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Alcatel 1

Introduction to
QUALITY OF SERVICE and TRAFFIC LOAD
MONITORING BSS release B9
TRAINING MANUAL
3FL10491ACAAWBZZA ed 2 October 2006
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use and communication of its contents not permitted without
written authorization from Alcatel.
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Both lethal and dangerous voltages are present within the equipment. Do not wear conductive jewelry while working
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Caution
The equipment used during this course is electrostatic sensitive. Please observe correct anti-static precautions.
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2004 Alcatel. All rights reserved.
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Alcatel 2
Product Line
EVOLIUMMobile Radio Solutions
Course Title Introduction to GSM QoS and traffic load monitoring / B9
Course Number 3FL10491ABAA
Audience
Customer personnel in charge of the radio
optimization, quality of service and radio traffic-
engineering.
Objectives
During this training, the participant will learn how
interpret counters and indicators of the Alcatel
BSS System.
By the end of the course, the participant will
be able to interpret :
- Global indicators, in order to assess the
general quality of the network
- Detailed indicators, in order to detect / identify /
locate the main malfunctions
- Handover indicators, in order to quantify
efficiency and reason of HO
- Directed retry indicators, in order to quantify
efficiency of directed retry
- RMS indicators to ease radio optimisation and
fault detection
- Traffic indicators, in order to detect/predict
overload and compute adequate cell
dimensioning as well as to understand how
RTCH resources are used in the network
Prerequisites
In depth knowledge of GSM BSS system
architecture
Windows literate
Training Methods
Theory and practice on PC
Language
English - French
Duration
5 days
Location
Alcatel University or Customer Premises
Number of participants
8 maximum
Course content
1 Introduction
1.1 Monitoring the Qos of the BSS
1.2 Monitoring the traffic Load of the BSS
1.3 Information sources available
1.4 Introduction to K1205 PC emulation
2 Global Indicators
2.1 Indicators definition
2.2 Methodological precautions
2.3 Typical call failures
2.4 Description of global indicators
2.5 Traps and restrictions of global indicators
2.6 Global indicators interpretation
3 Detailed Indicators
3.1 Indicator reference name
3.2 Indicators classification
4 HO Indicators
4.1 Intra-cell handover indicators per cell
4.2 Internal handover indicators per cell
4.3 External handover indicators per cell
4.4 Handover indicators per couple of cells
5 Directed Retry Indicators
5.1 Internal directed retry indicators
5.2 External directed retry indicators
6 Radio Measurement Statistics (RMS)
indicators
6.1 Radio Measurement Statistics objectives
6.2 RMS implementation in the BSS
6.3 RMS data
6.4 Call quality statistics per TRX
6.5 Radio quality statistics per TRX
6.6 C/I statistics
6.7 RMS indicators usage
6.8 Additional information
7 Traffic Indicators
7.1 Call mix definition
7.2 Basis of traffic theory
7.3 TCH resource allocation indicators
7.4 Resource occupancy indicators
7.5 Traffic model indicators
7.6 Preemption indicators
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Objectives
Contract number :
Course title :
Client (Company, centre) :
Language : dates from : to :
Number of trainees : Location :
Surname, First name :
Did you meet the following objectives ?
Tick the corresponding box
Please, return this sheet to the trainer at the end of the training
Instructional objectives
Yes (or
Globally
yes)
No (or
globally
no)
Comments
1- To be able to interpret Global indicators, in
order to assess the general quality of the network
2- To be able to interpret Detailed indicators, in
order to detect / identify / locate the main
malfunctions
3- To be able to interpret Handover indicators, in
order to quantify efficiency and reason of HO
4- To be able to interpret Directed retry indicators,
in order to quantify efficiency of directed retry
5- To be able to interpret RMS indicators to ease
radio optimisation and fault detection
6- To be able to interpret Traffic indicators, in order
to detect/predict overload and compute adequate
cell dimensioning as well as to understand how
RTCH resources are used in the network
Alcatel 5

Objectives (continued)
Instructional objectives
Yes (or
Globally
yes)
No (or
globally
no)
Comments
Other comments
Thank you for your answers to this questionnaire
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All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
1 INTRODUCTION
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8 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
1 Introduction
Section presentation
> Objective: to be able to explain what is QoS and Traffic Load
monitoring of the BSS and what are the information sources
available for that purpose
> Program:
1.1 Monitoring the QoS of the BSS
1.2 Monitoring the Traffic Load of the BSS
1.3 Information sources available
1.4 Introduction to K1205 PC emulation
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1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Monitoring the QoS of the BSS
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10 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
1.1 Monitoring the QoS of the BSS
Definition
> Monitor" "network" "quality"
monitor = measure or ensure?
network = BSS? BSS+NSS? BSS+NSS+PSTN
quality = service (end-user) and/or system (technical)
> But also detect, localize, diagnose outages
detect (decide according to thresholds)
localize (which cell, BSC, etc.)
diagnose: radio, BSS, TC problems
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QoS Results
Management
network monitoring
comparison with competitor
comparison of manufacturers
contractual requirement: licence
quality responsible
Radio optimization
cell radio quality survey
HO quality monitoring
assessment of tuning efficiency
BSS maintenance
cell/BSC/TC problem detection
11 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
1.1 Monitoring the QoS of the BSS
Usage
QoS Results





Management
network monitoring
comparison with competitor
comparison of manufacturers
contractual requirement: licence
quality responsible



Radio optimization
cell radio quality survey
HO quality monitoring
assessment of tuning efficiency

BSS maintenance
cell/BSC/TC problem detection
> 3 usages of QoS data 3 levels of QoS reports:
1. Management team: has to compare Network QoS with competitors' one and to plan
Network evolutions.
needs to have a general view of the Network QoS on a monthly (and sometimes weekly)
basis.
2. Radio Optimization team: has to detect bad QoS areas in the network and to implement and
assess modifications for QoS improvement.
needs to have a detailed status and evolution of the QoS at BSS and cell (and sometimes
TRX) levels on a weekly, daily (and sometimes hourly) basis.
3. Supervision and Maintenance team: has to detect dramatic QoS degradations and identify
the responsible Network Element (and if possible component).
needs to have the most detailed status of QoS at cell and TRX levels on an hourly basis.
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1 INTRODUCTION
1.2 Monitoring the Traffic Load of the BSS
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1.2 Monitoring the Traffic Load of the BSS
Definition
> Measure the "quantity" of traffic handled by:
the network
the BSCs
the cells
> Analyze traffic characteristics
call, handover, location update, etc.
> As input for dimensioning/architecture team
> Traffic characteristics used as a "call mix" to dimension or re-dimension the network will be
developed in the section Monitoring the Traffic Load of the BSS.
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1 INTRODUCTION
1.3 Information sources available
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15 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
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1.3 Information sources available
Observation means
> DIFFERENT WAYS TO OBSERVE/MEASURE the GSM network
External Interface Analysis
A interface: MSC/TC-BSC
Abis interface: BSC/BTS
Air MS/BTS
Counter browser
OMC Counters
BSC
(NSS)
Tektronix K1205
Gnnettest MPA
W&G NPA
Abis
> QoS data can be built-up from different and complementary kinds of information sources.
> Usually post-processing applications will build up QoS indicators from:
OMC-R counters provided by the BSS system itself.
Signaling messages provided by a protocol acquisition tool on the different interfaces
handled by the BSS: Air, Abis, A (or Ater).
MSC/VLR
Air
A
Abis
BSC TC
BTS
Ater
SACCH RSL N7 N7
drive test tool protocol analyzer
MS
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16 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
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1.3 Information sources available
A interface trace
INFORMATION SOURCE: EXTERNAL INTERFACE "A"
> Capture/decode signaling between MSC and BSC-TC (A or Ater MUX)
with "protocol analyzer" (Wandel, Tektronix, Gnnettest, etc.)
+ GSM standard, can be used for arbitrage between manufacturers
+ Complete information (message contents, time-stamp)
+ Possible detection of User/MS/BSS/TC/NSS problems
- High cost of equipment
- Time consuming, "post mortem" (installation of tool, file analysis)
- Expertise needed for analysis
- Low coverage (K1103/MA10: 8 COCs, K1205/MPA: 32 COCs maximum!)
- Large amount of data (>> 10 Mbytes /hour/BSC)
> The main advantage of the A interface is to allow the detection of Call Setup failures either due to the User or to
the NSS (or PSTN).
> Some typical user failure causes are: Some typical NSS failure causes are:
IMSI Unknown in VLR Temporary Failure
IMSI Unknown in HLR Resource Unavailable
IMEI Not Accepted Switching Equipment Congestion
PLMN Not Allowed Normal Unspecified
Service Option Not Supported Recovery on Timer Expiry
Requested Service Not Supported Call Reject
Unassigned Number Interworking
Operator Determined Barring Protocol Error
User Alerting Network Failure
Facility Not Subscribed Congestion
No Route to Destination
Normal Call Clearing
User Busy
Invalid Number Format
Call Reject
Interworking
Normal Unspecified
> CAUTION: In order to assess the QoS of a BSS or some cells of a BSS, all N7 links between this BSC and the
MSC must be traced. Indeed, as the N7 signaling load is spread over all N7 links, signaling messages relating to
one call can be conveyed on any of the active N7 links.
> K1103 protocol analyzer can trace up to 8 COCs at the same time but on maximum 4 PCM physical links.
> K1205 protocol analyzer can trace up to 32 COCs at the same time but on maximum 16 PCM physical links.
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17 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
1.3 Information sources available
Example of trace
On a K1205 protocol analyzer
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18 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
1.3 Information sources available
Abis interface trace
INFORMATION SOURCE: EXTERNAL INTERFACE "Abis"
> Capture/decode signaling between BSC and BTS with "protocol
analyzer" (Wandel, Tektronix, Gnnettest, etc.)
+ Complete information (message contents, time-stamp)
+ Possible detection of User/MS/BSS/TC/NSS problems
+ Complete radio information thanks to measurement messages
+ Downlink and uplink
- High cost of equipment
- Time consuming, "post mortem" (installation of tool, file analysis)
- Important expertise needed for analysis
- Very low coverage (A few RSLs, a few cell(s))
- Very large amount of data (>> 10 Mbytes/hour/BTS)
> The main advantage of the Abis trace is to allow a detailed and precise assessment of the radio
quality of a cell at TRX level. Both DownLink and UpLink paths can be observed and compared.
> BUT from B7 release, the Radio Measurement Statistics (RMS) feature implemented in the BSS
provides a good level of information allowing to reduce the number of Abis traces to be done
for radio network optimization.
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19 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
1.3 Information sources available
Air interface trace
INFORMATION SOURCE: EXTERNAL INTERFACE "Air"
> Use trace MS to capture signaling and signal characteristics
+ Give precise location (x,y) of problems
+ Give downlink radio information
+ Only way to localize a lack of coverage
+ Only way to monitor competitor
- High cost of equipment
- Very time-consuming
- Difficulty to perform a lot of calls
-> number of samples insufficient
-> only a few streets
- No uplink
> The main advantage of the Air trace is to associate a radio quality measurement to a given
geographical area of the network.
> Even if the RMS feature will allow to assess the radio quality as perceived by the end user, no
location of the radio problems is provided through the RMS.
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20 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
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1.3 Information sources available
Performance Measurement counters
SUB-SYSTEM COUNTERS
> Counts events seen by sub-system, value reported periodically
(1 hour)
+ Low cost: collected directly at OMC
+ Compact data: possibility to store counters for a complete network
- Raw information, having to be consolidated to be understandable
- Manufacturer's dependent: questionable/difficult to compare
- Weak to analyze other sub-systems
> The main advantage of the BSS counters is to provide easily QoS data for permanent QoS
monitoring.
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21 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
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1.3 Information sources available
Exercise
> Draw the BSS PM counters flow on the chart
> In which sub-system are the BSS QoS indicators
computed and stored?
BSC
BSC
BSC
OMC-R
OMC-R
OMC-R
NPA
RNO
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22 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
1.3 Information sources available
BSS counters
BSS COUNTERS
> Combined into significant formulae: indicators
> Used to monitor BSS network quality
> Over a complete network, with breakdown per cell/BSC
> SPECIFIC DRAWBACK
NSS/PSTN/MS/USER problems not seen
> As BSS PM counters are defined in order to provide information to assess the QoS of the BSS
and help to detect BSS misbehavior, there is no way to identify QoS problems due to NSS,
PSTN or User.
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23 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
1.3 Information sources available
NSS counters
NSS COUNTERS
> Combined into significant formulas: indicators
> Used to monitor NSS network quality
> Over a complete network, with breakdown per BSC (maximum)
> SPECIFIC DRAWBACKS
BSS problems usually not precisely identified
No breakdown per cell
> The NSS QoS is provided through NSS PM counters and indicators. It is out of the scope ot this
training course.
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24 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
1.3 Information sources available
ALCATEL BSS counters
INFORMATION SOURCES: BSS Counters (1/2)
> Performance Management implementation
Easy and cost-effective way to monitor network and carried traffic
> Principle:
For a given duration (granularity period= typically 1 hour)
To count pre-defined events occurring on the Abis or A interface,
or internally.
Counters stored with breakdown per network component (I.e. cell)
> In the BSS B9, around 1000 counters are available (without
GPRS).
> Alcatel has chosen to implement PM counters in the BSC and to increment them mostly on Abis
interface signaling messages.
> Other suppliers may have chosen to increment them on A interface signaling messages or to
implement them in the BTS.
> Therefore caution should be taken when interpreting QoS indicators value since some
discrepancies may be observed due to these possible choices.
In order to provide the operators with an easy and cost-effective way to monitor their network and
carried traffic, BSS manufacturers have implemented specific software features, called
performance management.
The principle is to count for a given duration called granularity period (typically 1 hour) pre-
defined events occurring on the Abis or A interface, or internally. These counters are stored for
each duration, with breakdown per network component (i.e. cell).
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25 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
1.3 Information sources available
ALCATEL BSS counters
INFORMATION SOURCES: BSS Counters (2/2)
> In Alcatel BSS (except GPRS), counters are computed by BSC,
based mainly on Abis messages.
> Every reporting period, counters values are sent to the OMC-R
for storage.
> Several counters are reported to the OMC-R permanently every
PM granularity period:
Type 180: per cell adjacency
Type 110 per cell
Other Types: per TRX / N7 Link / BSC /
Millions of counters are collected every day
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26 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
1.3 Information sources available
BSS counter Example
> MC718:
counter number
> NB_TCH_NOR_ASS_SUCC_TRX: counter name
> Cumulative: method of computation
> Type 110: BSS PM measurement type to which the counter belongs
> Measured object: minimum object level for which the counter is
provided: TRX or CELL or BSC or N7 LINK or X25 LINK etc.
> All counters are described in the "PM counters and indicators".
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27 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
1.3 Information sources available
BSS counter characteristics
Collection mechanism
> Cumulative
The counter is incremented at the occurrence of a specific event
Abis or A message, or internal event
At the end of a collection period, the result is the sum of the events
> Inspection
Every 20 or 10 seconds, a task quantifies an internal resource status
(usually a table)
At the end of a collection period, the result is the mean value
> Observation
Set of recorded information about a telecom procedure (handover,
channel release, UL & DL measurements reporting)
> Main counters are of cumulative type.
> Inspection counters are of gauge type.
> Observation counters are grouped in a Performance Measurement record associated to a
particular GSM BSS telecom procedure: SDCCH channel seizure, TCH channel seizure, internal
handover, etc.
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28 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
1.3 Information sources available
BSS Performance Measurement types
N Type Name Type definition
1 Traffic Measurement Set of counters related to the traffic evaluation per telecom procedure
2 Resource Availability Measurement Set of counters related to the availability of the CCCH, SDCCH, or TCH channels
3 CCCH channel resource usage measurements Set of counters related to the usage of CCCH channel (PCH, AGCH, RACH)
4 SDCCH channel resource usage measurements Set of counters related to the usage of SDCCH channel
5 TCH channel resource usage measurements Set of counters related to the usage of TCH channel
6 TCH Handover Measurements Set of counters related to the TCH handover procedure
7 LAPD Measurement Set of counters related to the LapD logical links
8 X.25 Measurement Set of counters related to the X25 links OMC-BSC
9 N7 Measurement Set of counters related to the N7 Signaling Links
10 SDCCH Observations Observation counters on SDCCH channels allocated
11 TCH measurements observations Observation counters on 08.58 MEASUREMENT REPORT for a TCH
12 Internal Handover Observations Observation counters on internal intra-cell or inter-cell SDCCH or TCH handover
13 Incoming External Handover Observations Observation counters on incoming external SDCCH or TCH handover
14 Outgoing External Handover Observations Observation counters on outgoing external SDCCH or TCH handover
15 TCH Observation Observation counters on TCH channel allocated
18 A Interface measurements different causes of 08.08 CLEAR REQUEST and 08.08 ASSIGNMENT FAILURE
19 SMS PP Measurements Set of counters related to Short Message Service Point to Point
25 SCCP Measurements Set of counters related to SCCP Layer of the N7 signaling Links
26 TCH outgoing Handover per adjency Set of counters related to outgoing TCH handover provided per adjency
27 TCH incoming Handover per adjency Set of counters related to incoming TCH handover provided per adjency
28 SDCCH Handover Set of counter related to the SDCCH handover procedure
29 Directed Retry measurements Set of counter related to the directed retry handover procedure
30 SMS CB Measurements Set of counters related to Short Message Service Cell Broadcast
31 Radio Measurement Statistics Set of counters providing radio quality measurements for TRX/Cell
32 Change of frequency band measurements Set of counters related to handovers including a change of TCH Frequency band
33 BTS Power Measurement Average emitted power at the BTS antenna output
110 Overview measurements Set of key counters allowing to access Quality of Service of a given Cell/BSC/Network
180 Traffic Flow measurements Set of counters related to incoming inter-cell SDCCH/TCH handover performed per adjency
B9
NewB9
ANNEX 6
> BSS Performance Measurement types (PM types) are split into two categories:
standard types (7, 8, 9, 18, 19, 25, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32,110, 180)
detailed types (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 26, 27)
> The most important types for QoS monitoring and Radio Network Optimization are in bold.
> A standard PM type can be activated for the whole network. It means that the related counters are reported for all
the Network Elements they are implemented on (TRX, CELL, N7 link, X25 link, LAPD link, Adjacency).
> A detailed PM type can be activated only on a sub-set of the network. It means that the related counters are
reported only for a limited number of Network Elements:
40 cells per BSS for PM types 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 26, 29
15 cells per BSS for PM types 10, 12, 13, 14, 15
1 cell per BSS for PM types 11, 27
> Counter numbering rules:
Cyz: cumulative or inspection counters in PM types 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 18, 19, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 32,
180
Ly.z: cumulative counters in PM type 7 (L stands for LAPD link)
Xy.z: cumulative counters in PM type 8 (X stands for X25 link)
Ny.z: cumulative counters in PM type 9 (N stands for N7 link)
Syz: observation counters in PM type 10 (S stands for SDCCH)
Ryz:: observation counters in PM type 11 (R stands for Radio measurements)
HOyz: observation counters in PM type 12, 13, 14 (HO stands for HandOver)
Tyz: observation counters in PM type 15 (T stands for TCH)
RMSyz: cumulative counters in PM type 31 (RMS stands for Radio Measurement Statistics)
MCyz or MNy.z: cumulative counters in PM type 110 (M stands for Major)
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29 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
1.3 Information sources available
Observation means
Training exercise: find the best source of information
Observation to be done : Best source Why
6- history of network quality for several
weeks
8- discriminate problems between BSS/NSS.
BSS and NSS coming from different
providers
9- In a building, one is thinking that an
elevator is inducing PCM trouble, how to
confirm ?
10- Identify potential interfering cells of 1
Cells
5- localise abnormal cells in a network
7- compare networks quality
3- get average network quality
4- localise precise location of a radio pb
1- overall radio quality of 1 cell Counters Type 31: RMS
2- monitor user failures
Alcatel 29
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1 INTRODUCTION
1.4 Introduction to K1205 PC emulation
Alcatel 30
31 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
1.4 Introduction to K1205 PC emulation
Usage
INTRODUCTION TO K1205 PC EMULATION
> The trace done with K1205 can be read:
Directly on K1205 itself
On any PC Windows NT with dedicated emulation software
> Practical exercises will be done during the course using this
software
> The following slides and exercises are here to teach you the
basic skill needed to operate the tool for A Interface decoding
Alcatel 31
To select binary
trace file
To enter in monitoring
mode to analyze the
A trace
To filter the main
GSM protocols
and messages
32 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
1.4 Introduction to K1205 PC emulation
Measurement Scenarios screen
To select binary
trace file
To enter in monitoring
mode to analyze the
A trace
To filter the main
GSM protocols
and messages
1. Start the K1205 Protocol Tester application.
2. In the Recording File box: click on the Open button and select the "PAIB29.rec" file.
3. Select all displayed N7 logical links (corresponding to 4 PCMs in this case).
4. Click on the Browse button and select gsm2_A.stk in the gsm2 sub-directory (corresponding to
the GSM Phase 2 A interface protocol stack).
5. Click on OK.
6. Click on the Monitor box to display the content of the recorded trace.
Alcatel 32
33 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
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1.4 Introduction to K1205 PC emulation
Filter configuration
> Configure your filter to remove some messages
and protocols => Bypass Protocol Filter
and select:
- SCCP Except UDT
- Keep all DTAP
- BSSM Except PAGIN
Select also all
Logical Links
ANNEX 4
> The ANNEX 4 introduces some basics on the GSM protocol layers that will be traced for the A interface analysis.
> UDT: Unit Data (for Signaling Control Point) Remove Paging information
Alcatel 33
Short View
1 line mess
Frame View
Full decoding of
selected message
Packet view
Message content
in hexadecimal
To extract 1 call
34 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
1.4 Introduction to K1205 PC emulation
Monitor screen
/ age
Short View
1 line / message
Frame View
Full decoding of
selected message
Packet view
Message content
in hexadecimal
To extract 1 call
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35 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
1.4 Introduction to K1205 PC emulation
Extract a Call
> How to Find a specific message?
Edit -> Find (or ctrl + F3)
Select All Logical Links
Chose the protocol
Select the message studied
Use F3 to find another same message
> How to Extract a call on these trace?
Click on Zoom button
Select CC message (Connection Confirm)
And UnZoom + Zoom to get:
SLR: Source Location Reference
DLR: Destination Location Reference
> At call setup, the first signaling message on the A interface is sent by the BSC to the MSC in order to set up a logical link (called
SCCP connection) between the BSS and the NSS.
> Both BSS and NSS entities choose a unique reference which has to be used by the other party to identify the SCCP connection
on which the messages are conveyed. Both BSS reference (xxx) and NSS reference (yyy) are exchanged during the SCCP
Connection Request and Connection Confirm phases. After that only the reference of the other party is used.
BSC MSC
Radio Link Establishment
SCCP CR
SLR= xxx ; DLR= none
SCCP CC
SLR= yyy ; DLR= xxx
msg i
SLR= none ; DLR= yyy
msg j
SLR= none ; DLR= xxx
Alcatel 35
36 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
1.4 Introduction to K1205 PC emulation
Call extraction
Then
> Click on the Filter button and filter out all protocol layers and messages except:
all DTAP messages,
all BSSMAP messages except "Paging,
SCCP CR (Connection Request) and CC (Connection Confirm) messages.
Alcatel 36
37 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
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1.4 Introduction to K1205 PC emulation
Exercise
PRACTICAL EXERCICE
> Use the tool to extract a few calls from file
PAIB29.REC
1) Zoom on a CC message:
Find the definition of all messages in the
Frame View?
2) Zoom on a CR message with LUREQ
How to extract the complete call?
3) Use Find to extract a call with a ALERTING
message.
Can you see the CC message? If not, Why?
Alcatel 37
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
2 GLOBAL INDICATORS
Alcatel 38
39 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
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2 Global indicators
Section presentation
> Objective: to be able to explain what is a Global indicator and
what are the main BSS indicators regarding GSM services
provided by the Alcatel BSS
> Program:
2.1 Indicators definition
2.2 Methodological precautions
2.3 Typical call failures
2.4 Description of global indicators
2.5 Traps and restrictions of global indicators
2.6 Global indicators interpretation
Alcatel 39
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
2 GLOBAL INDICATORS
2.1 Indicators definition
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41 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
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2.1 Indicators definition
Global / detailed
BSS INDICATORS DEFINITION (Alcatel)
> Numerical data providing information about network
performance regarding:
The complete network: GLOBAL indicator
An element of the network: DETAILED indicator
TS/TRX/CELL/BTS/BSC/TC
> A formulae of several counter(s)
> Counters vs. Indicators
Counters: provided by the BSS equipments
Indicators: computed by BSS Monitoring equipments
> The indicators computation can be performed from several counters or by a simple counter
mapping.
> Example:
call drop rate = Call Drop nb / Call nb = f(counters)
call drop = Call drop nb = 1 counter
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2.1 Indicators definition
Global
GLOBAL INDICATORS
> Measure the performance of the complete network
> Analyzed according their trend and values
Usually every day (week, month)
> Compared with:
Competitor results if available
Contractual requirements
Internal quality requirements
Alcatel 42
Weekly CDR "GSM"
0,00%
0,50%
1,00%
1,50%
2,00%
2,50%
3,00%
3,50%
159
1
3
1
7
2
1
2
5
2
9
3
3
3
7
4
1
4
5
week number
C
D
R
weekly call drop rate
contractual call drop rate
quality CDR
43 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
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2.1 Indicators definition
Thresholds
EXAMPLE: Thresholds on Call Drop Rate indicator
Weekly CDR "GSM"
0,00%
0,50%
1,00%
1,50%
2,00%
2,50%
3,00%
3,50%
159
1
3
1
7
2
1
2
5
2
9
3
3
3
7
4
1
4
5

week number
C
D
R
weekly call drop rate
contractual call drop rate
quality CDR
> The Call Drop rate at network level has to compared to:
Contractual threshold: can be requested by the operator management to the operational
radio team, can be requested by the operator to the provider on swap or network
installation
Quality threshold: fixed internally by radio team management.
> Quality thresholds are usually more tight than contractual ones.
Alcatel 43
INDICATOR DESCRIPTION G?
average of call setup success rate for the network Y
rate of call lost due to radio pb on cell CI=14, LAC=234 No
call drop rate in your capital
call drop rate of the cell covering a specific buidling
%of HO with the cause better cell (among other causes) for the network
average rate of TCH dropped for all TRX of the network carrying 1 SDCCH8
rate of SDCCH dropped on TRX1 of cell 12,24
call success of 1 PLMN
%of cells bei co sted toda
44 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
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2.1 Indicators definition
Exercise
> TRAINING EXERCISE: GLOBAL OR NOT
es
ng nge y
INDICATOR DESCRIPTION G ?
average of call setup success rate for the network Yes
rate of call lost due to radio pb on cell CI=14, LAC=234 No
call drop rate in your capital
call drop rate of the cell covering a specific buidling
% of HO with the cause better cell (among other causes) for the network
average rate of TCH dropped for all TRX of the network carrying 1 SDCCH8
rate of SDCCH dropped on TRX1 of cell 12,24
call success of 1 PLMN
% of cells being congested today
Alcatel 44
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2 GLOBAL INDICATORS
2.2 Methodological precautions
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2.2 Methodological precautions
Objective
METHODOLOGICAL PRECAUTIONS
> Avoid typical errors regarding indicators interpretation
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2.2 Methodological precautions
Global indicator value
A good value for a global indicator

