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Alinda Days Romania 2013

Enzymes in Biscuits, Crackers & Wafers


Kees Veeke Technical Service Manager Baking EMEA
May 2013
DSM Food Specialties
Page
Trends in baking
1
Page 2
Global market for biscuits
The 2008 global biscuits market is estimated at >$60 bln or some 15 mln tons.
The market is expected to grow 3% each year by value and volume until 2013
resulting in sales of >$70 bln and volume of 18 mln tons.
Growth in the period 2003-2008 has been 4% by value/volume.
Page
Artisan
Bakeries
Millers
Bread Improvers
Flour
Improvers
Manufacturers
B
a
k
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r
y

s
h
o
p
s
R
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a
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Industrial
Bakeries
Baking
Enzymes
Yeast
Manufacturers
Other Ingredient
Manufacturers
Fine Baking
Baking Enzymes Value chain
3
Page
Low moisture
< 5%
Long shelf life
> 180 days
Eat
Crisp / Hard
Unit weight
4 - 16 gram
Biscuit Key Characterisitcs
4
Page
High water
Low fat
Well mixed
Cracker Applications (Hard Doughs)
5
Page
Cracker Process Flows
6
Dough Mixer
Fermentation
Laminating
Sheeting
Cutting
Baking
Dough Mixer
Rest
Sheeting
Cutting
Baking
Dough Mixer
Sheeting
Cutting
Baking
Fermented Cracker Snack / Savoury Marie Type
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High fat
Low water
Enzymes not
widely used
Cookie Applications (Short doughs)
7
Page
Cookie Process Flows
8
Dough Mixer
Rest
Rotary Mould
Baking
Dough Mixer
Rest
Wire Cut
Baking
Rotary Moulded Wire Cut
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a possibility
Sponge Drops cakes meet biscuits
9
Page 10
Which for which product
Semi-Sweet
hard dough
Fermented
crackers
Savoury
crackers
Wafers
Alpha amylase

Endo protease

Xylanase

Cellulase

Glutathione

Page 11
Actions on gluten
Sodium Meta BiSulfite
(Irreversible)
Cysteine / Glutathione
(Reversible)
Protease
(irreversible
)
Glutenin Subunit (GS)
Cysteine
molecule
in GS
Resulting in increased extensibility
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Highly branched area Open area Highly branched area Xylan Backbone
Unsubstituted
Xylose
Xylan
Arabinose
Ferulic acid
Mono-substituted Di-substituted
Mono-substituted with arabinose
linked to ferulic acid
Prevention of Checking
Plays a role in Sodium metabisulphite replacement
Biscuits - Breakdown of Arabinoxylan
Page 13
Control Bacterial protease + Xylanase
Wafers reduction batter viscosity
Page 14
Water Management hard dough biscuit
Reduce water in formulation
No change in dough rheology
Reduce baking time
No change in end-product
(Aw, stack height)
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Hardness of the dough over time
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
1 2/3 4/5
f
o
r
c
e

(
g
)
direct after kneading
2 hrs aft kneading
4 hrs after kneading
300 ppm HSP6000
5% less water addition
300 ppm HSP6000
10% less water addition
Control
Page 16
Moisture and Aw in finished biscuits
300 ppm HSP6000
5% less water addition
300 ppm HSP6000
10% less water addition
Control 0,2
0,25
0,3
0,35
0,4
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
5
5,5
6
1 2 3 4 5
A
w
M
o
i
s
t
u
r
e

(
%
)
Biscuit after 11 days (packed)
Moisture Aw
300 ppm HSP6000
5% less water addition
300 ppm HSP6000
10% less water addition
Control
Page 17
Baking time reduction
Control 5% water reduction 10% water reduction
Baking Time 7 minutes 6.5 - 6.7 minutes 6.5 - 6.7 minutes
Baking Time
reduction %
7% 7%
Is a water reduction of 10% and a reduction of baking time of 7% significant?
How does the cost-in-use of an enzyme link to potential energy savings and
benefits in oven throughput
Possibility to prolong crispiness?