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# 1. Deflection of statically determinate beams.

## 2. Design of beams is governed by rigidity rather than strength

3. Computation of deflections is an integral component of beam analysis.
4. Excessive deflection of a beam not only is visually disturbing but also
may cause damage to other parts of the building.
5. Building codes limit the maximum deflection of a beam to about 1/360th
of its span.
6. In lathe, the deflections must be kept below the dimensional tolerances
of the parts being machined.
7 C d i ft t h ffi i t i idit t t l t t l 7. Cars and aircraft must have sufficient rigidity to control structural
vibrations.
ElasticCurve
MomentCurve Relationship MomentCurveRelationship
MomentCurveRelationship(contd)
DeflectionEquation
WithconstantrigidityEI,weget
Method of Double Integration
1 This method is fairly straightforward in its application but it often 1. This method is fairly straightforward in its application, but it often
involves considerable algebraic manipulation.
2. We also present a variation of the method that simplifies the algebra by We a so p ese t a va at o o t e et od t at s p es t e a geb a by
the use of discontinuity functions.
3. The primary advantage of the doubleintegration method is that it
produces the equation for the deflection everywhere along the beam.
MomentArea Method
1. The momentarea method is a semigraphical procedure that utilizes
the properties of the area under the bending moment diagram.
2. It is the quickest way to compute the deflection at a specific location if
the bending moment diagramhas a simple shape.
3. The method is not suited for deriving the deflection as a function of
distance along the beam without using a computer program.
Sample Problem1
h il b f l h h i i ( ) i if l The cantilever beamAB of length L shown in Fig. (a) carries a uniformly
0
, which includes the weight of the beam.
(1) Derive the equation of the elastic curve (2) Compute the maximum (1) Derive the equation of the elastic curve. (2) Compute the maximum
displacement if the beam is a W12 x 35 section using L = 8 ft, w
0
= 400
lb/ft and E = 29 x 10
6
psi lb/ft, and E = 29 x 10 psi.
Solution
BoundaryConditions
X=L slope=0
X=L deflection=0
DeflectionEquation
FromTableB6inAppendixB,forW12x35shapeareI=285in
4
andZ=45.6in
3
a d 5 6
Themaximumdisplacementofthebeamis
DeflectionVsLength
which is close to the proportional limit of 35 000 psi for structural steel. We
th t th i di l t i ll d t th l th f see that the maximum displacement is very small compared to the length of
the beam even when the material is stressed to its proportional limit
SampleProblem6.3
The simply supported wood beam ABC in Fig. (a) has the The simply supported wood beam ABC in Fig. (a) has the
rectangular cross section shown. The beam supports a concentrated
load of 300 N located 2 m from the left support Determine the load of 300 N located 2 m from the left support. Determine the
maximum displacement and the maximum slope angle of the beam.
Use E = 12 GPa for the modulus of elasticity Neglect the weight of Use E = 12 GPa for the modulus of elasticity. Neglect the weight of
the beam.
Solution
Performing double integration for the two segments separately
Boundary conditions:
1. Deflections is zero at left support
2. Deflection is zero at the right support
3. Slope is same at the junction 3. Slope is same at the junction
4. Deflection is zero at the junction
Thusallthefourconstantsofintegrationareobtained g
Maximumdeflectionoccurswhentheslopeofthecurveiszero
Maximumdeflectionoccurswhentheslopeofthecurveiszero
According to the sign conventions for slopes, the positive value for v
/
means
that the beam rotates counterclockwise at C (this is consistent with the sketch
of the elastic curve in Fig (a)) Therefore the maximum slope angle of the beam of the elastic curve in Fig. (a)). Therefore, the maximum slope angle of the beam
is
MacaulaysMethod(DoubleIntegrationUsingBracketFunctions)
1. Evaluating the constants of integration that arise in the double
integration method can become very involved if more than two beam
segments are to be analyzed.
2 Simplify calculations by expressing the bending moment in terms of 2. Simplify calculations by expressing the bending moment in terms of
discontinuity functions, also known as Macaulay bracket functions.
3 Discontinuity functions enable us to write a single expression for the 3. Discontinuity functions enable us to write a single expression for the
bending moment that is valid for the entire length of the beam, even if the
4. By integrating a single, continuous expression for the bending moment,
we obtain equations for slopes and deflections that are also continuous
everywhere.
