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# Heinemann Physics 12(3e)

Copyright Pearson Education Australia 2008 Teachers Resource and Assessment Disk
(a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) I SBN 9781442501263
1
Worked solutions
Chapter 10 Electromagnetic induction

10.1 Magnetic flux and induced currents

1 The flux is the field strength multiplied by the area of the loop, which is perpendicular to the
field. In the initial set-up ( = 0), this is given by:
= BA = 2 ! 10
3
! (4 ! 10
2
)
2
= 3.2 ! 10
6
Wb
At other angles we multiply this result by cos to obtain: = 45, = 2.3 ! 10
6
Wb;
= 60, = 1.6 ! 10
-6
Wb; = 90, = 0.

2 For = 0 to 45, the change of flux = (3.2 2.3) ! 10
6
= 0.9 ! 10
6
Wb
For = 0 to 60, the change of flux = (3.2 1.6) ! 10
6
= 1.6 ! 10
6
Wb
For = 45 to 90, the change of flux = (2.3 0) ! 10
6
= 2.3 ! 10
6
Wb
For = 0 to 90, the change of flux = (3.2 0) ! 10
6
= 3.2 ! 10
6
Wb

3 a = (3.2 0) ! 10
6
= 3.2 ! 10
6
Wb
b = [3.2 (3.2 )] ! 10
6
= 6.4 ! 10
6
Wb
c = (3.2 6.4) ! 10
6
= 3.2 ! 10
6
Wb
d = (3.2 1.6) ! 10
6
= 1.6 ! 10
6
Wb

4 a No change of flux and hence no current.
b Opposite to the initial situation and so a negative current.
c Equivalent to the initial situation and so a positive current.
d Equivalent to situation in part b and so a negative current.

5 There must be a non-zero rate of change of magnetic flux.

6 When S is closed, the change in flux produced by X will induce a momentary opposite
(negative) current in Y as this current attempts to oppose the increasing flux. As S is held, there
is no change of flux and so the current in Y will drop to zero. When S is opened, there will be a
momentary positive current in Y as it attempts to oppose the loss of flux.

7 As the resistance is increased the current, and therefore the flux, decreases. This will result in a
positive current in Y as it attempts to maintain the flux. As the resistance is decreased the
opposite occurs, giving a negative current in Y.

8 a = BA = 2.0 ! 10
3
! ! 0.04! = 1.0 ! 10
5
Wb
b Zero as there is no change in flux in the coil.

9 a = 1.0 ! 10
5
Wb
b / t = 1.0 ! 10
5
/1.0 ! 10
3
= 0.01 Wb s
1

c The same current (4.0 mA) will flow but in the opposite direction, i.e. from Y to X.
Worked solutions Chapter 10 Electromagnetic induction

Heinemann Physics 12(3e)
Copyright Pearson Education Australia 2008 Teachers Resource and Assessment Disk
(a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) I SBN 9781442501263
2

10 a This change is equivalent to turning off the current but at twice the rate. This will result in
twice the current, 8.0 mA, from X to Y.
b This coil will only have one-quarter of the area, and hence flux. The induced current will
be 1.0 mA from X to Y.
c The current is proportional to the rate of change of flux. Therefore it will be half the
previous current, 2.0 mA from X to Y.
Worked solutions Chapter 10 Electromagnetic induction

Heinemann Physics 12(3e)
Copyright Pearson Education Australia 2008 Teachers Resource and Assessment Disk
(a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) I SBN 9781442501263
3
10.2 Induced EMF: Faradays law

1 a = BA = 2 ! 10
3
! 6 ! 10
4
= 1.2 ! 10
6
Wb
b As the plane of the loop is in the same direction as the field there is no flux through the
loop.
c EMF =
B
/ t and thus EMF =
6
1.2 10
0.04
!
"
= 3.0 ! 10
5
V
d I = V/R =
5
3 10
1.5
!
"
= 2 ! 10
5
A = 2.0 ! 10
5
A

2 a = BA = 80 ! 10
3
! 10 ! 10
4
= 8 ! 10
5
Wb
b EMF =
B
/ t and thus EMF =
5
8 10
0.02
!
"
= 4.0 ! 10
3
V
c In the 500 turns the total EMF will be 2000 mV = 2.0 V.

