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- rlmary sex organs (gonads) - LesLes ln males, ovarles ln females
- Conads produce sex cells called gameLes and secreLe sex hormones
- Accessory reproducLlve organs - ducLs, glands, and exLernal genlLalla
- Sex hormones - androgens (males), and esLrogens and progesLerone (females)
- Sex hormones play roles ln:
- 1he developmenL and funcLlon of Lhe reproducLlve organs
- Sexual behavlor and drlves
- 1he growLh and developmenL of many oLher organs and Llssues
- 1he male gonads (LesLes) produce sperm and lle wlLhln Lhe scroLum
- Sperm are dellvered Lo Lhe exLerlor Lhrough a sysLem of ducLs: epldldymls, ducLus deferens, and Lhe
ureLhra
- Accessory sex glands:
- LmpLy Lhelr secreLlons lnLo Lhe ducLs durlng e[aculaLlon
- lnclude Lhe semlnal veslcles, prosLaLe gland, and bulboureLhral glands
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- Sac of skln and superflclal fascla LhaL hangs ouLslde Lhe abdomlnopelvlc cavlLy aL Lhe rooL of Lhe penls
- ConLalns palred LesLlcles separaLed by a mldllne sepLum
- lLs exLernal poslLlonlng keeps Lhe LesLes 3C lower Lhan core body LemperaLure (needed for sperm
producLlon)
- lnLrascroLal LemperaLure ls kepL consLanL by Lwo seLs of muscles:
- uarLos - smooLh muscle LhaL wrlnkles scroLal skln
- CremasLer - bands of skeleLal muscle LhaL elevaLe Lhe LesLes
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- Lach LesLls ls surrounded by Lwo Lunlcs:
- 1he Lunlca vaglnalls, derlved from perlLoneum
- 1he Lunlca albuglnea, Lhe flbrous capsule of Lhe LesLls
- SepLa dlvlde Lhe LesLls lnLo 230-300 lobules, each conLalnlng 1-4 semlnlferous Lubules
- Semlnlferous Lubules:
- roduce Lhe sperm
- Converge Lo form Lhe Lubulus recLus
- 1he sLralghL Lubulus recLus conveys sperm Lo Lhe reLe LesLls
- lrom Lhe reLe LesLls, Lhe sperm:
- Leave Lhe LesLls vla efferenL ducLules
- LnLer Lhe epldldymls
- Surroundlng Lhe semlnlferous Lubules are lnLersLlLlal cells LhaL produce androgens
- 1esLlcular arLerles branch from Lhe abdomlnal aorLa and supply Lhe LesLes
- 1esLlcular velns arlse from Lhe pamplnlform plexus
- SpermaLlc cord - encloses nS and SnS nerve flbers, blood vessels, and lymphaLlcs LhaL supply Lhe
LesLes
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- A copulaLory organ deslgned Lo dellver sperm lnLo Lhe female reproducLlve LracL
- ConslsLs of an aLLached rooL and a free shafL LhaL ends ln Lhe glans penls
- repuce, or foreskln - cuff of skln coverlng Lhe dlsLal end of Lhe penls
- !@:?>D?@C@<E - surglcal removal of Lhe foreskln afLer blrLh
- lnLernal penls - Lhe ureLhra and Lhree cyllndrlcal bodles of erecLlle Llssue
- LrecLlle Llssue - spongy neLwork of connecLlve Llssue and smooLh muscle rlddled wlLh vascular spaces
- LrecLlon - durlng sexual exclLemenL, Lhe erecLlle Llssue fllls wlLh blood causlng Lhe penls Lo enlarge
and become rlgld
- Corpus sponglosum - surrounds Lhe ureLhra and expands Lo form Lhe glans and bulb of Lhe penls
- Corpora cavernosa - palred dorsal erecLlle bodles bound by flbrous Lunlca albuglnea
- Crura - proxlmal end of Lhe penls surrounded by Lhe lschlocavernosus muscle, anchors Lhe penls Lo
Lhe publc arch
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- lLs head [olns Lhe efferenL ducLules and caps Lhe superlor aspecL of Lhe LesLls
- 1he ducL of Lhe epldldymls has sLereocllla LhaL:
- Absorb LesLlcular fluld
- ass nuLrlenLs Lo Lhe sperm
- nonmoLlle sperm enLer, pass Lhrough lLs Lubes and become moLlle
- upon e[aculaLlon, Lhe epldldymls conLracLs expelllng sperm lnLo Lhe ducLus deferens
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- 8uns from Lhe epldldymls Lhrough Lhe lngulnal canal lnLo Lhe pelvlc cavlLy
- lLs Lermlnus expands Lo form Lhe ampulla and Lhen [olns Lhe ducL of Lhe semlnal veslcle Lo form Lhe
e[aculaLory ducL
- ropels sperm from Lhe epldldymls Lo Lhe ureLhra
