accurate guide to the time commitment (and budgeting) required in
future project designs. They are also invaluable for identifying the little things that can make, hold back or
break a project. These small factors such as not engaging particular stakeholders early enough may
have not been considered in the project plan but can end up being very important.
Project diaries therefore collect the information that helps make a meaningful evaluation of a projects
implementation, rather than having to depend on sketchy memories or anecdotal evidence.
An option is to combine diary-keeping with regular meetings, where project teams and other relevant
stakeholders can reect on what is working well, what needs improvement and what should be done
to improve the project.
A diary could be kept in a traditional written format or through an electronic le that is updated as
required.
You can also consider having a selection of participants keep diaries to record their observations of a
project, as well as the changes they undertake. You may want to consider selecting the participants
using specic criteria such as demographics or prior knowledge or values in order to see if different
sub-groups have different experiences.
199 Sourced from the Community Sustainability Engagement Evaluation Tool Box at http://evaluationtoolbox.net.au/index.php?
option=com_content&view=article&id=34:project-diary&catid=19:formative-evaluation-tools&Itemid=141.
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148
Tool 24:
Evaluation dartboard
200
When to use Purpose Time
Educator
skill level
Evaluation A participatory way of evaluating an activity. 20 30 minutes Beginning
The evaluation dartboard is a quick and simple method for participants to rate the delivery of a workshop,
training session or similar activity.
Using sticky dots or a marking pen, participants make a mark on the dartboard based on a rating scale;
for example, from highly satised to highly dissatised or exceeded expectations to missed the
mark.
The dartboard provides a visual snapshot of participants views without the need for further analysis or
work (for example, compared to questionnaires).
An evaluation dartboard consists of drawing a large circle on a ip chart, a whiteboard or similar. Draw
another ring in the centre of the circle to represent the bulls eye.
Participants are asked to place a separate mark within each sector that represents a question. The
nearer the bulls eye, the higher the level of satisfaction; the further away from the centre, the lower the
level of satisfaction. This is presented in the diagram below.
200 Sourced from the Evaluation Toolbox; available at http://evaluationtoolbox.net.au.
Exceeded
expectations
Served my purpose
in attending
Met
expectations
Missed
the mark
Learnt new things
Quality of speakers
Questions answered
Part IV Tools and techniques
149
Tool 25:
Feedback wheel
When to use Purpose Time
Educator
skill level
Evaluation A participatory way of encouraging group
feedback at any point in the life of an activity.
20 30 minutes Beginning
This tool can be used for a range of purposes (for example, to undertake a situation analysis, review a
service or get feedback on a project or a workshop) and in a range of places (for example, on a street
to seek the view of passers-by on an issue or, in a community hall after a workshop.)
The feedback wheel requires a sheet of paper and pens.
A wheel is drawn with segments inside it. Each segment represents a question to be answered, such
as reaching objectives, facilitators performance, comfort of the room or whether their own learning has
increased.
The centre of the wheel is valued at 0 (lowest) and the outside diameter of the wheel is valued 10
(highest). Each participant draws one line per segment from the middle of the wheel to the outside
diameter that indicates their rating in relation to the question being asked.
Photos by Jill Chrisp.
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150
USEFUL RESOURCES
All Different All Equal: Education Pack; Council of Europe; 1995
Circle of Rights: Economic, Cultural and Social Rights Activism A Training
Resource; Human Rights Resource Center, University of Minnesota; available
at www1.umn.edu/humanrts/edumat/IHRIP/circle/toc.htm
Citizens as Partners: Information, Consultation and Public Participation in
Policy-Making; Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development;
2001
Community Sustainability Engagement Evaluation Tool Box; available at
http://evaluationtoolbox.net.au
Community ToolBox; available at http://ctb.ku.edu/en/tablecontents/
chapter_1001.aspx
Crowd Wise (for participatory decision-making); available at www.crowd-
wise.org
New Tactics in Human Rights; available at www.newtactics.org
Training and Advocacy: Community Paralegal Training Programme; Pacic
Regional Rights Resource Team; available at www.rrrt.org/paged095.html
Participatory Methods Toolkit: A Practitioners Manual; Nikki Slocum, joint
publication of the King Baudouin Foundation and the Flemish Institute for
Science and Technology Assessment, in collaboration with the United Nations
University Comparative Regional Integration Studies; 2003
Participatory Techniques and Tools; World Food Programme; 2001
Picturing a Life Free of Violence: Media and Communications Strategies to
End Violence Against Women; UNIFEM; 2001
Reclaiming Voices: A Study on Participatory Human Rights Education
Methodologies in the Asia Pacic; Asia-Pacic Regional Resource Centre for
Human Rights Education; 2004
Responding to Diversity; Maureen Collins; 2006
Summary | 151
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
Summary
Chapter 1: Human rights: An overview
Human rights are the basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled. They determine
how individual human beings live in society and with each other, as well as their relationship with
the State and the obligations that the State has towards them.
While the formalization of common standards and processes for the protection of human rights
began in the middle of the 1900s, human rights have existed for as long as humankind has
existed. Most of the worlds major philosophies, religions and cultures recognize and promote
human rights concepts.
The rst international human rights instrument to be adopted was the Universal Declaration of
Human Rights in 1948. This was followed by international treaties on civil and political rights and
on economic, social and cultural rights. A number of other treaties that address the human rights
of particular groups have also been developed.
States have an obligation to respect, protect, promote and full the human rights of their citizens.
Chapter 2: Human rights education: An overview
Human rights education is an essential tool for the realization of human rights. It is a lifelong
process that involves all ages and levels and includes all forms of education, training and learning.
Human rights education occurs in many settings, including public, private, formal, informal and
non-formal situations.
Human rights education is included in a number of international human rights treaties and
declarations. The United Nations Declaration on Human Rights Education and Training reafrms
the principles and standards of these treaties.
The purpose of human rights education is to disseminate knowledge about human rights, build
the capability of people to apply human rights to their lives and to strengthen individuals and
communities to take action toward human rights outcomes.
Human rights education is for everyone. Participants can be divided into three broad groups:
rights holders, duty bearers and inuencers.
Chapter 3: National human rights institutions and human rights education
Human rights education is a core requirement of NHRIs, as set out in the Paris Principles and the
World Action Plan for Human Rights Education.
NHRIs need three things in order to offer a quality human rights education programme: a planned,
strategic and resourced human rights education programme, skilled human rights educators and
adequate human rights education resources.
There are a number of effective human rights education programmes being delivered by NHRIs
in the Asia Pacic region.
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
152 | Summary
Chapter 4: Human rights education theory and principles
In order for human rights education to contribute to the realization of human rights, it must:
be relevant to the participants
involve partnerships and collaboration with appropriate individuals and groups
recognize that the participants are important contributors to the education activity and that the
human rights educator is also a learner
deepen and strengthen the knowledge and experience of participants
combine action with reection by building in processes of review and evaluation
focus on individual and societal empowerment and transformation.
Chapter 5: A human rights education approach
NHRIs have the responsibility to identify the most appropriate human rights education approach
to meet diverse participants, contexts and purposes.
