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Energy Management
Departamento de Engenharia Mecnica

Ano Lectivo de 2012/2013 1 Exam
Prof. responsvel: Paulo Ferro
17 DE JANEIRO DE 2013
Duration: 2 (TEST) 3 (EXAM) horas
Problem 1
a. Explain the difference between primary energy and final energy and provide examples illustrating
the application of these concepts. EXAM
b. Indicate the objectives of an energy audit and which are the main phases that it involves, explaining
the key steps involved in its preparation. EXAM AND TEST
c. Explain the concept of "functional unit" in a life cycle assessment (LCA) and which is its role in the
quantification of the result of the LCA. EXAM AND TEST
d. Discuss what is meant by energy demand side management and how it can be implemented (which
is the key equipment involved) and what is its relevance for an energy system that is very
dependent on renewable energies, such as wind power. TEST

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Problem 2
A factory produces 10 000 ton per year of a given product (output 10) following the production process
illustrated in the next block diagram:

Operation T treats the residues of operation F rejecting 10% of the input and sending the rest for the
recycling operation R. The only other operation that generate residues is operation E characterized by a
residue formation factor of S
E
=1.5. Consider that the mass fractions are f
3
= 0.7, f
6
= 0.4, f
8
= 0.5 and that
specific energy consumptions are: CE
1
=10 kgep /ton and CE
2
=25 kgep /ton. Consider that the conversion
coefficients of final into primary energy are 0.215 tep/MWh for electricity and 1.077 tep/ton for natural gas.
a) Compute all mass flows (ton/year) and write them in the following table. EXAM

m
1
m
2
m
3
m
4
m
5
m
6
m
7
m
8
m
9
m
10
m
11
m
12
m
13



b) The table below shows the annual electricity and natural gas consumption of each operation,
Compute the specific energy consumption of each operation in tep/ton and write them in the table.
EXAM

A B C D E F T R
Electricity (MWh) 150 350 0 0 0 200 0 60
Nat. Gas (ton) 0 120 100 80 0 0 290 0
CE (kgep/ton)

c) Compute CE
10
. EXAM
d) What would be the value for CE
10
without recycling (considering that treatment is mandatory)?
EXAM




E
A
B
C
D
F
R (Recycling)
T (treatment)
3
8
4
5
6
7
9
11
12
13
1
2
10
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Problem 2
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Problem 3
Consider the following economy in 1990 with 4 sectors (A, B, C and D). The arrows describe the monetary
flows between sectors (e.g there is an output from sector A to sector B that is worth 30 monetary units and
an output from sector A to sector A that is worth 5 monetary units), the monetary flows associated with
imports (e.g., the imports of goods from sector A are worth 65 monetary units) and the monetary flows to
final demand & exports (e.g., the final demand & exports from sector A are worth 120 monetary units):

a) Represent the intersectorial transaction matrix. TEST & EXAM
b) Compute the value added for each sector. TEST & EXAM
c) Represent the full input-output system TEST & EXAM
d) Obtain the matrix with the technical coefficients. TEST & EXAM
e) Do you think that the matrix computed in c) would be the same in 2010? Why? TEST & EXAM


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Problem 3
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Problem 4
1. Consider a house (T2) in the Lisbon region (region I1-V2 with GD 1190) with a form factor of 0.4 m
-1
and an area of
105 m
2
. According to RCCTE, the estimated needs for thermal heating, cooling and domestic hot water are: Nic = 50
kWh.m
-2
.ano
-1
, Nvc = 15 kWh.m
-2
.ano
-1
, Nac = 35 kWh.m
-2
.ano
-1
, respectively. The heating is obtained with a central
heating system that uses natural gas with an efficiency of 85% and cooling is achieved using an air conditioner
(powered by electricity) with a COP of 2.5 and hot water is obtained with a water heater fueled by natural gas with an
efficiency of 0.80.
a) Draw and quantify the Sankey Diagram (primary, final and useful energies) for the energy used by this
house. EXAM
b) Is this house in accordance with the maximum values imposed by RCCTE regarding heating, cooling
and domestic hot water for new residential homes? EXAM and TEST
c) What is the energy label of this house? EXAM and TEST
d) The owners of this house are thinking about using the air conditioner also for heating (COP=3). Draw
and quantify the Sankey diagram for this case and compare with the initial setting. EXAM

DATA: V2(South)=32 kWh.m
-2
.ano
-1
, Electricity: 0.290 kgep.kWh
-1
, Natural Gas: 0.086 kgoe.kWh
-1

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Problem 4
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Problem 4
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Problem 4
95
5