3 a = BA = 5 ! 10
3
! (250 50) ! 10
4
= 1.0 ! 10
4
Wb
b EMF = N
B
/ t and thus EMF =
4
30 1 10
0.5
!
" "
= 6.0 ! 10
3
V

4 a = BA = 5 ! 10
5
! ! 4! = 2.5 ! 10
3
Wb
b EMF =
B
/ t and thus EMF = 2.5 ! 10
3
! 8 = 0.02 V

5 This problem could be done by finding the actual EMFs, but it is simpler to look at the ratios:
EMF = N
B
/ t = N BA/t and thus EMF
X
/EMF
Y
= N
X
/N
Y
! B
X
/ B
Y
! A
X
/A
Y
! t
Y
/t
X
. Here
the field and the time are the same for each coil and so EMF
X
/EMF
Y
= N
X
/N
Y
! A
X
/A
Y
= 20/10 !
(4/8)! =
2
1
(1 : 2). Note that the area ratio is equal to the radius ratio squared.

6 D is the correct answer. As the loop enters the field there will be a current one way (clockwise).
Next there will be a short period in which the flux does not change; hence no EMF. Then as the
loop exits the field, the induced EMF will be in the opposite direction.

7 The EMF induced in a straight wire is EMF = vBl, where l = 4 cm in this case.
Thus 5 ! 10
3
= 2.5 ! B ! 4 ! 10
2
and so B = 5.0 ! 10
2
T.

8 a There is no change of flux and hence the current is zero.
b EMF = N
B
/ t and thus EMF = 10 ! 0.1 ! 8 ! 10
4
/0.10 = 8.0 ! 10
3
V
c By pulling the loop from between the poles of the magnet with a greater speed

9 In each case EMF = N
B
/ t = N BA/t = 100 ! B ! 2 !10
3
/t = 0.2 B/t
a EMF = 0 as there is no change of flux
b EMF = 0.2 B/t = 0.2 ! 1 ! 10
3
/0.1 = 2.0 ! 10
3
V
c EMF = 0 as there is no change of flux
d EMF = 0.2 B/t = 0.2 ! 1 ! 10
3
/0.2 = 1.0 ! 10
3
V

10 The period for one revolution is 60/33 = 1.82 s. We can picture a radius vector cutting the
Earths flux at the rate of the area of the record in one turn, and thus inducing an EMF along the
radius vector given by:
Worked solutions Chapter 10 Electromagnetic induction

Heinemann Physics 12(3e)
Copyright Pearson Education Australia 2008 Teachers Resource and Assessment Disk
(a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) I SBN 9781442501263
4
EMF =
B
/ t = BA/t = 5 ! 10
5
! ! 0.26!/1.82 = 5.8 ! 10
6
V
(Its not going to give him a shock!) Between opposite edges there will be no EMF as the
diameter vector is turning in opposite directions on either side of the centre.
Worked solutions Chapter 10 Electromagnetic induction

Heinemann Physics 12(3e)
Copyright Pearson Education Australia 2008 Teachers Resource and Assessment Disk
(a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) I SBN 9781442501263
5
10.3 Direction of EMF: Lenzs law

1 C. It is virtually a statement of Lenzs law.

2 a Out of the page in order to try to maintain the original flux
b Into the page in order to oppose the extra flux outwards
c Out of the page in order to try to maintain the original flux

3 a The induced current must produce an upward flux in order to oppose the increasing
downward flux. The right-hand screw rule tells us this current must be anticlockwise.
b The induced current will be the other direction (clockwise) as this is the opposite situation
to that in part or a similar argument to that in part a could be used.
c As the centre of the magnet passes through the ring there is no flux change for a moment.
d The strength of the magnet (B), the area of the ring (A), the speed of the magnet ( t) and
the resistance of the ring and galvanometer circuit

4 Part a, the induced current will attempt to oppose the change of flux. As the coils are oriented
the same way, this means that the induced current is in the same direction as that in coil X if the
current (and hence flux) decreases and in the opposite direction if the current increases. Hence,
in parts a and b the current is to the right (positive), while in part c it is to the left (negative).

5 a We have a steady positive current induced in Q. This implies that the current in P must be
either decreasing positive or increasing negative as Q attempts to maintain the original
flux. This is shown in graph E.
b This situation is the opposite to part a, so the current must be increasing. This is shown in
graph D.
c Zero current is produced when there is no change of flux, which will be the case in graphs
A, B and C.

6 a The induced current will be from X to Y as the force on positive charges moving to the
right will be downwards (from the right-hand palm rule). Another way to determine the
current is to realise that the current must be such as to experience a force in the opposite
direction to the motion.
b Left, as explained above

7 a The current will reverse as well that is, from Y to X.
b The force must still oppose the motion that is, it will be to the left. This is because both
the field and current have reversed.