All network components are OK regarding this indicator


> Example
A global call drop rate of 1%
Can hide some cells with 10 % of call drop rate
Alcatel 47
2.2 Methodological precautions
Network Element aggregation
> The average value of an indicator for a Network
Is not the average of cell results (or any sub-part of it)
BUT the average weighted by the traffic
number of calls number of call drop call drop rate
cell 1 390 8 2,10%
cell 2 546 29 5,25%
cell 3 637 20 3,10%
cell 4 1029 12 1,14%
cell 5 536 3 0,50%
cell 6 2 1 50,00%
cell 7 3 1 33,00%
cell 8 210 4 2,11%
cell 9 432 5 1,20%
cell 10 321 4 1,11%
average of cell results 9,95%
total nb of drop/total number of calls 2,10%
48 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
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Alcatel 48
49 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
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2.2 Methodological precautions
Global indicator validity
> To be reliable, an indicator must be based on a sufficient number of
events
Estimation theory (MR.Spiegel, theory and problems of probability and
statistics , SCHAUM):
if p is the probability of success for a complete population
if one is measuring the probability P based on a sample of size N
There is a probability of 95 % that p is between:
P +/- 1.96*[(p*(1-p))/n]
Example: for p = 90 % and N = 100 => [ 84,12% ; 95,88% ]
> This law cannot be used directly for indicators (an hourly indicator is
not based on a random sample), but it is giving a rough estimate of
level of confidence one can apply regarding the size of the sample
If a sample (number of calls) is too small, one can take it for a longer
duration
> On Alcatel QoS monitoring tool (MPM application on OMC-R, NPA or RNO), NEs (BSS, Cell or
TRX) are highlighted with bad QoS indicator value if enough corresponding events have been
observed (called Validity threshold).
> Examples:
Cells with bad Call Drop rate will be highlighted if CDR > CDR_threshold and if the
Number of Calls is greater than the CDR Validity threshold.
Cells with bad Outgoing handover success rate will be highlighted if OHOSUR >
OHOSUR_threshold and if the Number of Outgoing Handovers is greater than the OHO
Validity threshold.
Alcatel 49
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2.2 Methodological precautions
Time period aggregation
> Take care of data consolidation
> Example:
Mean cell congestion rate during busy hour:
Weighted average of cell congestion at the busy hour of the
network?
Weighted average of cell congestion rate for its specific busy
hour?
(definition of busy hour?)
> Usually:
Cell Busy Hour = hour of the day where max TCH traffic (in erlang) is observed.
BSC Busy Hour = hour of the day where max TCH traffic (as the sum of the TCH traffic of
all cells of the BSS) is observed.
Alcatel 50
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2.2 Methodological precautions
Exercise
METHODOLOGICAL PRECAUTION: Training exercise
INDICATOR Sample
(calls)
conclusion OK ?
call drop = 0.9% in your country 2456435 all the cells have a good call drop NOK
call setup success for cell 15, 145 = 99,5% 2315 there is a good call setup success rate for
15,145
In Paris : 2500 cells with 95% of call setup
success
In the rest of France : 5000 cells with
98%
3267872
for France
In France, call setup success = 97 %
call drop for BSS BSS_1 = 1% 4500 the call drop for BSS_1 is good
call drop for cell 156;13 = 5% 215 cell 156;13 has certainly a trouble
for BSS 1, call drop of 2,0%
for BSS 2, call drop of 3,0%
4000
2000
LA = BSS1 + BSS2 has a call drop of 2,3 %
MSC Stadium has a call setup success of
95 %
15346 BSS1 belonging to MSC Stadium has a call setup
success of 95%
Alcatel 51
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2 GLOBAL INDICATORS
2.3 Typical call failures
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2.3 Typical call failures
Objective
> Description of the main call success and failures cases, with
Main specific counters
Main protocol timers
> Diagnose the main case of failures on A interface traces using
K1205 emulation software
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2.3 Typical call failures
Call Setup phasing
> 4 stages for a call establishment, 2 for a location update:
1- Radio link establishment
2- "SDCCH phase
then only for "Circuit Switch call"
3- TCH assignment
4- "Alerting/connection" phase
> Each phase has a specific utility and weaknesses
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
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2.3 Typical call failures
Radio Link Establishment - OC success
Originated Call: RLE success case
T3101: guard timer for SDCCH allocation (Default: 3 seconds)
CR/CC are used to exchange SCCP references
Any further message related to this call will have one (or 2) of these
2 references
K1205 can extract the call using these references (SLR, DLR!!)
MS BTS BSC
MSC
CHANNEL REQUEST
-------------(RACH)------------> CHANNEL REQUIRED
----------------------------------------------> MC8C
CHANNEL ACTIVATION (SDCCH)
<---------------------------------------------- MC148
CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK
---------------------------------------------->
IMMEDIATE ASSIGN COMMAND
IMMEDIATE ASSIGN <---------------------------------------------- start T3101
MC8B
<------------(AGCH)-------------
SABM (L3 info)
-------------(SDCCH)-----------> ESTABLISH IND (L3 info)
UA (L3 info) ----------------------------------------------> stop T3101
<-----------(SDCCH)------------- MC02
CR (COMPLETE L3 INFO)
---------------------------------->
CC
<----------------------------------
Specific case of Call establishment
failure:
Loss of messages due to LapD congestion
can be follow with a counter (see notes)
LapD
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
> The SDCCH resource allocation is performed by the BSC. Once allocated the SDCCH channel is activated by the
BTS on BSC request.
> T3101 is the guard timer for the SDCCH access from the MS. The Default value is 3 seconds.
> MC8C counts the number of Channels Required received from the MS in a cell.
> MC148 counts the number of SDCCH channels activated (therefore allocated) in a cell.
> MC8B counts the number of time an MS is commanded to access an SDCCH channel in a cell.
> MC02 counts the number of MSs which have successfully accessed an SDCCH in a cell as part of a Mobile
Originating (MO) call.
> The SCCP Connection Request message is conveyed on an A interface PCM timeslot chosen by the BSC (called
COC).
> The SCCP Connection Confirm message is conveyed on a COC chosen by the MSC which can be located on a
different PCM than the one of the COC used by the BSC to send signaling messages to the MSC.
> Take care than, when the BSC is congested on the downlink, some messages are discarded. This may result for
example in call establishment failures, loss of paging messages or delay in handover procedures.
> A LapD counter that indicates the time a LapD link is congested is created to analyze the cause of a degraded
quality of service. This counter is implemented in type 7 and thus only be available in a detailed measurement
campaign.
Counter: L1.18: TIME_LAPD_CONG
Definition: Time in seconds during which the LapD link is congested in transmission in the BSC.
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2.3 Typical call failures
Radio Link Establishment - TC success
Terminated Call: RLE success case
MS BTS BSC MSC
PAGING
PAGING COMMAND <----------------------------------
PAGING REQUEST <---------------------------------------------- start T3113
<-------------(PCH)-------------- MC8A
CHANNEL REQUEST
-------------(RACH)------------> CHANNEL REQUIRED
----------------------------------------------> MC8C
CHANNEL ACTIVATION (SDCCH)
<---------------------------------------------- MC148
CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK
---------------------------------------------->
IMMEDIATE ASSIGN COMMAND
IMMEDIATE ASSIGN <---------------------------------------------- Start T3101
<------------(AGCH)------------- MC8B
SABM (PAGING RESP)
-------------(SDCCH)-----------> ESTABLISH IND (PAGING RESP)
UA (PAGING RESP) ----------------------------------------------> Stop T3101
<-----------(SDCCH)------------- MC01
CR (COMPLETE L3 INFO)
---------------------------------->
stop T3113
CC
<----------------------------------
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
> A paging message is broadcast by the MSC to all BSCs controlling cells belonging to the same
Location Area as the one of the paged MS.
> In case no MS is accessing the SDCCH channel (T3101 expiry) then the BSC does not repeat the
Immediate Assignment since the MS may have accessed an SDCCH in another BSS. It is up to
the MSC to repeat Paging if T3113 expires (usually around 7 seconds).
> MC8A counts the number of Paging Command messages sent on a cell.
> MC01 counts the number of MSs which have successfully accessed an SDCCH in a cell as part
of a Mobile Terminating (MT) call.
> Caution:
A paging Request message sent on the Air interface by the BTS may contain several MS
identities.
3 Paging Request types can be used:
in Paging Request Type 1: up to 2 MSs (IMSI1,IMSI2) can be included.
in Paging Request Type 2: up to 3 MSs (IMSI1,TMSI1,TMSI2) can be included.
in Paging Request Type 3: up to 4 MSs (TMSI1,TMSI2,TMSI3,TMSI4) can be included.
On the other hand, a Paging message and a Paging Command message relate to only
one MS identity.
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2.3 Typical call failures
Radio Link Establishment - Paging
RLE > Paging
MC8A=C8A
> Normally all cells of the same Location Area must have the same MC8A counter value since all
these cells must be paged for an MT call on an MS located in the Location Area they are
included in.
> If not: it means that a cell is not declared in the right LA at NSS level.
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2.3 Typical call failures
Radio Link Establishment - RACH counter
RLE > RACH
MC8C=C8C
> Caution: All Channels Required (therefore RACH) are counted in MC8C: valid and invalid causes (see later). Indeed ghost
RACHs are also counted.
> The Channel Required content corresponds to the Channel Request message sent by the MS to the BTS.
> This Channel Request message is made up of one byte with 2 Informations Elements (IEs):
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
+-----------------------------------------------+
ESTABLISHMENT RANDOM
+ - - - - - - - - +
CAUSE REFERENCE
+-----------------------------------------------+
> ESTABLISHMENT CAUSE
This information field indicates the reason for requesting the establishment of a connection. This field has a variable length
(from 3 bits up to 6 bits).
> RANDOM REFERENCE
This is an unformatted field with a variable length (from 5 bits down to 2 bits).
> Due to the fact that the NECI bit is always set to 1 in Alcatel BSS, Establishment causes can be divided into 2 categories:
Valid causes: 5 (6 if GPRS)
000: Location Update (Normal, Periodic, IMSI Attach)
100: Terminating call
101: Emergency call
110: Call Re-establishment
111: Originating call (not emergency)
011: if GPRS is implemented in the cell
Invalid causes: 3 (2 if GPRS)
001:
010:
011: if GPRS is not implemented in the cell
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2.3 Typical call failures
Radio Link Establishment - OC success counters split
RLE > success MO split
MC02x=C02x
MC02 =MC02A+MC02B+MC02C+.+MC02G+MC02H+MC02i
MC02A: LU
MC02B: SMS
MC02C: SS
MC02D: LU follow-on
MC02E: CR
MC02F: unknown
MC02G: IMSI Detach
MC02H: EC or NC
MC02i: LCS
> MC02A = Number of SDCCHs successfully seized for Normal or Periodic LU request (IMSI
Attach also counted).
> MC02B = Number of SDCCHs successfully seized for Short Message Service.
> MC02C = Number of SDCCHs successfully seized for Supplementary Service.
> MC02D = Number of SDCCHs successfully seized for LU with follow-on bit set to 1 (means that
the SDCCH phase will be followed by a TCH assignment for speech call establishment).
> MC02E = Number of SDCCHs successfully seized for Call Re-establishment.
> MC02F = Number of SDCCHs successfully seized in case of L3 Info (within 08.58 ESTABLISH
INDICATION) unknown by the BSC but transferred to the MSC.
> MC02G = Number of SDCCHs successfully seized for IMSI Detach.
> MC02H = Number of SDCCHs successfully seized for Normal or Emergency call.
> MC02i = Number of Mobile Originating SDCCH establishments for LCS purpose.
Also, Evaluation of The Mobiles location (see the next slides)
> LCS: Location Services
Alcatel 59
SDCCH
Congestion
SDCCH
Radio Failure
SDCCH
BSS Problem
60 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
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2.3 Typical call failures
Radio Link Establishment - SDCCH congestion failure
> Main failure cases for Radio Link Establishment
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
SDCCH
Access Failure
SDCCH
Congestion
SDCCH
Radio Failure
SDCCH
BSS Problem
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2.3 Typical call failures
Radio Link Establishment - SDCCH congestion
RLE > SDCCH congestion
> The Immediate Assignment Reject mechanism can be disabled at
OMC-R level
And is not activated for answer to paging
If disabled, no answer to the MS
> The MS will repeat automatically its request in case of congestion (next
slides)
Waiting for T3122 expiry in case of Immediate Assignment Reject
Waiting for T3120 expiry otherwise
MS BTS BSC
MSC
CHANNEL REQUEST
-------------(RACH)------------> CHANNEL REQUIRED
----------------------------------------------> MC8C
No free SDCCH !!
MC04
IMMEDIATE ASSIGN COMMAND
<----------------------------------------------
IMM. ASS. REJECT (immediate assignment reject) MC8D, and MC8B
<-------------(AGCH)------------
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
> In case of Immediate Assignment Reject: T3122 = value of Wait_Indication parameter sent by
the BSC to the MS.
> Otherwise T3120 is computed by the MS as a random number of slots between:
250 and 250+T-1 for a phase 1 MS where:
T=Tx_integer parameter (1 value per cell chosen between 3 to 50 slots)
S and T+S for a phase 2 MS where:
T=Tx_integer parameter (1 value per cell chosen between 3 to 50 slots)
S is a parameter depending on the CCCH configuration and on the value of Tx_integer as
defined in the following table:
TX_integer S(CCCH Not Comb) S(CCCH Combined)
3, 8, 14, 50 55 41
4, 9, 16 76 52
5, 10, 20 109 58
6, 11, 25 163 86
7, 12, 32 217 115
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2.3 Typical call failures
Radio Link Establishment - SDCCH congestion counter
RLE > SDCCH congestion
MC04=C04
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2.3 Typical call failures
Radio Link Establishment - SDCCH cong. consequences
RLE > SDCCH congestion
MAIN CONSEQUENCES
> The MS will try "max_retrans +1 " time before giving up
Immediately for phase 1 MS
After T3126 for phase 2 MS (still waiting for Immediate Assignment
during this timer)
> In case of "max_retrans+1" failures, the MS will
Either try an automatic cell reselection
Or do nothing
> In case of LU, the MS will attempt a new LU request
> In case of Call establishment, the MS will not re-attempt automatically,
it is up to the subscriber to try to set up the call again
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
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2.3 Typical call failures
Radio Link Establishment - SDCCH cong. causes
RLE > SDCCH congestion
MAIN CAUSES
> Too much SDCCH "normal" traffic for cell SDCCH design
Radio resource capacity not sufficient (too many calls)
Inadequate LA design (too many LUs)
> "Common Transport Effect"
Difficult to avoid for small cells
> Abnormal SDCCH traffic
Phantom" channel requests (seen in SDCCH RF failure session)
Neighboring cell barred
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
> SDCCH congestion can be too high because of the subscribers' traffic demand in terms of calls
/ LU.
Solution = add a TRX or site / redesign the LA plan
> High SDCCH congestion can be observed at peculiar period of the day due to a peak of LU
requests generated by a big group of subscribers entering a new LA at the same time (bus,
train, plane).
Solution = redesign the LA plan or play on radio parameters
(CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS, WI_OP)
> High SDCCH congestion can be abnormally observed without real MS traffic in case a high
level of noise or the proximity of a non-GSM radio transmitter.
Solution = change the BCCH frequency or put an RX filter
> High SDCCH congestion can also be abnormally observed in a cell in case one of its
neighboring cell is barred.
Solution = Remove the barring
Alcatel 64
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2.3 Typical call failures
Radio Link Establishment - SDCCH cong. Resolution?
RLE > SDCCH congestion
DYNAMIC SDCCH ALLOCATION
> Too many SDCCHs will lead to a lack of TCH resources... and money.
> Too few SDCCH will result in SDCCH congestion. TCH channels cannot
be allocated and, once again, the operator 's revenue decreases.
> At OMC-R level, it is possible to configure:
a set of static SDCCH/x timeslots to handle normal SDCCH traffic;
a set of dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots, which can be used for TCH traffic,
or for SDCCH traffic depending on the need.
> "Dynamic SDCCH allocation" feature:
the BSS is automatically looking after varying SDCCH traffic
adapted to the situations such as: change of LA, change of SMS traffic
> Useful in very dense (hierarchical) networks:
optimize the SDCCH configuration becomes more important.
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
> This feature not only improves SDCCH congestion but also successful TCH assignment rates.
> With the "Dynamic SDCCH allocation" feature, the BSS is automatically looking after varying SDCCH traffic and is particularly
adapted to the situations such as: change of LA, change of SMS traffic model, SDCCH traffic varying due to LCS.
> This feature is particularly useful in very dense (hierarchical) networks, where the effort to optimize the SDCCH configuration
becomes more important.
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2.3 Typical call failures
Radio Link Establishment - SDCCH cong. Resolution?
RLE > SDCCH congestion
DYNAMIC SDCCH ALLOCATION
CHANNEL REQUEST
CHANNEL REQUIRED
MS BTS BSC
(RACH)
If No free SDCCH, then
run dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot allocation
algorithm. If allocation is successful, then
activate dynamic SDCCHsub-
channeland serve request
If allocation was unsuccessful, then reject SDCCH request (possibly
using the Immediate Assignment Reject procedure).
MC801a&b
MC802a&b
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
> SPECIFIC COUNTERS (Type 110 / Cell Level):
MC800 Average number of available dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots.
MC801a Average number of busy dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots allocated as TCH (FR or HR).
MC801b Maximum number of busy dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots allocated as TCH (FR or HR).
MC802a Average number of busy SDCCH sub-channels allocated on the dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots.
MC802b Maximum number of busy SDCCH sub-channels allocated on the dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots.
These four previous counters areInspection Counters ; that means than the resource is checked regulary by the BSC and at
the end of the period, an average is done. Example: 3 physical chanels are defined as Dyn SDCCH and the counter give the
following indication:
MC801a = 1.7 that means sometimes the 3 Dyn SD are allocated as TCH, sometimes only 2 of them, sometimes 1 or 0 and
the average is 1.7
> The FOLLOWING COUNTERS ARE IMPACTED BY the Dynamic SDCCH Allocation feature:
MC28, MC29 The Number of busy radio timeslots in TCH usage
takes into account the busy TCH timeslots and the dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots allocated as TCH.
C30, MC31 The Number of busy SDCCH sub-channels
takes into account the SDCCH sub-channels allocated on the static and dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots.
C370a, MC370a, C370b, MC370b The Number of times the radio timeslots are allocated for TCH usage (FR / HR)
takes into account the busy TCH timeslots and the dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots allocated as TCH.
C/MC380a/b C/MC381a/b The Cumulated time (in second) the radio timeslots are allocated for TCH usage (FR or HR)
does not take care whether the TCHs are allocated on the TCH radio timeslot or on the dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots.
C39, MC390, C40, MC400 The Number of times or the Cumulated time (in second) the SDCCH sub-channels are busy
does not take care whether the SDCCH sub-channels are allocated on the static or dynamic SDCCH/x timeslot.
C/MC34 C/MC380 The Cumulated time (in second) all TCHs / SDCCHs in the cell are busy
does not take care whether the TCHs / SDCCHs are allocated on the TCH radio timeslot /SDCCH/x timeslot or on the dynamic
SDCCH/8 timeslots.
C/MC320a/b/c/d/e Free TCH radio timeslots
count the free TCH timeslots and the free dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots.
Alcatel 66
SDCCH
Congestion
SDCCH
Radio Failure
SDCCH
BSS Problem
67 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
2.3 Typical call failures
Radio Link Establishment - SDCCH radio failure
> Main failure cases for Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH
Access Failure
SDCCH
Congestion
SDCCH
Radio Failure
SDCCH
BSS Problem
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
Alcatel 67
68 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
2.3 Typical call failures
Radio Link Establishment - SDCCH radio access failure
RLE > SDCCH RF Failure
MS BTS BSC MSC
CHANNEL REQUEST
-------------(RACH)------------> CHANNEL REQUIRED
----------------------------------------------> MC8C
CHANNEL ACTIVATION (SDCCH)
<---------------------------------------------- MC148
CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK
---------------------------------------------->
IMMEDIATE ASSIGN COMMAND
IMMEDIATE ASSIGN <---------------------------------------------- start T3101
<------------(AGCH)------------- MC8B
IMMEDIATE ASSIGN
-------(SDCCH)-----X
T3101expiry->radio failure
MC149
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
> MC149 counts the number of SDCCH access failures due to radio problems.
Alcatel 68
69 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
2.3 Typical call failures
Radio Link Establishment - real radio problems
RLE > SDCCH RF Failure
Main causes > real radio problems
> Unbalanced cell power budget
> Bad coverage (for example a moving car)
> Interference (for example downlink)
In case of radio failure, the MS will retry as for SDCCH congestion
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
> Unbalanced Power Budget:
AGCH
RACH
Max Path Loss DL
Max Path Loss UL
> Bad coverage:
buildin
g
BTS
Channel Request
Access Grant
> Interference:
DL interference area
AGCH lost
RACH
Alcatel 69
70 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
2.3 Typical call failures
Radio Link Establishment - Ghost RACH (1/7)
RLE > SDCCH RF Failure
Main causes > "Phantom/Ghost/Spurious/Dummy ... RACH"
> Channel request received but not sent: 3 causes
Noise decoding
Reception of channel request sent to a neighboring cell
Reception of HO_ACCESS sent to a neighboring cell
Alcatel 70
71 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
2.3 Typical call failures
Radio Link Establishment - Ghost RACH (2/7)
RLE > SDCCH RF Failure
Main causes > "Phantom/Ghost/Spurious/Dummy ... RACH"
> Example of a channel required message
> For this Channel Required, the establishment cause is valid (Call re-establishment) but the
Access Delay (corresponding to the distance between the MS and the BTS) is high.
> Indeed the Access Delay being equal to the Timing Advance is coded in slot unit representing a
distance of 550m. It can take values from 0 (0m) to 63 (35km).
> Thus the Channel Required above is received from an MS located at 19km from the site. It may
therefore be rather a ghost RACH than a real MS which wants re-establish a call.
> In Alcatel BSS, there is possibility to filter the Channel Required received from a distance greater
than a distance defined as a parameter value: RACH_TA_FILTER tunable on a per cell basis.
Caution should be taken since a too low value may reduce the network coverage.
Alcatel 71
72 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
2.3 Typical call failures
Radio Link Establishment - Ghost RACH causes (3/7)
RLE > SDCCH RF Failure
Main causes > "Phantom RACH" >noise decoding
> GSM 05.05: " 0.02 % of Rach Frame can be decoded without error
without real input signal" (No impact for the system)
BCCH not combined: 51 Rach/Multi Frame > (3600 * 1000) ms / 4.615
ms at 0.02 %: 156 dummy RACH/hour
BCCH combined: 27/51 RACH/Multi-Frame > 83 dummy RACH/hour
3/8 of causes (field of channel request, 5 valid causes over 8) will be
unvalid
Example of induced SDCCH traffic:
(5/8*156*T3101 (3 sec))/3600 = 0.08 Erlang SDCCH
> Some tips:
Dummy Rach load depends on minimum level for decoding configured in
Evolium BTS
During period with low real traffic (night), high rate of dummy RACH
For dummy RACH, the channel required has a random value of TA
STRUCTURE of the MULTIFRAME in "TIME SLOT" 0
(Non-combined BCCH)
-
UPLINK
R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R
(Multiframes of 51 frames)
DOWNLINK
f s b b b b C C C C
31 51 1 21 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 41
f s f s f s f s C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C - f s
f = FCCH s = SCH b = BCCH C C C C = CCCH (PCH or AGCH) R = RACH
(Combined BCCH)
DOWNLINK
UPLINK
F S B C FS F S F S - F S C C D0 D1 D2 D3 A0 A1
F S B C FS F S F S - F S C C D0 D1 D2 D3 A2 A3
R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R
D3 A2 A3 D0 D1 D2
R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R
D3 A0 A1 D0 D1 D2
F = FCCH S = SCH B = BCCH C = CCCH (PCH or AGCH) R = RACH Dn/An = SDCCH/SACCH/4
51 multiframe duration = 51 x 8 x 0,577 = 235ms
Alcatel 72
73 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
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2.3 Typical call failures
Radio Link Establishment - Ghost RACH causes (4/7)
RLE > SDCCH RF Failure
Main causes > "Phantom RACH" >noise decoding
> No subscriber -> no impact for subscriber
> But MC149 incremented -> SDCCH RF access failure is impacted
MS BTS BSC MSC
CHANNEL REQUIRED
----------------------------------------------> MC8C
CHANNEL ACTIVATION (SDCCH)
<---------------------------------------------- MC148
CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK
---------------------------------------------->
IMMEDIATE ASSIGN COMMAND
IMMEDIATE ASSIGN <---------------------------------------------- start T3101
<------------ (AGCH) ------------- MC8B
T3101expiry
->radio failure
MC149
Alcatel 73
74 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
2.3 Typical call failures
Radio Link Establishment - Ghost RACH causes (5/7)
RLE > SDCCH RF Failure
Main causes > "Phantom RACH" > Channel Request
sent to the neighboring cell
> Subscriber not impacted (real transaction performed elsewhere)
> But MC149 incremented -> SDCCH RF access failure is impacted
> Usual radio planning rules are sufficient to avoid the trouble
2 cells must not have same (BCCH, BSIC) couple
MS BTS BSC MSC
CHANNEL REQUIRED
----------------------------------------------> MC8C
CHANNEL ACTIVATION (SDCCH)
<---------------------------------------------- MC148
CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK
---------------------------------------------->
IMMEDIATE ASSIG N COMMAND
IMMEDIATE ASSIGN <---------------------------------------------- start T3101 MC8B
<------------(AGCH)-------------
T3101expiry MC149
->radio failure
> BSIC = BCC (3 bit) + NCC (3 bit)
BCC: BTS Color Code
NCC: Network Color Code
Alcatel 74
75 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
2.3 Typical call failures
Radio Link Establishment - Ghost RACH causes (6/7)
RLE > SDCCH RF Failure
Main causes > "Phantom RACH" > Channel Request
due to handover
> During HO, the first message sent to the target cell is HO Access
> This message is an Access Burst like Channel Request
> If received on BCCH, can be understood as a Channel Request
(RACH)
> A new case of "Phantom RACH"
Alcatel 75
76 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
2.3 Typical call failures
Radio Link Establishment - Ghost RACH causes (7/7)
RLE > SDCCH RF Failure
Main causes > "Phantom RACH" > Channel Request
due to handover
This case is the most dangerous
> The MS sends usually a sequence of HO Access message, every
frame
> In some cases, this can create a phantom RACH if
The frequency of the TCH is identical or adjacent to the one of
interfered BCCH
> Characteristics of such phantom RACH (Channel Required)
Subsequent frame number
Random, but stable timing advance
> Can block very easily SDCCH
Alcatel 76
SDCCH
Congestion
SDCCH
Radio Failure
SDCCH
BSS Problem
77 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
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2.3 Typical call failures
Radio Link Establishment - BSS failure
> Main failure cases for Radio Link Establishment
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
SDCCH
Access Failure
SDCCH
Congestion
SDCCH
Radio Failure
SDCCH
BSS Problem
Alcatel 77
78 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
2.3 Typical call failures
Radio Link Establishment - BSS problem
RLE > BSS problem
> No specific counter
MS BTS BSC MSC
CHANNEL REQUEST
-------------(RACH)------------> CHANNEL REQUIRED
----------------------------------------------> MC8C
CHANNEL ACTIVATION (SDCCH)
<---------------------------------------------- MC148
CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK
---------------------------------------------->
IMMEDIATE ASSIGN COMMAND
IMMEDIATE ASSIGN <---------------------------------------------- start T3101
<------------(AGCH)------------- MC8B
SABM (L3 info)
------------(SDCCH)------------>
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
> BSS Problems are difficult to specify a priori. It is better to deduce them from other counters
which are easier to implement thus more reliable.
Alcatel 78
79 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
2.3 Typical call failures
Radio Link Establishment - counters
RLE counters
Request MC8C
GPRS causes P62C
GSM invalid causes unknown
Preparation GSM valid causes unknown
Congestion MC04
BSS Pb unknown
Execution Attempt MC148
Radio Access Failure MC149
BSS Pb MC148 - (MC01+MC02) - MC149
Success MC01+MC02
Radio Link Establishment
REQUEST
Congestion
Radio access failure
BSS problem
Preparation Failure
Execution Failure
ATTEMPT
SUCCESS
GPRS causes GSM/GPRS invalid causes GSM valid causes
BSS problem
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
> Statistically a ghost RACH can correspond to any kind of establishment cause: valid and
invalid.
> As ghost RACH which corresponds to a GSM valid cause will lead to an SDCCH allocation
which will not be seized by an MS, it will lead to the incrementation of MC149 counter and
therefore counted as an SDCCH access failure due to radio.
Alcatel 79
2.3 Typical call failures
Radio Link Establishment - indicators
TYPICAL CALL FAILURES: RLE indicators
SDNAFLBN
SDNAFLRN
SDNACGN
SDNAFSUN
SDNAFLR
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
80 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
> Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS:
> GLOBAL Quality of service INDICATORS > SDCCH > Assignment Phase
SDNAUR: SDCCH assignment unsuccess rate
SDNACGR: SDCCH assignment failure rate due to congestion (Global)
SDNAFLRR: SDCCH assignment failure rate due to radio
SDNAFLBR: SDCCH assignment failure rate due to BSS problem
> A SDCCH radio access failure due to ghost RACH occurrence is easily observed during low
traffic hour (night time) since ghost RACHs are almost the only cause of failure.
Alcatel 80
81 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
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2.3 Typical call failures
SDCCH phase - OC success
Successful SDCCH phase: OC call
> transparent message: no dedicated counters
MS BTS BSC MSC
SDCCH Phase : Originating Call case
< -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
AUTHENTICATION REQUEST
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- >
AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE
< -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
CIPHERING MODE COMMAND
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- >
CIPHERING MODE COMPLETE
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- >
SETUP
< -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
CALL PROCEEDING
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
> Transparent messages (DTAP) are used in order the NSS performs control procedures to enable
the MS to set up a speech call.
> Authentication: Checks that the Mobile Station is the required station and not an intruder.
> Ciphering: All Information (signaling, Speech and Data) is sent in cipher mode, to avoid
monitoring and intruders (who could analyze signaling data).
> Setup/Call Processing: call is being processed between the calling Party and the Called Party.
Alcatel 81
82 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
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2.3 Typical call failures
SDCCH phase - TC success
Successful SDCCH phase: TC call
> transparent message: no dedicated counters
MS BTS BSC MSC
SDCCH Phase : Terminating Call case
< -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
AUTHENTICATION REQUEST
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- >
AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE
< -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
CIPHERING MODE COMMAND
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- >
CIPHERING MODE COMPLETE
< -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SETUP
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- >
CALL CONFIRM
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
> Setup/Call Confirm: the call is being processed between the Calling Party and the Called Party.
Alcatel 82
83 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
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2.3 Typical call failures
SDCCH phase - LU success
Successful SDCCH phase: Location Update
> transparent message: no dedicated counters
MS BTS BSC MSC
SDCCH Phase : Location Update Case (with TMSI reallocation)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- >
LOCATION UPDATE REQUEST
< -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
AUTHENTICATION REQUEST
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- >
AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE
< -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
CIPHERING MODE COMMAND
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- >
CIPHERING MODE COMPLETE
< -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
LOCATION UPDATE ACCEPT
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- >
TMSI REALLOCATION COMPLETE
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
> Some transparent messages are also exchanged between the MS and the network in case of a
Location Update transaction.
Alcatel 83
84 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
2.3 Typical call failures
SDCCH phase - drops
SDCCH phase
> Loss of connection during SDCCH phase = "SDCCH drop"
> 3 origins of SDCCH drop
Radio problems when connected on SDCCH
BSS problems
Call lost during an SDCCH HO (handover failure without
reversion to old channel)
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
> Generally SDCCH handover are disabled in the network since the average SDCCH duration is
only around 2 to 3 seconds.
Alcatel 84
85 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
2.3 Typical call failures
SDCCH phase - Radio drop
SDCCH phase > drop Radio
> Connection lost due to Radio problem
MS BTS BSC MSC
SDCCH Phase established
Radio connection lost
---------------------------------------------------- > MC138
CONNECTION FAILURE INDICATION
(cause : radio link failure)
--------------------------------------- >
CLEAR REQUEST
Cause : radio interface failure
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
> MC138 counts the number of SDCCH channel drops due to radio problems.
> Radio problems can be due to coverage, interference and sometimes BSS dysfunction which is
not detected as a system alarm the by O&M Fault Management application.
Alcatel 85
86 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
2.3 Typical call failures
SDCCH phase - BSS drop
SDCCH phase > drop BSS
> Connection lost due BSS problem
MS BTS BSC MSC
SDCCH Phase established
MC137
--------------------------------------- >
CLEAR REQUEST
Cause : O&M intervention
Cause : radio interface failure
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
> MC137 counts the number of SDCCH channel drops due to BSS problems.
> A BSS problem can be a BTS/BSC hardware or software failure. It can also be due to a problem
on the Abis interface (due to Micro Wave transmission for instance).
Alcatel 86
87 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
2.3 Typical call failures
SDCCH phase - HO drop
SDCCH phase > drop HO
> Connection lost during Handover
MS BTS BSC MSC
SDCCH Phase established
HO FAILURE WITHOUT REVERSION MC07
--------------------------------------- >
CLEAR REQUEST
Radio Interface Message Failure (Alcatel)
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
> MC07 counts the number of SDCCH channel drops due to handover failure.
Alcatel 87
88 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
2.3 Typical call failures
SDCCH phase - counters
SDCCH phase counters
SDCCH connection MC01+MC02+MC10
SDCCH Drop Drop radio MC138
Drop BSS MC137
Drop HO MC07
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment phase SDCCH drop
SDCCH connection
Normal release
Drop radio
Drop BSS
Drop HO
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
Alcatel 88
2.3 Typical call failures
SDCCH phase - indicators
SDCCH phase indicators
SDCDBN
SDCDRN
SDCDHN
SDCDR
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
89 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
> Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS:
> GLOBAL Quality of service INDICATORS > SDCCH > Established phase
SDCDR: SDCCH drop rate (Global)
SDCDRR: SDCCH drop rate due to radio problem
SDCDBR: SDCCH drop rate due to BSS Problem
SDCDHR: SDCCH drop rate due to HO failure
Alcatel 89
90 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
2.3 Typical call failures
SDCCH phase - exercise
SDCCH phase: Exercises
With K1205 (file PAIB29.REC)
1) Extract a location update (successful case)
2) Extract a transaction with an SDCCH drop
What is the cause of the failure?
Is it possible to "guess" the type of
transaction (OC, TC, LU,etc)?
3) Extract a SDCCH drop for a different cause
Time allowed:
15 minutes
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
Alcatel 90
91 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
2.3 Typical call failures
TCH assignment - success
TCH assignment success case
> T3107: guard timer for TCH assignment
MS BTS BSC MSC
TCH ASSIGNMENT PHASE (OC or TC)
< -----------------------------------
ASSIGNMENT REQUEST
< --------------------------------------------------------
PHYSICAL CONTEXT REQUEST
-------------------------------------------------------- >
PHYSICAL CONTEXT CONFIRM
< -------------------------------------------------------- MC703
CHANNEL ACTIVATION (TCH)
-------------------------------------------------------- >
CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACKNOWLEDGE
< ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Start T3107
(SDCCH) ASSIGNMENT COMMAND
---------------------- >
TCH SABM -------------------------------------------------------- >
< ---------------------- ESTABLISH INDICATION
UA
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- > Stop T3107
ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE MC718
----------------------------------- >
ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE
MC140a
MC140b
MC460a
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
> MC703 counts the number of TCH channels activated (therefore allocated) in a cell.
> MC718 counts the number of MSs which have successfully accessed a TCH in a cell as part of a
call establishment (Normal Assignment).
> Both counters are implemented at TRX level.
> MC140a counts the number of normal assignment requests for TCH establishment.
> MC140b counts the number of normal assignment commands for TCH establishment.
> Both counters in order to discriminate BSS problems in Preparation and Execution phases.
> MC460a is a counter for type 110: NB_TCH_EMERGENCY_HO_PRESERVATION:
Definition: Number of high priority TCH requests served when:
the number of free TCH timeslots is less than or equal to NUM_TCH_EGNCY_HO.
the queue for this cell is not empty.
> MC140a, MC140b and MC460 are given at Cell level
Alcatel 91
92 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
2.3 Typical call failures
TCH assignment - TCH congestion
TCH assignment > congestion
> 5 causes of congestion 5 counters: C612A, B, C, D, E
whenever
Queuing is not allowed
Queue is Full
T11 expires
RTCH request is removed from the queue due to a higher priority
request to be queued
No Abis-TCH resource is available
MS BTS BSC MSC
TCH ASSIGNMENT PHASE (OC or TC)
< -----------------------------------------------
ASSIGNMENT REQUEST
No RTCH available on requested cell MC812
------------------------------------------------ >
ASSIGNMENT FAILURE
Cause No Radio Resource Available
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
> C612E: Number of 08.08 ASSIGNMENT REQUEST for TCH normal assignment rejected due to
congestion on the Abis interface. (from B8)
> Therefore B6 counter MC612 is replaced by MC812 from B7.
MC812 = C612A+C612B+C612C+C612D+C612E of PM Type 1.
> But as C612E was in restriction in B8 (always = 0) then MC812(B7) = MC612(B6)
> MC612A, MC612B, MC612C, MC612D also exist in PM Type 110.
> A TCH request is attached a Priority Level from 1 (highest priority) to 14 (lowest priority).
Alcatel 92
93 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
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2.3 Typical call failures
TCH assignment - radio failure
TCH assignment > radio failure
> Radio problem
MS BTS BSC MSC
TCH ASSIGNMENT PHASE (OC or TC)
< -----------------------------------
ASSIGNMENT REQUEST
< --------------------------------------------------------
PHYSICAL CONTEXT REQUEST
-------------------------------------------------------- >
PHYSICAL CONTEXT CONFIRM
< -------------------------------------------------------- MC703
CHANNEL ACTIVATION (TCH)
-------------------------------------------------------- >
CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACKNOWLEDGE
< ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Start T3107
(SDCCH) ASSIGNMENT COMMAND
SABM
----(TCH)------X
T3107 Expiry
MC746B
----------------------------------- >
ASSIGNMENT FAILURE
Radio interface failure
MC140a
MC140b
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
> MC746B counts the number of TCH access failures due to radio problems.
> MC746B counter is implemented at TRX level from B7.
> In case of TCH access failure, the MS will try to revert back to the SDCCH channel. Whether it
succeeds in reverting to the SDCCH or not the call establishment fails. On the other hand some
MSCs may resend the ASSIGNMENT REQUEST again.
Alcatel 93
4
94 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
2.3 Typical call failures
TCH assignment - BSS problem
TCH assignment > BSS problem
> BSS problem (Abis, BTS/BSC HW or SW)
MS BTS BSC MSC
TCH ASSIGNMENT PHASE (OC or TC)
< -----------------------------------
ASSIGNMENT REQUEST
< --------------------------------------------------------
PHYSICAL CONTEXT REQUEST
-------------------------------------------------------- >
PHYSICAL CONTEXT CONFIRM
< -------------------------------------------------------- MC703
CHANNEL ACTIVATION (TCH)
-------------------------------------------------------- >
CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACKNOWLEDGE
< ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Start T3107
(SDCCH) ASSIGNMENT COMMAND
SABM
----(TCH)---- >
MC1 B
MC140a
MC140b
No specific counter
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
> The number of TCH Assignment failures due to BSS Pb can be correctly deduced and
distinguished for preparation and execution phases from B8 with the 2 counters MC140a and
MC140b.
(see the next slide)
> B7 counters MC14b has been removed.
Alcatel 94
95 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
2.3 Typical call failures
TCH assignment - counters
TCH assignment counters
Congestion
ATTEMPT
Radio access
failure
SUCCESS
BSS problem
Preparation Failure
Execution Failure
REQUEST
BSS problem
TCH Assignment
Preparation Request MC140a
Congestion MC812
BSS Pb MC140a-MC140b-MC812
Execution Attempt MC140b
Radio Access Failure MC746b
BSS Pb MC140b-MC718-MC746b
Success MC718
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
Alcatel 95
2.3 Typical call failures
TCH assignment - indicators
TCH Assignment indicators
TCNAFLBN
TCNAFLRN
TCNACGN
TCAHCAN
TCNAUR
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
96 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
> Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS
> GLOBAL Quality of service INDICATORS > RTCH > Assignment Phase
TCNAUR: TCH assignment unsuccess rate (Global)
TCNACGR: TCH assignment failure rate due to congestion
TCNAFLRR: TCH assignment failure rate due to radio problems
TCNAFLBR: TCH assignment failure rate due to BSS Problems.
> From B7.2 some indicators can be provided on a per TRX basis due to the availability of
counters provided per TRX in Type 110:
TCNAEFR = RTCH_assign_efficiency_rate (RNO name) = MC718 / MC703
Rate of successful RTCH seizures in relation to all RTCHs allocated, during the TCH
assignment procedure.
TCNAAFLRR = RTCH_assign_allocated_fail_radio_rate (RNO name) = MC746B /
MC703
Rate of RTCH seizures failed during the normal assignment procedure because of
radio problems in relation to all RTCHs allocated for TCH assignment procedure.
> This will help a lot to detect bad QOS due to TRX hardware related problem.
Alcatel 96
97 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
2.3 Typical call failures
TCH assignment - exercise
TCH assignment failure
With K1205 (file PAIB29.REC)
1) Find and extract a case of TCH congestion
(if any)
2) Find and extract a case of Assignment
Failure due to Radio Problem (if any)
Time allowed:
15 minutes
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
Alcatel 97
2.3 Typical call failures
TCH phase - success
98 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
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TCH phase:
> OC
> TC
Transparent messages for BSS, no specific counters
TCH DROP: any problems occurring after TCH assignment
(during or after connection) cannot be discriminated
MS BTS BSC MSC
Alerting Connection Phase (OC case) : ringing phase
< ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ALERTING
< ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
CONNECT
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- >
CONNECT ACK
MS BTS BSC MSC
Alerting Connection Phase : TC case
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- >
ALERTING
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- >
CONNECT
< ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
CONNECT ACK
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
MS BTS BSC MSC
TCH ASSIGNMENT PHASE (OC or TC)
< -----------------------------------
ASSIGNMENT REQUEST
< --------------------------------------------------------
PHYSICAL CONTEXT REQUEST
-------------------------------------------------------- >
PHYSICAL CONTEXT CONFIRM
< --------------------------------------------------------
CHANNEL ACTIVATION (TCH)
-------------------------------------------------------- >
CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACKNOWLEDGE
< ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Start T3107
(SDCCH) ASSIGNMENT COMMAND
---------------------- >
TCH SABM -------------------------------------------------------- >
< ---------------------- ESTABLISH INDICATION
UA
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- > Stop T3107
ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE
----------------------------------- >
ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE
< ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ALERTING
< ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
CONNECT
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------->
CONNECT ACK
Call Setup Call Setup
Call phase
Call phase
> The Call setup phase and the Stable call phase are not corresponding between the BSS and the
NSS.
> For the BSS, a call is established when the MS has successfully accessed a TCH channel on the Air
interface.
> For the NSS, a call is established when the speech data exchanged is started between end users.
> Thus the Call setup phase is shorter and the Call phase is longer in the BSS.
> Therefore Call Setup Success rate is worse in the NSS and the Call Drop rate is worse in the BSS.
Alcatel 98
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2.3 Typical call failures
TCH phase - radio drop
TCH phase > drop radio
> Radio problem
MS BTS BSC MSC
Alerting Connection Phase or Communication : at any time
Radio problem
-------------------------------------------------------- > MC736
CONNECTION FAILURE INDICATION --------------------------------------- >
Cause radio link failure CLEAR REQUEST
Cause radio interface failure
(alcatel)
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
> MC736 counts the number of TCH channel drops due to radio problems.
> MC736 counter is implemented at TRX level.
> Radio problems can be due to coverage, interference and sometimes BSS dysfunction which is
not detected as a system alarm by the O&M Fault Management application.
Alcatel 99
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2.3 Typical call failures
TCH phase - remote TC drop
TCH phase > drop TC
> Remote TransCoder problem
MS BTS BSC MSC
Alerting Connection Phase or Communication : at any time
Radio problem
-------------------------------------------------------- > MC739
CONNECTION FAILURE INDICATION --------------------------------------- >
Remote transcoder failure CLEAR REQUEST
Equipment failure
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
> MC739 counts the number of TCH channel drops due to BSS problems reported as "remote
TransCoder failure".
> MC739 counter is implemented at TRX level.
> It can usually be a bad quality of the transmission on the Abis interface (Micro Wave) or a faulty
hardware component in the TransCoder or even sometimes BSS software/hardware problems.
Alcatel 100
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2.3 Typical call failures
TCH phase - BSS internal drop
TCH phase > drop BSS internal
> Other internal BSS problem (excluding TC)
MS BTS BSC MSC
Alerting Connection Phase or Communication : at any time
MC14C
--------------------------------------- >
CLEAR REQUEST
O&M intervention
Radio interface failure
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
> MC14C counts the number of TCH channel drops due to BSS problems other than the ones
reported by the TransCoder.
> A BSS problem can be a BTS/BSC hardware or software failure.
Alcatel 101
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2.3 Typical call failures
TCH phase - HO drop
TCH phase > drop HO
> Handover failure
MS BTS BSC MSC
Alerting Connection Phase or Communication : at any time
HO FAILURE WITHOUT REVERSION MC621
--------------------------------------- >
CLEAR REQUEST
Radio Interface Message Failure (Alcatel)
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
> MC621 counts the number of TCH channel drops due to Handover failure.
> MC621 counter is implemented at TRX level.
> This event is also counted in the set of Handover counters as an Outgoing handover failure
without reversion to the old channel.
Alcatel 102
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2.3 Typical call failures
TCH phase - preemption drop
TCH phase > drop preemption
> TCH preempted
MS BTS BSC MSC
Alerting Connection Phase of a call
with priority level pl2 and preemption vulnerability indicator pvi=1
no TCH free
ASSIGNMENT REQUEST
<---------------------------------------
Priority level pl1 > pl2
preemption capability indicator pci=1
MC921C
--------------------------------------- >
CLEAR REQUEST
preemption
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
> MC921C counts the number of TCH channel drops due to preemption for another call to be
established.
> MC921C counter exists from B7 as linked to the feature Preemption.
Alcatel 103
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2.3 Typical call failures
TCH phase - counters
TYPICAL CALL FAILURES: TCH phase counters
TCH connection MC718+MC717A+MC717B
Outgoing HO success MC712
Call drop Drop radio MC736
Drop TC MC739
Drop internal BSS MC14C
Drop HO MC621
Drop preemption MC921C
Normal release unknown
NSS abnormal release unknown
TCH Phase
Outgoing HO success Call drop
TCH connection
Normal release
Call drop radio
Call drop BSS
Call drop HO
Call drop preemption
TC
BSS internal
NSS abnormal release
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
Alcatel 104
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BSS Release B9
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2.3 Typical call failures
TCH phase - call drop rate
TYPICAL CALL FAILURES: TCH phase indicators
> Call drop rate = call drop / RTCH success end
> RTCH success end = RTCH assignment success
+ RTCH incoming (HO+DR) success
- RTCH outgoing HO
Incoming internal HO+DR
BSS1
BSS2
Incoming external HO+DR
outgoing HO
TCH assignment
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
> QSCDN = call drop
= drop radio + drop TC + drop internal BSS + drop HO + drop Preemption
= MC736 + MC739 + MC14C + MC621 + MC921C
> TCQHCCN = RTCH success end
= assignment success + incoming (HO+DR) success - outgoing HO
= MC718 + (MC717A+MC717B) - MC712
> As MC718, MC717A, MC717B and MC712 are provided per TRX, the RTCH success end indicator (TCAHCCN)
can be computed per TRX.
> But since only MC736 (drop radio), MC739 (drop TC) and MC621 (drop HO) are provided per TRX, the call
drop rate indicator (QSCDR) can be computed per CELL only.
> On the other hand the following call drop indicators can be computed per TRX:
call drop radio rate (QSCDRR) = call drop radio / RTCH success end
call drop HO rate (QSCDHR) = call drop HO / RTCH success end
call drop TC rate (QSCDBTR) = call drop TC / RTCH success end
> Note:
MC718 counts the number of successful TCH assignments.
MC717A counts the number of successful internal DRs.
MC717B counts the number of successful incoming internal and external (HOs+DR) as well as the number
of intra cell HOs successfully performed.
MC712 counts the number of successful outgoing internal and external HOs as well as the number of intra
cell HOs successfully performed.
Alcatel 105
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BSS Release B9
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2.3 Typical call failures
TCH phase - RTCH drop rate
TYPICAL CALL FAILURES: TCH phase indicators
> RTCH drop rate = call drop / RTCH success begin
> RTCH success begin = RTCH assignment success
+ RTCH incoming (HO+DR) success
- RTCH intra cell HO success
BSS1
BSS2
Incoming internal HO+DR
TCH assignment
Incoming external HO+DR
outgoing HO
Intra-cell HO
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
> QSCDN = call drop
= drop radio + drop TC + drop internal BSS + drop HO + drop Preemption
= MC736 + MC739 + MC14C + MC621 + MC921C
> TCQHSUBN = RTCH success begin
= assignment success + incoming (HO+DR) success - intra cell HO
= MC718 + (MC717A+MC717B) - MC662
> As MC662 is not provided per TRX, the RTCH success begin indicator (TCAHSUBN) cannot be
computed per TRX but per CELL only.
> Therefore all RTCH drop rate indicators can be computed per CELL only.
> Note:
MC662 counts the number of successful TCH intracell HOs.
Alcatel 106
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Incoming internal HO+DR
TCH assignment
outgoing HO
BSS1
BSS2
Incoming external HO+DR
2.3 Typical call failures
TCH phase - TRX TCH drop rate
TYPICAL CALL FAILURES: TCH phase indicators
> TRX TCH drop rate = call drop / RTCH success
> RTCH success = RTCH assignment success
+ RTCH incoming (HO+DR) success
Intra-cell HO
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
> QSCDN = call drop
= drop radio + drop TC + drop internal BSS + drop HO + drop Preemption
= MC736 + MC739 + MC14C + MC621 + MC921C
> TCAHSUN = RTCH success
= assignment success + incoming (HO+DR) success
= MC718 + (MC717A+MC717B)
> Whereas some call drop rate indicators are defined per TRX and per CELL, TRX RTCH drop rate indicators are
defined at TRX level only.
> As MC718, MC717A, MC717B are provided per TRX, the RTCH success indicator (TCAHSUN) can be computed
per TRX.
> But since only MC736 (drop radio), MC739 (drop TC) and MC621 (drop HO) are provided per TRX, a globalTRX
RTCH drop rate indicator cannot be provided.
> On the other hand, the following TRX RTCH drop indicators can be computed:
TRX_RTCH_drop_radio_rate (TCAHCDRTR) = call drop radio / RTCH success
TRX_RTCH_drop_HO_rate (TCHOCDTR) = call drop HO / RTCH success
TRX_RTCH_drop_BSS_remote_TC_rate (TCTRTCDTR) = call drop TC / RTCH success
> CAUTION: Intra-cell HO being counted in MC717B and not deduced in the RTCH success
computation in order to provide the TRX RTCH drop indicators at TRX level then these indicators
may be abnormally low (good) if a large amount of intra-cell HOs are performed in the cell
(concentric cell, multiband cell).
Alcatel 107
> Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS
> call drop indicators: all of them are available per CELL only and some of them per TRX
GLOBAL Quality of service INDICATORS > Call Statistics > Call drop
QSCDR: call drop rate (Global): CELL
QSCDRR: call drop rate due to radio: CELL + TRX
QSCDBIR: call drop rate due to BSS internal problem: CELL
QSCDBTR: call drop rate due to TransCoder reported problem: CELL + TRX
QSCDHR: call drop rate due to HO failure: CELL + TRX
QSCDPR: call drop rate due to preemption: CELL
> RTCH drop indicators: all of them are available per CELL only
GLOBAL Quality of service INDICATORS > RTCH > Established phase
QSTCCDR: RTCH drop rate
TCAHCDRR: RTCH drop rate due to radio problem
TCTRICDBR: RTCH drop rate due to BSS internal problem
TCTRTCDR: RTCH drop rate due to TransCoder reported problem
TCHOCDR: RTCH drop rate due to HO failure
TCPPCDR: RTCH drop rate due to preemption
> TRX TCH drop indicators: all of them are available per TRX only
GLOBAL Quality of service INDICATORS > RTCH > Established phase
TCAHCDRTR: TRX TCH drop rate due to radio problem
TCTRTCDTR: TRX TCH drop rate due to TransCoder reported problem
TCHOCDTR: TRX TCH drop rate due to HO failure
Alcatel 108
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2.3 Typical call failures
TCH phase - exercise
Alerting/Connection: TCH drop
With K1205 (file PAIB29.REC)
1) For a Radio TCH drop, give the message and the
cause? Extract a call with this cause.
Can you tell if it is occurring during the
communication phase?
2) Find a TCH drop due to Handover, extract the
call
3) Find a TCH drop due to TC problem, extract the
call:
Can you identify PCM, CIC?
How many TC PB are there in this Trace?
Any remark about PCM and CIC?
Time allowed:
15 minutes
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
Alcatel 109
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2.3 Typical call failures
summary
TYPICAL CALL FAILURES: summary
call stage A interface causefield related problem
radio link
establishment
no message - SDCCH congestion
- radio problem
-Dummyrach
SDCCH phase ClearRequest - radio interfacefailure
- radio interfacefailure
- O&M intervention
- radioproblem
- BSS system HW/SWpb
-recovery/operator
TCHassignment Assignment Failure - no radio resourceavalaible
- Radio InterfaceFailure
- TCH congestion
- Radioproblem
Alerting/connection
call established
Clear Request - radio interfacefailure
- radio interface message failure
-equipmentfailure
- O&M intervention
- radio interfacefailure
-preemption
- radioproblem
- HO failure w/oreversion
- Transcoderfailure
-operatoraction/recovery
- BSS system HW/SWpb
-preemption
LAPD counter to analyze the cause of call establishment failures
Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
> When the BSC is congested on the downlink, some messages are discarded. This may result for
example in call establishment failures, loss of paging messages or delay in handover
procedures.
A LapD counter that indicates the time a LapD link is congested is created to analyze the cause
of a degraded quality of service. This counter is implemented in type 7 and thus is only
available in a detailed measurement campaign.
Counter: L1.18: TIME_LAPD_CONG
Definition: Time in seconds during which the LapD link is congested in transmission in the
BSC.
Alcatel 110
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
2 GLOBAL INDICATORS
2.4 Description of global indicators
Alcatel 111
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2.4 Description of global indicators
recall
> Global Indicators are
A set of indicators selected by Alcatel
Useful to monitor the overall network
> What are the user and or system impacts if a GI (Global
Indicator) is bad?
Alcatel 112
2.4 Description of global indicators
SDCCH congestion rate
INDICATOR
(G)
SDCCH ASSIGN CONG FAIL RATE
DEFINITION Rate of SDCCH not allocated during radio link establishment procedure due to congestion on the
Air interface
FORMULA
cell
(MC04) / SDCCH ASSIGN REQUESTS
THRESHOLD > 5%
COMMENT Check SDCCH Erlang : if not critical, SDCCH availability/allocation problem, or HO access on a
nearby cell side effect or interference on the carrier handling SDCCH (the last 2 can lead to high
rate of phantom RACH )
REF NAME SDNACGR UNIT %
> SDCCH CONGESTION rate: may have impact for subscriber
Call setup failure only after 3 subsequent congestions
If not, only some extra delay for call establishment
(less than 1 second) without immediate_assign_reject
Can be longer with reject (but usually short values are used for call
request)
113 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
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INDICATOR
SDCCH ASSIGN REQUESTS
DEFINITION Number of SDCCH seizure requests during radio link establishment procedure
FORMULA
cell
(MC148 + MC04)
THRESHOLD
COMMENT This includes requests rejected due to congestion on SDCCH
REF NAME SDNARQN UNIT Number
> (G) means that the indicator is Global, i.e. it is important to provide it at a Network level.
Alcatel 113
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2.4 Description of global indicators
SDCCH congestion rate
SDCCH CONGESTION rate
SDNARQN
SDCGMR
> Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS
GLOBAL Quality of service INDICATORS > SDCCH > Assignment phase
SDNACGR: SDCCH assignment failure rate due to congestion (Global)
Alcatel 114
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2.4 Description of global indicators
SDCCH drop rate
>
> SDCCH DROP rate
> User impact: call setup failure
INDICATOR
(G)
SDCCH DROP RATE
DEFINITION Rate of dropped SDCCH (SDCCH is established for any transaction OC, TC, LU,etc.)
FORMULA
cell
(MC138 + MC07 + MC137) / SDCCH ASSIGN SUCCESS
THRESHOLD > 4%
COMMENT Drop radio + Drop HO + Drop BSS
REF NAME SDCDR UNIT %
INDICATOR
DEFINITION To
SDCCH ASSIGN SUCCESS
tal number of SDCCHs successfully seized by mobile during radio link establishment
procedure
FORMULA
cell
(MC01 + MC02)
THRESHOLD
COMMENT
REF NAME SDNASUN UNIT Number
> In a dense network SDCCH drop rate should be lower than 1%. Indeed the probablity to drop a
radio link when the MS is on SDCCH is less than on TCH since the SDCCH phase is shorter
(less than 5 seconds) than TCH phase (several tens of seconds).
Alcatel 115
T C H A S S I G N R E Q U E S T S T C H A S S I G N R E Q U E S T S T C H A S S I G N R E Q U E S T S T C H A S S I G N R E Q U E S T S
2.4 Description of global indicators
TCH assign unsuccess rate
INDICATOR
(G)
TCH ASSIGN UNSUCCESS RATE
DEFINITION Rate of unsuccessful RTCH seizures for normal assignment purpose (congestion + HO&radio
failures)
FORMULA B7.2 (TCH ASSIGN REQUESTS TCH ASSIGN SUCCESS) / TCH ASSIGN REQUESTS
THRESHOLD > 3%
COMMENT
REF NAME TCNAUR UNIT %
> TCH ASSIGN UNSUCCESS rate:
congestion
radio problem
BSS problems
116 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
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> In a dense network, the TCH assignment unsucess rate should be lower a 1%.
I N D I C A T O R
D E F I N I T I O N N u m b e r o f T C H s e i z u r e r e q u e s t s f o r n o r m a l a s s i g n m e n t p r o c e d u r e .
F O R M U L A B 8 c e ll M C 1 4 0 a
T H R E S H O L D
C O M M E N T M C 1 4 0 a : n e w c o u n t e r i n t r o d u c e d i n B 8 r e l e a s e .
M C 1 4 0 a ( t y p e 1 1 0 ) : N B _ T C H _ N O R _ A S S _ R E Q t h a t i n d i c a t e s t h e n u m b e r o f n o r m a l a s s i g n m e n t
r e q u e s t s f o r T C H e s t a b l i s h m e n t ( i n H R o r F R u s a g e )
R E F N A M E T C N A R Q N U N I T N u m b e r
I N
s f o r n o r m a l a s s i g n m e n t p r o c e d u r e .
R M U L A B 8 ll M C 1 4 0 a
E S H O L D
N T 1 4 0 a : n e w c o u n t e r i n t r o d u c e d i n B 8 r e l e a s e .
M C 1 4 0 a ( t y p e 1 1 0 ) : N B _ T C H _ N O R _ A S S _ R E Q t h a t i n d i c a t e s t h e n u m b e r o f n o r m a l a s s i g n m e n t
r e q u e s t s f o r T C H e s t a b l i s h m e n t ( i n H R o r F R u s a g e )
N A M E N A R Q N b e r
I N I N D I C A T O R
D E F I N I T I O N N u m b e r o f T C H s e i z u r e r e q u e s t
F O c e
T H R
C O M M E M C
R E F T C U N I T N u m
D I C A T O R D I C A T O R T C H A S S I G N R E Q U E S T S
D E F I N I T I O N D E F I N I T I O N N u m b e r o f T C H s e i z u r e r e q u e s t s f o r n o r m a l a s s i g n m e n t p r o c e d u r e . N u m b e r o f T C H s e i z u r e r e q u e s t s f o r n o r m a l a s s i g n m e n t p r o c e d u r e .
F O R M U L A B 8 F O R M U L A B 8 c e ll M C 1 4 0 a c e ll M C 1 4 0 a
T H R E S H O L D T H R E S H O L D
C O M M E N T C O M M E N T M C 1 4 0 a : n e w c o u n t e r i n t r o d u c e d i n B 8 r e l e a s e .
M C 1 4 0 a ( t y p e 1 1 0 ) : N B _ T C H _ N O R _ A S S _ R E Q t h a t i n d i c a t e s t h e n u m b e r o f n o r m a l a s s i g n m e n t
r e q u e s t s f o r T C H e s t a b l i s h m e n t ( i n H R o r F R u s a g e )
M C 1 4 0 a : n e w c o u n t e r i n t r o d u c e d i n B 8 r e l e a s e .
M C 1 4 0 a ( t y p e 1 1 0 ) : N B _ T C H _ N O R _ A S S _ R E Q t h a t i n d i c a t e s t h e n u m b e r o f n o r m a l a s s i g n m e n t
r e q u e s t s f o r T C H e s t a b l i s h m e n t ( i n H R o r F R u s a g e )
R E F N A M E R E F N A M E T C N A R Q N T C N A R Q N U N I T U N I T N u m b e r N u m b e r
INDICATOR TCH ASSIGN SUCCESS
DEFINITION Number of TCH successfully seized by MS for normal assignment procedure.
FORMULA B8
TRX
(MC718)
THRESHOLD
COMMENT
REF NAME TCNASUN UNIT Number
Alcatel 116
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2.4 Description of global indicators
Global radio congestion level
> GLOBAL RADIO CONGESTION LEVEL (TCH congestion rate)
Subscriber impact: call setup failure
More a management indicator: % of network which has congestion
INDICATOR
(G)
GLOBAL RADIO CONGESTION LEVEL
DEFINITION Global radio congestion level : number or rate of cells recurrently congested
FORMULA COUNT_OF_CELLS (AVERAGE (MAX (TCH ASSIGN FAIL CONG RATE)) > 2%))
THRESHOLD According to operator
COMMENT This indicator reports the global radio congestion rate on the network. We define a specific
indicator counting the number of cells that are in congestion in a recurrent manner.
MAX (TCH ASSIGN FAIL CONG RATE) : is the peak of failures due to congestion observed
during the period (the day normally). See the definition of TCH ASSIGN FAIL CONG RATE in the
Quality of Service chapter)
AVERAGE : is an averaging function of the blocking rate over the selected period, that is over BH
of days for a week, or over BH of weeks for a month
COUNT_OF_CELL : is a function counting the number of cells for which condition between () is
respected.
The number of cells can be used as indicator, or the rate of cells over the total number of cells in the
network or area.
REF NAME QSCGR UNIT Number
> This counter intends to give a measurement of the TCH congestion of the whole network.
> It is implemented on the Alcatel tools but other indicators can be defined.
Alcatel 117
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2.4 Description of global indicators
Call drop rate
> CALL DROP rate: The most important indicator
Used with call setup success rate to compare PLMN (GSM and
other one)
Subscribers impact: call drop!!
INDICATOR
(G)
CALL DROP RATE
DEFINITION radio+ HO + Rate of dropped calls (system + preemption) over the total amount of calls with a
successful end
FORMULA S
cell
(MC621 + MC14c + MC736 + MC739 + MC921c) / TCH SUCCESS END
THRESHOLD > 4%
COMMENT Drop system + Drop radio + Drop HO + Droppreemption
TCH drops occurring after successful assignment but before speech connection are considered as
call drops even if from the customer point of view it is a call setup failure
MC739, MC736 and MC621 derive from B6 counters C139, C136 and C21. These new counters
are per TRX
MC921c was new in B7.2
REF NAME QSCDR UNIT %
> In a dense network, the Call Drop Rate should be lower than 2%. It should even go down to 1% or less in case Slow Frequency
Hopping is used.
> The RTCH drop rate is defined below:
INDICATOR GLOBAL TCH DROP
DEFINITION Rate of TCHs dropped (system + radio + handover + preemption) over the total amount of
calls established in the cell
FORMULA
cell
(MC14c + MC739 + MC736 + MC621+ MC921c) / TCH SUCCESS BEGIN
THRESHOLD
COMMENT D
M
> 3%
rop System + Drop radio + Drop HO + Drop preemption
Indicator relevant at cell level mostly.
C739, MC736 and MC621 derive from B6 counters C139, C136 and C21. These new
counters are per TRX
MC921c is new in B7.2
REF NAME QSTCCDR UNIT %
> The TRX TCH drop radio rate is defined below:
INDICATOR TRX TCH DROP RADIO RATE
DEFINITION Rate of TCHs dropped due to radio problems, per TRX
FORMULA (MC736) / TCH SUCCESS
THRESHOLD > 3%
COMMENT New from B7
MC736 derives from B6 counters C136. This new counter in B7 is per TRX.
Indicator only per TRX because intracell handovers are taken into account
REF NAME TCAHCDRTR UNIT %
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2.4 Description of global indicators
Call setup success rate
> CALL SETUP SUCCESS rate: the second most important indicator
Used to compare PLMN
Subscriber: call not established at the first attempt
> Beware: call setup failures due to a lack of coverage are not taken into
account in this indicator!!
No way to quantify them (as there is no initial access)
INDICATOR
(G)
CALL SETUP SUCCESS RATE (BSS view)
DEFINITION
Rate of calls going until TCH successful assignment, that is not interrupted by SDCCH DROP
neither by Assignment failures
FORMULA (1 ( SDCCH DROP / SDCCH ASSIGN SUCCESS ) ) * (1 TCH ASSIGN UNSUCCESS RATE)
THRESHOLD > 95%
COMMENT SDCCH assignment failures are not considered in CSSR as :