A Multi-Method approach to education involves six broad methods: information sharing, training,
facilitation, relationship management, advocacy for human rights and community development.
Three frameworks strengthen the Multi-Method approach: the 4-A framework, the human
rights-based approach and the Learning Pyramid.
Chapter 6: Planning and designing human rights education
Planning and designing a human rights education activity involves identifying and assessing a
human rights situation and deciding what human rights education activity may have an impact
on the situation.
A Logic Model is a useful tool for this purpose. It involves four elements:
situation analysis; an assessment of a human rights situation
inputs; the resources required to carry out and evaluate an activity
outputs; the type of activity and the participants and stakeholders involved
outcomes; the results sought from the activity.
A Logic Model can apply to many levels of human rights education; national, community or
organizational activities, a project plan, an hour-long workshop or an individual work plan.
Chapter 7: Implementing human rights education
The key considerations for a human rights educator when implementing a human rights activity are:
identifying the specic role of the educator
recognizing and responding to the diverse learning styles of participants
creating effective learning environments
matching the pacing of an activity with the participants and the context
using language that is inclusive and easily understood
monitoring the progress of an activity
being aware of personal workload and other stress and seeking appropriate support when needed.
Summary | 153
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
Chapter 8: Evaluating human rights education
Evaluation of human rights education tells whether an activity is progressing toward its outcomes
and what improvements can be made. It can happen during or at the end of an activity.
A common set of criteria for evaluating human rights education includes:
relevance
appropriateness
effectiveness
efciency
impact
sustainability.
Not all of these criteria will be used all the time.
There are many methods for carrying out an evaluation. It is important that the evaluation method
is appropriate to the context of the activity and the participants involved.
Evaluation results should always be reported to those who have participated in the evaluation. It
may also be important to communicate them to a funder or other stakeholders.
Chapter 9: Working with the media
The media plays a central role in reecting and shaping public opinion and setting a social,
political and economic agenda.
Accurate, informed and sustained media coverage of human rights issues can help shape
community attitudes and contribute to changes in law, policy and practice.
NHRIs need to understand how the media operates in order to present human rights issues in a
way that will engage journalists and lead to accurate and compelling coverage.
Media engagement to promote human rights awareness cannot be a one-off event. It requires
consistent promotion, across multiple media outlets, over a sustained period of time.
NHRIs should seek opportunities to work cooperatively with media outlets and individual
journalists to support informed reporting on human rights.
Chapter 10: Human rights education in early childhood education centres
and schools
Article 29 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child focuses specically on the right to education
for the child.
Research shows that children and young people in human rights-based schools know their
rights, understand their responsibilities and the rights of others, have more self-esteem, are more
accepting of diversity and have higher achievement rates.
Human rights education principles should guide the work that NHRIs undertake in early childhood
education centres, with school communities and with departments of education.
NHRIs in the Asia Pacic region are actively engaged in human rights education with schools,
universities and departments of education.
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
154 | Summary
Chapter 11: Human rights education in conict and post-conict
situations
Education in conict and post-conict regions is important to lessen the impact of conict and to
restore peace.
In conict and post-conict regions, NHRIs may be required to take on roles that are unique to
their situations and to modify normal programme functions to respond to the specic situations
facing different groups in the society.
Useful resources | 155
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
Useful resources
Chapter 1: Human rights: An overview
International Human Rights and the International Human Rights System: A Manual for National Human
Rights Institutions; APF; 2012
International Human Rights Milestones; New Zealand Human Rights Commission; 2008; available at
www.hrc.co.nz/hrc_new/hrc/cms/les/documents/10-Mar-2009_10-14-19_International_Milestones_
Final.pdf
What are human rights?; OHCHR; available at www.ohchr.org/en/issues/Pages/WhatareHumanRights.
aspx
Chapter 2: Human rights education: An overview
Human Rights Education Pack; Asian Regional Resource Center for Human Rights Education; 2003
(2nd edition)
Understanding Human Rights: A Manual on Human Rights Education; Wolfgang Benedek, European
Training and Research Centre for Human Rights and Democracy; 2012
Applying a Human Rights Based Approach; Danish Institute for Human Rights; 2007
The Human Rights Education Handbook: Effective Practices for Learning, Action, and Change; Nancy
Flowers with Marcia Bernbaum, Kristi Rudelius-Palmer and Joel Tolman, Human Rights Resource
Center, University of Minnesota; 2000
Chapter 3: National human rights institutions and human rights education
Assessing the Effectiveness of National Human Rights Institutions; International Council on Human
Rights Policy; 2005
National Human Rights Institutions: History, Principles, Roles and Responsibilities; Professional Training
Series No. 4 (Rev. 1); OHCHR; 2010
A Manual on National Human Rights Institutions; APF; 2013
Chapter 4: Human rights education theory and principles
Human Rights Education as Empowerment: Reections on Pedagogy by Garth Meintjes in Human Rights
Education for the Twenty-First Century; George J. Andreopoulous and Richard Pierre Claude, eds.; 1997
Human Rights Education for the Twenty-First Century; George J. Andreopoulous and Richard Pierre
Claude, eds.; 1997
Human Rights Education Pack; Asian Regional Resource Center for Human Rights Education; 2003
(2nd edition)
Maranga Mai! Human Rights Community Development by Jill Chrisp in the Australian New Community
Quarterly (Vol. 9, No. 1); Autumn 2011
Participatory Methods Toolkit: A Practitioners Manual; Dr Nikki Slocum; joint publication of the King
Baudouin Foundation and the Flemish Institute for Science and Technology Assessment, in collaboration
with the United Nations University Comparative Regional Integration Studies; 2003
Pedagogy of the Oppressed; Paulo Freire; 1968 (translated into English in 1970)
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
156 | Useful resources
Chapter 5: A human rights education approach
Human Rights-Based Approach to Education for All; United Nations Childrens Fund and the United
Nations Educational, Scientic and Cultural Organization; 2007
Applying a Rights-Based Approach: An Inspirational Guide for Civil Society; Danish Institute for Human
Rights; 2007
Practising Social Change, Practitioners Journal; Institute for Applied Behavioural Science, National
Training Laboratories; available at www.ntl-psc.org
Right to Education Indicator based on the 4 A Framework: Concept Paper; Gauthier de Beco for the
Right to Education Project; 2009
Right to Education Project; available at www.right-to-education.org
UN Common Learning Package based on the human rights-based approach; available at http://
hrbaportal.org/archives/resource-types/learning-training-materials/
Chapter 6: Planning and designing human rights education
A Human Rights-Based Approach to Education for All; United Nations Childrens Fund and the United
Nations Educational, Scientic and Cultural Organization; 2007
Assessing the Effectiveness of National Human Rights Institutions; International Council on Human
Rights Policy; 2005
Enhancing Participatory Non-formal Education among Cambodian Human Rights NGOs; Richard Pierre
Claude (for the Asia Foundation); 1999; available at www.hrea.org/erc/Library/research/TAFreport.html
Introduction to Health Promotion Planning; Health and Communication Unit, Centre for Health Promotion,
University of Toronto; 2001
Qualitative and Quantitative Indicators for the Monitoring and Evaluation of the ILO Gender Mainstreaming
Strategy; Tania Bastia; 2000; available at www.womeng.net/wp/library/Methodology%20Indicators.pdf
Situation Analysis: Module 1; United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacic;
available at www.unescap.org/stat/meet/rrg3/twsa-module1.pdf
Understanding Human Rights: A Manual on Human Rights Education; Wolfgang Benedek, European
Training and Research Centre for Human Rights and Democracy; 2012 (3rd edition)
Chapter 7: Implementing human rights education
All Different All Equal: Education Pack; Council of Europe; 1995
Community Organisers Toolbox; Education and Training Unit for Democracy and Development; available
at www.etu.org.za/toolbox/docs/building/webtraining.html
Enhancing Learning for Effectiveness; Train4Dev; 2011
Facilitation Skills for Interpersonal Transformation; Ron Kraybill, Berghof Research Center for Constructive
Conict Management; 2004
Facilitators Toolkit; Action for the Rights of Children/Reach Out; 2005; available at https://icvanetwork.