- vasecLomy - cuLLlng and llgaLlng Lhe ducLus deferens, whlch ls a nearly 100 effecLlve form of blrLh
conLrol
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- Conveys boLh urlne and semen (aL dlfferenL Llmes)
- ConslsLs of Lhree reglons
- rosLaLlc - porLlon surrounded by Lhe prosLaLe
- Membranous - lles ln Lhe urogenlLal dlaphragm
- Spongy, or penlle - runs Lhrough Lhe penls and opens Lo Lhe ouLslde aL Lhe exLernal ureLhral
orlflce
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- Lle on Lhe posLerlor wall of Lhe bladder and secreLe 60 of Lhe volume of semen
- Semen - vlscous alkallne fluld conLalnlng frucLose, ascorblc acld, coagulaLlng enzyme
(veslculase), and prosLaglandlns
- !olns Lhe ducLus deferens Lo form Lhe e[aculaLory ducL
- Sperm and semlnal fluld mlx ln Lhe e[aculaLory ducL and enLer Lhe prosLaLlc ureLhra durlng e[aculaLlon
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- uoughnuL-shaped gland LhaL enclrcles parL of Lhe ureLhra lnferlor Lo Lhe bladder
- lLs mllky, sllghLly acld fluld, whlch conLalns clLraLe, enzymes, and prosLaLe-speclflc anLlgen (SA),
accounLs for one-Lhlrd of Lhe semen volume
- lays a role ln Lhe acLlvaLlon of sperm
- LnLers Lhe prosLaLlc ureLhra durlng e[aculaLlon
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- ea-slzed glands lnferlor Lo Lhe prosLaLe
- roduce Lhlck, clear mucus prlor Lo e[aculaLlon LhaL neuLrallzes Lraces of acldlc urlne ln Lhe ureLhra
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- Mllky whlLe, sLlcky mlxLure of sperm and accessory gland secreLlons
- rovldes a LransporL medlum and nuLrlenLs (frucLose), proLecLs and acLlvaLes sperm, and faclllLaLes
Lhelr movemenL
- rosLaglandlns ln semen:
- uecrease Lhe vlscoslLy of mucus ln Lhe cervlx
- SLlmulaLe reverse perlsLalsls ln Lhe uLerus
- laclllLaLe Lhe movemenL of sperm Lhrough Lhe female reproducLlve LracL
- 1he hormone !"#$%&' enhances sperm moLlllLy
- 1he relaLlve alkallnlLy of semen neuLrallzes Lhe acld envlronmenL found ln Lhe male ureLhra and
female vaglna
- Semlnalplasmln - anLlbloLlc chemlcal LhaL desLroys cerLaln bacLerla
- CloLLlng facLors coagulaLe semen lmmedlaLely afLer e[aculaLlon, Lhen flbrlnolysln llquefles Lhe sLlcky
mass
- Cnly 2-3 ml of semen are e[aculaLed, buL lL conLalns 30-130 mllllon sperm/mL
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- LnlargemenL and sLlffenlng of Lhe penls from engorgemenL of erecLlle Llssue wlLh blood
- uurlng sexual arousal, a nS reflex promoLes Lhe release of nlLrlc oxlde
- nlLrlc oxlde causes erecLlle Llssue Lo flll wlLh blood
- Lxpanslon of Lhe corpora cavernosa:
- Compresses Lhelr dralnage velns
- 8eLards blood ouLflow and malnLalns engorgemenL
- 1he corpus sponglosum funcLlons ln keeplng Lhe ureLhra open durlng e[aculaLlon
- LrecLlon ls lnlLlaLed by sexual sLlmull lncludlng:
- 1ouch and mechanlcal sLlmulaLlon of Lhe penls
- LroLlc slghLs, sounds, and smells
- LrecLlon can be lnduced or lnhlblLed solely by emoLlonal or hlgher menLal acLlvlLy
- /D7<89E?9 - lnablllLy Lo aLLaln erecLlon
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- 1he propulslon of semen from Lhe male ducL sysLem
- AL e[aculaLlon, sympaLheLlc nerves servlng Lhe genlLal organs cause:
- 8eproducLlve ducLs and accessory organs Lo conLracL and empLy Lhelr conLenLs
- 8ladder sphlncLer muscle Lo consLrlcL, prevenLlng Lhe expulslon of urlne
- 8ulbosponglosus muscles Lo undergo a rapld serles of conLracLlons
- ropulslon of semen from Lhe ureLhra
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- 1he sequence of evenLs LhaL produces sperm ln Lhe semlnlferous Lubules of Lhe LesLes
- Lach cell has Lwo seLs of chromosomes (one maLernal, one paLernal) and ls sald Lo be dlplold (2'
chromosomal number)
- Pumans have 23 palrs of homologous chromosomes
- CameLes only have 23 chromosomes and are sald Lo be haplold (' chromosomal number)
- CameLe formaLlon ls by melosls, ln whlch Lhe number of chromosomes ls halved (from 2' Lo ')