ghost (spurious) RACH cannot be discriminated from a real access failure


effect of re-attempts performed autonomously by the MS cannot be quantified
REF NAME QSCSSR UNIT %
> Ghost Racks which correspond to a valid establishment cause are not identified by the BSS.
Therefore they can lead to a high SDCCH assignment failure rate if they are too numerous.
> As the end user is not impacted by this phenomenon if no SDCCH congestion is induced, the
SDCCH assignment phase is not considered in the computation of the Call Setup Success rate
provided by Alcatel tools.
> In a dense network, the Call Setup Success Rate should be greater than 98%.
> The SDCCH congestion rate should also be considered to have a complete picture of Call Setup
efficiency.
Alcatel 119
2.4 Description of global indicators
Call success rate
INDICATOR
(G)
CALL SUCCESS RATE (BSS view)
DEFINITION Rate of calls going until normal release , that is not interrupted by SDCCH DROP, neither by
Assignment Failures nor by CALL DROP
FORMULA (CALL SETUP SUCCESS RATE) * (1 CALL DROP RATE)
THRESHOLD < 92%
COMMENT
REF NAME QSCCR UNIT %
> CALL SUCCESS rate:
> 1 call success =
1 call successfully established
Without any call drop
Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring 120
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> In a dense network, the Call Setup Success Rate should be greater than 97%.
Alcatel 120
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2.4 Description of global indicators
Call (setup) success rate
CALL SETUP SUCCESS rate
CALL SUCCESS rate
TCAHSUN
QSCCR
QSCSSR
> Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS
GLOBAL Quality of service INDICATORS > Call statistics > Call success
QSCSSR: Call setup success rate (Global)
QSCCR: Call success rate (Global)
Alcatel 121
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2.4 Description of global indicators
Handover cause distribution
> Indicator aiming at measuring the efficiency of planning /optimization
INDICATOR
(G)
HO CAUSE DISTRIBUTION
DEFINITION Distribution of Handover attempts by cause X : UL/DL Qual, UL/DL Lev, UL/DL Interference,
Distance, Better Cell, Interband, Micro cells HO, Concentric cell, Traffic, AMR, TFO causes.
FORMULA B7.2
cell
(MC67w or MC785x or MC586y or MC10zz or MC447 or MC461)

cell
(MC67all + MC785all + MC586all + MC10all + MC447 + MC461)
MC67all = MC671+MC672+MC673+MC674+MC675+MC676+MC677+MC678+MC679
+MC670
MC785all = MC785a + MC785d + MC785e + MC785f (microcell)
MC586all = MC586a + MC586b + MC586c (concentric)
MC10all = MC1040 + MC1044 + MC1050
THRESHOLD Quality DL > 10%, Qual UL > 10%, Level UL > 20%, Level DL > 20%
Interf UL > 5%, Interf DL > 5%, Better Cell < 30%
COMMENT
REF NAME HCSTBPBR, HCCCELVDR, HCCCELVUR, HCCCBCPR,
HCSTEDIR, HCSTEIFDR, HCSTELVDR, HCSTEQLDR,
HCSTBDRR, HCMBBCPR, HCMCEBSR, HCMCELVDR,
HCMCBCPR, HCMCELVUR, HCSTEMIR, HCSTEIFUR,
HCSTELVUR, HCSTEQLUR, HCSTAMR, HCSTBTFR
UNIT %
Alcatel 122
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2.4 Description of global indicators
Handover standard cause distribution
> Indicator aiming at measuring the efficiency of planning / optimization
> Interesting for comparing HO distribution after concentric or micro cell
implementation
INDICATOR
(G)
DISTRIBUTION HO CAUSE STANDARD
DEFINITION Distribution of Handover attempts by standard cause : Power Budget, quality too low, level too low,
high interference and MS-BTS distance too long.
FORMULA B7.2

cell
( (MC67x) / GLOBAL HO CAUSE STANDARD)
MC67x = MC670 or MC672 or MC671 or MC673 or MC676 or MC677 or MC678 or MC674 or
(MC670+MC672) or (MC671+MC673) or (MC676+M677)
THRESHOLD
COMMENT
REF NAME HCSTEIFDSR, HCSTEIFUSR, HCSTEIFSR, HCSTELVDSR,
HCSTELVUSR, HCSTELVSR, HCSTEQLDSR,
HCSTEQLUSR, HCSTEQLSR, HCSTBPBSR, HCSTEDISR
UNIT %
> The Global HO cause standard indicator is defined as below:
where:
MC670: Number of handover attempts cause 2: "uplink quality too low"
MC672: Number of handover attempts cause 4: downlink quality too low"
MC671: Number of handover attempts cause 3: "uplink level too low"
MC673: Number of handover attempts cause 5: "downlink level too low"
MC676: Number of handover attempts cause 15: "too high uplink interference
level"
MC677: Number of handover attempts cause 16: "too high downlink interference
level"
MC678: Number of handover attempts cause 12: "too low power budget"
MC674: Number of handover attempts cause 6: "MS-BTS distance too long"
Alcatel 123
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2.4 Description of global indicators
Handover cause distribution
HANDOVER CAUSE rates
HCSTEIFR
HCSTEQLR
HCSTELVR
HCSTEDMR
HCSTBPBR
HCMCR
HCCC
TMHOSR
> Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS
Handover statistics INDICATORS > Handover causes
HCXXYYYYR: Rate of specific HO cause xxyyyy versus all HO causes (Global)
where XX = ST (standard) or MC (micro cell) or CC (concentric cell) or MB
(multi band)
and YYYY is specific to the cause
Alcatel 124
125 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
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2.4 Description of global indicators
Outgoing handover success rate
> Global success rate of Outgoing HO
> Success rate of execution of Outgoing HO
INDICATOR
(G)
OUTGOING HO SUCCESS RATE
DEFINITION Rate of successful outgoing external and internal intercell SDCCH and TCH handovers
FORMULA B7.2
cell
(MC646 + MC656) /
cell
(MC645a + MC655a)
THRESHOLD < 90%
COMMENT This indicator includes preparation and execution.
REF NAME HOORSUR UNIT %
INDICATOR
(G)
EFFICIENCY OF OUTGOING HANDOVER EXECUTION
DEFINITION Rate of successful outgoing external and internal intercell SDCCH and TCHhandovers
FORMULA
cell
(MC646 + MC656) /