We can write the above expression for the entire beam, with the
understanding that the term 500 (x2)disappears when x<=2 understanding that the term 500 (x2)disappears when x<=2
and (x3)
2
disappears when x<=3.
A Macaulay bracket function, often referred to as a bracket function,
is defined as
where n is a nonnegative integer
This expression, valid over the entire length of the beam, is called the global
bending moment equation for the beam.
It i t l ti th l d d fl ti f th b ti Its integrals, representing the slope and deflection of the beam, are continuous
functions.
Thus, double integration of Eq. (a) automatically assures continuity of deformation
Sample Problem5. p
The simply supported beam ABC in Fig. (a) carries a concentrated
load of 300 N as shown. Determine the equations for the slope and load of 300 N as shown. Determine the equations for the slope and
deflection of the beamusing EI = 20.48 10
3
Nm
2
.
MomentArea Method
1 The momentarea method is useful for determining the slope or 1. The moment area method is useful for determining the slope or
deflection of a beamat a specified location.
2. It is a semigraphical method in which the integration of the g p g
bending moment is carried out indirectly, using the geometric
properties of the area under the bending moment diagram.
3. As in the method of double integration, we assume that the
deformation is within the elastic range, resulting in small slopes
and small displacements.
First MomentArea Theorem
1 Two cross sections of the beam at P and Q separated by the distance 1. Two cross sections of the beam at P and Q, separated by the distance
dx, rotate through the angle d relative to each other.
2. Because the cross sections are assumed to remain perpendicular to 2. Because the cross sections are assumed to remain perpendicular to
the axis of the beam, d is also the difference in the slope of the
elastic curve between P and Q. Q
1. dx = R d, where R is the radius of curvature of the elastic curve of
h d f d l the deformed element.
2. Therefore, d = dx/r
Second MomentArea Theorem
b h i l di f i f h h 1. Let t
B/A
be the vertical distance of point B from the tangent to the
elastic curve at A.
2 This distance is called tangential deviation of B with respect to A 2. This distance is called tangential deviation of B with respect to A.
3. Since slopes are very small, we obtain fromgeometry
wherex
/
isthehorizontaldistanceoftheelementfromB.
The righthand side represents the first moment of the shaded area of the
Denoting the distance between B and the centroid C of this area by
(centroid relative to B), we can write
B /
x
(centroid relative to B ), we can write
This is the second momentarea theorem.
Note that the first moment of area, represented by the righthand side, is always
taken about the point at which the tangential deviation is being computed
t
A/B
isnotequaltot
B/A
SignConvention g
StepsinsolvingusingMomentAreaMethod
1. Calculate the simple support reactions
and consider themto be applied loads and consider themto be applied loads.
2. Introduce a fixed support at a
convenient location.
3. A simple support of the original beam
is usually a good choice, but
sometimes another point is more
convenient.
4 The beam is now cantilevered from 4. The beam is now cantilevered from
this support.
5. Draw a bending moment diagram for
reactions of the original beam).
6. If all the diagrams can be fitted on a
single plot, do so, drawing the positive
moments above the xaxis and the moments above the x axis and the
negative moments belowthe xaxis.
7. Only the last step of the procedure is
needed for a cantilever beam because
fi d i l d a fixed support is already present.
P ti f Properties of areas
bounded by M = kx
n
y
formula
Example 6
The simply supported beam in Fig. (a) supports a
concentrated load of 300 N as shown. Using EI =20.48
x10
3
Nm
2
, determine (1) the slope angle of the elastic
curve at A and (2) the displacement at D. curve at A and (2) the displacement at D.
Steps
Part2
Fromthesecondmomentareatheorem,thetangentialdeviationofDrelative
toAis
6.5 Method of Superposition
h h d f i i l h d f fi di l 1. The method of superposition, a popular method for finding slopes
and deflections, is based on the principle of superposition:
2 If the response of a structure is linear then the effect of several loads 2. If the response of a structure is linear, then the effect of several loads
3. acting simultaneously can be obtained by superimposing (adding)
the effects of the individual loads the effects of the individual loads.
4. By linear response we mean that the relationship between the
cause (loading) and the effect (deformations and internal forces) is ( g) ( )
linear. The two requirements for linear response are (1) the material
must obey Hookes law; and (2) the deformations must be suffciently
small so that their effect on the geometry is negligible.
SampleProblem11
h id l f f h i l d b Computethemidspan valueofEI forthesimplysupportedbeam