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IP Networking Part 3-

IP Address Management
A webinar to help you prepare
for the CBNE Certification

Wayne M. Pecena, CPBE, CBNE
Texas A&M Information Technology
Educational Broadcast Services
IP Networking, Part 3 - IP Address Management
A webinar to help you prepare for the CBNE Certification
Advertised Presentation Scope:

IP Networking Fundamentals for Broadcast Engineers is an intensive instructor-
lead workshop focused on major IP networking topics. The goal is to equip the
broadcast engineer with the knowledge and understanding of IP networking
fundamentals and the ability to apply conceptual theory in a practical manner.

The workshop will focus upon the principals of IP Addressing and application
of best practices in the design of an IP network address plan.

My Goals & Deliverables for This Afternoon:

- Provide an Awareness of Major IP Networking Topics (broadcast application focused)
- Provide an Understanding of IP Addressing Fundamentals
- Provide a Foundation for SBE CBNT & CBNE Certification Exams
- Provide Reference Material & Resources to Obtain Further Knowledge

2
A Poll ?
My Familiarity & Conformability with IP
Addressing is:
3
Not at All
Somewhat
Familiar, But I Struggle At Times
Very Comfortable, I Am Here for the Free Lunch
IP Networking, Part 3 - IP Address Management
A webinar to help you prepare for the CBNE Certification
IP Address Basics (IPv4)
IP Addressing Rules
IP Address Classes
IP Subnetting Fundamentals
The IPv6 Address
Practical Exercises:
Reverse Engineering an IP Address Plan
Developing an IP Addressing Plan
4
REVIEW - Physical & Virtual Addressing
Each Host on an Ethernet Based IP Network Has:
An Unique MAC Address
Layer 2 Physical Address (local network segment)
An Unique IP Address
Layer 3 Logical Address (global routed)
5
172.15.1.1 172.15.2.2 DATA Trailer 00:12:3F:8D:4D:A7 FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF
Destination
MAC
Source
MAC
Destination
IP
Source
IP
IP Packet
Ethernet Frame
Simplified Representation
The IP Address:
Is a Logical Address OSI Model Layer 3 Function
Allows Hierarchical Network Addressing Structure
Creates Boundaries Between Networks
Allows Routing Packets Between Networks
Must Have a Subnet Mask:
Implied
Explicit
Address & Mask Defines:
Unique Network ID
Unique Host ID

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The IP Address (IPv4)
7
32 Bit Address Yields 4,294,967,296 IPv4 Addresses
Expressed in Decimal as (4) 8-bit Octets using Doted Decimal Notation
192.168.10.1
11000000.10101000.00001010.00000001
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
The IP Address Subnet Mask
Each IP Address Must Have a Subnet Mask
8
32 Bit Subnet Mask
Expressed in Decimal as (4) 8-bit Octets using Doted Decimal Notation
255.255.255.192
11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Purpose of the Subnet Mask
Identifies the Network Portion and the Host Portion
of the IP Address
Classful Addressing Mask is Implied Based Upon Class
Classless Addressing Mask Must Be Specified
9
NET ID HOST ID
Octet 1 Octet 2 Octet 4 Octet 3
NET ID HOST ID
HOST ID NET ID
Class A
Class B
Class C
8 Bits 24 Bits
8 Bits 24 Bits
16 Bits 16 Bits
The Subnet Mask:
Rules:
If Mask Bit =1 Identifies the Network
If Mask Bit=0 Identifies the Host
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192.168.10.1 255.255.255.192
11000000.10101000.00001010.00000001 Address
11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000 Mask
Network Host
Class Octet 1 Octet 2 Octet 3 Octet 4
A Network Host Host Host
B Network Network Host Host
C Network Network Network Host
IP Address Classes
Used to Set Different Network Sizes
The 1
st
Octet of an IP Address Determines Its
Class:
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Class First Octet Subnet Mask
(implied)
CIDR Maximum #
of Networks
#
Host
Bits
# of Hosts /
Network
A 1 - 127 255.0.0.0 /8 127 24 16,777,214
B 128 - 191 255.255.0.0 /16 16,384 16 65,534
C 192 - 223 255.255.255.0 /24 2,097,152 8 254
The 1
st
Octet of an IP Address Dictates the Class
The 1
st
Octet of an IP Address Determines Its Class:
If First Bit = 0 Class A
If First 2 Bits = 10 Class B
If First 3 Bits 110 Class C
If First 4 Bits = 1110 Class D
If First 4 Bits = 1111 Class E