cell
(MC650 + MC660)
THRESHOLD < 90%
COMMENT This indicator takes into account HO execution only (not ho preparation).
REF NAME HOOREFR UNIT %
> Global Outgoing HO success rate: represents the global efficiency ot the
outgoing handovers performed from one cell to any of its neighboring cells (same
BSS or not).
> Efficiency of Outgoing HO execution: represents the efficiency of the channel
change procedure during outgoing handovers performed from one cell to any of
its neighboring cells (same BSS or not). It does not take into account the HO
failures that can occur during the preparation phase when the new channel is
being selected and activated.
> From B7 MC645A replaces MC645 of B6.
Alcatel 125
2.4 Description of global indicators
Incoming handover success rate
> Global success rate of Incoming HO
INDICATOR
DEFINITION
(G)
INCOMING HANDOVER SUCCESS RATE
Rate of successful incoming external and internal intercell SDCCH and TCHhandovers.
FORMULA
cell
(MC642 + MC652) /
cell
(MC820 + MC830)
THRESHOLD < 90%
COMMENT
REF NAME HOIRSUR UNIT %
> Success rate of execution of Incoming HO
INDICATOR
DEFINITION
(G)
EFFICIENCY OF INCOMING HANDOVERS
Rate of successful incoming external and internal intercell SDCCH and TCH HOs
FORMULA
cell
(MC642 + MC652) /

cell
(MC821 + MC831)
THRESHOLD < 90%
COMMENT Excluding congestion failures and BSS preparation failures from requests.
REF NAME HOIREFR UNIT %
Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring 126
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> Global Incoming HO success rate: represents the global efficiency of the incoming handovers
performed to one cell from any of its neighboring cells (same BSS or not).
> Efficiency of Incoming HO execution: represents the efficiency of the channel change procedure
during incoming handovers performed to one cell from any of its neighboring cells (same BSS
or not). It does not take into account the HO failures that can occur during the preparation
phase when the new channel is being selected and activated.
Alcatel 126
2.4 Description of global indicators
Call quality factor absolute
INDICATOR
(G)
CELL QUALITY FACTOR ABSOLUTE
DEFINITION
Indicator summarizing the cell behavior and allowing the operator to sort out cell for
investigation.This indicator is based on failure events. For each part of the indicator,
twothresholds are used: Topt and TQoS. TQoS is the QoS warning threshold (e.g. above
belowthe threshold, a warning is generated on the cell. Topt + TQoS is the optimal value
or
that should be acheived. Each part as a weighting factor (WF) according to the
impact on the subscribers point of view.
FORMULA ((1 SDCCH CONGESTION rate) - T QoS)/ Topt * WF
+ (CALL SETUP SUCCESS rate - T QoS)/ Topt *WF
+ ((1 CALL DROP rate - T QoS)/ Topt * WF
+ (OUTGOING HO SUCCESS rate - T QoS)/ Topt * WF
+ ((1 HO QUALITY rate - T QoS)/ Topt * WF
THRESHOLD SDCCH CONGESTION rate : T QoS= 0.97, T opt = 0.03, WF = 0.1
CALL SETUP SUCCESS rate : TQoS= 0.9, Topt = 0.09, WF = 0.2
CALL DROP rate : TQoS= 0.96, T opt = 0.04, WF = 0.3
OUTGOING HO SUCCESS rate : T QoS= 0.85, T opt = 0.12, WF = 0.15
HO QUALITY rate : T QoS= 0.85, T opt = 0.1, WF = 0.25
COMMENT
REF NAME QSCQAR UNIT %
investigation. This indicator is based on failure events. For each part of the indicator, two
> The highest, the best is the cell
> But the traffic handled is not taken into account
Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring 127
BSS Release B9
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> This counter intends to compute for every cell of the network a global indicator taking into
account the major causes of bad Quality of Service.
> Each cause is weighted according to the impact on the end user.
Alcatel 127
128 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
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2.4 Description of global indicators
Call quality factor relative
> For optimization
> Try to improve cells with the worst CQFR
INDICATOR
(G)
CELL QUALITY FACTOR RELATIVE
DEFINITION
This indicator is the Cell Quality Factor Absolute weighted by the cell traffic.Investigation should
be done in priority on the cell having a high rate of failures with high traffic (the traffic is the rate of
traffic handled by the cell over the total network traffic traffic is TCH seizure attempts)
FORMULA CQFA * ((MC15a + MC15b + MC703)
cell
/ (MC15a + MC15b + MC703)
network
)
THRESHOLD N/A
COMMENT
REF NAME QSCQRR UNIT %
> Normalizing the previous Cell Quality Factor Absolute by the traffic of the cell will allow to
compare the QoS of the cell between each other and raise the list of top worst cells candidate
for analysis.
> From B7, MC703 replaces MC16 of B6.
Alcatel 128
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2.4 Description of global indicators
Network TCH availability
> Management indicator, maintenance oriented, assessing
Quantity of stability problems
Reaction time to problems
INDICATOR
(G)
NETWORK (TCH) AVAILABILITY
DEFINITION Rate of TCHs able to carry traffic (upon the total number of traffic channels)
FORMULA (