39@<C@C
- 1wo nuclear dlvlslons, melosls l and melosls ll, halve Lhe number of chromosomes ln Lhe four
daughLer cells
- Chromosomes repllcaLe prlor Lo melosls l
- ln melosls l, homologous palrs of chromosomes undergo synapsls and form LeLrads wlLh Lhelr
homologous parLners
- Crossover, Lhe exchange of geneLlc maLerlal among LeLrads, occurs durlng synapsls
39@<C@C /
- 1eLrads llne up aL Lhe splndle equaLor durlng meLaphase l
- ln anaphase l, homologous chromosomes sLlll composed of [olned slsLer chromaLlds are dlsLrlbuLed Lo
opposlLe ends of Lhe cell
- AL Lhe end of melosls l each daughLer cell has:
- 1wo coples of elLher a maLerlal or paLernal homologous palr of chromosomes
- A 2' amounL of unA and haplold number of chromosomes
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- Mlrrors mlLosls excepL LhaL chromosomes are noL repllcaLed before lL beglns
- Melosls accompllshes Lwo Lasks:
- lL reduces Lhe chromosome number by half (2' Lo ')
- lL lnLroduces geneLlc varlablllLy
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- Cells maklng up Lhe walls of semlnlferous Lubules are ln varlous sLages of cell dlvlslon
- 1hese spermaLogenlc cells glve rlse Lo sperm ln a serles of evenLs
- MlLosls of spermaLogonla, formlng spermaLocyLes
- SpermaLlds formed from spermaLocyLes by melosls
- Spermlogenesls - spermaLlds formlng sperm
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- SpermaLogonla - ouLermosL cells ln conLacL wlLh Lhe eplLhellal basal lamlna
- SpermaLogenesls beglns aL puberLy as each mlLoLlc dlvlslon of spermaLogonla resulLs ln Lype A or Lype
8 daughLer cells
- 1ype A cells remaln aL Lhe basemenL membrane and malnLaln Lhe germ llne
- 1ype 8 cells move Loward Lhe lumen and become prlmary spermaLocyLes
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- rlmary spermaLocyLes undergo melosls l, formlng Lwo haplold cells called secondary spermaLocyLes
- Secondary spermaLocyLes undergo melosls ll and Lhelr daughLer cells are called spermaLlds
- SpermaLlds are small round cells seen close Lo Lhe lumen of Lhe Lubule
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- LaLe ln spermaLogenesls, spermaLlds are haplold buL are nonmoLlle
- Spermlogenesls - spermaLlds lose excess cyLoplasm and form a Lall, becomlng sperm
- Sperm have Lhree ma[or reglons
- Pead - conLalns unA and has a helmeLllke acrosome conLalnlng hydrolyLlc enzymes LhaL allow
Lhe sperm Lo peneLraLe and enLer Lhe egg
- Mldplece - conLalns mlLochondrla splraled around Lhe Lall fllamenLs
- 1all - a Lyplcal flagellum produced by a cenLrlole
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- Cells LhaL exLend from Lhe basal lamlna Lo Lhe lumen of Lhe Lubule LhaL surrounds developlng cells
- 1hey are bound LogeLher wlLh LlghL [uncLlons formlng an unbroken layer wlLh Lhe semlnlferous
Lubule, dlvldlng lL lnLo Lwo comparLmenLs
- 1he basal comparLmenL - conLalns spermaLogonla and prlmary spermaLocyLes
- Adlumlnal comparLmenL - conLalns meloLlcally acLlve cells and Lhe Lubule lumen
- 1helr LlghL [uncLlons form a blood-LesLls barrler
- 1hls prevenLs sperm anLlgens from escaplng Lhrough Lhe basal lamlna lnLo Lhe blood
- Slnce sperm are noL formed unLll puberLy, Lhey are absenL durlng Lhymlc educaLlon
- SpermaLogonla are recognlzed as self" and are lnfluenced by bloodborne chemlcal messengers LhaL
prompL spermaLogenesls
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- SpermaLocyLes and spermaLlds are nearly enclosed ln susLenLacular cells, whlch:
- uellver nuLrlenLs Lo dlvldlng cells
- Move Lhem along Lo Lhe lumen
- SecreLe LesLlcular fluld LhaL provldes Lhe LransporL medlum for sperm
- ulspose of excess cyLoplasm sloughed off durlng maLuraLlon Lo sperm
- roduce chemlcal medlaLors LhaL help regulaLe spermaLogenesls
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- Pormonal regulaLlon of spermaLogenesls and LesLlcular androgen producLlon lnvolvlng Lhe