Recognize Class D & E Are Special:
Class D Reserved for Multicast
Class E Reserved for Experimental
12
A Quiz!
What Class Are the Following IP Addresses?
13
169.254.0.100

Class A
Class B
Class C
Class D
127.10.0.10

Class A
Class B
Class C
Class D
223.127.169.254

Class A
Class B
Class C
Class E
The Network & Broadcast Addresses
These Addresses Cannot Be Assigned to a Host!
Network (subnet) Address
ALL HOST BITS = 0
Broadcast Address
ALL HOST BITS = 1

Network Example: 192.168.1.0 /24
Broadcast Example: 192.168.1.255 /24
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1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Private vs Public IP Addresses
RFC 1918 Established Private Address Space
Class A: 10.0.0.0 to 10.255.255.255 /8
Class B: 172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255 /16
Class C: 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255 /24

Key Points:
Private IP Addresses Are NOT Routable Outside the Local Network or
to the Internet
Widely Used in Home & Industry Networks
May Be Translated With NAT At An Edge Router
Map Private Address Space to Public Address Space
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CIDR
RFC 1517, 1518, 1519, 1520
Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)
Simplified Approach to Stating the Subnet Mask
/ Notation (slanted notation) Utilized = # Bits That Are 1
16
Mask: 255.255.255.240


Expressed in Binary: 11111111.11111111.11111111.11110000



Mask (CIDR): /28
24 Bits
IP Address & Subnet Mask Formats
17
Classful Addressing:
165.95.240.136
(Implied Mask 255.255.0.0)

VLSM Addressing:
165.95.240.136 255.255.255.192

CIDR Notation :
165.95.240.136 /26

Implied Mask
Of a Class B Network
Explicit Mask
Must Be Stated
Mask Stated as
Number of Subnet Bits
Special Use IP Addresses
RFC 5735
0.0.0.0/8 Network Address Wire Address
10.0.0.0/8 Private IP Address Space (RFC 1918)
127.0.0.0/8 Loopback Address
169.254.0.0/16 IETF Zero Configuration Address Space (RFC 3927)
172.16.0.0/16 Private IP Address Space (RFC 1918)
192.168.0.0/16 Private IP Address Space (RFC 1918)
224.0.0.0/4 Multicast Address Space
255.255.255.255/32 Broadcast Address

And more special use cases..yields a little over 3.7m Useable IPv4 Addresses
(3,706,650,624 out of 4,294,967,296 possible IPv4 addresses or 86%)
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IP Address Trivia
What is Special About 127.0.0.1 ?
Actually Any 127.0.0.0/8 Address Works OR the Range of
127.0.0.1 to 127.255.255.255
Known as a Loop-Back Address
Useful For:
Test Local IP Stack and Network Adapter Test
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IP Address Subnetting
What is a Subnet?
Logical Subdivision of a Larger Network
Creates New Networks From A Larger Network
Bits Are Stolen From the Host Portion
Each Newer Network Created Has Less Hosts
2
n
-2 New Networks Created
where n=number of host bits stolen

Why Do We Subnet?
Efficient Use of IP Address Space (Right Size the Network)
Increase Performance (smaller Broadcast domain)
Enhance Routing Efficiency (reduce Routing Table size)
Network Management Policy and Segmentation
(function, ownership, geo location)
Job Security for Network Engineers!
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1
2
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
3
Provided IP Address Space: 200.25.0.0/16
Represents 4,096 IP Addresses
Or 256 /24 Class CBlocks
200.25.16.0/24
200.25.17.0/24
200.25.18.0/24
200.25.31.0/24
200.25.30.0/24
200.25.29.0/24
200.25.23.0/24 200.25.24.0/24
Provided IP Address Space: 200.25.0.0/16
Represents 4,096 IP Addresses
200.25.16.0/21
200.25.30.0/23
200.25.28.0/23
200.25.24.0/22
A
B
C
D
Subnetting Simply Moves the Boundary between the Network and Host
Moves Boundary to the Right
Boundary Position Determined by the Subnet Netmask
Subnetting Basics
Identifies the Boundary Between Network and Hosts
Subnetting Simply Moves the Boundary!
Moves Boundary to the Right
IP Address Subnetting Applies to All Classes
Boundary Position Determined by the Subnet Netmask
Expressed in Several Forms:
Doted Decimal Notation (same as IP address)
Slash Notation (also known as CIDR notation)