cell
(MC250) / #Available TCH)
THRESHOLD < 95%
COMMENT #Available TCH : according to channel configuration
REF NAME TCAVAR UNIT %
Alcatel 129
130 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
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2.4 Description of global indicators
Exercise
Time allowed:
10 minutes
Indicator value OK ? Impact
1- SDCCH congestion 10% NOK difficulties to establish call
2- Call drop 5%
3- Call success 95%
4- Efficiency of outgoing HO 91%
5- Network TCH availability 94%
6- TCH assignment failure 2,4 %
7- Call drop 2,3 %
8- SDCCH drop 2%
9- HO cause distribution
(ratio of better cell)
45%
10- Call success 88%
11- SDCCH drop 1%
Alcatel 130
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
2 GLOBAL INDICATORS
2.5 Traps and restrictions of global
indicators
Alcatel 131
132 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
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2.5 Traps and restrictions of global indicators
Objective
> Beware of traps and restrictions about some global indicators
> So as to be able to provide a reliable interpretation
Alcatel 132
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2.5 Traps and restrictions of global indicators
Call set-up success rate / Call drop rate
> CALL SETUP SUCCESS
The radio link establishment failure is not taken into account,
because:
most of failures during RLE are due to ghost RACH
the MS is attempting MAX_RETRANS+1 times before giving up
difficult to assess subscriber's impact, anyhow very low
> CALL DROP
For BSS, the last stage is considered as established, although it is
not the cause from a user point of view
If a TCH drop occurs during this phase
for the user, it is a setup failure
for the OMC-R indicators, counted as a call drop
Alcatel 133
2.5 Traps and restrictions of global indicators
Call duration
IMPACT OF CALL DURATION
> The longest a call is, the highest the risk to have a drop is
> If statistics are done on abnormally long or short calls, the result
can be less accurate
> Typical case: drive test
> Typical call duration: 80/90 seconds in most of European
countries
134 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
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Alcatel 134
135 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
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2.5 Traps and restrictions of global indicators
Mobility
IMPACT OF MOBILITY
> Most of drop problems are due to mobility
Usually 2/3 of calls are static (no HO will be done)
For example, if 40 drops are observed for 1000 calls
40/1000 = 4% of global call drop
but most of call drops are generated by "moving calls"
40/(1000*1/3) = 40/333 = 12 % of call drop rate for
moving call
0 % for static call
> Typical trap when comparing drive tests results with OMC-R
statistics
Alcatel 135
:
136 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
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2.5 Traps and restrictions of global indicators
Exercise
Time allowed
10 minutes
Case conclusion OK ? why
In 1 BSS, some transcoders
are faulty : as soon as TCH
are established on these
TC, they are lost
The call setup success
rate indicator will be
increased due to this
problem
In 1 network, drive tests
are showing a general call
drop of 7 %.
OMC-R call drop indicator is
giving 2,1 %
OMC-R indicator is
erroneous (drive test is
the reality)
In 1 network, global call
setup success is 92 %
For moving call, call
setup success will be
about 76 %
In a pedestrian zone, 80 %
of call are static measured
call drop is 1,7 %
For taxi, call done in
Taxi in this zone will be
dropped at 5,1 %
call duration is more
than average
global call drop : 2% for 1 call of 20 mns,
risk of drop is 2 %
NOK
Alcatel 136
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
2 GLOBAL INDICATORS
2.6 Global indicators interpretation
Alcatel 137
Name value
SDCCH congestion 1
SDCCH drop 3
TCH assignment failure rate 2
Call drop 1
Call setup success rate 96
Call success rate 94
Efficiency of outgoing HO 92
Efficiency of incoming HO 93
HO cause distribution better/level/quality 70/20/1
Network TCH availabilit 98
2.6 Global indicators interpretation
Exercise 1
Is this network OK?
Name value
SDCCH congestion
%
1%
SDCCH drop
%
3%
TCH assignment failure rate
%
2%
Call drop
%
1%
Call setup success rate
%
96%
Call success rate
%
94%
Efficiency of outgoing HO
%
92%
Efficiency of incoming HO
%
93%
HO cause distribution better/level/quality
0
70/20/10
y
Network TCH availability
%
98%
Time allowed:
5 minutes
Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring 138
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Alcatel 138
Name value
SDCCH congestion 5
SDCCH drop 2
TCH assignment failure rate 1
Call drop 1
Call setup success rate 97
Call success rate 95
Efficiency of outgoing HO 92
Efficiency of incoming HO 92
HO cause distribution better/level/quality 75/15/1
Network TCH availabilit 98
139 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
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2.6 Global indicators interpretation
Exercise 2
> Can one say that :
all indicators are OK?
the coverage of the network is 95%?
the call success of all the cells are 95% (minimum)?
Time allowed:
5 minutes
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
0
y %
Name value
SDCCH congestion 5%
SDCCH drop 2%
TCH assignment failure rate 1%
Call drop 1%
Call setup success rate 97%
Call success rate 95%
Efficiency of outgoing HO 92%
Efficiency of incoming HO 92%
HO cause distribution better/level/quality 75/15/10
Network TCH availability 98%
Alcatel 139
Name value
SDCCH congestion
SDCCH drop
TCH assignment failure rate
Call drop 4.6
Call setup success rate 92
Call success rate
Efficiency of outgoing HO
Efficiency of incoming HO
HO cause distribution better/level/quality
Network TCH availabilit
140 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
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2.6 Global indicators interpretation
Exercise 3
> Results of field tests on a network
Is the network better if QSCDR = 2%?
Time allowed:
5 minutes
%
%
y
Name value
SDCCH congestion
SDCCH drop
TCH assignment failure rate
Call drop 4.6%
Call setup success rate 92%
Call success rate
Efficiency of outgoing HO
Efficiency of incoming HO
HO cause distribution better/level/quality
Network TCH availability
Alcatel 140
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
3. DETAILED INDICATORS
Alcatel 141
142 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
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3 Detailed indicators
Session presentation
> Objective: to be able to use the BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY
OF SERVICE INDICATORS document in order to get some more
detailed indicators of the Alcatel BSS
> Program:
3.1 Indicator reference name
3.2 Indicators classification
Alcatel 142
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3. DETAILED INDICATORS
3.1 Indicator reference name
Alcatel 143
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itor
3.1 Indicator reference name
Description
> Each QOS indicator has a unique REFERENCE NAME of 10
characters
Unit Family
Procedure Type Joker
Prefix Sub-type
mandatory
optional
Alcatel 144
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
3. DETAILED INDICATORS
3.2 Indicators classification
Alcatel 145
146 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
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3.2 Indicators classification
Main categories
Classification in BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE
INDICATORS document
Control Channels
SCCP
TCH
SDCCH
Traffic load
Call statistics
RTCH
SDCCH
Global QoS
Couple of cells
SDCCH /TCH
HO repartition
Intracell HO
Incoming HO
Outgoing HO
HO causes
Handover
statistics
Resource
availability
Multiband
Multilayer / Multiband
Network
Concentric cells
Directed retry
Densification
techniques
GSM
indicators
Alcatel 146
Estab
147 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
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3.2 Indicators classification
SDCCH traffic
> Traffic Load and Traffic Model
> SDCCH traffic
SDCCH Traffic
Traffic
MT
Traffic
MO
Loc. Update
IMSI Detach
Sup. Service
Call
LU Follow on
SMS
Call
Re- Estab
Other
MS
Penetration Rate
Traffic
Dual Band
Resource
Occupancy
SDCCH
Erlang
SDCCH Mean
Holding Time
Global
Traffic
Global
Requests
Traffic
Model
Handover
Normal
Assignment
Normal
Assignment
Handover
> The Traffic model section includes indicators for:
number of SDCCH connection requests and successses (Immediate Assignment, HO).
distribution of SDCCH connection success (MO and MT connections versus all MO+MT
connections, type of MO connections versus all MO connection types).
> The MS penetration rate section includes the indicator for:
percentage of multiband MS SDCCH access (except LU) versus all MS SDCCH accesses.
> The Resource occupancy section includes indicators for:
SDCCH traffic in Erlang.
average duration in seconds of SDCCH channel usage.
Alcatel 147
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3.2 Indicators classification
TCH traffic
> Traffic Load and Traffic Model
> TCH traffic
RTCH Traffic
Resource
Occupancy
TCH
Erlang
Full Rate
Erlang
Full Rate
Allocated
Full Rate
Mean TCH
Time
Half Rate
Erlang
Half Rate
Allocated
Half Rate
Mean TCH
Time
Blocking Peak
Ratio of
HR Traffic
TCH
Multiband
Occupancy
Traffic Model
REQUESTS
Assign / HO / DR
SUCCESS
Assign/ HO/ DR
HO PER CALL
REQUESTS
FR, DR, DR/EFR, AMR, DATA
Speech Version
&
Channel Type
ALLOCATIONS
FR, HR, EFR, AMR, DATA
SUCCESS
AMR / TFO
> The Speech Version and Channel Type section includes indicators for:
distribution of TCH allocation requests (FR/DR/DR+EFR/AMR/DATA).
distribution of TCH allocation successes (FR/DR/DR+EFR/AMR/DATA).
rate of TCH AMR allocation successes.
rate of TFO calls versus all speech calls.
> The Traffic model section includes indicators for:
number of TCH connection requests and successes (Normal Assignment, HO, DR).
rate of TCH allocation successes for HO+DR versus all TCH allocations (NA+HO+DR).
number of HOs per call.
> The Resource occupancy section includes indicators for:
RTCH traffic in Erlang (FR+HR, FR, HR, multiband).
average duration in seconds of RTCH channel usage (FR+HR, FR, HR).
number of TCH FR allocations and number of TCH HR allocations.
rate of TCH HR allocations versus all TCH allocations (FR+HR).
TCH peak of blocking (TCH congestion time).
Alcatel 148
3.2 Indicators classification
SCCP resource occupancy / Control channels traffic
> Traffic Load and Traffic Model > SCCP resource occupancy
SCCP traffic in Erlang
> Traffic Load and Traffic Model > Control Channels traffic
PCH channel load
AGCH channel load
RACH channel load
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Alcatel 149
150 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
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3.2 Indicators classification
QoS SDCCH
> GLOBAL Quality of Service
> SDCCH
SDCCH
Established
Phase
Drop Rate
Drop Radio Drop HO
Unsuccess
Congestion
Assignment Phase
/
Handover
Radio
Failure
BSS Failure
Access Reject
Dynamic Allocation
Drop BSS
>The Assignment phase section includes indicators for the Radio Link Establishment procedure:
global SDCCH access failure rate.
specific SDCCH access failure rate per type of problem (SDCCH congestion, radio, BSS).
specific indicators for Dynamic SDCCH Allocation:
Stored Indicators (see Dynamic SDCCH Allocation in the Global Indicators section)
DYTROFN.= MC800
DYAHCATAN = MC801a
DYAHCATMN = MC801b
DYAHCASAN. = MC802a
DYAHCASMN.= MC802b
DYN = number of Dynamic timeslots (given by configuration file) = Cell_NB_DYN
Computed indicators
DYAHCATAR: average rate of busy TCH (FR of HR) allocated on dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots
Formula: tdiv
*
(DYAHCATAN,DYTROFN,0,0)
DYAHCATMR: maximum rate of busy TCH (FR of HR) allocated on dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots
Formula: tdiv (DYAHCATMN,DYTROFN,0,0)
DYAHCASAR: average rate of busy SDCCH sub-channels allocated on the dynamic SDCCH/8
timeslots
Formula: tdiv (DYAHCASAN,DYTROFN,0,0)
Impact on existing Indicators:
Apart of modification due to introduction of Dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot, the general formula of
these indicators are redesigned, to be simpler.
TCRRDN, TCRROFN, TCAHCGUN, TCAVAR (removed as it is the same as TCTRAR), TCTRAVE,
TCTRAR, TCTRTCE, SDAHCGUN, SDAVAR, SDRRDN, SDRROFN, SDTRAVE
>The Handover procedure section includes the indicator for the preparation of the SDCCH HO procedure:
rate of SDCCH HO failure due to SDCCH congestion
>The Established phase section includes indicators for SDCCH Phase:
global SDCCH drop rate.
specific SDCCH drop rate per type of problem (radio, HO, BSS).
*
tdiv(A,B,0,0) means that it is equal to A/B if B 0 or to 0 if B = 0
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3.2 Indicators classification
QoS RTCH
> GLOBAL Quality of service
> RTCH
Directed
Retry
RTCH
Unsuccess
Assignment Phase
/
Handover
Global Radio
Congestion Level
Congestion
Radio
Failure
BSS
Failure
Established
Phase
Drop rate
Drop Radio
Drop BSS
Drop HO
Preemption
Preemption
Phase
PCI =1 PVI =1
Requests
Allocation
with / without
Preemption
Failure
Success
Success
Queuing
Phase
Queue Length
Assign
Queuing Fail
Assign
Queued
& Reject
Queued
Success
Queue Full
Higher
Priority
Timeout
Assign
Queued
Normal
Assign.
>The Assignment phase section includes indicators for the TCH Normal Assignment procedure:
global RTCH assignment failure rate (called unsuccess rate).
specific RTCH assignment failure rate per type of problem (RTCH congestion, radio, BSS).
global radio congestion level (number of cells congested in the network).
>The Handover procedure section includes indicators for the global HO procedure
(intracell+intercell internal + intercell external):
rate of RTCH incoming HO failure due to RTCH congestion.
specific RTCH outgoing HO failure rate per type of problem (congestion, radio - Reversion
Old Channel, radio drop, BSS).
Alcatel 151
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3.2 Indicators classification
QoS call statistics
> GLOBAL Quality of service
> Call statistics
Call Statistics
Call Success
Call Setup
Success Rate
Call
Success Rate
Cell Quality
Factor Absolute
Cell Quality
Factor Relative
Call Drop
Call Drop Rate
Drop Radio Drop BSS Drop HO
Transcoder
Failure
BSS Internal Failure
Call Drop
End User Rate
Preemption
>The Call Drop section includes indicators for the TCH Phase:
global call drop rate.
specific call drop rate per type of problem (radio, HO, BSS int., TransCoder, preemption).
>The Call Success section includes indicators for the global call procedure (speech):
rate of call setup success.
rate of call success.
global cell quality factor.
Alcatel 152
3.2 Indicators classification
Handover causes
> Handover STATISTICS
> Handover causes
Fast traffic HO taken into account type of counter for dual band HO
Handover causes
HO causes
All
HO
cause
distribution
Outgoing HO Incoming HO
HO standard
cause
distribution
HO cause
category
distribution
HO causes per Adjacency
HO cause
category
distribution
153 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
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>The Handover causes section includes indicators of HO causes distribution corresponding to outgoing handovers relating to a cell:
distribution of HO causes taking into account all possible HO causes (quality UL, level DL, distance, power budget,
concentric cell cause, micro cell cause, traffic, etc.).
distribution of HO standard causes taking into account only HO standard causes (quality UL, quality DL, level UL, level
DL, interference UL, interference DL, distance, power budget).
>The Handover causes per adjacency section includes indicators of HO causes distribution corresponding to outgoing and incoming
handovers relating to a couple of serving/target cells:
distribution of HO cause categories taking into account 3 categories (emergency [quality, level, interference, distance,
power budget]), better condition [power budget, capture], traffic, forced directed retry).
C449 (type 6) in type 110 (as MC449) improves the result of all HO cause Indicators: (B8 Introduction)
C449 = MC449 = number of handover attempts with cause 28 (Fast traffic handover)
The Indicator TOTALHO (HCN) is impacted as well as the following indicators:
HCSTBPBR, HCCCR, HCSTEDIR, HCSTEDMR, HCSTIFDR, HCSTLVDR, HCSTQLDR, HCSTEIFR, HCSTELVR, HCMCR, HCSTEQLR,
HCSTIFUR, HCSTLVUR, HCSTQLUR, HCNTBDR, HCSTBTFR, HCSTAMR, HCSTAMFR, HCSTAMHR, HCSTBTRFR
type 32 of counter (Change of frequency band measurements) (B8 Introduction)
Type 32 is defined as Standard and provides information to observe handovers between different frequency bands.
C403a = NB_INC_EXT_TCH_HO_NEW_BAND_ATPT = Number of incoming external TCH (in HR or FR usage) handover attempts
including a change of the (TCH) frequency band.
C403b = NB_INC_EXT_TCH_HO_NEW_BAND_SUCC = Number of incoming external TCH (in HR or FR usage) handover successes
including a change of the (TCH) frequency band.
C404a = NB_OUT_EXT_TCH_HO_NEW_BAND_ATPT = Number of outgoing external TCH (in HR or FR usage) handover attempts
including a change of the (TCH) frequency band.
C404b = NB_OUT_EXT_TCH_HO_NEW_BAND_SUCC = Number of outgoing external TCH (in HR or FR usage) handover
successes including a change of the (TCH) frequency band.
C420a = NB_INC_INT_TCH_HO_NEW_BAND_ATPT = Number of incoming internal TCH (in HR or FR usage) handover attempts
including a change of the (TCH) frequency band.
C420b = NB_INC_INT_TCH_HO_NEW_BAND_SUCC = Number of incoming internal TCH (in HR or FR usage) handover successes
including a change of the (TCH) frequency band.
C421a NB_OUT_INT_TCH_HO_NEW_BAND_ATPT = Number of outgoing internal TCH (in HR or FR usage) handover attempts
including a change of the (TCH) frequency band.
C421b NB_OUT_INT_TCH_HO_NEW_BAND_SUCC = Number of outgoing internal TCH (in HR or FR usage) handover successes
including a change of the (TCH) frequency band.
Alcatel 153
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3.2 Indicators classification
Outgoing handovers
> Handover STATISTICS
> Outgoing handovers
LAPD counter to analyze the cause of delay in HO procedures
Failure With Reversion
Call Drop Rate
Efficiency
Preparation Success Rate
Intra-BSC
Failure With Reversion
Call Drop Rate
Efficiency
Preparation Success Rate
External
Call Drop Rate
Efficiency
Success Rate
Intra-BSC & External
Outgoing HO
(See comments)
>The Outgoing Intra BSC intercell section includes indicators corresponding to the efficiency of outgoing intercell
internal handovers relating to a cell (serving):
efficiency ot the preparation phase (target TCH allocation) of the outgoing handovers performed from one
cell to any of its neighboring cells belonging to the same BSS.
efficiency ot the execution phase (old to new TCH channel change) of the outgoing handovers performed
from one cell to any of its neighboring cells belonging to the same BSS.
distribution of outgoing intra BSC intercell HO failures per type of problem (radio drop, radio - Reversion
Old Channel, BSS).
>The Outgoing Inter BSC intercell section includes indicators corresponding to the efficiency of outgoing intercell
external handovers relating to a cell (serving):
efficiency ot the preparation phase (target TCH allocation) of the outgoing handovers performed from one
cell to any of its neighboring cells not belonging to the same BSS.
efficiency ot the execution phase (old to new TCH channel change) of the outgoing handovers performed
from one cell to any of its neighboring cells not belonging to the same BSS.
distribution of outgoing inter BSC intercell HO failures per type of problem (radio drop, radio - Reversion
Old Channel, BSS).
>The Outgoing Intra BSC + Inter BSC intercell section includes indicators corresponding to the efficiency of all
outgoing intercell handovers relating to a cell (serving):
global efficiency ot the outgoing handovers performed from one cell to any of its neighboring cells whether
they belong to the same BSS or not
efficiency ot the execution phase (old to new TCH channel change) of the outgoing handovers performed
from one cell to any of its neighboring cells whether they belong to the same BSS or not.
outgoing intra BSC + inter BSC intercell HO drop rate per type of problem (radio drop, radio - Reversion
Old Channel, BSS).
>When the BSC is congested on the downlink, some messages are discarded. This may result for example in call
establishment failures, loss of paging messages or delay in handover procedures.
A LapD counter that indicates the time an LapD link is congested is created to analyze the cause of a degraded QoS.
This counter is implemented in type 7 and thus is only available in a detailed measurement campaign.
Counter: L1.18: TIME_LAPD_CONG
Definition: Time in seconds during which the LapD link is congested in transmission in the BSC.
Alcatel 154
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3.2 Indicators classification
Incoming handovers
> Handover STATISTICS
> Incoming handovers
Incoming external HO 3G - > 2G
Incoming external HO 2G - > 2G only
Failure BSS
Failure Radio
Congestion
Efficiency
Intra-BSC
Failure BSS
Failure Radio
Failure No CIC
Congestion
Efficiency
External
Efficiency
Intra-BSC & External
Incoming HO
>The Incoming Intra BSC intercell section includes indicators corresponding to the efficiency of incoming intercell internal
handovers relating to a cell (target):
efficiency ot the execution phase (old to new TCH channel change) of the incoming handovers performed to one cell
from any of its neighboring cells belonging to the same BSS.
distribution of incoming intra BSC intercell HO failures per type of problem (congestion, radio, BSS).
>The Incoming Inter BSC intercell section includes indicators corresponding to the efficiency of incoming intercell external
handovers relating to a cell (target):
efficiency ot the preparation phase (target TCH allocation) of the incoming handovers performed to one cell from
any of its neighboring cells not belonging to the same BSS.
distribution of incoming inter BSC intercell HO failures per type of problem (RTCH congestion, TTCH (CIC)
congestion, radio, BSS)
>Using counters introduced in B8 for 3G to 2G Incoming External Handovers,
MC922a: NB_INC_EXT_3G_2G_HO_REQ
MC922b: NB_INC_EXT_3G_2G_HO_SUCC
MC922c: NB_INC_EXT_3G_2G_HO_EXEC_FAIL_MS_ACC
MC922d: NB_INC_EXT_3G_2G_HO_ATPT
(REQUESTS)
(SUCCESS)
(FAILURES)
(ATTEMPTS)
4 stored indicators based on the 4 counters:
HOIMRQUN= MC922a HOIMSUUN = MC922b
MC922d
HOIMFLRRUN = MC922c HOIMCAUN =
As existing PM counters related to incoming handovers keep a global view, so consider handovers from 2G cells as
well as handovers from 3G cells. The pure 2G-2G results can then be obtained by comparing them with the new
introduced counters:
4 stored indicators for incoming external handover 2G -2G only:
HOIMRQGN = MC820 - MC922a (REQUESTS) HOIMSUGN = MC642 - MC922b (SUCCESS)
HOIMFLGN = MC643 - MC922c (FAILURES) HOIMCAGN = MC821 - MC922d (ATTEMPTS)
And calculated indicators are defined:
3G-2G HO Success rate: HOIMSUUR = MC922b / MC922a
2G-2G HO Success rate: HOIMSUGR = (MC642-MC922b) / (MC820-MC922a)
Alcatel
preparation and execution 3G-2G HO failure rate HOIMFLUR = 1 -(MC922b/MC922a)
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3.2 Indicators classification
Incoming handovers
> In B9 it was introduced more counters for UMTS to GSM handover
monitoring. The new counters were introduced in MC922 family:
MC922e (type110): NB_INC_EXT_TCH_3G_2G_HO_EMERGENCY_REQ
that indicates the number 3G to 2G external inter-cell TCH (in HR or FR)
handover requests, with emergency cause.
MC922f (type 110): NB_INC_EXT_TCH_3G_2G_HO_REQ that indicates
the number of 3G to 2G external inter-cell TCH (in HR or FR) handover
requests. This counters differs from MC922d by the fact it just count TCH
handovers.
MC922g (type 110):
NB_INC_EXT_TCH_3G_2G_HO_PREP_FAIL_3GCONG that indicates the
number of 3G to 2G handover failures in preparation phase due to 3G
high load in target cell.
MC922h (type 110): TIME_3G_HOReject_HL that indicates the cumulative
time (in seconds) during which the cell is in 3G high load state.
B9
>Using counters introduced in B8 for 3G to 2G Incoming External Handovers,
MC922a: NB_INC_EXT_3G_2G_HO_REQ
MC922b: NB_INC_EXT_3G_2G_HO_SUCC
MC922c: NB_INC_EXT_3G_2G_HO_EXEC_FAIL_MS_ACC
MC922d: NB_INC_EXT_3G_2G_HO_ATPT
(REQUESTS)
(SUCCESS)
(FAILURES)
(ATTEMPTS)
4 stored indicators based on the 4 counters:
HOIMRQUN= MC922a HOIMSUUN = MC922b
MC922d
HOIMFLRRUN = MC922c HOIMCAUN =
As existing PM counters related to incoming handovers keep a global view, so consider handovers from 2G cells as
well as handovers from 3G cells. The pure 2G-2G results can then be obtained by comparing them with the new
introduced counters:
4 stored indicators for incoming external handover 2G -2G only:
HOIMRQGN = MC820 - MC922a (REQUESTS) HOIMSUGN = MC642 - MC922b (SUCCESS)
HOIMFLGN = MC643 - MC922c (FAILURES) HOIMCAGN = MC821 - MC922d (ATTEMPTS)
And calculated indicators are defined:
3G-2G HO Success rate: HOIMSUUR = MC922b / MC922a
2G-2G HO Success rate: HOIMSUGR = (MC642-MC922b) / (MC820-MC922a)
preparation and execution 3G-2G HO failure rate HOIMFLUR = 1 -(MC922b/MC922a)
preparation and execution 2G-2G HO failure rate HOIMFLGR = 1 -((MC642-MC922b) / (MC820-MC922a))
Alcatel 156
Alcatel 157
>The Intracell section includes indicators corresponding to the efficiency of intracell handovers
performed within a cell:
efficiency ot the execution phase (old to new TCH channel change) of the intracell
handovers performed within a cell.
distribution of intracell HO failures per type of problem (congestion, radio drop, radio -
Reversion Old Channel, BSS).
157 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
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3.2 Indicators classification
Intra-cell handovers
> Handover STATISTICS
> Intracell handovers
> New B9 counters: HO Cause 30
NB_TCH_HO_REQ_30_ReturnCSZone
=MC480 (Type 110)
NB_TCH_HO_ATPT_30_ReturnCSZone
=MC481 (Type 110)
CDR Radio CDR BSS
Failure With Reversion
Failure BSS
Call Drop Rate
Congestion
Efficiency
Intracell HO
B9
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3.2 Indicators classification
Handover statistics per couple of cells
> Handover STATISTICS
> Handover statistics per couple of cell
HO Success Distribution
Success Rate
Efficiency
Preparation Success Rate
HO statistics
per Couple of Cell
>The Indicators with counters type 180 section includes indicators corresponding to the efficiency
of incoming internal+external intercell SDCCH+TCH handovers performed between two cells
(serving/target):
global efficiency of the incoming intercell handovers performed between two cells
(serving/target).
efficiency ot the preparation phase (old to new TCH channel change) of the incoming
intercell handovers performed between two cells (serving/target).
efficiency ot the execution phase (old to new TCH channel change) of the incoming
intercell handovers performed between two cells (serving/target).
distribution per couple of (serving/target) cells of the incoming intercell handovers
performed to a cell from any of its neighboring cells whether they belong to the same BSS or
not.
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
4 HANDOVER INDICATORS
Alcatel 159
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4 Handover indicators
Session presentation
> Objective: to be able to explain what are the main Handover
counters and indicators provided by the Alcatel BSS in order to
monitor the quality of handovers
> Program:
4.1 Intra-cell handover indicators per cell
4.2 Internal handover indicators per cell
4.3 External handover indicators per cell
4.4 Handover indicators per couple of cells
Alcatel 160
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
4 HANDOVER INDICATORS
4.1 Intra-cell handover indicators
per cell
Alcatel 161
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4.1 Intra-cell handover indicators per cell
Handover types
HO FAIL. CASES > HO Reminder
> Intra-Cell: Handover between two
TCHs of the same cell
> Internal
between two cells of the same
BSC
also called intra BSC
and not using the forced external
handover mode
> External
between two cells of different
BSCs
also called inter BSC
or between two cells of the same
BSC when using the forced
external handover mode
TCH/(SDCCH) Handover
> Synchronous
between 2 cells
sharing the same clocks
collocated
usually 2 sectors of the same BTS
tunable at OMC-R level
> Asynchronous
not synchronous for any reason
no dedicated monitoring for
synchronous/asynchronous HO
> Incoming
as considering the target cell
> Outgoing
as considering the serving cell
Alcatel 162
163 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
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4.1 Intra-cell handover indicators per cell
Intracell HO - success
HO FAIL. CASES > intracell HO > successful case
MS BTS BSC MSC
MEAS REPORT
-----------------------------> MEASUREMENT RESULT
--------------------------------------------------------------> MC870
PHYSICAL CONTEXT REQUEST (old channel)
<--------------------------------------------------------------
PHYSICAL CONTEXT CONFIRM (old channel)
-------------------------------------------------------------->
CHANNEL ACTIVATION (new channel)
<--------------------------------------------------------------
CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK (new channel)
-------------------------------------------------------------->
ASSIGNMENT CMD ASSIGNMENT COMMAND (old channel) MC871
<----------------------------- <-------------------------------------------------------------- start T3107
SABM
-----------------------------> ESTABLISH INDICATION (new channel)
UA -------------------------------------------------------------->
<-----------------------------
ASSIGNMENT CMP ASSIGNMENT COMPLET(new channel)
-----------------------------> --------------------------------------------------------------> stop T3107
MC662
HANDOVER
PERFORMED
------------------->
RF CHANNEL RELEASE (old channel)
<--------------------------------------------------------------
RF CHANNEL RELEASE ACK (old channel)
-------------------------------------------------------------->
> Both SDCCH and TCH are counted together.
> The T3107 timer is also used as the guard timer of the channel change procedure during an
intra cell handover. The Default value for T3107 is 14 seconds.
Alcatel 163
4.1 Intra-cell handover indicators per cell
Intracell HO - failures
HO FAIL. CASES > intracell HO Failures
> Handover Preparation:
congestion
BSS problem (no specific counter)
> Handover Execution:
reversion to old channel
drop radio
BSS problem (no specific counter)
164 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
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Alcatel 164
165 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
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4.1 Intra-cell handover indicators per cell
Intracell HO - congestion
HO FAIL. CASES > intracell HO Failure: Congestion
MC561TCH+MC101SDCCH
MS Serving BTS Serving BSC MSC
MEAS REPORT
-----------------------------> MEASUREMENT RESULT
--------------------------------------------------------------> MC870
No free TCH
MC561
> From B7, MC561 replaces MC61of B6.
> As the counting of the Abis-TCH congestion case was in restriction in B8:
MC61(B6) = MC561(B7)
Alcatel 165
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4.1 Intra-cell handover indicators per cell
Intracell HO - radio failure ROC
HO FAIL. CASES > intracell HO failure: Reversion Old Channel
Serving Serving
MS BTS BSC MSC
MC871
ASSIGNMENT CMD ASSIGNMENT COMMAND (old channel)
<----------------------------- <----------------------------------------------------------------- start T3107 (= T10)
start T200
SABM (new channel)
-----------------------------> ESTABLISH INDICATION (new channel)
----------------------------------------------------------------->
UA (new channel)
X- - - - - --------------------
SABM (new channel)
----------------------------->
UA (new channel)
X- - - - - --------------------
SABM (old channel)
-----------------------------> ESTABLISH INDICATION (old channel)
UA (old channel) ----------------------------------------------------------------->
<-----------------------------
ASSIGNMENT FAIL ASSIGNMENT FAILURE
-----------------------------> -----------------------------------------------------------------> stop T3107
MC667
PHYSICAL CONTEXT REQUEST (new channel)
<-----------------------------------------------------------------
PHYSICAL CONTEXT CONFIRM (new channel)
----------------------------------------------------------------->
RF CHANNEL RELEASE (new channel)
<-----------------------------------------------------------------
RF CHANNEL RELEASE ACK (new channel)
----------------------------------------------------------------->
Alcatel 166
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4.1 Intra-cell handover indicators per cell
Intracell HO - radio failure drop
HO FAIL. CASES > intracell HO failure: Radio drop
MC663=C63TCH+C103SDCCH
Serving Serving
MS BTS BSC MSC
MC871
ASSIGNMENT CMD ASSIGNMENT COMMAND (old channel)
<----------------------------- <----------------------------------------------------------------- start T3107 (= T10)
MC663
Release of old and new channels T3107 expiry
Alcatel 167
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4.1 Intra-cell handover indicators per cell
Intracell HO - BSS problem
HO FAIL. CASES > intracell HO failure: BSS drop
> no specific counter
Serving Serving
MS BTS BSC MSC
MC871
ASSIGNMENT CMD ASSIGNMENT COMMAND (old channel)
<----------------------------- <----------------------------------------------------------------- start T3107 (= T10)
--------------------------------------- >
CLEAR REQUEST
O&M intervention
Radio interface failure
> Intra cell HO failures due to BSS problems are deduced from other counters.
Alcatel 168
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4.1 Intra-cell handover indicators per cell
Intracell HO - counters
HO FAIL. CASES > intracell HO counters
Request MC870
Congestion MC561+MC101
BSS Pb MC870-MC871-(MC561+MC101)
Attempt MC871
Reversion old channel MC667
Drop radio MC663
BSS Pb MC871-MC662-MC667-MC663
Success MC662
Preparation
Execution
INTRACELL Handover
REQUEST
CONGESTION
ATTEMPT
REVERSION OLD CHANNEL
DROP RADIO
BSS PB
SUCCESS
BSS PB
Preparation Failure
Execution Failure
Alcatel 169
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
4 HANDOVER INDICATORS
4.2 Internal handover indicators per cell
Alcatel 170
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4.2 Internal handover indicators per cell
Internal HO - success
HO FAIL. CASES > internal HO > success case
The same inter-cell
handover procedure
leads to an
incrementation of two
sets of counters:
incoming HO counters for
the target cell: MC830,
MC831, MC652, etc.
outgoing HO counters for
the serving cell:
MC655A, MC660,
MC656, etc.
In HO_PERFORMED MESSAGE
>Target cell (CI,LAC)
>"cause" of HO
MS serving cell target cell BSC MSC
MEAS REP
-----------------------> MEASUREMENT RESULT
------------------------------------------------------------------------> MC830, MC655A
CHANNEL ACTIVATION
<----------------------------------
CHAN ACTIV ACK
---------------------------------->
HO CMD HANDOVER COMMAND
<----------------------- <------------------------------------------------------------------------ start T3103
MC831, MC660
start T3124
HANDOVER ACCESS
------------------------------------------------------------->
-------------------------------------------------------------> HO DETECTION
PHYSICAL INFORMATION ---------------------------------->
<------------------------------------------------------------- start T3105
stop T3124
start T200
------------------------ SABM ---------------------------> stop T3105
<-------------------------- UA ----------------------------- ESTABLISH INDICATION
stop T200 ---------------------------------->
HANDOVER COMPLETE HO CMP stop T3103
-------------------------------------------------------------> ----------------------------------> HO PERFORMED
------------------------>
Release of old TCH MC652, MC656
> Both SDCCH and TCH are counted together.
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4.2 Internal handover indicators per cell
Incoming internal HO - failures
HO FAIL. CASES > Incoming internal HO failures:
> Handover procedure from the target cell point of view
> Handover Preparation:
congestion: no RTCH available in the target cell
does not concern the outgoing side (serving cell point of view)
BSS problem (no specific counter)
> Handover Execution:
radio problem: the MS fails to access the new channel
the reversion/drop discrimination concerns only the serving cell
BSS problem (no specific counter)
Alcatel 172
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4.2 Internal handover indicators per cell
Incoming internal HO - congestion
HO FAIL. CASES > Incoming internal HO fail: congestion
MC551TCH+MC91SDCCH
MS Serving Cell Serving BSC MSC
MEAS REPORT
-----------------------------> MEASUREMENT RESULT
--------------------------------------------------------------> MC830
No free TCH
MC551
> From B7, MC551 replaces MC51of B6.
> As the counting of the Abis-TCH congestion case was in restriction in B8:
MC51(B6) = MC551(B7)
Alcatel 173
MS servin
MEAS REP
>
174 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
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4.2 Internal handover indicators per cell
Incoming internal HO - radio failure
HO FAIL. CASES > Incoming internal HO fail: MS access problem
g cell target cell BSC MSC
----------------------- MEASUREMENT RESULT
------------------------------------------------------------------------>
CHANNEL ACTIVATION
<----------------------------------
CHANNEL ACTIV ACK
---------------------------------->
HO CMD HANDOVER COMMAND
<----------------------- <------------------------------------------------------------------------ start T3103
MC660
SABM
-----------x T3103 expiry
MC653
MS Serving cell Target Cell BSC
HO CMD HANDOVER COMMAND
<----------------------- <------------------------------------------------------------------------ start T3103
HANDOVER ACCESS MC660
------------------------------------------------------------->
-------------------------------------------------------------> HO DETECTION
PHYSICAL INFORMATION ---------------------------------->
<------------------------------------------------------------- start T3105
SABM
-------------------------------------------------------------> ESTABLISH INDICATION
UA ---------------------------------->
<------------------------------------------------------------- stop T3105
HANDOVER COMPLETE
----------------------------------------------------- - - - -X
SABM
-----------------------> ESTABLISH INDICATION
UA ------------------------------------------------------------------------>
<-----------------------
HO FAILURE HANDOVER FAILURE
-----------------------> ------------------------------------------------------------------------> MC653
Release of new channel
> All incoming internal HO failures due to radio problems are counted in the same counter
MC653.
> Both radio failures with Reversion Old Channel and radio drop are counted together.
Alcatel 174
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4.2 Internal handover indicators per cell
Incoming internal HO - counters
HO FAIL. CASES > Incoming internal HO counters
Request MC830
Congestion MC551+MC91
BSS Pb MC830-MC831-(MC551+MC91)
Attempt MC831
Radio (MS access problem) MC653
BSS Pb MC831-MC652-MC653
Success MC652
Execution
Preparation
INCOMING INTERNAL Handover
REQUEST
CONGESTION
ATTEMPT
MS ACCESS PB
BSS PB
SUCCESS
BSS PB
Preparation Failure
Execution Failure
Alcatel 175
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4.2 Internal handover indicators per cell
Incoming internal HO - indicators
HO FAIL. CASES > Incoming internal HO indicators
HOIBFLBN
HOIBFLRN
HOIBCGN
HOIBSUN
HOIBFLR
> Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS:
Handover Statistics INDICATORS > Incoming handover > Incoming Intra BSC
HOIBEFR: efficiency of the incoming internal HO execution
HOIBCGR: rate of incoming internal HO failures due to congestion
HOIBPFR: rate of incoming internal HO failures due to BSS during the preparation
phase
HOIBFLRR: rate of incoming internal HO failures due to radio problems
HOIBFLBR: rate of incoming internal HO failures due to BSS during the execution
phase
Alcatel 176
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4.2 Internal handover indicators per cell
Outgoing internal HO - failures
HO FAIL. CASES > Outgoing internal HO failures
> Handover procedure from the serving cell point of view
> Handover Preparation:
congestion on the target cell (no specific counter on the serving
cell)
BSS problem (no specific counter)
> Handover Execution:
radio problem: the MS reverts to the old channel
radio problem: the MS drops
BSS problem (no specific counter)
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4.2 Internal handover indicators per cell
Outgoing internal HO - radio failure ROC
HO FAIL. CASES > Outgoing internal HO fail: Reversion old channel
MS Serving cell Target Cell BSC
HO CMD HANDOVER COMMAND
<----------------------- <------------------------------------------------------------------------ start T3103
HANDOVER ACCESS MC660
------------------------------------------------------------->
-------------------------------------------------------------> HO DETECTION
PHYSICAL INFORMATION ---------------------------------->
<------------------------------------------------------------- start T3105
SABM
-------------------------------------------------------------> ESTABLISH INDICATION
UA ---------------------------------->
<------------------------------------------------------------- stop T3105
HANDOVER COMPLETE
----------------------------------------------------- - - - -X
SABM
-----------------------> ESTABLISH INDICATION
UA ------------------------------------------------------------------------>
<-----------------------
HO FAILURE HANDOVER FAILURE
-----------------------> ------------------------------------------------------------------------> MC657
Release of new channel
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4.2 Internal handover indicators per cell
Outgoing internal HO - radio failure drop
HO FAIL. CASES > Outgoing internal HO fail: drop
clear_request: ask the MSC to release the connection
In case of call drop due to HO, the cause is "radio interface
message failure" (for Alcatel)
MS serving cell target cell BSC MSC
MEAS REP
-----------------------> MEASUREMENT RESULT
------------------------------------------------------------------------> MC655A
CHANNEL ACTIVATION
<----------------------------------
CHAN ACTIV ACK
---------------------------------->
HO CMD HANDOVER COMMAND
<----------------------- <------------------------------------------------------------------------ start T3103
MC660
SABM
----------x
T3103 expiry
MC658
Clear_request
------------------------>
Clear_command
Release of old and new TCH <------------------------
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4.2 Internal handover indicators per cell
Outgoing internal HO - counters
HO FAIL. CASES > Outgoing internal HO counters
Preparation Request MC655A
Any preparation failure MC655A-MC660
Attempt MC660
Reversion old channel MC657
Drop radio MC658
BSS Pb MC660-MC656-MC657-MC658
Success MC656
Execution
OUTGOING INTERNAL Handover
REQUEST
CONGESTION
ATTEMPT
REVERSION OLD CHANNEL
DROP RADIO
BSS PB
SUCCESS
BSS PB
Preparation Failure
Execution Failure
Alcatel 180
SUCCESS
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4.2 Internal handover indicators per cell
Outgoing internal HO - indicators
HO FAIL. CASES > Outgoing internal HO indicators
HOOBSUN
HOOBCDRN
HOOBCDBN
HOOBOCN
HOOBCDR
HOOBOCR
> Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS:
Handover Statistics INDICATORS > Outgoing handover > Outgoing Intra BSC
HOOBRQR: efficiency of the outgoing internal HO preparation.
HOOBEFR: efficiency of the outgoing internal HO execution.
HOOBOCR: rate of outgoing internal HO failures due to radio problems with
Reversion Old Channel.
HOOBCDRR: rate of outgoing internal HO failures due to radio problems with
drop.
HOOBCDR: rate of incoming internal HO failures with drop (radio + BSS).
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4.2 Internal handover indicators per cell
Intra-cell HO / Internal HO - exercise
With K1205, find in the PAIB29.REC file:
1) One case of intra-cell failure with reversion
2) One case of Internal handover success
Identify the target cell
Identify the serving cell (in CR for call
establishment)
3) One case of Internal handover failure with
reversion
4) One case of Internal handover failure without
reversion
Time
allowed:
15 minutes
Alcatel 182
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4 HANDOVER INDICATORS
4.3 External handover indicators per cell
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4.3 External handover indicators per cell
External HO - success
HO FAIL. CASES > External HO > successful case
MS serving_cell BSC MSC BSC target_cell MS
- MEAS_REPORT ->
------- MEAS_RESULT -------->
------ HO_REQUIRED ---------->
----------CR (HO_REQUEST) ----->
<--------- CC ------------------------ ---- CHANNEL_ACTIVATION ------>
<- CHANNEL_ACT_ACK-------------
<----- HO_REQUEST_ACK -------- Start T9113
(HO_COMMAND)
<------------------------- HO_COMMAND ------------------------------------------------------ <---- HO_ACCESS -----
Start T8 <---- HO_ACCESS -----
<------ HO_DETECTION--------------
<-- HO_DETECTION -------------- --- PHYSICAL_INFO -->
<--- SABM ---------------
<----- ESTABLISH_INDICATION ---- ----- UA -------------->
<----------- HO_COMPLETE ----------------------------------------
<--- HO_COMPLETE --------------- Stop T9113
<---- CLEAR_COMMAND ------
Cause : HO_SUCCESSFUL
Release of TCH Stop T8
MC645A
MC820
MC821
MC650
MC642
MC646
MC462A
MC462B
MC462C
MC463A
MC463B
MC463C
> Both SDCCH and TCH are counted together.
> From B7, MC645A replaces MC645 of B6.
> MC645a is only counting HANDOVER REQUIRED messages that are linked to a handover trial and not those that are linked to the
update of the candidate cell list for handover / directed retry. This is leading to a more accurate computation of the External
outgoing HO success rate.
Only Outgoing inter PLMN HO is allowed.
> 6 counters provide information for "Inter-PLMN HO" (Incoming and Outgoing) (From B8)
MC462a (equivalent of MC645A for intra PLMN external HO)
Number of inter-PLMN TCH outgoing handovers or directed retry requests:
HANDOVER REQUIRED sent to the MSC for an external TCH HO or an external DR triggered towards a cell belonging to a
PLMN different from the PLMN of the serving cell.
MC462b (equivalent of MC650 for intra PLMN external HO)
Number of inter-PLMN TCH outgoing handovers or directed retry attempts:
HANDOVER COMMAND sent to the MS on Abis for an external TCH HO or an external DR triggered towards a cell
belonging to a PLMN different from the PLMN of the serving cell.
MC462c (equivalent of MC646 for intra PLMN external HO)
Number of inter-PLMN TCH outgoing handovers or directed retry successes:
CLEAR COMMAND with Cause "Handover successful" received from the MSC for an external TCH HO or an external DR
triggered towards a cell belonging to a PLMN different from the PLMN of the serving cell.
MC463a (equivalent of MC820 for intra PLMN external HO)
Number of inter-PLMN TCH incoming handovers or directed retry requests:
HANDOVER REQUEST received from the MSC for an external TCH HO or an external DR triggered towards the target cell
from a serving cell belonging to a PLMN different from the PLMN of the target cell.
MC463b (equivalent of MC821 for intra PLMN external HO)
Number of inter-PLMN TCH incoming handovers or directed retry attempts:
HANDOVER REQUEST ACK sent by the target BSC containing the HANDOVER COMMAND for an external TCH HO or an
external DR triggered towards the target cell from a serving cell belonging to a PLMN different from the PLMN of the target
cell.
MC463c (equivalent of MC642 for intra PLMN external HO)
Number of inter-PLMN TCH incoming handovers or directed retry successes:
HANDOVER COMPLETE received from the MS on Abis for an external TCH HO or an external DR triggered towards the
target cell from a serving cell belonging to a PLMN different from the PLMN of the target cell.
> Note than all other (previous) counters related to HO continue to be based on Intra PLMN only.
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4.3 External handover indicators per cell
External HO - failures
HO FAIL. CASES > Incoming external HO failures
> Handover procedure from the target cell point of view
> Handover Preparation:
congestion: no RTCH available in the target cell OR no TTCH
available on the A interface
does not concern the outgoing side (serving cell point of view)
BSS problem (no specific counter)
> Handover Execution:
radio problem: the MS fails to access the new channel
the reversion/drop discrimination concerns only the serving cell
BSS problem (no specific counter)
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4.3 External handover indicators per cell
Incoming external HO - RTCH congestion
HO FAIL. CASES > Incoming external HO fail: Air/Abis cong.
MC541ATCH+MC81SDCCH
MS serving_cell BSC MSC BSC target_cell MS
- MEAS_REPORT ->
------- MEAS_RESULT -------->
MC645A ------ HO_REQUIRED ------->
----------CR (HO_REQUEST) -----> MC820
<----- HO_FAILURE --------------- MC541A
( <-HO_REQUIRED_REJECT-) Cause: no radio resource available
> From B7, MC541A replaces MC41A of B6.
> As the counting of the Abis-TCH congestion case was in restriction in B8:
MC41A(B6) = MC541A(B7)
Alcatel 186
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>
BSS Release B9
4.3 External handover indicators per cell
Incoming external HO - TTCH congestion
HO FAIL. CASES > Incoming external HO fail: A int. cong.
MC41B
MS serving_cell BSC MSC BSC target_cell MS
- MEAS_REPORT ->
------- MEAS_RESULT -------->
MC645A ------ HO_REQUIRED ------->
----------CR (HO_REQUEST) -----> MC820
<----- HO_FAILURE --------------- MC41B
Cause: terrestrial circuit already allocated
Requested terrestrial resource unaivalable
BSS not equiopoed
( <-HO_REQUIRED_REJECT-)
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
Alcatel 187
MS serving cell BSC MSC BSC target cell M
MEAS REPORT >
MEAS RESULT ->
MC645A HO REQUIRED -->
CR (HO REQUEST) -> MC820
< - CC CHANNEL ACT >
< CHA ACT ACK
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4.3 External handover indicators per cell
Incoming external HO - radio failure
HO FAIL. CASES > Incoming external HO fail: MS access problem
_ _ S
- _ -
------- _ -------
---- _ -----
---------- _ ------------------
------- --------------------------------------- - _ ----------
--- _ _ --------
Start T9113
<----- HO_REQUEST_ACK----------------------- Start T9113
<-------------------------- HO_COMMAND ------------------------------------------------ HO-COMMAND) included MC821
Start T8 X --- HO_ACCESS -----
X ---- HO_ACCESS -----
----- SABM --- X
----- SABM --- X
----- SABM --- X
T9113 expiry
MC643
Release of connection
MS serving_cell BSC MSC BSC target_cell MS
- MEAS_REPORT ->
------- MEAS_RESULT -------->
MC645A ---- HO_REQUIRED ------->
----------CR (HO_REQUEST) -------------------> MC820
<-------- CC --------------------------------------- - CHANNEL_ACT ---------->
<--- CHA_ACT_ACK --------
<----- HO_REQUEST_ACK----------------------- Start T9113
(HO-COMMAND) included MC821
<-------------------------- HO_COMMAND ------------------------------------------------
Start T8 X --- HO_ACCESS -----
X ---- HO_ACCESS -----
----- SABM -------->
<--- UA ------------- -- ESTABLISH_INDICATION->
----- HO_FAILURE (reversion to old channel) ------------------------------------------>
----- CLEAR_COMMAND ----------------------> MC643
Radio interface fail : Reversion to old channel
Release of connection
> All incoming external HO failures due to radio problems are counted in the same counter
MC643.
> Both radio failures with Reversion Old Channel and radio drop are counted together.
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4.3 External handover indicators per cell
Incoming external HO - counters
HO FAIL. CASES > Incoming external HO counters
Inter PLMN HO Intra PLMN HO
Request MC820
Congestion MC541+MC81
BSS Pb MC820-MC821-(MC541+MC81)
Attempt MC821
Radio (MS access problem) MC643
BSS Pb MC821-MC642-MC643
Success MC642
Execution
Preparation
INCOMING EXTERNAL Handover
REQUEST
CONGESTION
ATTEMPT
MS ACCESS PB
BSS PB
SUCCESS
BSS PB
Preparation Failure
Execution Failure
ATTEMPT SUCCESS
REQUEST
RATIO
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4.3 External handover indicators per cell
Incoming external HO - indicators
HO FAIL. CASES > Incoming external HO indicators
HOIMFLBN
HOIMFLRN
HOIMCGN
HOIMSUN
HOIMFLR
> Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS:
Handover Statistics INDICATORS > Incoming handover > Incoming Inter BSC
HOIMEFR: efficiency of the incoming external HO execution.
HOIMCGR: rate of incoming external HO failures due to radio congestion (Air or Abis TCH).
HOIMAMR: rate of incoming external HO failures due to CIC congestion (A TCH).
HOIMPFR: rate of incoming external HO failures due to BSS during the preparation phase.
HOIMFLRR: rate of incoming external HO failures due to radio problems.
HOIMFLBR: rate of incoming external HO failures due to BSS during the execution phase.
> Inter PLMN Incoming External HO Indicators(from B8)
An indicator is created for each counter.
REQUESTS
ATTEMPTS
SUCCESS
In addition, these indicators show:
the success rate of incoming inter-PLMN HOs,
the ratio of incoming inter-PLMN HO to incoming intra-PLMN and inter-PLMN HO,
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4.3 External handover indicators per cell
Outgoing external HO - failures
HO FAIL. CASES > Outgoing external HO failures
> Handover procedure from the serving cell point of view
> Handover Preparation:
congestion on the target cell (no specific counter on the serving
cell)
BSS problem (no specific counter)
> Handover Execution:
radio problem: the MS reverts to the old channel
radio problem: the MS drops
BSS problem (no specific counter)
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4.3 External handover indicators per cell
Outgoing external HO - radio failure ROC
HO FAIL. CASES > Outgoing external HO fail: reversion old channel
MS serving_cell BSC MSC BSC target_cell MS
- MEAS_REPORT ->
------- MEAS_RESULT -------->
MC645A ---- HO_REQUIRED ------->
----------CR (HO_REQUEST) ------------------->
<-------- CC --------------------------------------- - CHANNEL_ACT ---------->
<--- CHA_ACT_ACK --------
<----- HO_REQUEST_ACK----------------------- Start T9113
(HO-COMMAND) included
<-------------------------- HO_COMMAND ------------------------------------------------
Start T8 X --- HO_ACCESS -----
MC650 X ---- HO_ACCESS -----
----- SABM -------->
<--- UA ------------- -- ESTABLISH_INDICATION->
----- HO_FAILURE (reversion to old channel) ------------------------------------------>
MC647 ----- CLEAR_COMMAND ---------------------->
Radio interface fail : Reversion to old channel
Release of connection
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4.3 External handover indicators per cell
Outgoing external HO - radio failure drop
HO FAIL. CASES > Outgoing external HO fail: drop
MS serving_cell BSC MSC BSC target_cell MS
- MEAS_REPORT ->
------- MEAS_RESULT -------->
MC645A ---- HO_REQUIRED ------->
----------CR (HO_REQUEST) ------------------->
<-------- CC --------------------------------------- - CHANNEL_ACT ---------->
<--- CHA_ACT_ACK --------
<----- HO_REQUEST_ACK----------------------- Start T9113
(HO-COMMAND) included
<-------------------------- HO_COMMAND ------------------------------------------------
Start T8 X --- HO_ACCESS -----
MC650 X ---- HO_ACCESS -----
----- SABM --- X
----- SABM --- X
----- SABM --- X
T8 expiry ----- CLEAR_REQUEST ->
MC648 Radio interface message fail
Release of connection
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4.3 External handover indicators per cell
Outgoing external HO - counters
HO FAIL. CASES > Outgoing external HO counters
Inter PLMN HO Intra PLMN HO
Preparation Request MC645A
Any preparation failure MC645A-MC650
Attempt MC650
Reversion old channel MC647
Drop radio MC648
BSS Pb MC650-MC646-MC647-MC648
Success MC646
Execution
OUTGOING EXTERNAL Handover
REQUEST
CONGESTION
ATTEMPT
REVERSION OLD CHANNEL
DROP RADIO
BSS PB
SUCCESS
BSS PB
Preparation Failure
Execution Failure
ATTEMPT SUCCESS
REQUEST
RATIO
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4.3 External handover indicators per cell
Outgoing external HO - indicators
HO FAIL. CASES > Outgoing external HO indicators
HOOMSUN
HOOMCDRN
HOOMCDBN
HOOMOCN
HOOMCDR
HOOMOCR
> Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS RELEASE:
Handover Statistics INDICATORS > Outgoing handover > Outgoing Inter BSC
HOOMRQR: efficiency of the outgoing external HO preparation.
HOOMEFR: efficiency of the outgoing external HO execution.
HOOMOCR: rate of outgoing external HO failures due to radio problems with Reversion Old
Channel.
HOOMCDRR: rate of outgoing external HO failures due to radio problems with drop.
HOOMCDR: rate of incoming external HO failures with drop (radio + BSS).
> Inter PLMN Outgoing External HO Indicators (From B8)
An indicator is created for each counter.
REQUESTS
ATTEMPTS
SUCCESS
In addition these indicators show:
the success rate of outgoing inter-PLMN HOs,
the ratio of outgoing inter-PLMN HO to outgoing intra-PLMN and inter-PLMN HO.
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4.3 External handover indicators per cell
External HO - exercise
In PAIB29.REC, extract (if available):
1) 1 incoming external HO success
2) 1 outgoing external HO success
3) 1 incoming external HO failure
4) 1 outgoing external HO failure
Time allowed:
15 minutes
Alcatel 196
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4 HANDOVER INDICATORS
4.4 Handover indicators per couple of cells
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4.4 Handover indicators per couple of cells
Type 180 counters
> Some handover indicators available per couple of (serving,
target) cells:
permanently through PM type 180 counters
3 counters for each (Serving,Target) adjacency:
C400(S,T): Incoming handovers requested
to cell T from cell S
C401(S,T): Incoming handovers attempted
to cell T from cell S
C402(S,T): Incoming handovers successfully
performed to cell T from cell S
both internal and external inter cell handovers are
counted
both SDCCH and TCH handovers are counted
a
e
d
c
b
f
C40i(f,d)
C40i(a,b)
C40i(c,b)
C40i(c,d)
> According to the definition of C40i counters:
C400(Sn,T) = MC820(T) + MC830(T)
C401(Sn,T) = MC821(T) +MC831(T)
C402(Sn,T) = MC642(T) + MC652(T)
where
Sn are the serving cells considering the incoming adjacencies to cell T.
MC820(T), MC821(T), MC642(T) are the counters relating to the incoming
external handovers requested, attempted and successfully performed to cell T.
MC830(T), MC831(T), MC646(T) are the counters relating to the incoming
internal handovers requested, attempted and successfully performed to cell T.
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4.4 Handover indicators per couple of cells
Type 180 indicators
The following indicators can be computed from PM Type 180
counters in order to
> Detect the most important neighboring cells as per their traffic
Distribution of incoming handovers performed to cell T from serving cells
Sn = C402(Sx,T) / C402(Sn,T)
> Ease the diagnosis of the bad handover performance of a cell
Global efficiency of incoming handovers to cell T from cell S
HOOASUR = C402(S,T) / C400(S,T)
Efficiency of the incoming handover preparation to cell T from cell S
HOOACAR = C401(S,T) / C400(S,T)
Efficiency of the incoming handover execution to cell T from cell S
HOOAEFR = C402(S,T) / C401(S,T)
n
> Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS:
Handover Statistics > HO Statistics per couple of cells > Indicators with counter type 180
These indicators can also be to check if a recently handover relationship is
generating handover as expected.
They will also allow to identify the handover relationships which should be deleted
since no (or very few) handover is observed.
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4.4 Handover indicators per couple of cells
Type 26 counters
> Some handover indicators are available per couple of (serving,
target) cells:
on demand for all outgoing adjacencies of a serving cell through
PM type 26 (40 cells since B8)
Counters for each (Serving,Target x) adjacency:
C720(S,Tx): Outgoing handovers attempted
from cell S to cell Tx
C721(S,Tx): Outgoing handovers successfully
performed from cell S to cell Tx
C722(S,Tx): Outgoing handovers failed from
cell S to cell Tx with Reversion Old Channel
C723(S,Tx): Outgoing handovers failed from
cell S to cell Tx with drop
Target a
Te
Serving
Tc
Tb
Tf
C72i(S,Te)
C72i(S,Tc)
> Other counters are provided:
C724(S,Tx): Outgoing handovers attempted from S to Tx for an emergency cause.
C725(S,Tx): Outgoing handovers attempted from S to Tx for a better cell cause.
C727(S,Tx): Outgoing handovers attempted from S to Tx for a traffic cause.
C728(S,Tx): Outgoing handovers attempted from S to Tx for a forced directed retry
cause.
> Previously the set of Type 26 counters could be retrieved for only one cell per BSS at once.
> 40 cells at the same time since B8.
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4.4 Handover indicators per couple of cells
Type 26 indicators
The following indicators can be computed from PM Type 26
counters (40 cells since B8) in order to:
> ease the diagnosis of the bad outgoing handover performance
of a cell
Efficiency of the outgoing handover execution from cell S to cell Tx
HOOXSUR = C721(S,Tx) / C720(S,Tx)
Rate of outgoing ho execution failures due to radio problems from
S to Tx with drop
HOOXCDRR = C723(S,Tx) / C720(S,Tx)
Rate of outgoing ho execution failures due to radio problems from
S to Tx with Reversion Old Channel
HOOXOCR = C722(S,Tx) / C720(S,Tx)
Rate of outgoing ho execution failures due to BSS problems from
S to Tx
HOOXCDBR = [C720(S,Tx)-C721(S,Tx)-C722(S,Tx)-C723(S,Tx)] /
C720(S,Tx)
> Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS:
Handover Statistics > HO Statistics per couple of cells > Indicators with counter type 26.
From B8, these type 26 counters are available for several cells at once (40 cells).
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4.4 Handover indicators per couple of cells
Type 27 counters
> Some handover indicators are available per couple of (serving,
target) cells:
on demand for all incoming adjacencies of a target cell through
PM type 27
counters for each (Serving,Target x) adjacency:
C730(Sx,T): Incoming handovers attempted
to cell T from cell Sx
C731(Sx,T): Incoming handovers successfully
performed to cell T from cell Sx
C733(S,Tx): Incoming handovers failed due to
MS radio access problems to cell T from cell Sx
Serving a
Se
Target
Sc
Sb
Sf
C73i(Se,T)
C73i(Sc,T)
> Other counters are provided:
C734(Sx,T): Incoming handovers attempted from Sx to T for an emergency cause.
C735(Sx,T): Incoming handovers attempted from Sx to T for a better cell cause.
C737(Sx,T): Incoming handovers attempted from Sx to T for a traffic cause.
C738(Sx,T): Incoming handovers attempted from Sx to T for a forced directed retry
cause.
> The set of Type 27 counters can be retrieved for only one cell per BSS at once.
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4.4 Handover indicators per couple of cells
Type 27 indicators
The following indicators can be computed from PM Type 27
counters in order to
> Ease the diagnosis of the bad incoming handover performance
of a cell
Efficiency of the incoming handover execution to cell T from cell
Sx
HOIXSUR = C731(Sx,T) / C730(Sx,T)
Rate of incoming ho execution failures due to MS radio access
problems to cell T from cell Sx
HOIXCDRR = C733(Sx,T) / C730(Sx,T)
Rate of incoming ho execution failures due to BSS problems to cell
T from cell Sx
HOIXCDBR= [C730(Sx,T)-C731(Sx,T)-C733(Sx,T)] / C730(Sx,T)
> Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS:
Handover Statistics > HO Statistics per couple of cells > Indicators with counter type 27
Alcatel 203
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5 DIRECTED RETRY INDICATORS
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5 Directed retry indicators
Session presentation
> Objective: to be able to describe the counters and indicators
used for monitoring the efficiency of the directed retry feature
> Program:
5.1 Directed Retry definition
Alcatel 205
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5 DIRECTED RETRY INDICATORS
5.1 Directed Retry definition
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5.1 Directed Retry definition
Queuing is mandatory
> When there is no TCH available in a cell for TCH normal
assignment:
> Queuing: TCH request is put in a queue, waiting for a TCH to be
released in this cell
> With default BSS tuning: the call establishment fails if no TCH
has been freed after T11 seconds
> but an optional mechanism can be activated
> The queuing of TCH requests is also performed for incoming external TCH handovers but not
for incoming internal TCH handovers.
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5.1 Directed Retry definition
Normal and Forced Directed Retry
Directed Retry (DR): When a TCH request is in queue, the BSC
tries to establish the TCH connection on a neighboring cell if:
> the normal handover condition is met (Normal DR)
> specific directed retry conditions are met (Forced DR):
the MS receives a sufficient signal level from a neighboring cell
the number of free TCHs in this neighboring cell is sufficient
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5.1 Directed Retry definition
Directed Retry types
DR FAIL. CASES > DR Reminder
DR as an SDCCH to TCH handover
can be
> Internal
between two cells of the same
BSC
also called intra BSC
> External
between two cells of different
BSCs
also called inter BSC
> Incoming
as considering the target cell
> Outgoing
as considering the serving cell
> Synchronous
between 2 cells
sharing the same clocks
collocated
usually 2 sectors of the same
BTS
tunable at OMC-R level
> Asynchronous
not synchronous for any
reason
no dedicated monitoring for
synchronous/asynchronous
HO
ANNEX 3
> There is no Intracell Directed Retry contrary to HO:
> An Intracell Directed is a Call Setup !! !-)
> Please refer to Annex for Directed Retry counters details
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6 RADIO MEASUREMENT STATISTICS
INDICATORS
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6 Radio Measurement Statistics indicators
Session presentation
> Objective: to be able to describe the RMS indicators used for
radio quality assessment of a TRX or cell and to use them in the
detection of some typical radio problems
> Program:
6.1 Radio Measurement Statistics objectives
6.2 RMS implementation in the BSS
6.3 RMS data
6.4 Call quality statistics per TRX
6.5 Radio quality statistics per TRX
6.6 C/I statistics
6.7 RMS indicators usage
6.8 Additional information
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6 RADIO MEASUREMENT STATISTICS
INDICATORS
6.1 Radio Measurement Statistics objectives
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6.1 Radio Measurement Statistics objectives
RMS objectives
> Assess the quality of cell coverage
> Assess the radio link quality of a TRX / a cell
> Assess Carrier/Interference ratio of a TRX / a cell
> Estimate of the voice quality of a TRX / a cell
In order to:
Optimize the neighborhood & frequency planning
Improve the network coverage
Detect faulty hardware components responsible for bad QoS
Help logical parameters fine tuning
> The RMS feature provides statistics on Voice Quality. VQ data are now needed since the Call
Drop rate is not sufficient to have a clear picture of the QoS in a network using Slow Frequency
Hopping as a densification technique.
> The RMS feature is a "plus" providing additional information to help radio engineer in their Fault
detection and Network optimization tasks.
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6.1 Radio Measurement Statistics objectives
RMS objectives
> Provide Radio Measurement Statistics
On all the network elements (all TRXs/cells)
Permanently through the PM type 31
RMS results available every day (after a specific period)
In order to
Reduce the cost of Radio Network Optimization
> Today's solutions for Radio Measurements are limited and very expensive:
drive tests: provide a mobile user with the perception of the network but cannot be done
on the whole network and on an very day basis since:
they are costly (tool+car+manpower).
they need to be post-processed.
they are limited to part of the network.
they are available on the DownLink path only.
Abis interface traces: provide a complete Uplink and Downlink radio quality assessment
of a cell but cannot be done on the whole network and on an every day basis since:
they are costly (protocol analyzer+manpower).
they need to be post-processed.
they are limited to a few cells at once per analyzer.
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6 RADIO MEASUREMENT STATISTICS
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6.2 RMS implementation in the BSS
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6.2 RMS implementation in the BSS
RMS management
> RMS results are reported permanently (once a day) by the BSS as
a PM Type 31 counters to the OMC-R
> The RMS job is defined and activated on a per BSS basis
> RMS job parameters are managed through RMS templates
RMS templates provide means to tune RMS parameters according
to Cell Planning (cell profile, cell class)
> The cell profile can be: micro, indoor, multiband, etc.
> The cell class can be: rural, urban, rural rapid (covering express railway), etc.
> Templates parameters define the intervals or Received level, Consecutive frame erasure, Radio
link counter, Path balance, C/I for which RMS counters are provided.
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6.2 RMS implementation in the BSS
RMS configuration in the OMC-R
RMS with OMC-R only
> Templates are defined on the
OMC-R
> RMS results are retrieved once a
day from the BSC
> Binary files can be exported for
post-processing
PM
RMS in binary files
es
Templates
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6.2 RMS implementation in the BSS
RMS configuration in RNO
RMS with OMC-R, NPA & RNO
> Templates are defined on RNO
> RMS results are retrieved once a day
from the BSC
> Binary files are transferred to NPA
> RMS warnings on NPA
> RMS QoS reports on RNO
> RMS reports used in RNO
Check
QoS follow-up
Diagnosis
Tuning
> The Experience matrix can be
generated for network planning
> Excel export is adapted to RMS
Benefit to whole RNO
Templates
PM Compute
experience
matrix
> The cell profile can be: micro, indoor, multiband, etc.
> The cell class can be: rural, urban, rural rapid (covering express railway), etc.
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6.2 RMS implementation in the BSS
RMS data flow
RNO defines and sends
RMS templates to the OMC-R
The OMC-R activates an RMS campaign
in the BSS
RMS counters are transferred to
the OMC
RMS counters are
stored in NPA
RMS indicators
requested by RNO
RMS QOS report
displayed
RNO calculates and exports the
Experience matrix to RNP
1
2
3
4
5
7
6
A9156 RNO
NPA
RNP
OMC-R
BSS
1
Experience matrix
7
PM
4
2
PM
3
QOS
6
QOS
> RNO is able to define the templates for the RMS jobs and helps in defining the MAFA frequencies.
The tuning function of RNO defines a preferred RMS template depending on cell characteristics (type,
class, capacity, etc.).
RNO manages the frequencies to monitor through MAFA jobs depending on the neighborhood and the
frequency bands.
> RNO is a reference for RMS templates:
16 templates stored in the RNO database,
Reference values for templates available,
Extra editor in the administration tool to modify templates:
a given value or a reference one.
> NPA
NPA stores RMS jobs measurements, at Cell & TRX levels (15 days).
NPA makes some consolidations (voice quality, averages, etc.).
NPA manages some warnings on RMS indicators (path balance).
> The Experience Matrix generated by RNO is an interference matrix computed from C/I measurements provided
through RMS counters.
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6.2 RMS implementation in the BSS
RMS data presentation
> In all this chapter
System parameters (user tuneable or not) will always be written in
BLUE BOLD FONT
Indicators and counters will be typed
in ITALIC and underline
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6 RADIO MEASUREMENT STATISTICS
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6.3 RMS data
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6.3 RMS data
RMS data presentation
> 3 main RMS statistics types
Call Quality Statistics which qualify calls according to
coverage/interference criteria
based on samples corresponding to measurement results averaged
over a number of SACCH multi-frames
Radio Quality Statistics:
UL/DL level, UL/DL qual
CFE
AMR (Analyse the coded values)
Timing Advance
C/I Statistics on neighboring freq/MAFA freq
last 2 statistics types based on samples corresponding to
measurement results
Annex 1
B9
B9
B9
> The first RMS Statistics type is based on calls.
> The two others are based on TRX/Cell.
> additional information
Measurement results, TRX, BS/MS max power
> MAFA = Mobile Assisted Frequency Allocation is a GSM Phase 2+ feature allowing to
request a mobile to measure and report through Extended Measurement Report message a
C/I value for each frequency specified in an Extended Measurement Order message.
> CFE: Consecutive Frame Erasure
> 1 SACCH multi-frame (SACCH mfr) corresponds to 4 consecutive sequences of 26 TDMA
frames during which, in the uplink, a measurement report message is received by the BTS
from the MS.
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6 RADIO MEASUREMENT STATISTICS
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6.4 Call quality statistics per TRX
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6 RADIO MEASUREMENT STATISTICS
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6.4 Call quality statistics per TRX
6.4.1 Generalities
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6.4.1 Generalities
Voice Quality problem
Suspecting a Voice Quality problem
> Percentage of Noisy calls
> The fact that FER measurements are more reliable than RXQUAL ones to assess the VQ is even more true when
using Slow Frequency Hopping. In this case RXQUAL values are not anymore correlated to Voice Quality as
perceived by the end user.
> FER measurements are available for the uplink path only.
> These RMS indicators are provided on the RNO tool per TRX, per Cell:
Number of Noisy calls suffering from problem of bad coverage on the uplink path
RMVQULVN = RMS_call_noisy_UL_bad_coverage
Number of Noisy calls suffering from problem of interference on the uplink path
RMVQUIFN = RMS_call_noisy_UL_interference
Number of Noisy calls suffering from problem of interference and bad coverage considered together on
the uplink path
RMVQUUKN = RMS_call_noisy_UL_undefined
Rate of Noisy calls suffering from problems of interference or/and bad coverage on the uplink path
RMVQUNOR = RMS_call_noisy_UL_rate
> Note: The 4 indicators above can be provided for Noisy calls suffering from VQ problems on the dowlink path.
Rate of Noisy calls but with good FER measurements on the uplink path
RMVQFEGR = RMS_call_noisy_good_FER_rate
Rate of Noisy calls and also with bad FER measurements on the uplink path
RMVQFEBR = RMS_call_noisy_bad_FER_rate
Rate of calls with fair quality measurements but with bad FER measurements on the uplink path
RMVQFEAR = RMS_call_abnormal_bad_FER_rate
This last indicator can be used in order to tune the RMS VQ parameters used to characterize a call
as Noisy.
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6.4.1 Generalities
Call Quality measurements
VQ_AVERAGE = 4 SACCH
AV_RXLEV_UL_VQ = (RxlevUL1+RxlevUL2+RxlevUL3+RxlevUL4) / 4
AV_RXLEV_DL_VQ = (RxlevDL1+RxlevDL2+RxlevDL3+RxlevDL4) / 4
AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ = (RxqualUL1+RxqualUL2+RxqualUL3+RxqualUL4) / 4
AV_RXQUAL_DL_VQ = (RxqualDL1+RxqualDL2+RxqualDL3+RxqualDL4) / 4
AV_RXFER_UL_VQ = (Nb of speech frames wrongly decoded (BFI=1)
/ Total nb of speech frames of the CQS)
Average level, quality and FER of a Call Quality Sample
SACCH meas.
begin end
CALL
480ms
CQS
1
CQS
2
CQS
3
CQS
4
CQS
5
CQS
6
CQS
7
CQS
8
CQS
9
CQS
10
CQS
11
CQS
12 CQS
13
CQS
14
CQS
15
CQS
16
CQS
375
1 measurement report