8 A. If this was not the case we would get perpetual motion!
Worked solutions Chapter 10 Electromagnetic induction

Heinemann Physics 12(3e)
Copyright Pearson Education Australia 2008 Teachers Resource and Assessment Disk
(a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) I SBN 9781442501263
6
10.4 Electric power generation

1 a = BA cos , for = 0, = 5 ! 10
3
! 20 ! 10
4
! 1 = 1 ! 10
5
Wb = 1.0 ! 10
2
mWb
b 0.97 ! 10
2
mWb
c 0.87 ! 10
2
mWb
d 0.71 ! 10
2
mWb
e 0.50 ! 10
2
mWb
f 0.26 ! 10
2
mWb
g 0 mWb

2 a / t =
2
3
(1 0.97) 10
10
!
!
! "
= 0.3 mWb s
1

b 1.0 mWb s
1

c 1.6 mWb s
1

d 2.1 mWb s
1

e 2.4 mWb s
1

f 2.6 mWb s
1
g 0 mWb s
1

3 The rate of change of flux increases as the coil is rotated from 0 to 90.

4 EMF = N
B
/ t
a 0.03 V
b 0.10 V
c 0.16 V
d 0.21 V
e 0.24 V
f 0.26 V

5 a The maximum rate of flux change occurs at 90, where the flux is momentarily zero.
b The peak EMF will be close to 260 mV. (Actually it is NBA2 f = 100 ! 5 ! 10
3
! 20 !
10
4
! 2 ! 42 = 0.263 V.)

6 B. The initial current is zero and then becomes positive and varies sinusoidally.

7 The peak EMF varies directly with the number of turns (N) the area that varies with R!, the field
(B) and the frequency (f). The period decreases with the frequency.
a Double f gives graph C.
b Double B and f gives graph D.
c Half N, double B and f gives graph C.
d One-quarter area, double B and f gives graph B.
e Double N gives graph D.

8 The maximum EMF is equal to NBA2 f, so 8 ! 10
3
= 1000 ! B ! ! 0.1! ! 2 ! ! 50 and so
B = 0.81 T.

Worked solutions Chapter 10 Electromagnetic induction

Heinemann Physics 12(3e)
Copyright Pearson Education Australia 2008 Teachers Resource and Assessment Disk
(a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) I SBN 9781442501263
7
10.5 Alternating voltage and current

1 D is correct by definition of what is meant by the RMS voltage.

2 Graph C. Our voltage is 240 V RMS at 50 Hz.

3 a V
p
= "2V
RMS
= 339 V
b 2V
p
= 679 V
c I
p
= V
p
/R = 340/100 = 3.39 A
d I = V/R = 240/100 = 2.40 A

4 Graph D shows a RMS current of 1 A and a period of 1/50 = 0.02 s.

5 a The period T = 20 ms = 0.02 s and f = 1/T = 1/0.02 = 50 Hz
b V
pp
= 2 ! 120 = 240 V
c V
RMS
= V
p
/"2 = 120/"2 = 85 V

6 The RMS current is I = P/V = 600/240 = 2.5 A
a R = V/I = 240/2.5 = 96 "
b V
p
= 240 ! "2 = 340 V (Well, 339 V on the calculator, but the 240 V figure is only held
to about + or 10 V.)
c I = V/R = 340/96 = 3.53 A

7 a I = P/V = 60/24 = 2.5 A
b I
p
= "2I
RMS
= 3.5 A
c V
pp
= 2 ! "2V
RMS
= 2 ! "2 ! 24 = 68 V
d R = V/I = 24/2.5 = 9.6 " (As this is an AC current in a magnetic device, this is better
referred to as impedance a quantity that depends on the inductance in the coil and
magnet system.)

8 a The RMS voltage is the equivalent DC voltage: V
RMS
= 170/"2 = 120 V
b P
RMS
= V!
RMS
/R = 120!/100 = 144 W (in parts i and ii, as that is the meaning of RMS)
c Peak power will occur twice each cycle that is, 120 Hz.
d Peak power = V
p
!/R = 170!/100 = 289 W

9 a V
RMS
= V
p
/"2 = 10/"2 = 7.1 V
b I
RMS
= I
p
/"2 = 6/"2 = 4.2 A
c P
RMS
= V
p
I
p
/2 = 60/2 = 30 W
Worked solutions Chapter 10 Electromagnetic induction

Heinemann Physics 12(3e)
Copyright Pearson Education Australia 2008 Teachers Resource and Assessment Disk
(a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) I SBN 9781442501263
8
10.6 Transformers

1 a V
p
= N
p

B
/ t
b V
s
= N
s

B
/ t
c V
p
= V
s
N
1
/N
2

2 Parts a and b have identical answers: A, B and D are all correct as, in an ideal transformer, the
power in to the primary is equal to the power obtained in the secondary circuit.