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IP Address 165.95.240.100 with Netmask of 255.255.255.0

OR

165.95.240.100 /24
Required Host IP Configuration
Information
IP Address
Address Mask
Gateway Address
DNS Server Address(s)
23
Where Do We Get This Information?
24
Network Questions to Answer
How Many Subnets Are Available?
How May Hosts per Subnet Are Available?
What Are the Subnets?
What is the Broadcast Address of Each Subnet?
What Are the Valid Hosts in Each Subnet?
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What Must Be Known About a Network?
26
IP Address and Mask
Provides:

First Network Address
First Network Address Assignable to a Host
Last Network Address Assignable to a Host
Broadcast Address

192.168.1.0 /24
Provides: 254 useable IP addresses
Mask: 255.255.255.0

Network Address (Wire Address) 192.168.1.0
First Network Address Assignable to a Host 192.168.1.1
Last Network Address Assignable to a Host 192.168.1.254
Broadcast Address 192.168.1.255


Subnet Calculation Examples
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192.168.1.0 /20

Provides: 4094 useable IP addresses
Mask: 255.255.240.0
Network Address (Wire Address) 192.168.0.0
First Network Address Assignable to a Host 192.168.0.1
Last Network Address Assignable to a Host 192.168.15.254
Broadcast Address 192.168.15.255

192.168.1.0 /28

Provides: 14 useable IP addresses
Mask: 255.255.255.240

Network Address (Wire Address) 192.168.1.0
First Network Address Assignable to a Host 192.168.1.1
Last Network Address Assignable to a Host 192.168.1.14
Broadcast Address 192.168.1.15

An Exercise?
Is 204.56.198.31 mask 255.255.255.224 a Valid Host IP
Address?
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Yes

No

It Depends
Lets See!

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204.56.198.31 mask 255.255.255.224
1. Convert Mask to Binary 255.255.255.224: 11111111.11111111.11111111.11100000
2. Convert Mask to Inverse Mask: 11111111.11111111.11111111.11111111
subtract from all 1's 11111111.11111111.11111111.11100000
00000000.00000000.00000000.00011111
3. AND IP Address & Mask: 204.56.198.31 00100100.00111000.11000110.00001111
255.255.255.224 11111111.11111111.11111111.11100000
00100100.00111000.11000110.00000000
Yields the Network Address: 204.56.198.0
4. OR Inverse Mask to Network Address: 00100100.00111000.11000110.00000000
00000000.00000000.00000000.00011111
00100100.00111000.11000110.00011111
Yields the Broadcast Address: 204.56.198.31
5. Thus: Network: 204.56.198.0
1
st
Host: 204.56.198.1
Last Host: 204.56.198.30
Broadcast: 204.56.198.31
The Answer Is NO
204.56.198.31 is Not a Valid
Host Address
(Its the Broadcast Address)

IPv6 Address Space
IETF - RFC 2460
IPv6 Provides Expanded IP Address Space
2
128
=
340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456
(three hundred forty UNDECILLION addresses)
3.4 x 10
38

But, IPv6 is More Than Expanded Address Space:
An Opportunity to Re-Engineer IPv4
Improved Support for Multicasting, Security, & Mobile Aps
Multiple Addresses per Interface
Host Auto-Configuration Capability
Security Incorporated
MTU Discovery Incorporated
Traffic Engineering Provisions Incorporate
The IPv6 Address
128-Bit Address Binary Format:
001001100000011110111000000000001111101010100000000000110010000110010101100110001000011110111100010010000010100011110001