1 SACCH mfr
> CQS: Call Quality Sample
> VQ_AVERAGE = Number of consecutive SACCH measurements from which the reported Level
and Quality notes (UL and DL) are averaged. The resulting averages represent the level and
quality of the corresponding Call Quality Sample, i.e. the portion of the call over which level
and quality have been measured.
> AV_RXLEV_xx_VQ = Average xx level measured over a Call Quality Sample (VQ_AVERAGE
SACCH)
> AV_RXQUAL_xx_VQ = Average xx quality measured over a Call Quality Sample
(VQ_AVERAGE SACCH)
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6.4.1 Generalities
Classification of a CQS and Noisy Call identification
How to qualify the quality of a call? By looking at the repartition of the CQS!:
quality
Level (dBm)
7
0
-110 -47 VQ_RXLEV
bad quality + good level

interfered CQS
bad quality & level

bad coverage CQS


VQ_RXQUAL
CQS
> VQ_RXLEV = radio level threshold to classify a CQS as bad coverage CQS.
> VQ_RXQUAL = radio quality threshold to classify a CQS as bad coverage CQS.
> VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD = Ratio of bad CQS (interference or bad coverage) to classify a Call as
Noisy.
> A call is classify as:
Noisy xx Interference if Ratio of xx interfered CQS > VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD
Noisy xx Coverage if Ratio of xx bad coverage CQS > VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD
Noisy xx Undefined if Ratio of (xx interfered CQS + xx bad coverage CQS) >
VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD
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6 RADIO MEASUREMENT STATISTICS
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6.4 Call quality statistics per TRX
6.4.2 Call quality parameters
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6.4.2 Call quality parameters
RMS parameters
Call Quality Statistics:
Parameters used to determine if a call is noisy (according to
RXQUAL) and of bad voice quality (according to FER)
> VQ_AVERAGE: averaging window size on measurement results
to obtain Call Quality Samples (CQSs) (0 SACCH mfr to 128
Smf)
> VQ_RXLEV: radio level threshold to specify a bad coverage
CQS for noisy call statistics (-110 to -65 dBm)
> VQ_RXQUAL: radio quality threshold to specify a bad quality
(RXQUAL) CQS for noisy call statistics (0 to 7)
> VQ_RXQUAL_VS_RXFER: radio quality threshold to specify a
bad or a good quality CQS correlated to bad or good FER
measurements for noisy call statistics (0 to 7)
> All these parameters are included in the RMS PM Type 31 result files as RMS counters:
RMSpc = PAR_VQ_AVERAGE
RMSpd = PAR_VQ_RXLEV
RMSpe = PAR_VQ_RXQUAL
RMSpf = PAR_VQ_RXQUAL_VS_RXFER
> Call Quality Sample (A CQS) will be qualified as of bad level if the Average RxLevel is lower
than VQ_RXLEV
> A CQS will be qualified as of bad quality if the Average RxQuality is greater than
VQ_RXQUAL
> For FER counters, VQ_RXQUAL_VS_RXFER is used instead of VQ_RXQUAL to qualify a CQS as
of bad quality if the Average FER is also checked (compared to VQ_xx_RXFER).
> Note: For CQS, the averaging process is non-sliding.
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6.4.2 Call quality parameters
RMS parameters
Call Quality Statistics
> VQ_GOOD_RXFER: Frame Erasure Rate threshold to specify a
good FER CQS for noisy call statistics (0 to 20%)
> VQ_BAD_RXFER: FER threshold to specify a bad FER CQS for
noisy call statistics (0 to 20%)
> VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD: Call Quality Samples threshold to
characterize a call as noisy (0 to 100%)
> VQ_FER_THRESHOLD: Call Quality Samples threshold to
characterize a call as of bad or good voice quality (0 to 100%)
> All these parameters are included in the RMS PM Type 31 result files as RMS counters:
RMSpg = PAR_VQ_GOOD_RXFER
RMSph = PAR_VQ_ BAD_RXFER
RMSpi = PAR_VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD
RMSpj = PAR_VQ_FER_THRESHOLD
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6 RADIO MEASUREMENT STATISTICS
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6.4 Call quality statistics per TRX
6.4.3 Call quality counters
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6.4.3 Call quality counters
RMS counters (1/4)
> VQ_NOISY_UL_INTERFERENCE = RMS10
Number of calls suffering from interference problem on the
uplink path
> VQ_NOISY_UL_INTERFERENCE is incremented whenever a call
verifies:
100*(INTERFERED_UL_SAMPLES / NUM_UL_SAMPLES) > VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD
with
INTERFERED_UL_SAMPLES = nb of times where
AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL
and AV_RXLEV_UL_VQ>VQ_RXLEV
> Call Quality Statistics counters are related only to speech channels.
Considering:
AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ: average on VQ_AVERAGE measurements of RXQUAL_UL
AV_RXLEV_UL_VQ: average on VQ_AVERAGE measurements of RXLEV_UL
NUM_UL_SAMPLES: total number of averages calculated on UL measurements during the
call on the considered TRX
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6.4.3 Call quality counters
RMS counters (2/4)
> VQ_NOISY_UL_INTERFERENCE = RMS10
Number of calls suffering from interference problem on the
uplink path
> VQ_NOISY_DL_INTERFERENCE = RMS11
Number of calls suffering from interference problem on the
downlink path
> VQ_NOISY_UL_COVERAGE = RMS12
Number of calls suffering from bad coverage problem on the
uplink path
> VQ_NOISY_DL_COVERAGE = RMS13
Number of calls suffering from bad coverage problem on the
downlink path
> RMS10 = VQ_NOISY_UL_INTERFERENCE is incremented whenever a call verifies:
100*(INTERFERED_UL_SAMPLES / NUM_UL_SAMPLES) > VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD
with
INTERFERED_UL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL
and AV_RXLEV_UL_VQ>VQ_RXLEV
considering
AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ: average on VQ_AVERAGE measurements of RXQUAL_UL
AV_RXLEV_UL_VQ: average on VQ_AVERAGE measurements of RXLEV_UL
NUM_UL_SAMPLES: total number of averages calculated on UL measurements during the call on the
considered TRX
> RMS11 = VQ_NOISY_DL_INTERFERENCE is incremented whenever a call verifies:
100*(INTERFERED_DL_SAMPLES / NUM_DL_SAMPLES) > VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD
with
INTERFERED_DL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_DL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL
and AV_RXLEV_DL_VQ>VQ_RXLEV
considering
AV_RXQUAL_DL_VQ: average on VQ_AVERAGE measurements of RXQUAL_DL
AV_RXLEV_DL_VQ: average on VQ_AVERAGE measurements of RXLEV_DL
NUM_DL_SAMPLES: total number of averages calculated on DL measurements during the call on the
considered TRX
> RMS12 = VQ_NOISY_UL_COVERAGE is incremented whenever a call verifies:
100*(BAD_COVERAGE_UL_SAMPLES / NUM_UL_SAMPLES) > VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD
with BAD_COVERAGE_UL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL and
AV_RXLEV_UL_VQ<=VQ_RXLEV
> RMS13 = VQ_NOISY_DL_COVERAGE is incremented whenever a call verifies:
100*(BAD_COVERAGE_DL_SAMPLES / NUM_DL_SAMPLES) > VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD
with BAD_COVERAGE_DL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_DL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL and
AV_RXLEV_DL_VQ<=VQ_RXLEV
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6.4.3 Call quality counters
RMS counters (3/4)
> VQ_NOISY_UL_UNDEFINED = RMS14
Number of calls suffering from both problems of interference
and bad coverage on the uplink path
These calls are not counted in VQ_NOISY_UL_COVERAGE or
VQ_NOISY_UL_INTERFERENCE
> VQ_NOISY_DL_UNDEFINED = RMS15
Number of calls suffering from both problems of interference
and bad coverage on the downlink path
These calls are not counted in VQ_NOISY_DL_COVERAGE or
VQ_NOISY_DL_INTERFERENCE
> RMS14 = VQ_NOISY_UL_UNDEFINED is incremented whenever a call verifies:
100*(BAD_COVERAGE_UL_SAMPLES / NUM_UL_SAMPLES) <= VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD
and 100*(INTERFERED_UL_SAMPLES / NUM_UL_SAMPLES) <= VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD
and 100*(BAD_QUALITY_UL_SAMPLES / NUM_UL_SAMPLES) > VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD
with
BAD_COVERAGE_UL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL and
AV_RXLEV_UL_VQ<=VQ_RXLEV
INTERFERED_UL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL
and AV_RXLEV_UL_VQ > VQ_RXLEV
BAD_QUALITY_UL_SAMPLES = INTERFERED_UL_SAMPLES + BAD_COVERAGE_UL_SAMPLES
= nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL
> RMS15 = VQ_NOISY_DL_UNDEFINED is incremented whenever a call verifies:
100*(BAD_COVERAGE_DL_SAMPLES / NUM_DL_SAMPLES) <= VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD
and 100*(INTERFERED_DL_SAMPLES / NUM_DL_SAMPLES) <= VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD
and 100*(BAD_QUALITY_DL_SAMPLES / NUM_DL_SAMPLES) > VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD
with
BAD_COVERAGE_DL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_DL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL
and AV_RXLEV_DL_VQ<=VQ_RXLEV
INTERFERED_DL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_DL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL
and AV_RXLEV_DL_VQ > VQ_RXLEV
BAD_QUALITY_DL_SAMPLES = INTERFERED_DL_SAMPLES + BAD_COVERAGE_DL_SAMPLES
= nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_DL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL
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6.4.3 Call quality counters
RMS counters (4/4)
> VQ_NOISY_UL_BAD_FER = RMS16
Number of calls with bad quality measurements and with bad
FER measurements on the uplink path
Bad quality means bad RXQUAL whatever RXLEV is
> VQ_NOISY_UL_GOOD_FER = RMS17
Number of calls with bad quality measurements but with
good FER measurements on the uplink path
> VQ_ABNORMAL_BAD_FER = RMS18
Number of calls with fair quality measurements but with bad
FER measurements on the uplink path
> RMS16 = VQ_NOISY_UL_BAD_FER is incremented whenever a call verifies:
100*(BAD_QUALITY_UL_SAMPLES / NUM_UL_SAMPLES) > VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD
and 100*(BAD_QUAL_BAD_FER_UL_SAMPLES / BAD_QUALITY_UL_SAMPLES) > VQ_FER_THRESHOLD
with
BAD_QUALITY_UL_SAMPLES = INTERFERED_UL_SAMPLES + BAD_COVERAGE_UL_SAMPLES
= nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL
BAD_QUAL_BAD_FER_UL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL_VS_RXFER and
AV_RXFER_UL_VQ > VQ_BAD_RXFER
considering
AV_RXFER_UL_VQ: average on VQ_AVERAGE measurements of FER
> RMS17 = VQ_NOISY_UL_GOOD_FER is incremented whenever a call verifies:
100*(BAD_QUALITY_UL_SAMPLES / NUM_UL_SAMPLES) > VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD
and 100*(BAD_QUAL_GOOD_FER_UL_SAMPLES / BAD_QUALITY_UL_SAMPLES) > VQ_FER_THRESHOLD
with
BAD_QUALITY_UL_SAMPLES = INTERFERED_UL_SAMPLES + BAD_COVERAGE_UL_SAMPLES
= nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL
BAD_QUAL_GOOD_FER_UL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL_VS_RXFER and
AV_RXFER_UL_VQ <= VQ_GOOD_RXFER
> RMS18 = VQ_ABNORMAL_BAD_FER is incremented whenever a call verifies:
100*(FAIR_QUAL_BAD_FER_UL_SAMPLES / FAIR_QUALITY_UL_SAMPLES) > VQ_FER_THRESHOLD
with
FAIR_QUALITY_UL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ < VQ_RXQUAL_VS_RXFER
FAIR_QUAL_BAD_FER_UL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ<VQ_RXQUAL_VS_RXFER and
AV_RXFER_UL_VQ>VQ_BAD_RXFER
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6 RADIO MEASUREMENT STATISTICS
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6.5 Radio quality statistics per TRX
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6 RADIO MEASUREMENT STATISTICS
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6.5 Radio quality statistics per TRX
6.5.1 Generalities
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6.5.1 Generalities
TRX hardware problem
Suspecting a TRX hardware problem
> Average Path Balance
> These RMS indicators are provided on the RNO tool per TRX, per Cell:
Vector of the Number of Measurement Results per Path Balance band
RMPBV = RMS_PathBalance_sample
Average Path Balance value
RMPBAN = RMS_PathBalance_avg
> A Templates modification is needed to have more details.
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6.5.1 Generalities
Vector counter
RMS7a=TPR_PATH_BALANCE RMS7b=MAX_PATH_BALANCE
> The real number of Measurement Results in which Path balance
is in PATH BALANCE band j is equal to:
S(PATH BALANCE band j) x Max / 254
TPR_PATH_BALANCE(j) x MAX_PATH_BALANCE / 254
> The vector counter system is used to provide:
Path balance repartition
Radio Link counter (Consecutive Frame Erasure) repartition
C/I repartition
AMR FR/HR/DL/UL usage repartition
TA repartition (improved)
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Suspecting a cell coverage problem
> Distribution of samples per RxQual value and RxLev band
> Distribution of samples per RxLev band
6.5.1 Generalities
Cell coverage problem
> A coverage problem is observed when a significant amount of the traffic of a cell is suffering
from both low level and bad quality (RxQual).
> To confirm the distribution of samples per RXLEV band, should also be considered to know the
proportion of calls which are experiencing a low signal level.
> If a lot of samples of low level and bad quality are observed for only a sub-part of the TRXs (can
be one only) then a BTS hardware problem or a problem on the aerials should be suspected.
> If all the TRXs are experiencing a lot of samples of low level and bad quality then a coverage
problem shall be suspected.
> These RMS indicators are provided on the RNO tool per TRX, per Cell:
Matrix of Number of Measurement Results per DL RxQual value and per DL RxLev band
RMQLDSAM = RMS_DL_RxQuality_RxLevel_sample
Vector of Percentage of Samples per DL RxLev band
RMQLDLVDV = RMS_DL_RxLevel_distrib
Vector of Percentage of Samples per DL RxQual band
RMQLDQUDV = RMS_DL_RxQuality_distrib
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6.5.1 Generalities
Matrix counter
TPR_RXQUAL_UL_RXLEV_UL TPR_RXQUAL_UL_RXLEV_UL TMR_RXQUAL_UL_RXLEV_UL TMR_RXQUAL_UL_RXLEV_UL
> This counter RMS3a=TPR_RXQUAL_UL_RXLEV_UL is a matrix
represented on the left side
> This counter RMS3b=TMR_RXQUAL_UL_RXLEV_UL is a vector
represented on the right side
> The real number of Measurement Results in which UL RxQual is equal to i and UL
RxLev is in RXLEV band j, is equal to :
S(RXQUAL i, RXLEV band j) x Max j / 254
TPR_RXQUAL_UL_RXLEV_UL(i,j) x TMR_RXQUAL_UL_RXLEV_UL(j) / 254
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6 RADIO MEASUREMENT STATISTICS
INDICATORS
6.5 Radio quality statistics per TRX
6.5.2 Radio quality parameters
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6.5.2 Radio quality parameters
RMS parameters (1/4)
Radio Quality Statistics:
Parameters used to define intervals for RXLEV, Path Balance,
Radio Link Counter and Consecutive Frame Erasure, TA statistics
No parameters needed for AMR measurements (counters, see later)
> MEAS_STAT_LEV1 to MEAS_STAT_LEV9:
9 thresholds on the received radio level value defining 10
RXLEV bands
-110 MEAS_STAT_LEV(i+1) MEAS_STAT_LEV(i) < -47 dBm
> MEAS_STAT_PATH_BAL1 to MEAS_STAT_PATH_BAL9:
9 thresholds on the radio signal propagation loss difference
between UL and DL defining 10 Path Balance bands
-110< MEAS_STAT_PATHBAL(i) MEAS_STAT_PATHBAL(i+1) +110 dB
B9
B9
> All these parameters are included in the RMS PM Type 31 result files as RMS counters:
RMSpt5 = TAB_PAR_MEAS_LEV = Table of 9 parameters MEAS_STAT_LEVi
RMSpt4 = TAB_PAR_MEAS_PATH_BALANCE = Table of 9 parameters MEAS_STAT_PATH_BALi
> The Path Balance is computed by the BTS from each Measurement Result message as the difference between:
Path loss on the uplink: received level by the BTS - MS power level
Path loss on the downlink: received level by the MS - BS power level
where the BTS power level is computed as the BTS nominal power minus by the BTS power relative level.
> Therefore the Path balance is computed as follows:
Path Balance = (RXLEV_UL - MS_TXPWR)
- (RXLEV_DL - [BTS_MAX_OUTPUT_POWER - abs(BS_TXPWR)])
where
RXLEV_UL is the received signal levels measured by the BTS on the uplink path (in dBm).
MS_TXPWR is the MS transmitted power converted by the BTS from the MS power level into dBm
value according to the frequency band of the TRX.
BS_TXPWR is the BTS transmitted power offset defined relatively to the maximum absolute output
power of the BTS (negative value in dB).
BTS_MAX_OUTPUT_POWER is the maximum power of the BTS after Combiner (in dBm).
RXLEV_DL is the received signal levels measured by the MS on the downlink path (in dBm).
> NOTE: Additional asymetric DL loss (external combiner) or UL gain (TMA) are not taken into account in the
computation, so they must be considered when interpreting the RMS results.
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6.5.2 Radio quality parameters
RMS parameters (2/4)
Radio Quality Statistics
> TA_STAT: threshold on the timing advance value defining a
priori the range of the cell (0 to 64 bits)
> MEAS_STAT_TA1 to MEAS_STAT_ TA9:
9 thresholds for the timing advance to define 10 TA Bands
> MEAS_STAT_S1 to MEAS_STAT_S9:
9 thresholds on the BTS Radio Link Counter S value defining
10 S bands
0 < MEAS_STAT_S(i) MEAS_STAT_S(i+1) 128 SACCH mfr
S: counter managed by the BTS on a per call basis
S = RADIOLINK_TIMEOUT_BS if good radio conditions
S decremented if bad radio conditions
The BSS triggers a call drop when S = 0
B9
B9
> All these parameters are included in the RMS PM Type 31 result files as RMS counters:
RMSpt3 = TAB_PAR_MEAS_STAT_S = Table of 9 parameters MEAS_STAT_Si
RMSpb = PAR_TA_STAT
RMSpt6 = TAB_PAR_MEAS_STAT_TA = Table of value for 9 parameters: MEAS_STAT_TA1 to TA9
a threshold on Timing Advance measurement to define bands used for RMS
B9
> Recall on the Uplink Radio Link Supervision procedure:
For each active dedicated radio channel in a cell, a counter S called Radio Link Counter is:
decremented by 1 by the BTS each time an SACCH measurement from the mobile cannot be
decoded (SACCH_BFI=1).
incremented by 2 by the BTS each time a valid SACCH measurement is received from the mobile
(SACCH_BFI=0).
Initial value of S = RADIOLINK_TIMEOUT_BS (cell parameter)
if S reaches N_BSTXPWR_M, a radio link recovery is triggered (BTS and MS power increased at their
maximum).
if S reaches 0, a Radio Link Failure is triggered (channel drop).
Therefore the value of S gives a measure of the quality of the radio uplink.
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6.5.2 Radio quality parameters
RMS parameters (4/4)
Radio Quality Statistics:
> MEAS_STAT_BFI1 to MEAS_STAT_BFI9:
9 thresholds on the number of consecutive speech frames with BFI
set to 1 defining 10 BFI bands
0 < MEAS_STAT_BFI(i) MEAS_STAT_BFI(i+1) 25 speech frame
> The BTS decodes 24 speech frames (sf) from 1 uplink SACCH multi-
frame:
and 1 SACCH frame (or block)
T
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SACCH mfr
TDMA: 4,616ms
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Sf 1 Sf 2 Sf 3 Sf 4 Sf 5 Sf 6 Sf 7 Sf 8 Sf 9 Sf 10 Sf 11 Sf 12 Sf 13 Sf 14 Sf 15 Sf 16 Sf 17 Sf 18 Sf 19 Sf 20 Sf 21 Sf 22 Sf 23 Sf 24
> All these parameters are included in the RMS PM Type 31 result files as RMS counters:
RMSpt2 = TAB_PAR_MEAS_STAT_BFI = Table of 9 parameters MEAS_STAT_BFIi
> Consecutive Frame Erasure (CFE):
MEAS_STAT_BFIi parameters define 9 intervals of cumulated numbers of consecutive speech frames which
have a Bad Frame Indicator value set to 1 (it means that the speech frame is considered as erroneous by
the BTS).
As the TC will erase speech frames for which a Bad Frame Indicator flag (BFI) has been set to the value 1
by the BTS, a BFI is used in the RMS counters description whereas the CFE is used in the RMS indicators
defined in the RNO tool.
Note: By default, a BFI relates to a speech frame. When considering SACCH measurement, SACCH_BFI
should be used.
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6 RADIO MEASUREMENT STATISTICS
INDICATORS
6.5 Radio quality statistics per TRX
6.5.3 Radio quality counters
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6.5.3 Radio quality counters
RMS counters (1/7)
Radio Quality Statistics
> TPR_RXQUAL_UL_RXLEV_UL: matrix of 8x10 elements
UL(RXQUAL i, RXLEV band j), each element is made up of:
Samplesij: norm of number of measurement result samples in
which UL RxQual is equal to i and UL RxLev is reported in RXLEV
band j
MS PWR levelij: average value of MS power (in dBm) from pwr
levels reported in these samples
Timing Advanceij: average value of TAs reported in these samples
> TMR_RXQUAL_UL_RXLEV_UL: vector of 10 elements
ULRXQUAL(RXLEV band j), each element is made up of:
the maximum value of the 8 real numbers of samples in which UL
RxQual is equal to i (i=0 to 7) and UL RxLev is reported in RXLEV
band j
RMS3a=TPR_RXQUAL_UL_RXLEV_UL RMS3b=TMR_RXQUAL_UL_RXLEV_UL
The real number of Measurement Results in which UL RxQual is equal to i and UL RxLev is in
RXLEV band j, is equal to:
S(RXQUAL i, RXLEV band j) x Max j / 254
TPR_RXQUAL_UL_RXLEV_UL(i,j) x TMR_RXQUAL_UL_RXLEV_UL(j) / 254
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6.5.3 Radio quality counters
RMS counters (2/7)
Radio Quality Statistics
> TPR_RXQUAL_DL_RXLEV_DL: matrix of 8x10 elements
DL(RXQUAL i, RXLEV band j), each element is made up of:
Samplesij: norm of number of measurement result samples in
which DL RxQual is equal to i and DL RxLev is reported in RXLEV
band j
BS PWR levelij: average value of BS power (in dBm) from pwr
levels reported in these samples
Timing Advanceij: average value of TAs reported in these samples
> TMR_RXQUAL_DL_RXLEV_DL: vector of 10 elements
DLRXQUAL(RXLEV band j), each element is made up of:
the maximum value of the 8 real numbers of samples in which DL
RxQual is equal to i (i=0 to 7) and DL RxLev is reported in RXLEV
band j
RMS4a=TPR_RXQUAL_DL_RXLEV_DL RMS4b=TMR_RXQUAL_DL_RXLEV_DL
The real number of Measurement Results in which DL RxQual is equal to i and DL RxLev is in
RXLEV band j, is equal to:
S(RXQUAL i, RXLEV band j) x Max j / 254
TPR_RXQUAL_DL_RXLEV_DL(i,j) x TMR_RXQUAL_DL_RXLEV_DL(j) / 254
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6.5.3 Radio quality counters
RMS counters (3/7)
Radio Quality Statistics
> TPR_PATH_BALANCE: vector of 10 elements UL/DL(PATH
BALANCE band j), each element is made up of:
the norm of number of measurement result samples for which the
computed Path Balance is in PATH BALANCE band j
> MAX_PATH_BALANCE:
the maximum value of the 10 real numbers of samples for which
the computed Path Balance is in PATH BALANCE band j (j=1 to
10)
RMS7a=TPR_PATH_BALANCE RMS7b=MAX_PATH_BALANCE
The real number of Measurement Results in which Path balance is in PATH BALANCE
band j, is equal to:
S(PATH BALANCE band j) x Max / 254
TPR_PATH_BALANCE(j) x MAX_PATH_BALANCE / 254
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6.5.3 Radio quality counters
RMS counters (4/7)
Radio Quality Statistics
> TPR_RADIO_LINK: vector of 10 elements UL(S band j), each
element is made up of:
the norm of number of measurement result samples for which the
Uplink Radio Link Counter is in S band j
> MAX_RADIO_LINK:
the maximum value of the 10 real numbers of samples for which
the Uplink Radio Link Counter is in S band j (j=1 to 10)
RMS6a=TPR_RADIO_LINK RMS6b=MAX_RADIO_LINK
The real number of Measurement Results in which Uplink Radio Link Counter is in S
band j, is equal to:
S(S band j) x Max / 254
TPR_RADIO_LINK(j) x MAX_RADIO_LINK / 254
Alcatel 250
The real number of Measurement Results in which the number of consecutive
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6.5.3 Radio quality counters
RMS counters (5/7)
Radio Quality Statistics
> TPR_BFI_RXLEV_UL: matrix of 10x10 elements UL(BFI i, RXLEV
band j), each element is made up of:
the norm of number of SACCH multi-frames in which the number
of consecutive speech frames with BFIs set to 1 is in BFI band i
and UL RxLev reported in the corresponding measurement results
is in RXLEV band j
> TMR_BFI_RXLEV_UL: vector of 10 elements ULBFI(RXLEV band j),
each element is made up of:
the maximum value of the 10 real numbers of SACCH multi-
frames in which the number of consecutive speech frames with
BFIs set to 1 is in BFI band i (i=0 to 9) and UL RxLev reported in
the corresponding measurement results is in RXLEV band j
RMS5a=TPR_BFI_RXLEV_UL RMS5b= TPM_BFI_RXLEV_UL
speech frames with BFIs set to 1 is in BFI band i and UL RxLev is in RXLEV band j,
is equal to:
S(BFI i, RXLEV band j) x Max j / 254
TPR_BFI_RXLEV_UL(i,j) x TMR_BFI_RXLEV_UL(j) / 254
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6.5.3 Radio quality counters
RMS counters (6/7)
Radio Quality Statistics
> The BTS increments the BFI (or CFE) counter as soon as
consecutive speech frames cannot be decoded
isolated speech frames with BFIs set to 1 are not counted
sequences of not decoded speech frames are cumulated
SACCH mfr
CFE
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 7
BFI
Sf 1 Sf 2 Sf 3 Sf 4 Sf 5 Sf 6 Sf 7 Sf 8 Sf 9 Sf 10 Sf 11 Sf 12 Sf 13 Sf 14 Sf 15 Sf 16 Sf 17 Sf 18 Sf 19 Sf 20 Sf 21 Sf 22 Sf 23 Sf 24 SACCH f.
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0
RxLev UL
10 11 9 12 12 11 11 10 3 2 0 8 9 5 3 7 2 1 2 7 3 8 2 3 5
Av_RxLev_UL= - 110 + INT[(10+11+9+12+12+11+11+10+3+2+0+8+9+5+3+7+2+1+2+7+3+8+2+3+5)/25]
= -104 dBm
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6.5.3 Radio quality counters
RMS counters for AMR Monitoring (1/4)
Radio Quality Statistics
To provide a better tool to dimensioning the AMR thresholds, B9
introduce a new set of RMS counters to verify the use of different
speech codecs: For Full Rate and Uplink:
> AMR_FR_UL_BAD= RMS44a that has 8 cells (1 for each FR
codec) with the relative number of bad speech frames received
in uplink.
> MAX_AMR_FR_UL_BAD= RMS44b that indicates the maximum
number of bad speech frames received in uplink in one FR
codec.
AMR FR codec used in uplink (TRX based)
B9
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6.5.3 Radio quality counters
RMS counters for AMR Monitoring (2/4)
Radio Quality Statistics
AMR thresholds; different speech codecs:
For Half Rate and Uplink:
> AMR_HR_UL_BAD= RMS45a that has 8 cells (1 for each HR
codec) with the relative number of bad speech frames received
in uplink.
> MAX_AMR_HR_UL_BAD= RMS45b that indicates the maximum
number of bad speech frames received in uplink in one HR
codec.
AMR HR codec used in uplink (TRX based)
B9
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6.5.3 Radio quality counters
RMS counters for AMR Monitoring (3/4)
Radio Quality Statistics
AMR Table; different speech codecs:
For Full Rate, UL & DL
> AMR_FR_UL_RXLEV_UL= RMS46a that has a table (8x10) with relative
number of correct speech frames received in uplink in each AMR FR
codec (8 codecs) and each level band (10 level bands).
> MAX_AMR_FR_UL_RXLEV_UL= RMS46b that has the 10 maximum
results. Each cell Ci of the table indicates the greatest value of the Vik
for a i given in RMS46a.
> AMR_FR_DL_RXLEV_DL= RMS47a that has a table (8x10) with relative
number of correct speech frames received in downlink in each AMR FR
codec (8 codecs) and each level band (10 level bands).
> MAX_AMR_FR_DL_RXLEV_DL= RMS47b that has a table of 10
maximum results. Each cell Ci of the table indicates the greatest value
of the Vik for a i given in RMS47a.
B9
> AMR-FR codec usage compared to RXLEV
> RXLEV UL bands are defined as follows :
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6.5.3 Radio quality counters
RMS counters for AMR Monitoring (4/4)
Radio Quality Statistics
AMR Table; different speech codecs:
For Half Rate, UL & DL
> AMR_HR_UL_RXLEV_UL= RMS48a that has a table (5x10) with relative
number of correct speech frames received in uplink in each AMR HR
codec (5 codecs) and each level band (10 level bands).
> MAX_AMR_HR_UL_RXLEV_UL= RMS48b that has a table of 10
maximum results. Each cell Ci of the table indicates the greatest value
of the Vik for a i given in RMS48a.
> AMR_HR_DL_RXLEV_DL= RMS49a that has a table (5x10) with relative
number of correct speech frames received in downlink in each AMR HR
codec (5 codecs) and each level band (10 level bands).
> MAX_AMR_HR_DL_RXLEV_DL= RMS49b that has a table of 10
maximum results. Each cell Ci of the table indicates the greatest value
of the Vik for a i given in RMS49a.
B9
> AMR-HR codec usage compared to RXLEV
> RXLEV UL bands are defined as follows :
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6.5.3 Radio quality counters
RMS counters for Timing Advance (1/3)
Radio Quality Statistics
> PERC_TA_GT_TA_STAT:
percentage of measurement results reported with a Timing
Advance value > TA_STAT parameter
> MAX_TA:
maximum value of Timing Advance among all TA values reported
in the measurement results used for RMS
> Corresponding RMS counter numbers:
RMS36 = PERC_TA_GT_TA_STAT
RMS37 = MAX_TA
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6.5.3 Radio quality counters
RMS counters for Timing Advance (2/3)
> A new set of RMS counters related with timing advance analysis.
TRX Based. (Rxlev for UL and DL)
TPR_TIMING_ADVANCE= RMS50a that has 10 cells(1 for each
timing advance band) with relative number of measurements in
each Timing advance band.
MAX_TIMING_ADVANCE = RMS50b that has the greatest number
of measurements in one Timing advance band.
TPR_UL_RXLEV_TA_BAND= RMS51 that has 10 cells (1 for each
timing advance band) with average of uplink rxlev in
corresponding timing advance band.
TPR_DL_RXLEV_TA_BAND= RMS52 that has 10 cells (1 for each
timing advance band) with average of downlink rxlev in
corresponding timing advance band.
B9
> The distribution of number of measurement reports for which the value of timing advance is in
TA band X is described below:
> There are 10 TA bands which are defined through 9 thresholds parameters, tunable on a cell
basis, using the RMS_parameters_template :
TA band 1 is defined by: 0 <= TA < Meas_STAT_TA_1
TA band 2 is defined by: MEAS_STAT_TA_1 <= TA < MEAS_STAT_TA_2