3 a A is correct but the power from the secondary will be less.
b B and D are correct as they both represent the power used in the resistor.

4 Power losses occur when electrical energy is converted into heat energy in the copper windings
and in the iron core. Energy losses in the core are due to eddy currents.

5 a B. No output for a steady input current.
b D. A steadily increasing current will generate a constantly increasing flux and hence a
steady output voltage.
c A. The sinusoidal current will generate a sinusoidally varying flux and a sinusoidal output
voltage.

6 a V
p
/V
s
= N
p
/N
s
and hence V
s
= 8.0 ! 200/20 = 80 V
b I
s
= V
p
I
p
/V
s
= 8 ! 2/80 = 0.20 A
c P = VI = 80 ! 0.20 = 16 W

7 a N
s
= 800 ! 12/240 = 40 turns
b RMS power is P = VI = 12 ! 2 = 24 W and so RMS current in primary is 24/240 = 0.10
A. Thus the peak current is "2 ! 0.10 = 0.14 A.
c As in part b, P = 24 W for an ideal transformer.

8 No. A direct current cannot induce an EMF in the secondary coil because
B
/ t = 0.

9 There will be no power consumed in the primary circuit of an ideal transformer. This is because
the induced current in the primary coil is equal in magnitude but opposite in direction to the
applied current. In a real transformer like this one there may be a loss of around, say, 2 W,
which would add up to 1200 J in 10 min.
Worked solutions Chapter 10 Electromagnetic induction

Heinemann Physics 12(3e)
Copyright Pearson Education Australia 2008 Teachers Resource and Assessment Disk
(a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) I SBN 9781442501263
9
10.7 Using electrical energy

1 a Power is transmitted at very high voltages because this means that the current used can be
lower. (As P = VI, a large V means a low I for a certain amount of power.) The main
source of power loss is the resistive loss in the power lines, which can be expressed as P
= I!R. Because the power loss is proportional to the square of the current, reducing the
current by a certain factor reduces the power loss by the square of that factor. At 500 kV
the current is 2000 times less than at 250 V, thus the power loss is 2000! = 4 million
times less! This means that thinner, and thus cheaper, cables can be used.
b The limit to the voltage is set by losses such as current leakage via insulators and the
atmosphere.

2 a I = P/V = 500 ! 10
6
/250 ! 10
3
= 2.00 ! 10
3
A
b Twice the voltage will mean half the current: 1.00 ! 10
3
A.

3 a The current is 2000 A and thus the power loss is P = I!R = 2000! ! 10 = 40 MW, which is
8.0% of the total output.
b At twice the voltage the current is half, and so the power loss (I!R) is only one-quarter
(
2
1
! =
4
1
) or 2.0%.

4 This power line will have a resistance of half the other one as, although it is twice as long, it has
four times the cross-section area. As the power loss is proportional to the resistance, the power
loss in this cable will be halfthat is, 1.0%.

5 a I = P/V = 5000/500 = 10 A
b Power loss = I!R = 100 ! 4 = 400 W
c This is 400/5000 = 8.0% loss.
d The voltage drop along the cable will be V = IR = 10 ! 4 = 40 V, and so the voltage at
the house is 460 V.

6 a I = P/V = 5000/5000 = 1.0 A
b Power loss = 1! ! 4 = 4 W or 4/5000 = 0.08% (Or, as we know the current is 1/10th, the
power loss will be 1/100th.)
c The voltage drop is only 4 V, so the voltage available is 4996 V.