Subdivide Into Eight (8) 16-bit Groups:
0010011000000111 1011100000000000 0000111110101010 0000000000000011
0010000110010101 1001100010000111 1011110001001000 0010100011110001

Convert Each 16-bit Group to Hexadecimal:
(separate with a colon)
2607:b800:0faa:0003:2195:9887:bc48:28f1
2607:b800:faa:3:2195:9887:bc48:28f1
Address Summarization
128-Bit Address Represented as a 32 Hexadecimal Digits
Subdivided Into Eight Groups (Chunks, Quads, Quartets) of Four Hexadecimal Digits
(separated by colon)

2001:0000:0000:0000:0DB8:8000:200C:417A
or
2001:0:0:0:DB8:8000:200C:417A
or
2001::DB8:8000:200C:417A

Address Summarization
128-Bit Address Represented as a 32 Hexadecimal Digits
Subdivided Into Eight Groups (Chunks, Quads, Quartets) of Four Hexadecimal Digits
(separated by colon)
2001:0000:0000:0000:0DB8:8000:200C:417A
or
2001:0:0:0:DB8:8000:200C:417A
or
2001::DB8:8000:200C:417A

33 33
An Ipv6 Address You Can Remember
The IPv6 Loopback Address
::1
Summarized from:
0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1

IP Addressing Reverse Engineering
A Useful Troubleshooting Tool
Verifying Proper Subnet Configuration When Given an IP
Address and Subnet Mask
Determine Subnet Address Range
Determine Assignable IP Addresses
Determine Broadcast Address
Subnetting When Given A Network Requirement
Subnetting When Given A Host Requirement
35
You Are Provided:
IP Address / IP Mask
IP Address Subnetting Charts
36
Subnet Calculation Tools
37
Hints for Subnetting
38
128 1 2 4 8 16 32 64
128 255 254 252 248 240 224 192
VLSM
Mask
Block
Size
/25 /32 /31 /30 /29 /28 /27 /26
CIDR
4
th
Octect
AND
0 0 0
0 0 1
1 0 0
1 1 1
OR
0 0 0
0 1 1
1 1 0
1 1 1
Remember
George Boole
Practical Exercise
Reverse Engineering an IP Address Plan
Refer to Exercise Handout
39
40
Practical Exercise #2
Developing an IP Addressing Plan
Refer to Exercise Handout
41
42
32
32
64
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Subnet Number:
Broadcast IP Address:
First IP Address:
Subnet Mask:
Last IP Address:
192.168.100.0
255.255.255.192
192.168.100.62
192.168.100.63
192.168.100.1
Subnet Number:
Broadcast IP Address:
First IP Address:
Subnet Mask:
Last IP Address:
192.168.100.64
255.255.255.224
192.168.100.94
192.168.100.95
192.168.100.65
Subnet Number:
Broadcast IP Address:
First IP Address:
Subnet Mask:
Last IP Address:
192.168.100.96
255.255.255.224
192.168.100.126
192.168.100.127
192.168.100.97
What additional IP configuration
information is required to configure
hosts on this network?
Default Gateway
The Calculator Approach!
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Web Reference Sources:
Subnet Calculation Tools:
www.subnet-calculator.com
www.solarwinds.com/products/freetools/free_subnet_calculator.aspx
http://www.pkostov.com/wordpress/?p=66
iOS App $: https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/mask-ipv4-ipv6-
calculator/id329508400?mt=8

RFC Documents:
www.rfc-editor.org

IP Address Subnet Block Size Chart:

http://img.docstoccdn.com/thumb/orig/14990233.png








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Web Reference Sources continued.
IP Subnetting Cisco Networkers Magic Box Tutorial:
https://learningnetwork.cisco.com/docs/DOC-5893


Cisco IP Subnetting Game:
https://learningnetwork.cisco.com/docs/DOC-1802


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CBNE Recommended Study:


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My Favorites:
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Thank You for Attending!

Wayne M. Pecena
Texas A&M University
w-pecena@tamu.edu
979.845.5662


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? Questions ?