TA band 10 is defined by: MEAS_STAT_TA_9 <= TA < 63
> The TRE counts for each TA band the number of measurement results, N1 to N10. To save on
the memory resources, these counters are sent to the BSC in a coded format.
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6.5.3 Radio quality counters
RMS counters for Timing Advance (3/3)
> A new set of RMS counters related with timing advance analysis.
Uplink:
TPR_UL_RXQUAL_TA_BAND= RMS53: Table of 10 results
that has 10 cells (1 for each timing advance band) with average
of uplink rxqual in corresponding timing advance band.
Downlink:
TPR_DL_RXQUAL_TA_BAND= RMS54 Table of 10 results
that has 10 cells (1 for each timing advance band) with average
of uplink rxqual in corresponding timing advance band.
B9
> TPR_UL_RXQUAL_TA_BAND= RMS53
Table of 10 results; Each cell (i) of the table contains :
average value of UpLink Rxqual of reports in TA band i.
Averaged Rxqual is given with a precision of 2 digits after the comma (step size for coding =
0.01, 0 coded 0, 0.01 coded 1, ...).
i = 1...10
TA band i is defined by : MEAS_STAT_TA_ (i-1)<= Timing Advance < MEAS_STAT_TA_i
MEAS_STAT_TA_0 = 0 bper, MEAS_STAT_LEV_10 = 63 bper.
> TPR_DL_RXQUAL_TA_BAND= RMS54
Table of 10 results same for Downlink.
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6.5.3 Radio quality counters
RMS counters for Timing Advance (3/3)
> MAX_POWER_PER_TRX
Maximum GMSK TRX power level applied at the BTS antenna
output connector in dBm.
The power takes into account the different losses
(cables, internal combiners)
TRX Based
B9
> MAX_POWER_PER_TRX= RMSPw3
Maximum GMSK TRX power level applied at the BTS antenna output connector in dBm.
The power takes into account the different losses (cables, internal combiners) and the
internal/ external leveling but it does not take into account the BS-TXPWR-MAX,
attenuation required by the OMC_R.
If the feature unbalancing TRX output power per BTS sector" is activated (parameter En-
Unbalanced-Output-Power set to 1), the counter is set by the BTS to the power required
by the BSC for the corresponding TRE (i.e. for the TRE on which is mapped that TRX).
Alcatel 260
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6 RADIO MEASUREMENT STATISTICS
INDICATORS
6.6 C/I statistics
Alcatel 261
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6 RADIO MEASUREMENT STATISTICS
INDICATORS
6.6 C/I statistics
6.6.1 C/I Generalities
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6.6.1 C/I Generalities
Storage and computation methods
> In order to provide an efficient storage, the "vector method"
already seen for previous RMS statistics will be used for C/I
counters
> C/I expressed in logarithmic scale (dB)
(C/I)dB = CdBm - IdBm = 10 log10(CmW) - 10 log10(ImW)
= 10 log10(C/I)mW
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6 RADIO MEASUREMENT STATISTICS
INDICATORS
6.6 C/I statistics
6.6.2 C/I Parameters
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6.6.2 C/I parameters
RMS parameters
C/I statistics:
parameters defining intervals for C/I statistics
> MEAS_STAT_C_I1 to MEAS_STAT_C_I9: 9 thresholds on the
Carrier/Interference ratio defining 10 C/I bands
-63 < MEAS_STAT_C_I(i) MEAS_STAT_C_I(i+1) +63 dB
> EN_BALANCED_CI: boolean indicating if the C/I value
reported by the BTS is balanced or not
> NEIGB_CELL_ID: (BCCH,BSIC) of the neighboring cell for
which the C/I statistics per neighboring cell are reported
> Frequency ARFCN: ARFCN of the frequency for which the C/I
statistics per MAFA frequency are reported
Annex 2
> All these parameters are included in the RMS PM Type 31 result files as RMS counters:
RMSpt1 = TAB_PAR_MEAS_STAT_C/I = Table of 9 parameters MEAS_STAT_C_Ii
RMSpa = PAR_EN_BALANCED_CI
RMSp80 = NEIGB_CELL_ID
RMSp90 = Frequency ARFCN
> For C/I statistics per neighboring cell:
The C/I ratio is computed by the BTS from each Measurement Result message as the difference between:
the downlink signal level measured by the MS on the serving TCH channel = C (dBm)
the downlink signal level measured by the MS on the neighboring BCCH channel = I (dBm)
Two computation formulae may be used taking into account a corrective factor in case DL Power Control is
used in the serving cell:
If EN_BALANCED_CI = False
then C/I (dB) = RXLEV_DL (dBm) - RXLEV_NCELL (dBm)
else C/I (dB) = RXLEV_DL + abs(BS_TXPWR - BS_TXPWR_MAX) - RXLEV_NCELL
The expression (RXLEV_DL + abs(BS_TXPWR - BS_TXPWR_MAX)) can be seen as a kind of
normalized received power level in case the BTS would always have used the maximum allowed
transmit power level on the TCH channel.
> For C/I statistics per MAFA frequency:
The C/I ratio is computed by the BTS from each Extended Measurement Report message in the same way
as the C/I ratio per neighboring cell.
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6 RADIO MEASUREMENT STATISTICS
INDICATORS
6.6 C/I statistics
6.6.3 C/I Counters
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6.6.3 C/I counters
RMS counters
C/I statistics per neighboring cell
> TPR_CIN: vector of 10 elements C/In(C/I band j), each element
is made up of:
the norm of number of measurement result samples for which the
computed Carrier/Interference ratio is in C/I band j
> MR_CIN:
maximum value of the 10 real numbers of samples for which the
computed Carrier/Interference ratio is in C/I band j (j=1 to 10)
TPR_CIN and MR_CIN counters are provided for up to 42 neighboring
cells
RMS8a=TPR_CIN RMS8b=TMR_CIN
For each reported neighboring cell (BCCH/BSIC):
the Real number of Measurement Results for which the computed
Carrier/Interference ratio is in C/I band j, is equal to:
S(C/I band j) x Max / 254
TPR_CIN(j) x TMR_CIN / 254
For each declared/reported neighboring cell, the identification of this cell shall be done as
follows: BCCH_ARFCN and BSIC.
The BCCH ARFCN is deduced in the BTS from the BCCH frequency index and the list of
indexed frequencies (sent by the BSC at the beginning of the RMS job).
The RMS results report shall include all reported neighboring cells. Some of them correspond
to known cells at the BSS level (i.e. their BSIC matches what is expected at the BSC side) but
some of them are unknown (their BSIC does not match). However, the BTS will handle the
same for both cases.
The list of frequencies to be monitored by the mobile is limited to 33 but due to resurgence,
the same frequency can be reported several times (each time with a different BSIC). If the
number of reported cells is above the dimensioning limit (maximum 42 CI-vectors are
reported), the extra new reported frequencies are not taken into account anymore. In the
result report, the related overflow indicator is set accordingly.
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RMS9a TPR_CIF RMS9b TMR_CIF
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6.6.3 C/I counters
RMS counters
C/I statistics per MAFA frequency
> TPR_CIF: vector of 10 elements C/If(C/I band j), each element is
made up of:
the norm of number of Extended Measurement Results samples
for which the computed Carrier/Interference ratio is in C/I band j
> MR_CIF:
maximum value of the 10 real numbers of samples for which the
computed Carrier/Interference ratio is in C/I band j (j=1 to 10)
TPR_CIF and MR_CIF counters are provided for up to 21 frequencies
(serving cell BCCH + 20 MAFA frequencies)
= =
For each reported MAFA frequency (ARFCN):
the Real number of Extended Measurement Results for which the computed
Carrier/Interference ratio is in C/I band j, is equal to:
S(C/I band j) x Max / 254
TPR_CIF(j) x TMR_CIF / 254
For each reported MAFA frequency, the identification of this frequency shall be done as
follows: Frequency ARFCN .
In case of a frequency reported via an Extended Measurement Reporting, no BSIC is required:
the frequency ARFCN is not directly linked to a BCCH frequency. The ARFCN value of the
frequency is deduced in the BTS from the place of the measurement in the EXTENDED_
MEASUREMENT_REPORT and from the ordered frequency list in the Extended Measurement
Order. This list is built by the OMC-R and passed via BSC to BTS at the beginning of the RMS
job.
The maximum number of frequencies in the order (EMO) is the maximum defined in GSM
(=21). Hence the maximum in the report is 21 also. When in exceptional cases, more results
are available (future expansion in GSM), only the first 21 are reported.
Alcatel
The BCCH frequency of the serving cell shall always be part of the EMO-frequency list.
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6 RADIO MEASUREMENT STATISTICS
INDICATORS
6.7 RMS indicators usage
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6.7 RMS indicators usage
Voice quality problem
Suspecting a Voice Quality problem
> Percentage of Noisy calls
> FER is more reliable than RXQUAL to assess VQ
> Noisy calls indicators can also be computed from FER
measurements
Noisy calls with bad or good FER
Calls not detected as noisy but with bad FER
Voice Quality indicators are
based on calls
Noisy calls are associated
with a cause of
bad coverage, interference or
with an undefined cause
> The fact that FER measurements are more reliable than RXQUAL ones to assess the VQ is even more true when
using Slow Frequency Hopping. In this case, RXQUAL values are not anymore correlated to Voice Quality as
perceived by the end user.
> FER measurements are available for the uplink path only.
> These RMS indicators are provided on the RNO tool per TRX, per Cell:
Number of Noisy calls suffering from problem of bad coverage on the uplink path
RMVQULVN = RMS_call_noisy_UL_bad_coverage
Number of Noisy calls suffering from problem of interference on the uplink path
RMVQUIFN = RMS_call_noisy_UL_interference
Number of Noisy calls suffering from problem of interference and bad coverage considered together on the
uplink path
RMVQUUKN = RMS_call_noisy_UL_undefined
Rate of Noisy calls suffering from problems of interference or/and bad coverage on the uplink path
RMVQUNOR = RMS_call_noisy_UL_rate
> Note: The 4 indicators above can be provided for Noisy calls suffering of VQ problems on the dowlink path.
Rate of Noisy calls but with good FER measurements on the uplink path
RMVQFEGR = RMS_call_noisy_good_FER_rate
Rate of Noisy calls and also with bad FER measurements on the uplink path
RMVQFEBR = RMS_call_noisy_bad_FER_rate
Rate of calls with fair quality measurements but with bad FER measurements on the uplink path
RMVQFEAR = RMS_call_abnormal_bad_FER_rate
This last indicator can be used in order to tune the RMS VQ parameters used to characterize a call
as Noisy.
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Suspecting a cell coverage problem
> Distribution of samples per RxQual value and RxLev band
> Distribution of samples per RxLev band
6.7 RMS indicators usage
Cell coverage problem
Not acceptable
coverage limit:
Too low level
Too bad quality
> A coverage problem is observed when a significant amount of the traffic of a cell is suffering
from both low level and bad quality (RxQual).
> To confirm the distribution of samples per RXLEV band, should be also considered to know the
proportion of calls which are experiencing a low signal level.
> If a lot of samples of low level and bad quality are observed for only a sub-part of the TRXs (can
be one only) then a BTS hardware problem or a problem on the aerials should be suspected.
> If all the TRXs are experiencing a lot of samples of low level and bad quality then a coverage
problem shall be suspected.
> These RMS indicators are provided on the RNO tool per TRX, per Cell:
Matrix of Number of Measurement Results per DL RxQual value and per DL RxLev band
RMQLDSAM = RMS_DL_RxQuality_RxLevel_sample
Vector of Percentage of Samples per DL RxLev band
RMQLDLVDV = RMS_DL_RxLevel_distrib
Vector of Percentage of Samples per DL RxQual band
RMQLDQUDV = RMS_DL_RxQuality_distrib
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6.7 RMS indicators usage
Cell coverage problem
Suspecting a cell coverage problem
> Average TA values per RxQual value and RxLev band
Not acceptable
coverage limit:
Too low level
Too bad quality
Acceptable coverage limit:
Sufficient level and good quality
% of TA value over TA
threshold has also to be
considered
> In order to know if the coverage problem is due to a big amount of traffic at the cell border or
rather to indoor calls, the average TA value per RXQUAL value and RXLEV band as well as the
Percentage of TA values over the TA threshold should be observed.
Matrix of Average TA per UL RxQual value and per UL RxLev band
RMQLUTAM = RMS_UL_RxQuality_RxLevel_TimingAdvance
Rate of Measurements Results whose TA is greater than the TA threshold
RMTAGTR = RMS_TimingAdvance_greater_threshold_rate
Maximum TA value of all values reported in Measurement Results
RMTAMXN = RMS_TimingAdvance_max
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6.7 RMS indicators usage
RMS Exercise 1
> Give the list of the RMS counters and
parameters used in the 3 previous slides
Time allowed:
10 minutes
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6.7 RMS indicators usage
RMS exercise 2
> What does this graph represent?
> Interpret this graph
Time allowed:
10 minutes
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6.7 RMS indicators usage
Cell interference problem
Suspecting a cell interference problem
> Number of samples per RxQual value and RxLev band
Average DL RxQuality = 0.34
RMS results show no problem
of radio link quality in this cell
Average RxQual value per
RxLev band has also to be
considered
> These RMS indicators are provided on the RNO tool per TRX, per Cell:
Matrix of Number of Measurement Results per DL RxQual value and per DL RxLev band
RMQLDSAM = RMS_DL_RxQuality_RxLevel_sample
Vector of Average DL RxQual per RxLev band
RMQLDQUAV = RMS_DL_RxQuality_avg_per_RxLevel
Average DL RxQuality
RMQLDQUAN = RMS_DL_RxQuality_avg
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6.7 RMS indicators usage
RMS exercise 3
Average RxQual value per
RxLev band has also to be
considered
Average DL RxQuality =
2.81
> Interpret this graph
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6.7 RMS indicators usage
RMS exercise 4
Time allowed:
15 minutes
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6.7 RMS indicators usage
RMS exercise 5
> Interpret this graph
Time allowed:
10 minutes
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6.7 RMS indicators usage
RMS exercise 6
Compute the RMS counters and indicators in
the file
Time allowed:
10 minutes
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6 RADIO MEASUREMENT STATISTICS
INDICATORS
6.8 Additional information
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6.8 Additional information
RMS counters (1/3)
Counters used for:
> post-processing the RMS results provided per TRX
TOT_SEIZ_TCH: number of TCH channels successfully seized by the MS
TOT_MEAS: number of Measurement Results used for RMS
TOT_MEAS_L1INFO_NOL3INFO: number of Measurement Results used
for RMS statistics for which Layer 1 info is present but Layer 3 is missing
TOT_MEAS_DTX_UL: number of Measurement Results used for RMS
statistics for which DTX UL was used in the corresponding SACCH mfr
TOT_MEAS_DTX_DL: number of Measurement Results used for RMS
statistics for which DTX DL was used in the corresponding SACCH mfr
TOT_EMR: number of Extended Measurement Results used for RMS
statistics
> Corresponding RMS counter numbers:
RMS31 = TOT_SEIZ_TCH
RMS32 = TOT_MEAS
RMS33 = TOT_MEAS_L1INFO_NOL3INFO
RMS34 = TOT_MEAS_DTX_UL
RMS35 = TOT_MEAS_DTX_DL
RMS38 = TOT_EMR
> Note:
If during an SACCH measurement, DTX is applied on the uplink path (DTX_UL =1), the
counters on consecutive BFIs (RMS5a, RMS5b) shall not be incremented and the
corresponding measurement result shall not be taken into account in these RMS counters.
If during an SACCH measurement, DTX is applied on the uplink path (DTX_UL = 1), the
FER measurement does not take place.
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6.8 Additional information
RMS counters (2/3)
Counters used for:
> interpreting the RMS results provided per TRX
TRE_BAND: frequency band of the TRX
BS_TX_PWRMAX: effective maximum output power of the BTS on
any channel of the TRX as an offset from the maximum absolute
output power (in dB)
MS_TX_PWRMAX: effective maximum output power of the MS
using any channel of the TRX (in dBm)
IND_TRE_OVERLOAD: boolean indicating if the TRE handling the
TRX function has experienced a data loss due to a processor
overload during the RMS campaign
IND_RMS_RESTARTED: boolean indicating if the RMS job has
been restarted on the concerned TRE during the RMS campaign
due to a modification of the RMS parameter values or a TRE reset
> Corresponding RMS counter numbers: RMS20 = TRE_BAND
RMSpw1 = BS_TX_PWRMAX
RMSpw2 = MS_TX_PWRMAX
RMS21 = IND_TRE_OVERLOAD
RMS22 = IND_RMS_RESTARTED
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6.8 Additional information
RMS counters (3/3)
Counters used for:
> interpreting the C/I RMS results provided per TRX
IND_CI_PARTIAL_OBSERVATION: made up of 2 booleans
indicating that:
C/In computation has been restarted due to the modification of the
list of neighboring cells during the RMS campaign
C/If computation has been restarted due to the modification of the
list of MAFA frequencies during the RMS campaign
IND_CI_OVERFLOW: boolean indicating that the upper limit of
42 C/I sets of counters has been exceeded (each new reported
neighboring cell (BCCH, BSIC) has not been taken into account in
RMS statistics)
> Corresponding RMS counter numbers:
RMS23 = IND_CI_PARTIAL_OBSERVATION
RMS24 = IND_CI_OVERFLOW
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7 TRAFFIC INDICATORS
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7 Traffic indicators
Section presentation
> Objective: to be able to describe BSS traffic indicators used for
radio resource dimensioning
> Program:
7.1 Call mix definition
7.2 Basis of traffic theory
7.3 TCH resource allocation indicators
7.4 Resource occupancy indicators
7.5 Traffic model indicators
7.6 Preemption indicators
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7 TRAFFIC INDICATORS
7.1 Call mix definition
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7.1 Call mix definition
GSM transactions
> In a GSM Network, there are a lot of different transactions :
location update: periodic, new updating, ~imsi_attach,
~imsi_detach
Hand Over (intra-cell, internal, external, etc.)
SMS (Short Message Service, originating or terminating)
SS (Supplementary Service) (I.e: number presentation)
Paging
and also Originating and Terminating calls, etc.
and so on (data, SMS-CB, etc.)
> In a GSM network, telecom procedures involve different kinds of resource in the BSS:
Location Update: RACH, AGCH, SDCCH and SCCP
Originated Call: RACH, AGCH, SDCCH, TCH and SCCP
Terminated Call: PCH, RACH, AGCH, SDCCH, TCH and SCCP
Handover: TCH, SCCP
etc.
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7.1 Call mix definition
GSM transactions
> One can quantify the number of each transaction per hour
> For example, for one cell, one can measure:
900 calls (600 TCs, 300 OCs)
3600 LUs (any type)
1350 HOs (900 internal, 450 external)
100 SMSs
5 SSs
6000 pagings
With the following characteristics
mean call duration on TCH: 50 seconds
mean SDCCH duration: 3.2 seconds
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> A Call mix can be defined through:
data given by the Marketing team.
data measured from the living network.
> Before network design, a Call Mix is assessed from Marketing Studies or observations from
other networks.
> After commercial opening, a Call Mix is measured from the real traffic.
> Caution: Call duration means here TCH duration. The duration of a call from call setup to call
release is an NSS notion.
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7.1 Call mix definition
Example
> Set of such measurements is called "call mix"
sometimes improperly called "traffic model"
> Usually presented in the following way:
Calls /hour : 900 (2/3 TC)
LU/call : 4
HO/Call : 1.5 (2/3 internal, 1/3
external)
SMS/Call : 11 %
SS/call : 5 %
Paging/hour : 6000
mean call duration on TCH : 90 seconds
mean SDCCH duration : 4.2 seconds
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> After commercial opening, the number of calls per hour will be measured from traffic counters.
> Usually the Marketing team will provide:
on a per geographical area or morphostructure basis:
the traffic per km
2
(in Erlang),
the traffic per subscriber (in mErl).
the number of calls per hour.
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7.1 Call mix definition
Variation
> A call mix is varying a lot:
from a cell to another
TCH traffic (induced by subscribers)
number of LU/call and HO/call (induced by network design)
from one hour to another
by default: busy hour
from one year to another
modification of traffic intensity and distribution
> On some university campus, an SMS/call is often higher than the average.
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7.1 Call mix definition
Usage
> Interests of call mix: Input data for dimensioning
Cell and BSC resources dimensioning
RTCH, SDCCH, TTCH, BTS, BSC and MSC CPU processor
Some examples of "risky" call mix
too many LU/Calls: SDCCH congestion, TCU load, MSC overload
too many HO/calls: speech quality, call drop, DTC load
too many calls: TCH congestion
too many paging: DTC processor load, PCH congestion
> A Call Mix will be used at Radio Network Design and Radio Network Planning stages in order to
define the capacity of the network (number of sites, TRXs per site, radio configuration, number
of Abis-PCM, A-PCM).
> When the network is in operation, a Call Mix is used in order to anticipate network extension or
re-dimensioning.
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7.1 Call mix definition
Advises
> Some advises
LU/CALL: 1 is "good", 2 is "bad", 4 and more can be dangerous
beware of the Network or BSC averages which can hide critical
cells
HO/Call: less critical (1 is good)
2 or 3 is not a direct problem, but the trend has to be monitored
Call: to be checked with an Erlang table (seen in next session)
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7.1 Call mix definition
Exercise
> Compute the call mix of a cell according
the following information
256 call/hour
1300 LU/hour
450 HO/hour
> Is it complete?
> What are the risks of such a call mix?
Time allowed:
15 minutes
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7 TRAFFIC INDICATORS
7.2 Basis of traffic theory
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7.2 Basis of traffic theory
Erlang definition
> ERLANG: unit used to quantify traffic (intensity)
T = (resource usage duration) / (total observation duration)
[ERLANG]
> Example:
For 1 TCH, observed during 1 hour
one can observe 2 calls: 1 of 80 seconds and 1 of 100 seconds
T = (80+100)/3600 = 0.05 ERLANG
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7.2 Basis of traffic theory
Erlang from call mix
CALL MIX => ERLANG
> Call mix example:
350 call/hour
3 LU/call
TCH mean call duration: 85 seconds
SDCCH mean duration: 4.5 seconds
Computation of Carried Erlang
TCH = (350*85)/3600: 8.26 ERLANGS
SDCCH = [ (350+350*3) * 4.5 ] / 3600 = 1.75 Erlang
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7.2 Basis of traffic theory
Erlang B law
> In a Telecom system, the call arrival frequency is ruled by the
POISSON law
> Erlang B law: relationship between:
offered traffic
number of resources
blocking rate
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7.2 Basis of traffic theory
Erlang B law
> The call request arrival rate (and leaving) is not stable
number of resources = average number of requests * mean duration
is sometimes not sufficient => probability of blocking
=> Erlang B law
Pblock: blocking probability
N: number of resources
E: offered traffic [Erlang]
> Good approximation when the blocking rate
is low (< 5 %)
Telecom system
Offered
Carried
Rejected
Pblock
N
k
N
k
k
N
E
E
=
=