7 a E = Pt = 1 ! 2 = 2 kWh, so cost = 2 !15 = 30c
b E = Pt = 0.08 ! 0.5 = 0.04 kWh, so cost = 0.04 ! 15 = 0.6c
c E = Pt = 0.25 ! 12 = 3 kWh, so cost = 3 ! 15 = 45c
d E = Pt = 0.006 ! 7 ! 24 = 1.008 kWh, so cost = 1.008 ! 15 = 15.1c
e E = Pt = 0.003 ! 365 ! 24 = 26.28 kWh, so cost = 26.28 ! 15 = \$3.94

8 a As P = VI, we find the current from I = P/V = 500 ! 10
6
/250 = 2 ! 10
6
A or 2 MA (mega-
amps). The voltage drop along the line would be given by: V = IR = 2 ! 10
6
! 2 = 4 MV,
i.e. 4 million volts. This of course is completely impossible!
b This time I = P/V = 500 ! 10
6
/10
5
= 5000 A or 5 kA (kiloamps). The voltage drop along
the line would now be given by: V = IR = 5000 ! 2 = 10 000 V, or 10 kV. The voltage at
the town would be 90 kV. While this is a significant loss of voltage (10%) it is at least
feasible, unlike the previous scheme.
Worked solutions Chapter 10 Electromagnetic induction

Heinemann Physics 12(3e)
Copyright Pearson Education Australia 2008 Teachers Resource and Assessment Disk
(a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) I SBN 9781442501263
10
c If the resistance is halved the voltage drop will halve also and so there will be a 5 kV drop
leaving the town with 95 kV. The power loss in the lines can be found in several ways,
but using P = VI gives us P = 5000 ! 5000 = 25 ! 10
6
= 25 MW. This is 5% of the 500
MW supplied by the power station.

9 a Current from generator = P/V = 150 000/1000 = 150 A. The transformer increases the
voltage by 10 and so decreases the current by 10 to 15 A.
b The voltage drop is given by V = IR = 15 ! 2 = 30 V. The voltage at the town is therefore
9970 V.
c P = I!R = 15! ! 2 = 450 W which is only 0.3% of the output and so not a problem.

10 a 150 A
b Voltage drop = IR = 150 ! 2 = 300 V and so input voltage at town = 1000 300 = 700 V
c Power lost = I!R (or VI) = 45 000 W = 45 kW.
Power at town = VI = 700 ! 150 = 105 kW.
d No it was not a good idea as 30% of the power output of the generator is being wasted.
Worked solutions Chapter 10 Electromagnetic induction

Heinemann Physics 12(3e)
Copyright Pearson Education Australia 2008 Teachers Resource and Assessment Disk
(a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) I SBN 9781442501263
11
Chapter review

1 a I = EMF/R = / tR = 8 ! 10
4
! 40 ! 10
4
/(1 ! 10
3
! 1) = 3.2 mA clockwise (to oppose
the increasing B)
b We could repeat a calculation as above, but we can see that this will produce the same
rate of change of flux (from + to in 2 ms is the same rate as from + to +2 in 1
ms) but in the opposite direction. So the answer is 3.2 mA anti-clockwise.
c This is half the rate, so the answer is 1.6 mA anti-clockwise.

2 a E
max
= NBA2 f = 1 ! 8 ! 10
4
! 40 ! 10
4
! 2 ! 100 = 2 ! 10
3
= 2.0 mV
b As R = 1 , I = 2.0 mA

3 We compare the situations given with the one just calculated in which the frequency was 100
Hz (T = 10 ms) and the field strength 8 ! 10
4
T. Remember that the maximum EMF (and
therefore current) is proportional to both f and B.
a Half the frequency will lead to half the current and twice the period, so graph A.
b Double frequency and half B leads to same I but half T, so graph C.
c Same frequency and half field leads to same T but half I, so graph B.

4 I = EMF/R = N / tR = 40 ! 20 ! 10
3
! ! 0.04!/(0.1 ! 2) = 0.020 A = 20 mA from Y to X.
The induced current must create a field in the same direction as the original field.

5 A and C both increase the EMF, EMF = N BA/t, B decreases the EMF and D does not change
the EMF.

6 The current would be opposite (that is, from X to Y) because in this situation we are reversing
the actionmore particularly, the induced current must oppose the increasing downward flux.

7 a EMF = / t = Blv = 10 ! 10
3
! 0.2 ! 2 = 4.0 mV. As R = 1 #, the current is 4.0 mA
from X to Y. The direction is determined either by considering the current required to
replace the decreasing flux through the loop, or by considering the force on positive
charges in the rod as the rod moves right in an outward field.
b F = IlB = 4 ! 10
3
! 0.2 ! 10 ! 10
3
= 8.0 ! 10
6
N. This tiny force would be to the left to
oppose the motion (or use the right-hand palm rule).

8 There is no change in flux and hence no EMF or current. (And the switch is open.)

9 change of magnetic flux, and therefore the induced EMF, will be zero.