org/system/les/versions/ro_28_toolkit.pdf
Methodology for Human Rights Education for the Police; National Human Rights Commission of Korea;
2008
Useful resources | 157
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
Reclaiming Voices: A Study on Participatory Methodologies in the Asia Pacic; Asian Regional Resource
Center for Human Rights Education; 2004
Training for Transformation: A Handbook for Community Workers; Anne Hope and Sally Timmel; Books
1, 2 and 3 (1984) and Book 4 (1999)
We can teach the way we were taught, or we can teach the way people learn; Sierra Training Associates;
2007; available at http://sph.bu.edu/otlt/teachingLibrary/Learning%20Theory/adultlearning.pdf
Chapter 8: Evaluating human rights education
Assessing the Effectiveness of National Human Rights Institutions; International Council on Human
Rights Policy; 2005
Documenting Progress and Demonstrating Results: Evaluating Local Out-of-School Time Programs;
Harvard Family Research Project; 2002; available at www.hfrp.org/publications-resources/browse-our-
publications/documenting-progress-and-demonstrating-results-evaluating-local-out-of-school-time-
programs
Evaluating Human Rights Training Activities: A Handbook for Human Rights Educators; OHCHR and
Equitas; 2011
Evaluation and Types of Evaluation; National Science Foundation; 2000
External Evaluation: Are we doing the right things? Are we doing things right?; Swiss Agency for
Development and Cooperation; 2000
Handbook on Planning, Monitoring and Evaluating for Development Results; United Nations Development
Programme; available at http://web.undp.org/evaluation/handbook/ch7-4.html
Monitoring and Evaluation; CIVICUS World Alliance for Citizen Participation; available at www.civicus.
org/new/media/Monitoring%20and%20Evaluation.pdf
Monitoring and Evaluation; World Bank; available at http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTBELARUS/
Resources/M&E.pdf
Reect and Improve Tool Kit: Section 5, Development and Implementing an Evaluation Plan; Innovation
Center for Community and Youth Development; 2005; available at www.theinnovationcenter.org/les/
doc/B5/RI%20pp%2068%20Evaluation%20Methods.pdf
Study on the Advances in Civic Education in Education Systems: Good Practices in Industrialized
Countries; Audrey Osler and Hugh Starkey, Centre for Citizenship and Human Rights Education,
University of Leeds, and Institute of Education, University of London; 2004
The Monitoring and Evaluation Framework: Part 1; United Nations Development Programme; available
at http://web.undp.org/evaluation/documents/HandBook/part_1.pdf
Together is Better: Collaboration, Assessment, Evaluation and Reporting; Anne Davies, Caren Cameron,
Colleen Politano and Kathleen Gregory; 1992
Useful Tools for Engaging Young People In Participatory Evaluation; Meg Gawler, 2005; available at
www.artemis-services.com/downloads/tools-for-participatory-evaluation.pdf
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158 | Useful resources
Chapter 9: Working with the media
Journalism, Media and the Challenge of Human Rights Reporting; International Council on Human
Rights Policy; 2002
Media Handbook for National Human Rights Institutions; APF; 2013
Whose News? The Changing Media Landscape and NGOs; Carroll Bogert, Human Rights Watch; 2011
Chapter 10: Human rights education in early childhood education centres
and schools
Childrens Rights Information Network; available at www.crin.org
Compasito: Manual on human rights education for children; European Youth Centre in Budapest;
available at www.eycb.coe.int/compasito/chapter_1/2_wha.html
Evaluation of UNICEFs UKs Rights Respecting Schools Awards; Judy Sebba and Carol Robinson;
2010
Guidelines for Human Rights Education in Secondary School Systems; Ofce for Democratic Institutions
and Human Rights; 2012
Human Rights in New Zealand 2010 Nga Tika Tangata O Aotearoa 2010; New Zealand Human Rights
Commission; 2010
Law into Action: Economic, Social and Cultural Rights in Aotearoa New Zealand; Margaret Bedggood
and Kris Gledhill (eds.), Human Rights Foundation of New Zealand; 2011
National Human Rights Institutions: History, Principles, Roles and Responsibilities; Professional Training
Series No. 4 (Rev. 1); OHCHR; 2010
Rights Respecting Schools Initiative; UNICEF; available at http://e-activist.com/ea-campaign/action.
retrievestaticpage.do?ea_static_page_id=1362
Teaching Childrens Rights Through Art; Diane Lewis Childrens Rights Centre, Cape Breton University;
2007
Chapter 11: Human rights education in conict and post-conict
situations
Conict Resolution and Human Rights: Contradictory or Complementary; Baroness Helena Kennedy
QC; 2001; published in Human Rights Education Pack; Asian Regional Resource Center for Human
Rights Education; 2003
Education and Reconciliation: Exploring Conict and Post-conict Situations; Julia Paulson (ed.); 2011
National Human Rights Institutions: History, Principles, Roles and Responsibilities; Professional Training
Series No. 4 (Rev. 1); OHCHR; 2010
Quality Education in Conict Affected Countries: Facilitators Manual; United Nations Educational,
Scientic and Cultural Organization; 2005; available at http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001433/
43319E.pdf
The Inuence of Education on Conict and Peace Building; Alan Smith; 2010 (paper commissioned for
the Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2011)
Toolkit for collaboration with National Human Rights Institutions; United Nations Development Programme
and OHCHR; 2010
Useful resources | 159
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
Part IV: Tools and techniques
All Different All Equal: Education Pack; Council of Europe; 1995
Circle of Rights: Economic, Cultural and Social Rights Activism A Training Resource; Human Rights
Resource Center, University of Minnesota; available at www1.umn.edu/humanrts/edumat/IHRIP/circle/
toc.htm
Citizens as Partners: Information, Consultation and Public Participation in Policy-Making; Organisation
for Economic Co-operation and Development; 2001
Community Sustainability Engagement Evaluation Tool Box; available at http://evaluationtoolbox.net.au
Community ToolBox; available at http://ctb.ku.edu/en/tablecontents/chapter_1001.aspx
Crowd Wise (for participatory decision-making); available at www.crowd-wise.org
New Tactics in Human Rights; available at www.newtactics.org
Training and Advocacy: Community Paralegal Training Programme; Pacic Regional Rights Resource
Team; available at www.rrrt.org/paged095.html
Participatory Methods Toolkit: A Practitioners Manual; Nikki Slocum, joint publication of the King
Baudouin Foundation and the Flemish Institute for Science and Technology Assessment, in collaboration
with the United Nations University Comparative Regional Integration Studies; 2003
Participatory Techniques and Tools; World Food Programme; 2001
Picturing a Life Free of Violence: Media and Communications Strategies to End Violence Against
Women; UNIFEM; 2001
Reclaiming Voices: A Study on Participatory Human Rights Education Methodologies in the Asia Pacic;
Asia-Pacic Regional Resource Centre for Human Rights Education; 2004
Responding to Diversity; Maureen Collins; 2006
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
160 | Glossary
Glossary
The following denitions explain the main concepts used in the Manual as they relate to human rights
education.