hypoLhalamus, anLerlor plLulLary gland, and Lhe LesLes
- 1esLlcular regulaLlon lnvolves Lhree seLs of hormones:
- Cn8P, whlch lndlrecLly sLlmulaLes Lhe LesLes Lhrough:
- lolllcle sLlmulaLlng hormone (lSP)
- LuLelnlzlng hormone (LP)
- ConadoLroplns, whlch dlrecLly sLlmulaLe Lhe LesLes
- 1esLlcular hormones, whlch exerL negaLlve feedback conLrols
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- 1he hypoLhalamus releases gonadoLropln-releaslng hormone (Cn8P)
- Cn8P sLlmulaLes Lhe anLerlor plLulLary Lo secreLe lSP and LP
- lSP causes susLenLacular cells Lo release androgen-blndlng proLeln (A8)
- LP sLlmulaLes lnLersLlLlal cells Lo release LesLosLerone
- A8 blndlng of LesLosLerone enhances spermaLogenesls
- leedback lnhlblLlon on Lhe hypoLhalamus and plLulLary resulLs from:
- 8lslng levels of LesLosLerone
- lncreased lnhlbln
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- 1esLosLerone ls synLheslzed from cholesLerol
- lL musL be Lransformed Lo exerL lLs effecLs on some LargeL cells
- rosLaLe - lL ls converLed lnLo dlhydroLesLosLerone (uP1) before lL can blnd wlLhln Lhe nucleus
- neurons - lL ls converLed lnLo esLrogen Lo brlng abouL sLlmulaLory effecLs
- 1esLosLerone LargeLs all accessory organs and lLs deflclency causes Lhese organs Lo aLrophy
36G9 19?<E=6:B 19Q !56:6?89:@C8@?C
- Male hormones make Lhelr appearance aL puberLy and lnduce changes ln nonreproducLlve organs,
lncludlng
- Appearance of publc, axlllary, and faclal halr
- Lnhanced growLh of Lhe chesL and deepenlng of Lhe volce
- Skln Lhlckens and becomes olly
- 8ones grow and lncrease ln denslLy
- SkeleLal muscles lncrease ln slze and mass
- 1esLosLerone ls Lhe basls of llbldo ln boLh males and females
#E68<DB <F 859 U9D6G9 '97:<=>?8@A9 1BC89D
- Cvarles are Lhe prlmary female reproducLlve organs
- Make female gameLes
- SecreLe female sex hormones (esLrogen and progesLerone)
- Accessory ducLs lnclude uLerlne Lubes, uLerus, and vaglna
- lnLernal genlLalla - ovarles and Lhe lnLernal ducLs
- LxLernal genlLalla - exLernal sex organs
%59 ,A6:@9C
- alred organs on each slde of Lhe uLerus held ln place by several llgamenLs
- Cvarlan - anchors Lhe ovary medlally Lo Lhe uLerus
- Suspensory - anchors Lhe ovary laLerally Lo Lhe pelvlc wall
- Mesovarlum - suspends Lhe ovary ln beLween
- 8road llgamenL - conLalns Lhe suspensory llgamenL and Lhe mesovarlum
- 8lood supply - ovarlan arLerles and Lhe ovarlan branch of Lhe uLerlne arLery
- 1hey are surrounded by a flbrous Lunlca albuglnea, whlch ls covered by a mlsnamed layer of eplLhellal
cells called Lhe germlnal eplLhellum
- Lmbedded ln Lhe ovary corLex are ovarlan folllcles
- Lach folllcle conslsLs of an lmmaLure egg called an oocyLe
- Cells around Lhe oocyLe are called:
- lolllcle cells (one cell layer Lhlck)
- Cranulosa cells (when more Lhan one layer ls presenL)
- rlmordlal folllcle - one layer of squamousllke folllcle cells surrounds Lhe oocyLe
- rlmary folllcle - Lwo or more layers of cuboldal granulosa cells enclose Lhe oocyLe
- Secondary folllcle - has a fluld-fllled space beLween granulosa cells LhaL coalesces Lo form a cenLral
anLrum
- Craaflan folllcle - secondary folllcle aL lLs mosL maLure sLage LhaL bulges from Lhe surface of Lhe ovary
- CvulaLlon - e[ecLlon of Lhe oocyLe from Lhe rlpenlng folllcle
- Corpus luLeum - rupLured folllcle afLer ovulaLlon
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- 8ecelve Lhe ovulaLed oocyLe and provlde a slLe for ferLlllzaLlon
- LmpLy lnLo Lhe superolaLeral reglon of Lhe uLerus vla Lhe lsLhmus
- Lxpand dlsLally around Lhe ovary formlng Lhe ampulla
- 1he ampulla ends ln Lhe funnel-shaped, clllaLed lnfundlbulum conLalnlng flngerllke pro[ecLlons called
flmbrlae
- 1he uLerlne Lubes have no conLacL wlLh Lhe ovarles and Lhe ovulaLed oocyLe ls casL lnLo Lhe perlLoneal
cavlLy
- 8eaLlng cllla on Lhe flmbrlae creaLe currenLs Lo carry Lhe oocyLe lnLo Lhe uLerlne Lube