10 I = EMF/R = / tR = B/t ! A/R = 1 ! 10
5
! 40/8 = 5.0 ! 10
5
A = 50 A

11 a Power out = power in, V
S
I
S
= V
P
I
P
, and so I
S
= 14 ! 3/42 = 1.0 A
b V
p
/V
s
= N
p
/N
s
and so N
p
= V
p
/V
s
! N
s
= 14/42 ! 30 = 10 turns
c P = VI = 42 ! 1 = 42 W

12 a Graph C. A steady voltage requires a steadily increasing primary current.
b Graph A. These spikes are due to opposite changes in the primary current.
c Graph B. A steady input current produces no output.

13 a f = 1/T = 1/0.002 = 500 Hz
Worked solutions Chapter 10 Electromagnetic induction

Heinemann Physics 12(3e)
Copyright Pearson Education Australia 2008 Teachers Resource and Assessment Disk
(a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) I SBN 9781442501263
12
b V
RMS
= V
p
/"2 = 25/"2 = 17.7 V
c V
pp
= 2V
p
= 50 V

14 a P
RMS
= \$P
p
= \$ ! V
p
I
p
= \$ ! 25 ! 15 = 188 W
b P
p
= V
p
I
p
= 25 ! 15 = 375 W
c R = V/I = 25/15 = 1.67 " (But remember that this is really impedance as it involves an
AC circuit with magnetic induction.)

15 The peak-to-peak power figure is 8 times the RMS figure (V
pp
I
pp
= 2"2V
RMS
! 2"2I
RMS
=
8V
RMS
I
RMS
). The RMS figures are therefore 7.5 W, 30 W, 60 W, 15 W respectively. So C is
consistent with the specification.

16 The power in this circuit is VI = 15 ! 1 = 15 W, which is consistent with D in the table.

17 a The peak-peak voltage is simply twice the peak voltage and so is 25.2 V. The RMS
voltage is the peak voltage divided by "2 and so is 8.9 V.
b The output voltage is directly proportional to the rate of rotation and so it will also
double, to give peak and RMS outputs of 25.2 V and 17.8 V, respectively.
c As the output is proportional to the frequency, the new frequency will be equal to the old
one multiplied by the ratio of voltages, 16/8.9 = 1.8. So the new frequency will be 50 !
1.8 = 90 Hz.
d The output is proportional to the magnetic flux and so will reduce by a factor of 60/80 =
%, giving a peak voltage % of 12.6 = 9.5 V

18 a To operate correctly the machine will require I = P/V = 480/24 = 20 A. The input current
to the transformer will therefore be 20/10 = 2 A. The voltage drop along the line will be V
= IR = 4 V giving 236 V at the transformer. This is very close to the operating voltage
and should cause no problems.
b If the machine was operating at its correct current of 20 A, there would be a voltage drop
along the line of V = IR = 40 V, which is more than the supply of 24 V! Even with no
resistance at the machine, the maximum current would be I = V/R = 24/2 = 12 A, clearly
not enough to operate the machine.
c As there must be a 40 V drop (IR = 20 ! 2) along the line, the output of the transformer
will need to be 24 + 40 = 64 V. The turns ratio will therefore be 240/64 = 3.75:1.
d The power lost in the line will be P = VI = 40 ! 20 = 800 W (or I!R = 20! ! 2), much
more than is being used by the machine!

19 Using this generator would be a very bad idea for two main reasons.
First, many of the appliances in the house would require AC power because they have
transformers in them. If DC is used, the transformers are likely to burn out because the current
through them will be too high as there is no back EMF to reduce the current in the primary. In
any case, they wont work because there is no changing flux to produce a voltage in the
secondary. Devices with purely resistive loads such as filament light globes or heaters will work
normally as they do not need AC and the voltage will be correct.
Second, if in fact the 2000 W load is entirely resistive, the current drawn would be I = P/V =
2000/240 = 8.3 A but this would create a IR = 8.3 ! 8 = 66 V drop along the power line which
would mean that the voltage at the house was only about 170 V.

20 He will need a step-down transformer with a turns ratio of 5:1. A 2000 W load will require a
current of I = P/V = 2000/1200 = 1.7 A from the generator. This would result in a voltage drop
of IR = 1.7 ! 8 = 13 V along the power line. This would still mean that the voltage input to the
transformer was 1187 V which will produce a secondary voltage of 1187/5 = 237 V. At no load
Worked solutions Chapter 10 Electromagnetic induction

Heinemann Physics 12(3e)
Copyright Pearson Education Australia 2008 Teachers Resource and Assessment Disk
(a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) I SBN 9781442501263
13
the voltage would be 240 V (no voltage drop on the line) and at half load 238.5 V so the set-up
will suit his purpose well.
Worked solutions Chapter 10 Electromagnetic induction

Heinemann Physics 12(3e)
Copyright Pearson Education Australia 2008 Teachers Resource and Assessment Disk
(a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) I SBN 9781442501263
14
Exam-style questions (Electric power)

1 a A; both have A direction fields.
b B; left current has BC direction and right current has AB direction.
c G; C and A directions respectively cancel.