Activity
Anything from a small, one-off event to an extensive project or programme,
including all forms of human rights education.
Advocate
An advocate provides a voice for a person or group, or encourages them
to use their voice, to address a specic issue. A human rights advocate, as
it relates to human rights education, promotes the role and value of human
rights and encourages others to act.
Approach
A particular set of theory, principles and practices that may be used for a
human rights activity.
Case study
A summarized and planned account of a person, group, and/or an event.
Communicator
A communicator sends and receives information in a way that it is most
effectively received by the intended audience. A human rights communicator
gives out information about human rights, as well as receiving information
about human rights matters that affect people.
Competency
The knowledge, skills and behavior required to carry out a specic role or
task.
Community developer
A community developer uses a variety of tools and processes to encourage
self-reliant communities who are able to identify and address the issues that
are important to them. For a human rights community developer, the focus
is on a communitys human rights issues.
Duty bearer
Those who have the responsibility to ensure others human rights are
respected, protected and fullled..
Evaluation
Gathering information, either during or after a human rights activity, which
contributes to the ongoing improvement of outcomes or performance.
Facilitator
A facilitator enables a group to arrive at its own questions and solutions. A
human rights facilitator uses various processes and tools that enable people
to identify human rights issues that impact on them and on others, and to
nd ways of addressing those issues.
Feedback
The response given by participants or stakeholders about their experience
of a human rights education activity. It is linked with constructive feedback,
which aims to acknowledge what is working well and improvements could
be made.
Formal human rights
education
Human rights education in early childhood centres, schools, and
universities.
Human rights
Basic human rights and freedoms to which all human beings are entitled.
Glossary | 161
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
Human rights education
Disseminating knowledge about human rights, building the capability of
people to apply human rights to their lives and strengthening individuals and
communities to take action toward human rights outcomes.
Human rights educator
A person who is competent in the theory and practice of human rights and
education and uses this to undertake human rights education activities.
Indicator
The measure that gives information about how well an activity is reaching it
outcomes. Indicators can be quantitative (involving numbers) or qualitative
(identifying the quality of the activity).
Informal human rights
education
Unorganized and often unintentional learning about human rights drawn
from personal experiences.
Inuencers
Individuals or groups who are able to inuence others opinions about
human rights and encourage action toward promoting and protecting
human rights.
Inputs
The resources required for a human rights education activity.
Learning environment
The real or virtual space where the human rights education activity is
conducted.
Learning styles
The particular way that an individual learns best.
Logic model
A systematic way to link the main elements of an education activity.
Methodology
The analysis and explanation of human rights education methods.
Milestones
Used for human rights activities that are conducted over an extended
period. They indicate what should be achieved at a given time during the life
of the activity.
Monitoring
A process to assess whether a human rights education activity is achieving
the planned outcomes.
National human rights
institution (NHRI)
NHRIs are ofcial independent legal institutions established by the State
by law for the promotion and protection of human rights. They are
established by the constitution or an act of the legislature that guarantees
their independence from political direction and political interference, both
governmental and non-governmental. They comply with the international
minimum standards for NHRIs, the Paris Principles.
Networker
A networker develops relations with and between people to reach a
common goal. A human rights networker develops relationships with and
between appropriate individuals or groups rights holders, duty bearers
or inuencers to promote action to address an identied human rights
situation.
News values
Characteristics of a news story that make it more or less interesting to a
journalist and his or her audience. News values determine the prominence
given to the story relative to other stories.
Non formal human rights
education
Education activity conducted outside of the formal education system.
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
162 | Glossary
Paris Principles
The Principles Relating to the Status of National Institutions set out
internationally-agreed minimum standards for the establishment and
operation of independent national human rights institutions.
Outcome
The desired and actual results of a human rights activity.
Output
A human rights activity implemented to contribute to a desired outcome.
Participant
Someone who takes an active part in a human rights education activity. He
or she may also be a stakeholder.
Principles of human
rights education
The standards or guidelines to follow when planning, implementing or
evaluating human rights education.
Practice of human rights
education
The application of human rights education theory and principles to activity
doing human rights education.
Reective practice
The self-assessment that a human rights educator makes about his or her
performance.
Review
A process to assess how well a human rights activity is going and using this
assessment to modify ongoing actions.
Rights holder
Individuals or groups who are entitled to specic rights and protection.
Situation analysis
Gathering information that is useful for planning a human rights education
activity. It identies the strengths, needs, supports and barriers that relate to
a specic situation.
Stakeholder
A person, group or organization that can affect or be affected by the human
rights education activity. A stakeholder could be a participant, the national
human rights institution or an external organization, such as a funding
agency.
Technique
The processes and/or methods a human rights educator uses to achieve a
particular outcome.
Theoretical framework
for human rights
education
The combination of theory and principles that provide a structure to guide
the planning, implementation and evaluation of human rights education
activities.
Theory of human rights
education
The thinking, concepts and ideas that explain human rights education.
Tool(s)
The education aids used by a human rights educator to increase the chance
of successful outcomes. A variety of tools are commonly used in order to
meet the diverse learning needs and styles of participants.
Trainer
An individual who works with people to develop knowledge, skills, and
behaviours required to perform a particular task or activity. A human rights
trainer focuses on ensuring that people know about human rights and
human rights behaviours.
Appendices
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
163
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
164 | Appendices
Appendix 1:
Logic Models applied to human rights education activities in the Asia Pacic region 165
Appendix 2:
Choosing an appropriate human rights education method 174
Appendix 3:
Writing objectives 177
Appendix 4:
Logic Model checklist 178
Appendix 5:
Effective facilitation skills 180
Appendix 6:
Four categories of learning experiences or styles 182
Appendix 7:
Four types of thinking styles 183
Appendix 8:
Self-evaluation, peer evaluation and external evaluation 184
Appendix 9:
Guide questions for evaluating whether an activity meets human rights education principles 185
Appendix 10:
UNICEF framework for the development of rights-respecting schools 186
Appendix 11:
4-A framework for education and international human rights instruments 189
Appendix 12:
United Nations Declaration on Human Rights Education and Training 190
Appendices | 165
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
that
SITUATION ANALYSIS
INPUTS
OUTPUTS
OUTCOMES
The resources required to carry out and
evaluate a human rights education activity.