- 1he oocyLe ls carrled Loward Lhe uLerus by perlsLalsls and clllary acLlon
- nonclllaLed cells keep Lhe oocyLe and Lhe sperm nourlshed and molsL
- Mesosalplnx - vlsceral perlLoneum LhaL supporL Lhe uLerlne Lubes
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- Pollow, Lhlck-walled organ locaLed ln Lhe pelvls anLerlor Lo Lhe recLum and posLerosuperlor Lo Lhe
bladder
- 8ody - ma[or porLlon of Lhe uLerus
- lundus - rounded reglon superlor Lo Lhe enLrance of Lhe uLerlne Lubes
- lsLhmus - narrowed reglon beLween Lhe body and cervlx
- Cervlx - narrow neck whlch pro[ecLs lnLo Lhe vaglna lnferlorly
- Cervlcal canal - cavlLy of Lhe cervlx LhaL communlcaLes wlLh:
- 1he vaglna vla Lhe exLernal os
- 1he uLerlne body vla Lhe lnLernal os
- Cervlcal glands secreLe mucus LhaL covers Lhe exLernal os and blocks sperm enLry excepL durlng
mldcycle
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- MesomeLrlum - porLlon of Lhe broad llgamenL LhaL supporLs Lhe uLerus laLerally
- LaLeral cervlcal llgamenLs - exLend from Lhe cervlx and superlor parL of Lhe vaglna Lo Lhe laLeral walls
of Lhe pelvls
- uLerosacral llgamenLs - palred llgamenLs LhaL secure Lhe uLerus Lo Lhe sacrum
- 8ound llgamenLs - blnd Lhe anLerlor wall Lo Lhe labla ma[ora
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- Several cul-de-sacs of perlLoneum exlsL around Lhe uLerus
- veslcouLerlne pouch - lles beLween Lhe bladder and Lhe uLerus
- 8ecLouLerlne pouch - lles beLween Lhe recLum and Lhe uLerus
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- Composed of Lhree layers
- erlmeLrlum - ouLermosL serous layer, Lhe vlsceral perlLoneum
- MyomeLrlum - mlddle layer, lnLerlaclng layers of smooLh muscle
- LndomeLrlum - mucosal llnlng of Lhe uLerlne cavlLy
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- Pas numerous uLerlne glands LhaL change ln lengLh as Lhe endomeLrlal Lhlckness changes
- SLraLum funcLlonalls:
- undergoes cycllc changes ln response Lo ovarlan hormones
- ls shed durlng mensLruaLlon
- SLraLum basalls:
- lorms a new funcLlonalls afLer mensLruaLlon ends
- uoes noL respond Lo ovarlan hormones
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- uLerlne arLerles - arlse from Lhe lnLernal lllacs, ascend Lhe sldes of Lhe uLerus and send branches lnLo
Lhe uLerlne wall
- ArcuaLe arLerles - branches of Lhe uLerlne arLerles ln Lhe myomeLrlum LhaL glve rlse Lo radlal
branches
- 8adlal branches - descend lnLo Lhe endomeLrlum and glve rlse Lo:
- Splral arLerles Lo Lhe sLraLum funcLlonalls
- SLralghL arLerles Lo Lhe sLraLum basalls
- uegeneraLlon and regeneraLlon of splral arLerles causes Lhe funcLlonalls Lo shed durlng mensLruaLlon
- velns of Lhe endomeLrlum are Lhln-walled wlLh occaslonal slnusoldal enlargemenLs
%59 06P@E6
- 1hln-walled Lube lylng beLween Lhe bladder and Lhe recLum, exLendlng from Lhe cervlx Lo Lhe exLerlor
of Lhe body
- 1he ureLhra ls embedded ln Lhe anLerlor wall
- rovldes a passageway for blrLh, mensLrual flow, and ls Lhe organ of copulaLlon
- Wall conslsLs of Lhree coaLs: flbroelasLlc advenLlLla, smooLh muscle muscularls, and a sLraLlfled
squamous mucosa
- Mucosa near Lhe vaglnal orlflce forms an lncompleLe parLlLlon called Lhe hymen
- vaglnal fornlx - upper end of Lhe vaglna surroundlng Lhe cervlx
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- Lles exLernal Lo Lhe vaglna and lncludes Lhe mons publs, labla, cllLorls, and vesLlbular sLrucLures
- Mons publs - round, faLLy area overlylng Lhe publc symphysls
- Labla ma[ora - elongaLed, halr-covered, faLLy skln folds homologous Lo Lhe male scroLum
- Labla mlnora - halr-free skln folds lylng wlLhln Lhe labla ma[or: homologous Lo Lhe venLral penls
- CreaLer vesLlbular glands
- ea-slze glands flanklng Lhe vaglna
- Pomologous Lo Lhe bulboureLhral glands
- keep Lhe vesLlbule molsL and lubrlcaLed
- CllLorls
- LrecLlle Llssue hooded by Lhe prepuce
- Pomologous Lo Lhe penls
- erlneum
- ulamond-shaped reglon beLween Lhe publc arch and coccyx