2 a To the left, due to magnetic induction in the soft iron.
b More strongly to the left as the right end of the electromagnet is now a south pole.
c To the right as the right end of the electromagnet is now a north pole.

3 F = IlB = 100 ! 1 ! 1 ! 10
5
= 1.0 mN

4 The right-hand force rule tells us that a current from west to east will experience an upward
force.

5 The weight of 1 m of cable is mg = 0.05 ! 9.8 = 0.49 N. For the magnetic force to equal this:
I = F/B = 0.49/(1 ! 10
5
) = 4.9 ! 10
4
A. (Not much chance of magnetic levitation for power
cables!)

6 The change of force is from 1.0 mN up to 1.0 mN down a change of 2.0 mN down.

7 B is the correct answer. The horizontal component of the current is now less and so there will be
a smaller force per metre of cable.

8 F = IlB = 1 ! 0.05 ! 1 = 0.05 N = 50 mN

9 The right-hand force rule tells us that it is to the right.

10 F = IlB = 1 ! 0.01 ! 1 = 0.01 N = 10 mN

11 The direction of the force on side PQ is to the left.

12 a Sides AB and DC are parallel to the field. Hence there will be no force on them. (This is
the case for parts i and ii.)
b i F = NIlB = 100 ! 0.2 ! 0.1 ! 0.25 = 0.50 N. The force on AD is out of the page and
on BC into the page.
ii F = NIlB = 100 ! 0.2 ! 0.1 ! 0.25 = 0.50 N. The force on AD is out of the page and
on BC into the page.
c The coil will rotate through 90 until the plane of the loop is perpendicular to the field
(and the page). It may swing back and forth until it settles in this position.

13 A, B and C. A will produce a greater total force, B will increase the current, and C will result in
a stronger magnetic field through the coil. D would reduce the current.

14 a Field is from N to S, so the right-hand rule shows that the force on side AB is upward and
that on side CD is downward.
b In the position shown (with the coil horizontal), the direction of the forces on the sides
AB and CD are at right angles to the radius and the torque is maximum.
c The torque becomes zero when the coil is in the vertical position. It continues to rotate for
two reasons: (i) Its momentum will carry it past the true vertical position. (ii) At the
Worked solutions Chapter 10 Electromagnetic induction

Heinemann Physics 12(3e)
Copyright Pearson Education Australia 2008 Teachers Resource and Assessment Disk
(a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) I SBN 9781442501263
15
vertical position the commutator reverses the direction of the current through the coil and
so the forces reverse, thus creating a torque that will rotate it another half turnat which
point the current reverses again.

15 a I = F/NlB =
40
100 0.2 0.5 ! !
= 4.0 A
b The shorter side will halve the force, twice the current will double the force and half the
turns halves the force. The net effect is to halve the force, so F = 20 N.
c The force increases with the field, so the new force is F = 40 ! 8/5 = 64 N.

16 The direction of the induced current is from Y to X. The direction is predicted by the right-hand
force rule. The direction of the magnetic force on side XY must oppose the entry of the loop
into the field.

17 EMF =
B
/ t = Blv = 0.4 ! 0.2 ! 5.0 ! 10
2
= 4.0 mV

18 P = VI = 4 ! 10
3
! 8 ! 10
3
= 3.2 ! 10
5
W (Note that I = V/R = 8 mA.)

19 The source of this power is the external force that is moving the loop towards the cube.

20 F = IlB = 8 ! 10
3
! 0.20 ! 0.4 = 6.4 ! 10
4
mN

21 After 1.2 s, the loop will have moved 6 cm and so will be totally within the field. Thus there is
no flux change and no EMF.

22 The direction of the induced current is from X to Y. The direction is predicted by the right-hand
rule. The direction of the magnetic force on the side of the loop still in the field must oppose its
exit from the field.