The type of human rights education activity
carried out and the participants and
stakeholders involved.
The results sought from the human rights
activity against which the activity will be
monitored and evaluated.
An assessment of a human rights situation
that provides information for planning,
carrying out and evaluating a human rights
education activity.
Appendix 1:
Logic Models applied to human rights
education activities in the Asia Pacic region
The following Logic Models take each of the methods in the Multi-Method approach and apply them to
human rights activity in the Asia Pacic Region.
It is important to note that the benet and effectiveness of the Logic Model process lies in the involvement
and ownership of the educator, the NHRI, the participants and the stakeholders. These examples below
are incomplete working examples only and aim to demonstrate how a range of different human rights
education programmes can be mapped using the Logic Model. They do not attempt to give an accurate
picture of the education activities themselves and do not include the situation analysis element.
Information sharing
Cambodian Centre for Human Rights; Grassroots social media project.
Training
APF; Training-of-trainers blended learning programme.
Facilitation
Femlink; Fiji womens community radio project.
Networking
New Zealand Human Rights Commission, Diversity Action Programme.
Advocacy for human rights
Australian Human Rights Commission; Human rights education and advocacy programme.
Community development
Commission on Human Rights of the Philippines; Indigenous peoples project.
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
166 | Appendices
Logic Model: Information sharing
Cambodian Centre for Human Rights Grassroots social media project
201
201 More information is available at http://rising.globalvoicesonline.org/microgrants2013/nalist-the-cambodian-grassroots-social-
media-project.
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Appendices | 167
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
Logic Model: Training
APF Training-of-trainers blended learning programme
202
202 More information is available at www.asiapacicforum.net/support/training/training-of-trainers.
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Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
168 | Appendices
Logic Model: Facilitation
Femlink Fiji womens community radio project
203
203 From discussions with Sharon Bhagwan Rolls, Coordinator. More information is available at www.femlinkpacic.org.fj.
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Appendices | 169
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
Logic Model: Relationship management
New Zealand Human Rights Commission Diversity Action Programme
204
204 More information is available at www.hrc.co.nz/race-relations/te-ngira-the-nz-diversity-action-programme.
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Appendices | 171
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
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Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
172 | Appendices
Logic Model: Community development
Commission on Human Rights of the Philippines Indigenous peoples
project
206
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uploads/2011/03/HRC_Building_Human_Rights_Communities_Web.pdf.
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Appendices | 173
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
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174 | Appendices
Appendix 2:
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Appendices | 175
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
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Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
176 | Appendices
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Appendices | 177
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
Appendix 3:
Writing objectives
Blooms Wheel matches learning domains with verbs and associated activities. The verbs are intended
to be feasible and measurable.
207
207 Adapted from Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: the Classication of Educational Goals; Handbook I: Cognitive Domain;
Benjamin Bloom et al; 1956.
Analogy Graph
Speech Collage Drama Poster
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Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
178 | Appendices
Appendix 4:
Logic Model checklist
Logic Model Yes No
SITUATION ANALYSIS:
An assessment of a human rights situation that provides information for planning, carrying out and
evaluating a human rights education activity
Do you know
1 The human rights priorities in the situation?
2 The external factors that impact on the context?
3 The human rights issue or focus that is to be addressed by the activity?
4 Who the participants are (who will be involved in the activity)?
5 The characteristics of the participant group; roles, experiences, prior knowledge,
potential barriers or constraints, and contributions?
6 The expectations, needs and strengths of the participant group?
7 The type of human rights activity that would be most relevant to the issue and the
participants?
8 Who the stakeholders are (who has an interest in the human rights issue or focus)?
9 The expectations, needs and strengths of the stakeholder group?
10 The other actors? Who else is involved in addressing this human rights issue?
11 Who would be useful to engage as partners?
INPUT:
The resources required to carry out and evaluate a human rights education activity
Have you identied the resources required?
12 People resources who will be involved?
human rights educators?
administrators?
communications people?
partners?
other experts?
other?
Appendices | 179
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
13 Financial resources
14 Support systems, including language interpreters
15 Research and information
16 Materials, equipment, technology and resources for disability accessibility
17 Time required and available
18 Environmental requirements; accessible venue, childcare, refreshments,
work spaces, other
19 Communications resources
OUTPUT:
The type of human rights education activity carried out and the participants and stakeholders
involved
Does the activity design include
20 SMART objectives?
Specic?
Measurable?
Achievable?
Relevant?
Time-bound?
21 Relevant content
22 Appropriate structure
23 Consideration of the venue/place/environment
24 Plan of logistics
25 Plan for communications
26 Plan for monitoring and evaluation
27 Has the participant group been involved in planning and designing the activity?
28 Has the activity been focused on the needs and strengths of the participants?
OUTCOMES:
The results sought from the human rights activity against which the activity will be monitored
and evaluated
29 Are the outcomes SMART?
30 Do they use qualitative and quantitative indicators to measure their achievement?
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
180 | Appendices
Appendix 5:
Effective facilitation skills
208
The ultimate aim of human rights education and training is to foster change at an individual and
organizational level.
Accordingly, effective facilitation should seek to promote genuine and sustained change in the way people
think, form opinions, make decisions and act. This process is most likely to occur when participants at
the centre of the learning process.
In a participatory learning environment, each participant:
is actively engaged in the learning process and takes responsibility for their own learning
shares their own experiences and skills and contributes to building the groups knowledge.
The facilitator supports this process by:
creating a respectful and effective learning environment
promoting communication and dialogue between the participants and acting as a knowledge
navigator (rather than a knowledge transmitter)
giving participants opportunities and responsibility for their own learning.
Creating an effective learning environment
1. Build trust and model a positive attitude
One of the most important tasks of a good facilitator is to create a welcoming and non-threatening
atmosphere that encourages all participants to share their ideas, questions, beliefs and attitudes.
Facilitators can build a positive, respectful environment by:
assuring participants that condentiality will be maintained within the group
providing participants with constructive and supportive feedback
displaying good communication skills
being calm, patient and engaged at all times
accepting and incorporating feedback and suggestions from participants.
2. Facilitate meaningful learning
Participants learn by doing. Facilitators can engage participants in the learning process and contribute
to the development of new knowledge, skills, behaviours and attitudes by:
introducing new material or concepts in manageable and linked stages, with information presented
in clear, simple language and reviewed on a regular basis
using a range of learning strategies and activities that engage people on different sensory levels
(i.e. visual, auditory and kinaesthetic)
providing participants with learning materials that are relevant and which can be utilised in
practical ways
including opportunities for participants to see or demonstrate the tangible results of their learning
offering constructive feedback and positive reinforcement to individual participants.