- 8ordered by Lhe lschlal LuberoslLles laLerally
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- Modlfled sweaL glands conslsLlng of 13-23 lobes LhaL radlaLe around and open aL Lhe nlpple
- Areola - plgmenLed skln surroundlng Lhe nlpple
- Suspensory llgamenLs aLLach Lhe breasL Lo underlylng muscle fascla
- Lobes conLaln glandular alveoll LhaL produce mllk ln lacLaLlng women
- Compound alveolar glands pass mllk Lo lacLlferous ducLs, whlch open Lo Lhe ouLslde
L:96C8 !6E?9:
- usually arlses from Lhe eplLhellal cells of Lhe ducLs
- 8lsk facLors lnclude:
- Larly onseL of menses or laLe menopause
- no pregnancles or Lhe flrsL pregnancy laLe ln llfe
- revlous hlsLory of breasL cancer or famlly hlsLory of breasL cancer
- PeredlLary facLors lnclude muLaLlons Lo a palr of genes 88CA1 and 88CA2
- 70 of women wlLh breasL cancer had no known rlsk facLors
L:96C8 !6E?9:Z -989?8@<E 6E= %:968D9E8
- Larly deLecLlon ls by self-examlnaLlon and mammography
- 1reaLmenL depends upon Lhe characLerlsLlcs of Lhe leslon
- 8adlaLlon, chemoLherapy, and surgery followed by lrradlaLlon and chemoLherapy
- 1oday, lumpecLomy ls Lhe surgery used raLher Lhan radlcal masLecLomy
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,<P9E9C@C
- roducLlon of female sex cells by melosls
- ln Lhe feLal perlod, oogonla (2' ovarlan sLem cells) mulLlply by mlLosls and sLore nuLrlenLs
- rlmordlal folllcles appear as oogonla are Lransformed lnLo prlmary oocyLes
- rlmary oocyLes begln melosls buL sLall ln prophase l
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- AL puberLy, one acLlvaLed prlmary oocyLe produces Lwo haplold cells
- 1he flrsL polar body
- 1he secondary oocyLe
- 1he secondary oocyLe arresLs ln meLaphase ll and ls ovulaLed
- lf peneLraLed by sperm:
- 1he second oocyLe compleLes melosls ll, yleldlng:
- Cne large ovum (Lhe funcLlonal gameLe)
- A Llny second polar body
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- MonLhly serles of evenLs assoclaLed wlLh Lhe maLuraLlon of an egg
- lolllcular phase - perlod of folllcle growLh (days 1-14)
- LuLeal phase - perlod of corpus luLeum acLlvlLy (days 14-28)
- CvulaLlon occurs mldcycle
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- 1he prlmordlal folllcle becomes a prlmary folllcle
- rlmary folllcle becomes a secondary folllcle
- 1he Lheca folllcull and granulosa cells cooperaLe Lo produce esLrogens
- 1he zona pelluclda forms around Lhe oocyLe
- 1he anLrum ls formed
- 1he secondary folllcle becomes a veslcular folllcle
- 1he anLrum expands and lsolaLes Lhe oocyLe and Lhe corona radlaLa
- 1he full slze folllcle (veslcular folllcle) bulges from Lhe exLernal surface of Lhe ovary
- 1he prlmary oocyLe compleLes melosls l, and Lhe sLage ls seL for ovulaLlon
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- CvulaLlon occurs when Lhe ovary wall rupLures and expels Lhe secondary oocyLe
- MlLLelschmerz - a Llnge of paln someLlmes felL aL ovulaLlon
- 1-2 of ovulaLlons release more Lhan one secondary oocyLe, whlch lf ferLlllzed, resulLs ln fraLernal
Lwlns
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- AfLer ovulaLlon, Lhe rupLured folllcle collapses, granulosa cells enlarge, and along wlLh lnLernal Lhecal
cells, form Lhe corpus luLeum
- 1he corpus luLeum secreLes progesLerone and esLrogen
- lf pregnancy does noL occur, Lhe corpus luLeum degeneraLes ln 10 days, leavlng a scar (corpus
alblcans)
- lf pregnancy does occur, Lhe corpus luLeum produces hormones unLll Lhe placenLa Lakes over LhaL
role (aL abouL 3 monLhs)
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- uurlng chlldhood, ovarles grow and secreLe small amounLs of esLrogens LhaL lnhlblL Lhe hypoLhalamlc
release of Cn8P
- As puberLy nears, Cn8P ls released, lSP and LP are released by Lhe plLulLary, whlch acL on Lhe ovarles
- 1hese evenLs conLlnue unLll an adulL cycllc paLLern ls achleved and menarche occurs