23 a F
B
= BA cos , where is the angle between B and the normal to A. = 0 in this case.
So F
B
= 1.0 ! 10
3
! 5.0 ! 10
3
= 5.0 Wb.
b No flux is threading the loop (as cos 90 = 0) and so F
B
= 0.
c EMF =
B
/ t and thus EMF = 5.0/2.0 = 2.5 mV
d I = EMF/R = 2.5/2.0 = 1.25 mA
e The electric current will quickly disappear as the electrical energy is rapidly converted
into heat energy in the resistance, according to P = I
2
R.

24 a The EMF, and hence the current, depends on the rate of change. If the rate is increased by
4, then the current will also increase by 4: I = 200 A.
b The EMF generated must have been EMF = IR = 50 ! 10
6
! 600 = 3 ! 10
2
V. As EMF =
N
B
/ t we can find
B
= 3 ! 10
2
! 2 /100 = 6 ! 10
4
Wb. The area is R!, and thus
the field B = 6 ! 10
4
/( ! 0.03!) = 0.21 T or 210 mT.

25 a A sine wave with peak amplitude 0.9 V and period 0.01 s (10 ms)
b V
RMS
= V
P
/"2 = 0.64 V
c The output graph would have half the period and twice the amplitude. The RMS voltage
will be 1.3 V.

26 E
max
= NBA2 f = 200 ! 0.5 ! 100 ! 10
4
! 2 ! 50 = 314 V

27 V
RMS
= V
p
/"2 = 314/"2 = 222 V
Worked solutions Chapter 10 Electromagnetic induction

Heinemann Physics 12(3e)
Copyright Pearson Education Australia 2008 Teachers Resource and Assessment Disk
(a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) I SBN 9781442501263
16

28 B. This is twice the frequency and so the amplitude will be double and the period half.

29 D. This has twice the amplitude but the same period and so could be obtained by doubling B or
A or N.

30 C. This time the frequency has doubled but the amplitude remains the same. Thus a combination
of the other quantities must have halved (B has doubled, but N has reduced to one-quarter).

31 f = 1/T = \$ ! 10
3
= 500 Hz

32 V
pp
= 20 V

33 V
RMS
= V
p
/"2 = 10/"2 = 7.1 V

34 Peak power is V
p
I
p
= 10 ! 1 = 10 W. Therefore RMS power is half this: 5.0 W.

35 a I
s
= I
p
! V
p
/V
s
=
2.0 600
3000
!
= 0.40 A (RMS)
b V
pp
= 2 ! 3000 = 6000 V
c N
p
= N
s
! V
p
/V
s
=
1000 600
3000
!
= 200 turns
d P
s
(RMS) = V
s
(RMS) ! I
s
(RMS) =
3000
2 0.40 !
= 850 W
e Peak power = 2 ! RMS power = 1700 W (as P
p
= "2V
RMS
"2I
RMS
= 2P
RMS
)

36 C. The alternating current in the primary produces a changing magnetic flux, which induces an
EMF in the secondary coils (as well as the primary coils).

37 C. The self-induced EMF is known as a back EMF and opposes the mains EMF.

38 With little or no current in the power line there will be almost no voltage drop. When the house
appliances were used, there was a much higher current in the power line and hence a voltage
drop. As the generator was supplying 4000 W at 250 V, the current in the line was I = 4000/250
= 16 A. The voltage drop along the line was therefore V = IR = 16 & 2 = 32 V and so the
voltage at the house was only 218 V.

39 At the generator end a 1 : 20 step-up transformer is required (5 kV/250 V = 20). There will be
20 times as many turns in the secondary as the primary. At the house end a 20 : 1 step-down
transformer is required. Both must be capable of handling 4 kVA. They could be the same type
of transformers used the opposite way around.

40 a The current is given by I = P/V = 4000/5000 = 0.8 A.
b The voltage drop is V = IR = 0.8 ! 2 = 1.6 V.
c The power loss is P = I!R = 0.8! ! 2 = 1.3 W.
d The voltage at the house will be given by
5000 1.6
20
!
= 249.9 V, which is almost the full
250 V. The power will be 4000 W 1.3 W = 3999 W.

Worked solutions Chapter 10 Electromagnetic induction

Heinemann Physics 12(3e)
Copyright Pearson Education Australia 2008 Teachers Resource and Assessment Disk
(a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) I SBN 9781442501263
17
41 The power loss in the first system was P = V ! I = 32 ! 16 = 512 W, which is about 13% of
the power generated. In the second system the loss was 1.3 W, only 0.03% of the generated
power. The reason is that the power loss in the power lines increases with the square of the
current (P = I!R). Here the current was reduced by a factor of 20 and so the power loss
decreased by a factor of 20! or 400.