208 Effective Facilitation Skills: Resource Sheet 9; APF Training-of-trainers blended learning course; 2012.
Appendices | 181
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
3. Cover the course content as planned
While learning should be a collaborative process, it is important that the education and training
programme stays on schedule and covers all the key issues and information identied in the learning
needs assessment.
Facilitators should:
ensure that each session starts and concludes with key summary points; reviewing these points
also helps ensure that content has been properly covered during the session
develop and introduce sessions so that participants can clearly see how the current topic follows
logically from the previous one
write additional topics raised by participants on a ip chart or white board and cover them if time
allows at the end of the session or, alternatively, offer to address the question during a break.
4. Have strategies for dealing with uncooperative participants
While most participants will be eager to learn, some may be resistant, some may be disruptive and
others may seek to challenge your role as facilitator. It is important to develop strategies to respond to
these situations so that the learning environment of the group is not undermined.
Establish ground rules for participation with the group as a whole and display these in the room;
don not be afraid to hold people accountable to these ground rules.
Find practical ways to engage a disruptive learner in the learning process, such as providing them
with a role as small group spokesperson or rapporteur.
Where required, talk one-on-one with a disruptive participant during a break to identify the
underlying issue(s) and how these may be resolved.
Characteristics of effective educators and trainers
209
Know their subject matter Use body language effectively
Take the time to get to know the participants Make points that are clear and easy to remember
Are non-judgmental Illustrate their points
Respect differences of opinion and life choices Understand group dynamics and are comfortable
managing groups
Are culturally sensitive Are exible
Are self-aware Are open to new ideas and perspectives.
Are inclusive Are compassionate
Are lively, enthusiastic and original Are receptive to feedback
Use a variety of vocal qualities Continuously work to improve their teaching
209 Adapted from Training Works!; Jhpiego; 2003; and The Trainers Handbook; Karen Lawson; 1998.
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
182 | Appendices
Appendix 6:
Four categories of learning experiences
or styles
210
Doer
Likes to be actively involved in the learning process, wants to know how he or she will apply learning in
the real world, likes information presented clearly and concisely.
Feeler
People-oriented, expressive, focuses on feelings and emotions, thrives in open, unstructured learning
environment.
Thinker
Relies on logic and reason, likes to share ideas and concepts, analyzes and evaluates, enjoys
independent work.
Observer
Likes to watch and listen, tends to be reserved, will take her or his time before participating, thrives on
learning through discovery.
Training methods and learning styles
210 Adapted from The Trainers Handbook; Karen Lawson; 1998.
Reading
Questioning
Lectures
Discussion
Personal experience
Role plays
Practice
Application of concepts
Simulations
Doer
Thinker
Feeler
Observer
Appendices | 183
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
Appendix 7:
Four types of thinking styles
211
Concrete Sequential
Concrete Random
CONCRETE SEQUENTIAL
Sequential Abstract
RANDOM ABSTRACT
Random Abstract
Concrete Sequential thinker
Based in reality
Physical sense of sight, touch, sound, taste & smell
Notices details, remembers facts
Hands-on approach to learning
Builds on organizational strengths.
Concrete Random thinker
Experimenters, divergent thinkers
Willing to take a trial and error approach
Strong need to do things in own way
Learns through problem solving
Sets deadlines for self.
Abstract Random thinker
Uses feelings and emotions
Absorbs ideas, information and impressions and organizes them through reection
Learns best when information is personalized
Ability to work with others
Uses lots of visual clues.
Abstract Sequential thinker
Thinks in concepts, likes to analyse information
Make great philosophers and research scientists
Can focus in on key points easily
Learns best alone
Learns best with processes that are logical, rational and intellectual.
211 Developed by Anthony Gregorc and Kathleen Butler. More information is available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthony_Gregorc.
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
184 | Appendices
Appendix 8:
Self-evaluation, peer evaluation and
external evaluation
212

212 An external facilitator in this instance does not carry out the evaluation themselves but rather implements the process whereby an
internal evaluation can occur.
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Appendices | 185
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
Appendix 9:
Guide questions for evaluating whether
an activity meets human rights education
principles
Principles Evaluation process questions
[These questions can be use for formative or summative evaluation]
Principle 1: Relevant to
participants
Human rights education is
participant-centred and relevant
1. Does/did the activity focus on the participants issues and priorities?
2. Is/was it implemented in such a way that it took into account such things as
participants diverse physical needs, styles of learning and timeframes?
3. Has the background of the participants been taken into account?
Principle 2: Collaborative
Human rights education is
enhanced by partnerships and
collaborations
1. Does/did participants and other stakeholders have an opportunity to contribute to
the implementation of the activity?
2. Are/were the participants treated as partners?
Principle 3: Participatory
Human rights education
acknowledges participants as
educators
1. Does/did the activity draw out and share participants experiences?
2. Does/did it maximize and respect the contribution of participants?
3. Are/were participants actively engaged in learning and knowledge development?
4. As human rights educator, are/were you part of the education experience, rather
than the source of it?
Principle 4: Probing
Human rights education
deepens knowledge and
experience
Does/did the activity encourage participants to:
1. Critique their knowledge and experience?
2. Compare it with others experiences and other knowledge sources and integrate
the outcomes?
3. Explore relationships of cause and effect?
4. Discover more about their own experiences and deepen their understandings?
Principle 5: Thoughtful
action
Human rights education
recognizes that societal change
comes from informed action
Does/did the activity:
1. Include time and processes for critical reection?
2. Encourage critical thinking and problem solving?
3. Uphold human rights standards and principles in its implementation?
Principle 6: Empowering
Human rights education
is transformative
1. Does/did the activity involve methods, tools and processes that encouraged
participants to:
Become familiar with human rights?
Identify those human rights that impact on them or for which they have a
responsibility?
Analyse their situations through a human rights lens?
Develop strategies to act on these?
2. Will the activity benet those most marginalized or most vulnerable to human
rights abuses?
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
186 | Appendices
Appendix 10:
UNICEF framework for the development
of rights-respecting schools
Aspect 1:
Leadership and Management: Embedding the values of the Convention on the Rights of the Child
in the life of the school
The schools provision? Validation/evidence required?
1. A rights-respecting school has the
Convention on the Rights of the
Child (CRC) at the heart of the core
values of a school.
2. The processes of developing as a
rights-respecting school:
(a) informs the schools
arrangements for planning,
development and review
(b) prepares the school community
to recognize the universality of
childrens rights and to support
the rights of others, locally and
globally
(c) ensures the school has strong
arrangements for protecting
pupils from all forms of abuse
and harassment.
The school leadership team has measures in place to ensure
the values of the CRC are integrated into its policies as they are
reviewed at all levels.
The school has a process of evaluating and sustaining its culture,
which is open, transparent and rights-respecting. Students
contribute to this process.
Teachers have opportunities to improve their knowledge and
understanding of local and global issues and how they relate to
children and human rights.
1. Students report that there is a culture of mutual respect
for the rights of others, evident in all levels of school
relationships.
2. Students are empowered to work for change, aware of how
the CRC is a major instrument for improvements in childrens
lives worldwide.