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- uay 1 - Cn8P sLlmulaLes Lhe release of lSP and LP
- lSP and LP sLlmulaLe folllcle growLh and maLuraLlon, and low-level esLrogen release
- 8lslng esLrogen levels:
- lnhlblL Lhe release of lSP and LP
- rod Lhe plLulLary Lo synLheslze and accumulaLe Lhese gonadoLroplns
- LsLrogen levels lncrease and hlgh esLrogen levels have a poslLlve feedback effecL on Lhe plLulLary,
causlng a sudden surge of LP
- 1he LP splke slmulaLes Lhe prlmary oocyLe Lo compleLe melosls l, and Lhe secondary oocyLe conLlnues
on Lo meLaphase ll
- uay 14 - LP Lrlggers ovulaLlon
- LP Lransforms Lhe rupLured folllcle lnLo a corpus luLeum, whlch produces lnhlbln, progesLerone, and
esLrogen
- 1hese hormones shuL off lSP and LP release and decllnlng LP ends luLeal acLlvlLy
- uays 26-28 - decllne of Lhe ovarlan hormones
- Lnds Lhe blockade of lSP and LP
- 1he cycle sLarLs anew
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- Serles of cycllc changes LhaL Lhe uLerlne endomeLrlum goes Lhrough each monLh ln response Lo
ovarlan hormones ln Lhe blood
- uays 1-3: MensLrual phase - uLerus sheds all buL Lhe deepesL parL of Lhe endomeLrlum
- uays 6-14: rollferaLlve phase - endomeLrlum rebullds lLself
- uays 13-28: SecreLory phase - LndomeLrlum prepares for lmplanLaLlon of Lhe embryo
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- lf ferLlllzaLlon does noL occur, progesLerone levels fall, deprlvlng Lhe endomeLrlum of hormonal
supporL
- Splral arLerles klnk and go lnLo spasms and endomeLrlal cells begln Lo dle
- 1he funcLlonal layer beglns Lo dlgesL lLself
- Splral arLerles consLrlcL one flnal Llme Lhen suddenly relax and open wlde
- 1he rush of blood fragmenLs weakened caplllary beds and Lhe funcLlonal layer sloughs
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- LsLrogen levels rlse durlng puberLy
- romoLe oogenesls and folllcle growLh ln Lhe ovary
- LxerL anabollc effecLs on Lhe female reproducLlve LracL
- uLerlne Lubes, uLerus, and vaglna grow larger and become funcLlonal
- uLerlne Lubes and uLerus exhlblL enhanced moLlllLy
- vaglnal mucosa Lhlckens and exLernal genlLalla maLure
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- CrowLh of Lhe breasLs
- lncreased deposlLlon of subcuLaneous faL, especlally ln Lhe hlps and breasLs
- Wldenlng and llghLenlng of Lhe pelvls
- CrowLh of axlllary and publc halr
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- 1he cllLorls, vaglnal mucosa, and breasLs engorge wlLh blood
- vesLlbular glands lubrlcaLe Lhe vesLlbule and faclllLaLes enLry of Lhe penls
- Crgasm - accompanled by muscle Lenslon, lncrease ln pulse raLe and blood pressure, and rhyLhmlcal
conLracLlons of Lhe uLerus
- lemales do noL have a refracLory perlod afLer orgasm and can experlence mulLlple orgasms ln a slngle
sexual experlence
- Crgasm ls noL essenLlal for concepLlon
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- 8acLerlal lnfecLlon spread by conLacL wlLh genlLal, anal, and pharyngeal mucosal surfaces
- Slgns and sympLoms:
- ln males - palnful urlnaLlon, dlscharge of pus from Lhe penls
- ln females - none (20), abdomlnal dlscomforL, vaglnal dlscharge, abnormal uLerlne bleedlng
- LefL unLreaLed, can resulL ln pelvlc lnflammaLory dlsease
- 1reaLmenL: anLlbloLlcs, buL reslsLanL sLralns are becomlng more prevalenL
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- 8acLerlal lnfecLlon LransmlLLed sexually or conLracLed congenlLally
- lnfecLed feLuses are sLlllborn or dle shorLly afLer blrLh
- A palnless chancre appears aL Lhe slLe of lnfecLlon and dlsappears ln a few weeks
- Secondary syphllls shows slgns of plnk skln rash, fever, and [olnL paln
- A laLenL perlod follows, whlch may progress Lo LerLlary syphllls characLerlzed by gummas (CnS, blood
vessel, bone, and skln leslons)
- 1reaLmenL: penlclllln
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- MosL common S1u ln Lhe u.S.