3. The schools physical environment is a feature of its rights-
respecting ethos.
Appendices | 187
Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
Aspect 2:
Teachers, other adults and students know and understand the CRC and its relevance to the school
ethos and curriculum
The schools provision? Validation/evidence required?
1. There is a broad understanding
by the whole school community
(including parents and carers) of
the CRC and why the school is
implementing it.
2. The curriculum provides regular
opportunities for students to
develop their knowledge and
understanding of the CRC in four
contexts, with respect to each
childs ability. These contexts are:
(a) respecting each others rights in
everyday life
(b) working for global justice
(c) valuing diversity
(d) environmental sustainability.
1. Parents and community demonstrate awareness of article 42
knowledge and some understanding of the content of the
CRC and its relevance to the whole school community, the
country and globally.
2. The school is maximizing opportunities for cross-curricular
consolidation to extend pupils knowledge and understanding
of the CRC.
3. Students are involved in the ongoing promotion of respect for
childrens rights, both locally and globally.
4. All students are knowledgeable of the content of the CRC
and its relevance to themselves, the school and the wider
world (appropriate to age and ability).
5. Students can point to rights principles and their relevance in
different curriculum subjects/areas and across the school.
6. Provisions of article 29 are reected in the schools
curriculum, development plan, policies and vision statements.
Aspect 3:
Teaching and learning in rights-respecting classrooms
The schools provision? Validation/evidence required?
The values of the CRC are reected in
the following aspects of the classroom
experience:
systematic opportunities are
provided for children to participate
in decisions which affect them
children can freely think about and
express their views
there is a classroom climate which
allows for different perspectives and
views; opinions can be expressed
without loss of dignity
there is fair and equitable treatment
for all
children learn how to be active
contributors to their class,
community and society.
1. All teaching staff recognize the importance of modelling
rights and undertake a rights-respecting approach in their
classrooms.
2. All teaching staff use a wide range of teaching and learning
methods, with high levels of participatory teaching and
opportunities for student interaction.
3. All teaching staff give students opportunities to make
choices in their learning, within the framework of the required
curriculum, so curriculum requirements and students
interests and concerns are met.
4. Students have opportunities to give constructive feedback to
their teachers.
5. All teachers include aspects of the global dimension in
their lessons, as appropriate, and with a childrens rights
dimension. This is reected in the schemes of work.
6. Students are using a rights-respecting approach to resolving
conict.
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Aspect 4:
Students actively participate in decision-making throughout the school
The schools provision? Validation/evidence required?
1. There are effective and inclusive
arrangements in the school
community for students to actively
participate in decision-making.
2. The school ensures that pupils have
the information they need to make
informed decisions (articles 13 and
17).
3. The school community makes
provision for students to support
the rights of others, locally,
nationally and globally.
4. All members if the school
community understand their
responsibility to listen to students.
1. The school has systems and procedures that effectively
engage students in the democratic running of the school
(articles 12 and 13).
2. Students participate in wider initiatives, local, national and
global.
3. Students have frequent opportunities to feed opinions and
suggestions to the schools governing body.
4. Students participate in the staff recruitment process.
5. An elected School Council/Union has a responsibility to
function as ambassadors for the CRC within the school.
6. The schools physical environment is a feature of its rights-
respecting ethos.
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Appendix 11:
4-A framework for education and
international human rights instruments
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 1978 (ICESCR)
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, 1972 (CERD)
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, 1985 (CEDAW)
Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1993 (CRC)
Convention on the Rights of Disabled Persons, 2007 (CRDP)
Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 2006 (UNDRIP)
4-A framework International human rights instruments
Availability ICESCR: articles 13, 14
CRC: article 28(1a) and 28(1b)
CRDP: article 4
UNDRIP: articles 1 and 14
Accessibility ICESCR: articles 13-14
CRC: article 23(1); 28(1a), 28(1b)
CEDAW: article 10(d)
CERD: articles 5(e), 5(v) and 7
CRDP: article 4
UNDRIP: articles 1 and 14
Acceptability ICESCR: article 13(1)
CRC: articles 23(1), 29(1a), and 29(1c)
CERD: articles 5(e), 5(v) and 7
CRDP: article 4
UNDRIP: articles 1, 14 and 15
Adaptability ICESCR: article 13(1)
CRC: articles 23(1) and 29(1a)
CERD: articles 5(e), 5(v) and 7
CRDP: article 4
UNDRIP: articles 1, 14, 21 and 44
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Appendix 12:
United Nations Declaration on
Human Rights Education and Training
Resolution adopted by the General Assembly
66/137 of 19 December 2011
The General Assembly,
Welcoming the adoption by the Human Rights Council, in its resolution 16/1 of 23 March 2011,
213
of the
United Nations Declaration on Human Rights Education and Training,
1. Adopts the United Nations Declaration on Human Rights Education and Training annexed to the
present resolution;
2. Invites Governments, agencies and organizations of the United Nations system, and
intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations to intensify their efforts to disseminate
the Declaration and to promote universal respect and understanding thereof, and requests the
Secretary-General to include the text of the Declaration in the next edition of Human Rights: A
Compilation of International Instruments.
Annex
United Nations Declaration on Human Rights Education
The General Assembly,
Reafrming the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations with regard to the
promotion and encouragement of respect for all human rights and fundamental freedoms for all
without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion,
Reafrming also that every individual and every organ of society shall strive by teaching and education
to promote respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms,
Reafrming further that everyone has the right to education, and that education shall be directed
to the full development of the human personality and the sense of its dignity, enable all persons to
participate effectively in a free society and promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among
all nations and all racial, ethnic or religious groups, and further the activities of the United Nations for
the maintenance of peace, security and the promotion of development and human rights,
Reafrming that States are duty-bound, as stipulated in the Universal Declaration of Human
Rights,
214
the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
215
and in other human
rights instruments, to ensure that education is aimed at strengthening respect for human rights and
fundamental freedoms,
Acknowledging the fundamental importance of human rights education and training in contributing
to the promotion, protection and effective realization of all human rights,
213 See Ofcial Records of the General Assembly, Sixty-sixth Session, Supplement No. 53 (A/66/53), chap. I.
214 Resolution 217 A (III).
215 See resolution 2200 A (XXI), annex.
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Human Rights Education A Manual for National Human Rights Institutions
Reafrming the call of the World Conference on Human Rights, held in Vienna in 1993, on all States
and institutions to include human rights, humanitarian law, democracy and rule of law in the curricula
of all learning institutions, and its statement that human rights education should include peace,
democracy, development and social justice, as set forth in international and regional human rights
instruments, in order to achieve common understanding and awareness with a view to strengthening
universal commitment to human rights,
216
Recalling the 2005 World Summit Outcome, in which Heads of State and Government supported the
promotion of human rights education and learning at all levels, including through the implementation
of the World Programme for Human Rights Education, and encouraged all States to develop
initiatives in that regard,
217
Motivated by the desire to send a strong signal to the international community to strengthen all
efforts in human rights education and training through a collective commitment by all stakeholders,
Declares the following:
Article 1
1. Everyone has the right to know, seek and receive information about all human rights and fundamental
freedoms and should have access to human rights education and training.