- 8esponslble for 23-30 of all dlagnosed cases of pelvlc lnflammaLory dlsease
- SympLoms lnclude ureLhrlLls, penlle and vaglnal dlscharges, abdomlnal, recLal, or LesLlcular paln,
palnful lnLercourse, and lrregular menses
- Can cause arLhrlLls and urlnary LracL lnfecLlons ln men, and sLerlllLy ln women
- 1reaLmenL ls wlLh LeLracycllne
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- araslLlc lnfecLlon lndlcaLed by a yellow-green vaglnal dlscharge wlLh a sLrong odor
- MosL common curable S1l ln sexually acLlve young women
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- CenlLal warLs - caused by human paplllomavlruses (Pv), lnfecLlons lncrease Lhe rlsk of penlle,
vaglnal, anal, and cervlcal cancers
- CenlLal herpes - caused by LpsLeln-8arr vlrus Lype 2 and characLerlzed by laLenL perlods and flare-ups
- CongenlLal herpes can cause malformaLlons of a feLus
- Pas been lmpllcaLed wlLh cervlcal cancer
- 1reaLmenL: acyclovlr and oLher anLlvlral drugs
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- CeneLlc sex ls deLermlned by Lhe sex chromosomes each gameLe conLalns
- 1here are Lwo Lypes of sex chromosomes: x and ?
- lemales have Lwo x chromosomes, males have one x and one ?
- Pence, all eggs have an x chromosome, half Lhe sperm have an x, and Lhe oLher half a ?
- A slngle gene on Lhe ? chromosome, Lhe S8? gene, lnlLlaLes LesLes developmenL and deLermlnes
maleness
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- 3
Lh
week - gonadal rldges form and paramesonephrlc (Mullerlan) ducLs form ln females,
mesonephrlc (Wolfflan) ducLs develop ln males
- ShorLly laLer, prlmordlal germ cells develop and seed Lhe developlng gonads desLlned Lo become
spermaLogonla or oogonla
- Male sLrucLures begln developmenL ln Lhe 7
Lh
week, female ln Lhe 8
Lh
week
- LxLernal genlLalla, llke gonads, arlse from Lhe same sLrucLures ln boLh sexes
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- under Lhe lnfluence of LesLosLerone
- CenlLal Lubercle enlarges formlng Lhe penls
- ureLhral groove elongaLes and closes compleLely
- ureLhral folds glve rlse Lo Lhe penlle ureLhra
- LabloscroLal swelllngs develop lnLo Lhe scroLum
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- ln Lhe absence of LesLosLerone
- CenlLal Lubercle glves rlse Lo Lhe cllLorls
- 1he ureLhral groove remalns open as Lhe vesLlbule
- 1he ureLhral folds become labla mlnora
- 1he labloscroLal swelllngs become labla ma[ora
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- AbouL 2 monLhs before blrLh and sLlmulaLed by LesLosLerone, Lhe LesLes leave Lhe pelvlc cavlLy and
enLer Lhe scroLum
- Cubernaculum - flbrous cord LhaL exLends from Lhe LesLes Lo Lhe scroLum
- SpermaLlc cord - blood vessels, nerves, and fasclal layers LhaL help suspend Lhe LesLes
- Cvarles also descend, buL are sLopped by Lhe broad llgamenL aL Lhe pelvlc brlm
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- 8eproducLlve organs grow Lo adulL slze and become funcLlonal
- Secondary sex characLerlsLlcs appear
- CharacLerlsLlcs of puberLy
- Males - enlargemenL of Lhe LesLes and scroLum, appearance of axlllary and faclal halr, and
growLh of Lhe penls
- lemales - enlarglng of Lhe breasLs, menarche, and dependable ovulaLlon
39E<76>C9
- CvulaLlon and menses cease enLlrely
- WlLhouL sufflclenL esLrogen, reproducLlve organs and breasLs aLrophy
- lrrlLablllLy and depresslon resulL
- Skln blood vessels undergo lnLense vasodllaLlon (hoL flashes occur)
- Cradual Lhlnnlng of Lhe skln and bone loss
- Males have no equlvalenL Lo menopause
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