2. Human rights education and training is essential for the promotion of universal respect for and
observance of all human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, in accordance with the principles
of the universality, indivisibility and interdependence of human rights.
3. The effective enjoyment of all human rights, in particular the right to education and access to
information, enables access to human rights education and training.
Article 2
1. Human rights education and training comprises all educational, training, information, awareness-
raising and learning activities aimed at promoting universal respect for and observance of all human
rights and fundamental freedoms and thus contributing, inter alia, to the prevention of human rights
violations and abuses by providing persons with knowledge, skills and understanding and developing
their attitudes and behaviours, to empower them to contribute to the building and promotion of a
universal culture of human rights.
2. Human rights education and training encompasses:
(a) Education about human rights, which includes providing knowledge and understanding of
human rights norms and principles, the values that underpin them and the mechanisms for their
protection;
(b) Education through human rights, which includes learning and teaching in a way that respects the
rights of both educators and learners;
(c) Education for human rights, which includes empowering persons to enjoy and exercise their
rights and to respect and uphold the rights of others.
216 See A/CONF.157/24 (Part I), chap. III, sect. II.D, paras. 79 and 80.
217 See resolution 60/1, para. 131.
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Article 3
1. Human rights education and training is a lifelong process that concerns all ages.
2. Human rights education and training concerns all parts of society, at all levels, including preschool,
primary, secondary and higher education, taking into account academic freedom where applicable,
and all forms of education, training and learning, whether in a public or private, formal, informal
or non-formal setting. It includes, inter alia, vocational training, particularly the training of trainers,
teachers and State ofcials, continuing education, popular education, and public information and
awareness activities.
3. Human rights education and training should use languages and methods suited to target groups,
taking into account their specic needs and conditions.
Article 4
Human rights education and training should be based on the principles of the Universal Declaration of
Human Rights and relevant treaties and instruments, with a view to:
(a) Raising awareness, understanding and acceptance of universal human rights standards and
principles, as well as guarantees at the international, regional and national levels for the protection
of human rights and fundamental freedoms;
(b) Developing a universal culture of human rights, in which everyone is aware of their own rights and
responsibilities in respect of the rights of others, and promoting the development of the individual
as a responsible member of a free, peaceful, pluralist and inclusive society;
(c) Pursuing the effective realization of all human rights and promoting tolerance, non-discrimination
and equality;
(d) Ensuring equal opportunities for all through access to quality human rights education and training,
without any discrimination;
(e) Contributing to the prevention of human rights violations and abuses and to the combating and
eradication of all forms of discrimination, racism, stereotyping and incitement to hatred, and the
harmful attitudes and prejudices that underlie them.
Article 5
1. Human rights education and training, whether provided by public or private actors, should be based
on the principles of equality, particularly between girls and boys and between women and men,
human dignity, inclusion and non-discrimination.
2. Human rights education and training should be accessible and available to all persons and should
take into account the particular challenges and barriers faced by, and the needs and expectations of,
persons in vulnerable and disadvantaged situations and groups, including persons with disabilities,
in order to promote empowerment and human development and to contribute to the elimination of
the causes of exclusion or marginalization, as well as enable everyone to exercise all their rights.
3. Human rights education and training should embrace and enrich, as well as draw inspiration from,
the diversity of civilizations, religions, cultures and traditions of different countries, as it is reected in
the universality of human rights.
4. Human rights education and training should take into account different economic, social and cultural
circumstances, while promoting local initiatives in order to encourage ownership of the common goal
of the fullment of all human rights for all.
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Article 6
1. Human rights education and training should capitalize on and make use of new information and
communication technologies, as well as the media, to promote all human rights and fundamental
freedoms.
2. The arts should be encouraged as a means of training and raising awareness in the eld of human
rights.
Article 7
1. States, and where applicable relevant governmental authorities, have the primary responsibility to
promote and ensure human rights education and training, developed and implemented in a spirit of
participation, inclusion and responsibility.
2. States should create a safe and enabling environment for the engagement of civil society, the private
sector and other relevant stakeholders in human rights education and training, in which the human
rights and fundamental freedoms of all, including of those engaged in the process, are fully protected.
3. States should take steps, individually and through international assistance and cooperation, to
ensure, to the maximum of their available resources, the progressive implementation of human rights
education and training by appropriate means, including the adoption of legislative and administrative
measures and policies.
4. States, and where applicable relevant governmental authorities, should ensure adequate training in
human rights and, where appropriate, international humanitarian law and international criminal law,
of State ofcials, civil servants, judges, law enforcement ofcials and military personnel, as well as
promote adequate training in human rights for teachers, trainers and other educators and private
personnel acting on behalf of the State.
Article 8
1. States should develop, or promote the development of, at the appropriate level, strategies and
policies and, where appropriate, action plans and programmes to implement human rights education
and training, such as through its integration into school and training curricula. In so doing, they
should take into account the World Programme for Human Rights Education and specic national
and local needs and priorities.
2. The conception, implementation and evaluation of and follow-up to such strategies, action plans,
policies and programmes should involve all relevant stakeholders, including the private sector, civil
society and national human rights institutions, by promoting, where appropriate, multi-stakeholder
initiatives.
Article 9
States should promote the establishment, development and strengthening of effective and independent
national human rights institutions, in compliance with the principles relating to the status of national
institutions for the promotion and protection of human rights (the Paris Principles),
218
recognizing that
national human rights institutions can play an important role, including, where necessary, a coordinating
role, in promoting human rights education and training by, inter alia, raising awareness and mobilizing
relevant public and private actors.
218 Resolution 48/134, annex.
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194 | Appendices
Article 10
1. Various actors within society, including, inter alia, educational institutions, the media, families, local
communities, civil society institutions, including non-governmental organizations, human rights
defenders and the private sector, have an important role to play in promoting and providing human
rights education and training.
2. Civil society institutions, the private sector and other relevant stakeholders are encouraged to ensure
adequate human rights education and training for their staff and personnel.
Article 11
The United Nations and international and regional organizations should provide human rights education
and training for their civilian personnel and for military and police personnel serving under their mandates.
Article 12
1. International cooperation at all levels should support and reinforce national efforts, including, where
applicable, at the local level, to implement human rights education and training.
2. Complementary and coordinated efforts at the international, regional, national and local levels can
contribute to more effective implementation of human rights education and training.
3. Voluntary funding for projects and initiatives in the eld of human rights education and training should
be encouraged.
Article 13
1. International and regional human rights mechanisms should, within their respective mandates, take
into account human rights education and training in their work.
2. States are encouraged to include, where appropriate, information on the measures that they have
adopted in the eld of human rights education and training in their reports to relevant human rights
mechanisms.
Article 14
States should take appropriate measures to ensure the effective implementation of and follow-up to the
present Declaration and make the necessary resources available in this regard.
Asia Pacic Forum of National Human Rights Institutions
GPO Box 5218
Sydney NSW 1042
Australia
E: apf@asiapacicforum.net
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