!
! 0
> The Erlang B law is not fully accurate since it assumes that:
the subscriber requests are not queued which is not always the case (TCH queued in the
BSC),
the subscriber does not repeat his call request if rejected, which is almost never the case.
> Therefore the higher the blocking rate the worse is the approximation of the Erlang B law.
> The Erlang C law modelizes better the TCH resource usage of the BSS since it takes into account
the queuing.
> However the Erlang C law is never used since parameters like size of the queue and time spent
into the queue have to be tuned.
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7.2 Basis of traffic theory
Erlang B formulae
> There are two different ways to use this law
Using Abacus
Using SW (here Excel)
Pblock = f (T, Nc)
Offered = f (Nc, Pblock)
Channels = f (T, Pblock)
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7.2 Basis of traffic theory
Erlang B abacus
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7.2 Basis of traffic theory
Erlang B example
> Example:
1 cell with 8 TRXs, with 60 TCH channels
Maximum blocking rate: 2 %
Erlang law: 50 Offered Erlang
83 % of TCH resources used to reach 2% of blocking
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7.2 Basis of traffic theory
Non linearity of Erlang B
> But be careful, the Erlang B law is not linear:
If we use for example a combined BCCH with a micro BTS.
4 SDCCHs, Pblock = 2% => T = 1.1 E
25% resources used to reach 2% blocking
if we decide to provide SMSCB (Cell Broadcast information),
1 SDCCH stolen for CBCH
3 SDCCH, Pblock = 2% => T = 0.6 E
25 % resources less => 50 % Traffic less!!
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7.2 Basis of traffic theory
Cell dimensioning
> Given an Offered traffic, compute the number of TRXs (and
SDCCH) needed to carry it => What is the accepted blocking
rate?
> default blocking rate
RTCH: 2 %
SDCCH: 0.5 %
(for BSC TTCH: 0.1%)
> The Erlang B law is less relevant for SDCCH dimensioning since SDCCH traffic cannot be
modelized like TCH traffic. Indeed SDCCH is not only due to subscriber traffic but also to
Location Update, SMS, IMSI Detach, etc.
> For SDCCH dimensioning, some typical configurations are used according to the number of
TRXs in the cell, the LA plan.
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7.2 Basis of traffic theory
Dimensioning "a priori"
> Cell dimensioning from call mix (bid, architecture)
to handle an offered traffic of 12 Erlangs (RTCH), compute the
number of channels, then the number of TRXs
Channels (12;2%) = 19
example: 3 TRXs, 21 TCHs, 1 BCCH, 2 SDCCHs/8
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7.2 Basis of traffic theory
Dimensioning "a posteriori"
> Cell dimensioning from measurement (re-planning)
one is measuring a traffic of 15 Erlangs, with a blocking rate of
10 %
how to dimension the cell?
Offered traffic = 15 / (1-10%) = 16.7 Erlangs!!!!
Channels (16.7;2%) -> 25 TCHs -> 4 TRXs needed
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7.2 Basis of traffic theory
Forecast / Critical traffic
> Forecast traffic
traffic forecasting must be computed according to the offered
traffic
not directly on the measured traffic
In order to plan the necessary actions soon enough, one must
compute regularly the date when the traffic of a cell will become
critical
> Critical traffic
critical traffic: when the offered traffic will induce 2% of blocking
traffic capacity of a cell = critical traffic of this cell
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7.2 Basis of traffic theory
Exercise
Training exercise: complete the form to get less than 2% of blocking
cell call mix info Erlang TCH
Offered traffic
traffic forecast proposed config
12, 743 450 call/hour
mean TCH call duration : 80
sec
blocking rate TCH : 0.8%
10,08 Erlang TCH 30 % offered traffic
increase
13,1 Erlang TCH - > 20 TCH
3 TRX
12,675 330 call/hour
mean TCH call duration 129
sec
blocking rate 4%
30 % offered traffic
increase
12,865 600 call/hour
mean TCH call duration 96
sec
blocking rate 8 %
30 % offered traffic
increase
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7 TRAFFIC INDICATORS
7.3 TCH resource allocation indicators
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7.3 TCH resource allocation indicators
Radio Allocation and Management
> Radio resource allocation and management (RAM) aims at:
Managing pools of TCH radio resources by:
defining TCH radio timeslots as a function of the cell radio
configuration from the operator
sorting these TCH TS according to their radio capabilities (FR or DR,
frequency band (G1 or GSM/DCS))
Allocating dedicated TCH radio resources by:
selecting the TCH pool in which the TCH should be chosen
according to:
the requested channel rate (FR or HR)
the radio capability of the mobile
the TRE DR capability and the TRE band
selecting the best TCH resource among the available TCH channels
of this pool according to several criteria
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7.3 TCH resource allocation indicators
MS access
> MS access types distribution (NA only)
Accessibility in type 110 since B8
TCH requests from FR only MS
TCNARQMN= MC701A
TCH requests from DR MS
TCNARQBN= MC701B
TCH requests from DR+EFR MS
TCNARQTN= MC701C
TCH requests from AMR MS
TCNA3RQTN= MC701D
TCH requests from Data calls
TCNARQDN= MC701E
> Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS:
Traffic Load and Traffic Model > TCH traffic > Speech version and Channel type
These indicators can only be computed if PM Type 1 is activated in B7.
From B8, the counters needed for these indicators are added to type 110.
The following indicators are also computed:
Ratio of TCH normal assignment requests from FR mobiles over all TCH normal assignment requests from all
mobile types
= TCNARQMTO = MC701A / (MC701A+MC701B+MC701C+MC701D+MC701E)
Ratio of TCH normal assignment requests from DR mobiles over all TCH normal assignment requests from all
mobile types
= TCNARQBTO = MC701B / (MC701A+MC701B+MC701C+MC701D+MC701E)
Ratio of TCH normal assignment requests from DR+EFR mobiles over all TCH normal assignment requests from
all mobile types
= TCNARQTTO = MC701C / (MC701A+MC701B+MC701C+MC701D+MC701E)
Ratio of TCH normal assignment requests from AMR mobiles over all TCH normal assignment requests from all
mobile types
= TCNA3RQTTO = MC701D / (MC701A+MC701B+MC701C+MC701D+MC701E)
Ratio of TCH normal assignment requests for Data calls over all TCH normal assignment requests from all
mobile types
= TCNARQDTO = MC701E / (MC701A+MC701B+MC701C+MC701D+MC701E)
Number of handover intracell attempts with cause 27: "FR to HR channel adaptation due to a good radio
quality" on a TCH channel
= HCSTAMFN = MC448B
Number of handover intracell attempts with cause 26: "HR to FR channel adaptation due to a bad radio
quality" on a TCH channel
= HCSTAMHN = MC448A
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7.3 TCH resource allocation indicators
Speech coding version
> Speech coding Version capabilities distribution (NA only)
Accessibility in type 110 since B8
TCH allocations with FR SV1
TCNACAFN= MC702A
TCH allocations with HR SV1
TCNACAHN= MC702B
TCH allocations with FR SV2 (EFR)
TCNACAEN= MC702C
TCH allocations with FR SV3 (AMR FR)
TCNA3CAFN= MC704A
TCH allocations with HR SV3 (AMR HR)
TCNA3CAHN= MC704B
TCH allocations for data call
TCNACADN= MC705
> Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS:
Traffic Load and Traffic Model > TCH traffic > Speech version and Channel type
These indicators can only be computed if PM Type 1 is activated in B7.
From B8, the counters needed for these Indicators are added to type 110.
The following indicators are also computed:
Ratio of TCH allocations with FR SV1 over all TCH allocations during normal assignment
= TCNACAFTO = MC702A / (MC702A+MC702B+MC702C+MC704A+MC704B+MC705)
Ratio of TCH allocations with HR SV1 over all TCH allocations during normal assignment
= TCNACAHTO = MC702B / (MC702A+MC702B+MC702C+MC704A+MC704B+MC705)
Ratio of TCH allocations with EFR over all TCH allocations during normal assignment
= TCNACAETO = MC702C / (MC702A+MC702B+MC702C+MC704A+MC704B+MC705)
Ratio of TCH allocations with AMR FR over all TCH allocations during normal assignment
= TCNA3CAFTO = MC704A / (MC702A+MC702B+MC702C+MC704A+MC704B+MC705)
Ratio of TCH allocations with AMR HR over all TCH allocations during normal assignment
= TCNA3CAHTO = MC704A / (MC702A+MC702B+MC702C+MC704A+MC704B+MC705)
Ratio of TCH allocations for Data calls over all TCH allocations during normal assignment
= TCNACADTO = MC705 / (MC702A+MC702B+MC702C+MC704A+MC704B+MC705)
Rate of successful TCH allocations with AMR SV over all AMR MS requests
= TCNA3SUR = (MC704A+MC704B) / MC701D
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7.3 TCH resource allocation indicators
Distributions
> FR/HR calls distribution (NA+HO)
FR TCH allocation ratio
TCAHCAFO = MC370A / (MC370A+MC370B)
HR TCH allocation ratio
TCAHCAHO = MC370B / (MC370A+MC370B)
> NA/HO distribution
Normal Assignment TCH allocation ratio
TCNACAO = MC703 / (MC703 + [MC15A+MC15B])
Handover TCH allocation ratio
TCHOCAO = [MC15A+MC15B] / (MC703 +
[MC15A+MC15B])
> TCH allocation distribution per TRX
Number of TCH allocations for Normal Assignment
TCNACAN = MC703
> Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS:
Traffic Load and Traffic Model > TCH traffic > Resource occupancy
MC370A = Number of FR TCH allocations (FR+EFR+AMR FR)
MC370B = Number of HR TCH allocations (HR+AMR HR)
MC703 = Number of TCH allocations for Normal Assignment.
MC15A = Number of TCH allocations for Internal Directed Retry.
MC15B = Number of TCH allocations for Handover (intra cell, internal, external).
TCNACAN indicator is also available as the MAX value of the day on the A9156
RNO tool.
Some of these indicators are also available for SDCCH:
SDCCH allocation distribution per TRX through the number of SDCCH allocations
SDAHCAN = MC390
SDCCH Assignment/HO distribution through the ratio of SDCCH allocations for
Assignment
SDNACAO = MC148 / MC390
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7 TRAFFIC INDICATORS
7.4 Resource occupancy indicators
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7.4 Resource occupancy indicators
TCH resource
> TCH resource occupancy
TCH traffic in Erlang
TCTRE= (MC380A+MC380B) / 3600
TCH mean holding time (TCH average duration)
TCTRMHT= (MC380A+MC380B) / (MC370A+MC370B)
FR TCH traffic in Erlang
TCTRE= MC380A / 3600
FR TCH mean holding time
TCTRFMHT= MC380A/ MC370A
HR TCH traffic in Erlang
TCTRE= MC380B / 3600
HR TCH mean holding time
TCTRHMHT= MC380B/ MC370B
> Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS:
Traffic Load and Traffic Model > TCH traffic > Resource occupancy
MC380A = Cumulated FR TCH duration per TRX
MC380B = Cumulated HR TCH duration per TRX
The following indicators can also be computed:
TCTRME = Multiband MS TCH traffic in Erlang = MC381 / 3600
TCTRSE = Single band MS TCH traffic in Erlang = ([MC380A+MC380B] - MC381) / 3600
MC381 = Cumulated (FR+HR) TCH duration of Multiband mobiles per TRX
A split of counters (MC380a and MC380b) is added, in B8, to make the distinction between traffic in different
frequency bands: here after the corresponding stored indicators (type 110):
TCTRFTTGT = Time (in seconds) during which the TCH radio timeslot or dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot in the
GSM frequency band is busy in FR usage = MC380C
TCTRHTTGT = Time (in seconds) during which the TCH radio timeslot or dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot in the
GSM frequency band is busy in HR usage = MC380D
TCTRFTTDT = Time (in seconds) during which the TCH radio timeslot or dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot in the
DCS/PCS frequency band is busy in FR usage = MC380E
TCTRHTTDT = Time (in seconds) during which the TCH radio timeslot or dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot in the
DCS/PCS frequency band is busy in HR usage = MC380F
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7.4 Resource occupancy indicators
SDCCH / ACH resource
> SDCCH resource occupancy
SDCCH traffic in Erlang
SDTRE= MC400 / 3600
SDCCH mean holding time (SDCCH average duration)
SDTRMHT= MC400 / MC390
> ACH resource occupancy
ACH traffic in Erlang
C750 / 3600
ACH mean holding time (ACH average duration)
QSTRN =C750 / C751
> Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS:
Traffic Load and Traffic Model > SDCCH traffic > Resource occupancy
MC400 = Cumulated SDCCH duration per TRX
MC380 = Number of SDCCH allocations per TRX
> C750 and C751 are 2 counters introduced from B7 in type 18. Both are provided per TTCH (A
channel):
C750 = TIME_A_CHANNEL_BUSY: Time (in seconds) during which the A channel is busy
(allocated).
C751 = NB_A_CHANNEL_ALLOC: Number of allocations of the A channel.
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7 TRAFFIC INDICATORS
7.5 Traffic model indicators
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7.5 Traffic model indicators
SDCCH establishment
> SDCCH establishment cause distribution
Ratio of MT calls
TMMTO= MC01 / SDCCH ASSIGN SUCCESS
Ratio of MO normal and emergency calls
TMMTO= MC02H / SDCCH ASSIGN SUCCESS
Ratio of LU normal (resp. follow-on)
TMMOLUR = MC02A (resp. MC02D) / SDCCH ASSIGN SUCCESS
Ratio of IMSI detach
TMMOLUDR= MC02G / SDCCH ASSIGN SUCCESS
Ratio of Short Message Service
TMMOSMSR= MC02B / SDCCH ASSIGN SUCCESS
Ratio of Supplementary Service
TMMOSSR= MC02C / SDCCH ASSIGN SUCCESS
Ratio of Call re-establishment
TMMOCRR= MC02E / SDCCH ASSIGN SUCCESS
> Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS:
Traffic Load and Traffic Model > SDCCH traffic > Traffic model
SDCCH ASSIGN SUCCESS = Total number of SDCCH establishments for network access
= MC01 + MC02
These indicators allow to get call mix data from the network.
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7.5 Traffic model indicators
Mobiles penetration
> E-GSM mobiles penetration
Ratio of E-GSM MS access over all MS accesses (except LU)
TMMSEGR = MC706 / ([MC01+MC02]-[MC02A+MC02D+MC02G])
> Multiband mobiles penetration
Ratio of Multiband MS access over all MS accesses (except LU)
TMMSMBR = MC850 / ([MC01+MC02]-[MC02A+MC02D+MC02G])
> AMR mobiles penetration
Ratio of TCH allocation for AMR MS over all TCH allocations
TCTR3CATTO = MC704A+ MC704B / MC703
> TFO calls ratio
Ratio of successful TFO establishment over all TCH allocations
QSTRCCTR = MC170 / MC703
> Handover per Call
Number of Handovers (intra cell,internal,external) per Normal
Assignment
TMHOCO = (MC717A+MC717B) / MC718
> Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS:
Traffic Load and Traffic Model > SDCCH traffic > MS penetration rate
Traffic Load and Traffic Model > TCH traffic > Speech version and Channel type
[MC01+MC02]-[MC02A+MC02D+MC02G] = Total number of initial accesses for
call establishment (except location update)
MC706 = Number of initial accesses for call establishment (except location update)
of MS supporting the E-GSM band
MC850 = Number of initial accesses for call establishment (except location update)
of MS supporting two frequency bands (ex: GSM900 and DCS1800)
MC703 = Total number of TCH allocations (FR+HR) for Normal Assignment
MC704A = Number of TCH allocations (FR) for Normal Assignment of AMR
mobiles only
MC704B = Number of TCH allocations (HR) for Normal Assignment of AMR
mobiles only
MC704 (Allocation AMR FR+HR) is removed in B8
MC170 = Number of TCH calls for which a TFO has been successfully established
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7 TRAFFIC INDICATORS
7.6 Preemption indicators
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7.6 Preemption indicators
Preemption principle
> Preemption attributes (in Assignment or HO Request):
pci : preemption capability indication
indicates if the call can preempt another call (pci=1) or not
pvi : preemption vulnerability indication
indicates if the call is preemptable (pvi=1) or not
priority level: 1=highest priority / 14=lowest priority
> Preemption rules:
A TCH request with pci=1 and priority level=p1 will preempt an
on-going call with pvi=1 and priority level=p2, p2 lower than p1
(whatever pci value)
the on-going call with the lowest priority level value shall be
elected first and if several calls have the same lowest p2 value,
one of them with pci bit set to 0 is preferred
> On Preemption capable TCH Request occurrence:
1. The TCH is established through Preemption if a lower priority level on-going call is
preemptable. In this case, the on-going call is released and the freed TCH is served to
the new request.
2. If no preemption is possible:
If queuing is possible: the TCH request is queued and either a Directed Retry or a
Fast Traffic HO can be performed.
If queuing is not possible: the TCH request is rejected and an ASSIGNMENT or
HANDOVER FAILURE "no radio resource available" message is sent to the MSC.
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7.6 Preemption indicators
Preemption counters
> MC921A = Number of TCH Requests with the capability to
preempt another call with lower priority (pci=1)
> MC921B = Number of preemption capable TCH Requests
(pci=1) served with TCH resource (with or without using the
preemption feature).
> MC921C = Number of preempted calls
> MC921D = Number of preemption capable TCH Request
(pci=1) successfully served in a neighboring cell with the help of
the directed retry procedure
> MC921E = Number of preemptable calls successfully
established (pvi=1)
> Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS:
GLOBAL Quality of service INDICATORS> RTCH > Preemption feature
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7.6 Preemption indicators
> Preemption capable TCH Request rejection rate
TCPPFLCR = (MC921A-MC921B-MC921D) / MC921A
> Ratio of preemption capable TCH Request which led to a
successful Directed Retry
TCPPDSUCR = MC921D / MC921A
> Ratio of preemptable calls established over all calls
TCPPSUVO = MC921E / (MC718+MC717A+MC717B)
> Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS
GLOBAL Quality of service INDICATORS> RTCH > Preemption feature
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Introduction to QoS and Traffic Load monitoring / B9
Evaluation
> Objective: to be able to interpret:
Global indicators, in order to assess the general quality
of the network
Detailed indicators, in order to detect / identify / locate
the main malfunctions
Handover indicators, in order to quantify the efficiency
and the reason for HO
Directed retry indicators, in order to quantify the
efficiency of a directed retry
Indicators provided by the new RMS feature to ease
radio optimization and fault detection
Traffic indicators, in order to detect/predict overload
and compute adequate cell dimensioning as well as to
understand how RTCH resources are used in the
network
Thank you for
answering
the objectives sheet
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CASE STUDIES
Alcatel 324
CASE STUDIES
Section presentation
> Objective: to be able to analyse with the KPI QOS some typical
problems.
> Program:
1 Congestion
2 Sector problem
3 QSCSSR
4 Quality
5 RMS Level / Hardware problem
6 Interference
7 BSS Problem
325 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
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Alcatel 325
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CASE STUDIES 1
CASE STUDIES 1
Congestion
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CASE STUDIES 1
> From this RNO table: What is the worst SDCCH congested cell?
> Choose 2 other interesting indicators to continue your analysis?
Call Drop %
SDCCH Assignment Failure %
Outgoing Handover Success %
SDCCH Drop %
Downlink TBF drop %
RTCH assign fail %
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CASE STUDIES 2
CASE STUDIES 2
Sector problem
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CASE STUDIES 2
> In this trisectorised site,
give the worst sector?
> What can you propose
to do?
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CASE STUDIES 3
CASE STUDIES 3
QSCSSR
Alcatel 330
CASE STUDIES 3
> Write the formula using the reference name (MCx) and compute
the CSSR for this 2 cells:
( 1 - SDCCH_drop_%) * ( 1 - RTCH_assign_unsuccess_% )
With:
SDCCH_drop_% = SDCCH_drop / SDCCH_assign_success
RTCH_ass_Un_%= RTCH_assign_unsuccess / RTCH_assign_request
Counter Definition Paris_Tower_S1 Paris_City_S3
MC138 SDCCH drops on SDCCH established phase due to Radio Link Fail. 9 4
MC07 SDCCH drops during any outgoing SDCCH handover 0 0
MC137 SDCCH drops in SDCCH established phase due to BSS problem 1 2
MC01 SDCCH assign success for Mobile Terminating procedure 43 924
MC02 SDCCH assign success for Mobile Originating procedure 663 1352
MC140a normal assignment requests for TCH establishment (HR or FR) 88 1455
MC718 TCH normal assignment successes (HR or FR) 84 1430
QSCSSR=?
Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring 331
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CASE STUDIES 4
CASE STUDIES 4
Quality
Alcatel 332
CASE STUDIES 4
Analyse the table below:
Does it seem to be a good HO causes repartition?
What can we check to analyse the problem ?
Repartition HO Quality 22/01/2003 23/01/2003 24/01/2003 25/01/2003 27/01/2003 28/01/2003
DL_QUAL 64 63 69 58 26 36
% DL_QUAL 3.12% 2.76% 3.27% 3.22% 1.30% 1.94%
UL_QUAL 55 51 433 263 338 466
% UL_QUAL 2.68% 2.23% 20.54% 14.59% 16.93% 25.09%
Nber of HO 2054 2286 2108 1802 1996 1857
29/01/2003
32
1.69%
1053
55.68%
1891
30/01/2003
34
2.64%
348
27.00%
1289
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Alcatel 333
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CASE STUDIES 5
CASE STUDIES 5
RMS Level
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CASE STUDIES 5
> Find the 2 worst cells in the table? Try to propose a solution!
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CASE STUDIES 6
CASE STUDIES 6
Interference
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CASE STUDIES 6
> Find 1 bad cell with some HO problem?
What can you propose to do?
Alcatel 337
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CASE STUDIES 7
CASE STUDIES 7
BSS Problem
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CASE STUDIES 7
> What is the worst cell? Propose some probable solutions?
Alcatel 339
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ANNEX
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ANNEX 1
Radio Measurement Reporting
ANNEX 1
Radio Measurement Reporting
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ANNEX 1
Radio Measurement Reporting
> Radio measurement mechanisms
MS connected (TCH or SDCCH)
The serving cell gives to the MS the list of the neighboring cells to
listen
Every SACCH, the MS reports to the serving cell: measurement
report message
Received level of 6 best cells (which can change)
DL level and quality of serving cell
Meas
t
Report
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ANNEX 1
Radio Measurement Reporting
> Radio measurement mechanisms
For each MS connected to the BTS (TCH or SDCCH)
BSC
DL measurements UL+DL measurements
The UL received level and quality are measured every SACCH
The Timing advance (TA) is computed
The UL information is gathered into a measurement report
this is the message result sent by the BTS to the BSC
Meas
t
Report
Meas
t
Result
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ANNEX 1
Radio Measurement Reporting
> Measurement Result message
L1 Info
L3 Info
Measurement
Report
From the MS
Back
> Basically, the MEASUREMENT RESULT message is composed of:
L1 info: SACCH Layer 1 header containing MS_TXPWR_CONF and TOA.
L3 info: MEASUREMENT REPORT from the MS. This message contains the downlink measurements and
neighboring cell measurements.
Uplink measurements performed by the BTS.
BTS power level used.
> SUB frames correspond to the use of DTX
if the mobile is in DTX, the rxlevsub or rxqualsub is used to avoid measuring the ts where there is nothing
to transmit in order not to false measurements.
else rxlevfull is used that is to say all TSs are measured.
> MS TXPOWER CONF: what is the actual power emitted by the MS.
> TOA is the timing advance.
> SACCH BFI: bad frame indicator; 2 values 0 or 1; 0 means that the BTS succeeded in decoding the measurement
report from the MS.
> How the neighboring cells are coded:
BCCH1 index in BA list /BSIC1; BCCH2 index in BA list/BSIC2. Why? Because when the mobile is
connecting to a new cell, it does not receive LAC/CI (too long) but the list of BCCH frequencies of the
neighboring cells (in Band Allocation: BA list). When it reports the radio measurements, it gives the index
of the BCCH frequency in the BA list instead of BCCH ARFCN due to the length in case of 1800 frequency
coding. Besides the mobile may report a BCCH index / BSIC which does not correspond to a neighboring
cell. Of course the BSC will not trigger any handover except if this BCCH index / BSIC couple correspond
to a neighboring cell.
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ANNEX 2
Extended Measurement Reporting (MAFA)
ANNEX 2
Extended Measurement Reporting
(MAFA)
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ANNEX 2
Extended Measurement Reporting (MAFA)
> The Extended Measurement Reporting is a feature allowing the
BSS to request an MS to measure and report up to 21
frequencies of the band that are not included in its BA list
> Such phase 2+ mobiles must support the optional MAFA feature
(Mobile Assisted Frequency Allocation)
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MS BTS BSC MSC
TCH ASSIGNMENT PHASE (OC or TC)
< -----------------------------------
ASSIGNMENT REQUEST
< --------------------------------------------------------
PHYSICAL CONTEXT REQUEST
-------------------------------------------------------- >
PHYSICAL CONTEXT CONFIRM
< --------------------------------------------------------
CHANNEL ACTIVATION (TCH)
(EMO included)
-------------------------------------------------------- >
CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACKNOWLEDGE
.
.
TCH establishment.
--------TCH---------> .
ASSIGNT COMPLETE ------------------------------------------------------- >
ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE ----------------------------------- >
<------SACCH-------- ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE
--------SACCH------>
<------SACCH--------
--------SACCH------>
<-------SACCH--------
EMO
(MAFA freq. List)
--------SACCH------>
EMR
(MAFA freq. RxLev)
<------SACCH--------
--------SACCH------>
ANNEX 2
Extended Measurement Reporting (MAFA)
Extended Measurement Reporting mechanisms
The Extended Measurement
Order includes the MAFA
frequencies the MS is asked
to measure
EMO sent once to the MS
on SACCH after TCH
seizure
Extended Measurement
Results include the average
signal level measured on
each MAFA frequency over
one SACCH mf duration
EMR received once per call
on SACCH
Back
> When the BTS receives a CHANNEL ACTIVATION with the Extended Measurement Order
(EMO) included, it shall send this information on the SACCH to the corresponding mobile only
once.
> When the BTS has to send this information, it shall replace the sending of system information
5, 5bis, 5ter or 6 by this information. At the next SACCH multi-frame, the BTS shall resume the
sending of this system information by the replaced one.
> The EMO shall be sent after 2 complete sets of SYS_INFO5 and 6, i.e. after the 2
nd
SYSINFO 6
after the reception of SABM. This guarantees the MS has received a complete set.
> Then, the BTS normally receives from the MS an EXTENDED MEASUREMENT RESULT with the
level of the frequencies to monitor. The BTS shall make the correlation between these levels
and the frequencies contained in the latest EMO information, after having decoded them,
according to the order of the ARFCN. The EXTENDED_MEASUREMENT_RESULT is NOT
forwarded to the BSC, instead a MEASUREMENT_RESULT with indication no_MS_results is
sent to the BSC.
> In particular, the BTS shall identify the level of the BCCH frequency of the serving cell (which
shall always be part of the frequencies to monitor) and apply it as the RXLEV_DL in the Radio
Measurement Statistics. The other frequencies will be considered in the same way as BCCH
frequency of neighboring cells: they will be linked to the neighboring level and C/I statistics.
Alcatel 348
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ANNEX 3:
Directed Retry Indicators
ANNEX 3
Directed Retry Indicators
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ANNEX 3:Directed Retry Indicators
Internal DR - success case
> DR FAIL. CASES > internal DR >
success case
> The same internal DR procedure
leads to an incrementation of two
sets of counters:
> incoming DR counters for the target
cell: MC153, MC151, etc.
> outgoing DR counters for the
serving cell: MC144E, MC142E,
etc.
> MCx counters belong to Standard
Type 110 reported permanently
> Cx counters belong to Detailed Type
29 reported on demand.
> Standard type from B8.
MS serving cell target cell BSC MSC
TCH ASSIGNMENT PHASE (OC or TC)
< -----------------------
ASSIGNMENT
REQUEST
No free TCH
TCH request queued
Queuing allowed
Start T11 ----------------------- >
QUEUING_INDIC.
MC13A
IDR condition met MC153, MC144e,
CHANNEL ACTIV. (TCH)
<---------------------------------- MC15A
CHAN ACTIV ACK
---------------------------------->
HO CMD HANDOVER COMMAND
<----------------------
(SDCCH)
<------------------------------------------------------------------------ start T3103
C154, MC607
start T3124 C145A+C145C
HANDOVER ACCESS
------------------------(TCH)---------------------------->
-------------------------------------------------------------> HO DETECTION
PHYSICAL INFORMATION ---------------------------------->
<------------------------------------------------------------- start T3105
stop T3124
start T200
------------------------ SABM --------------------------> stop T3105
<-------------------------- UA ----------------------------- ESTABLISH INDICATION
stop T200 ---------------------------------->
HANDOVER COMPLETE HO CMP stop T3103
-------------------------------------------------------------> ----------------------------------> ASSIGNMENT
COMPLETE
------------------------>
Release of old SDCCH MC151,MC717A,
MC142e
> The following DR counters are provided in Type 110
for the target cell:
MC13A: TCH requests for Normal Assignment that are put into the queue,
MC153: incoming internal DR requests,
MC15A: TCH allocations for incoming internal DR,
MC151: incoming internal DR successes per cell,
MC717A: incoming internal DR successes per TRX.
for the serving cell:
MC144E: outgoing internal DR requests,
MC142E: outgoing internal DR successes,
MC607: outgoing internal+external DR attempts.
> The following DR counters are provided in Type 29 (this type becomes a standard type in B8)
for the target cell:
C153: incoming internal DR requests,
C154: incoming internal DR attempts,
C151: incoming internal DR successes.
for the serving cell:
C144A: forced outgoing internal DR requests,
C144C: normal outgoing internal DR requests,
C145A: forced outgoing internal DR attempts,
C145C: normal outgoing internal DR attempts,
C142A: forced outgoing internal DR successes,
C142C: normal outgoing internal DR successes.
> All the counters here and in the next slides concerning directed retry and relative to type 29 can be activated for all cells of the
BSC at once from B8. (Type 29 becomes a standard type in B8):
C142a, C142b, C142c, C142d, C143a, C143b, C143c, C143d, C143e, C143f, C143g, C143h, C144a, C144b,
C144c, C144d, C145a, C145b, C145c, C145d, C151, C152,C153, C154, C555
Alcatel 350
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ANNEX 3:Directed Retry Indicators
Incoming internal DR - failures
DR FAIL. CASES > Incoming internal DR failures:
Directed Retry procedure from the target cell point of view
> DR Preparation:
congestion: no RTCH available in the target cell
does not concern the outgoing side (serving cell point of view)
BSS problem (no specific counter)
> DR Execution:
radio problem: the MS fails to access the new channel
the reversion/drop discrimination concerns only the serving cell
BSS problem (no specific counter)
Alcatel 351
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ANNEX 3:Directed Retry Indicators
Incoming internal DR - congestion
DR FAIL. CASES > Incoming internal DR fail: congestion
MC555=C155
Standard Type
MS serving cell target cell BSC MSC
TCH ASSIGNMENT PHASE (OC or TC)
< ----------------------------------------------------
ASSIGNMENT REQUEST
No free TCH
In serving cell
Queuing allowed
Start T11 --------------------------------------------------- >
QUEUING_INDIC.
MC13A
IDR condition met MC153, MC144e,MC607
No free TCH
In target cell
MC555
> C155 is available in Type 29.
Alcatel 352
MS s
MEAS REP
HO CMD
353 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
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ANNEX 3:Directed Retry Indicators
Incoming internal DR - radio failure
DR FAIL. CASES > Incoming internal DR fail: MS access problem
erving cell target cell BSC MSC
-----------------------> MEASUREMENT RESULT
------------------------------------------------------------------------>
CHANNEL ACTIVATION
<----------------------------------
CHANNEL ACTIV ACK
---------------------------------->
HANDOVER COMMAND
<----------------------- <------------------------------------------------------------------------ start T3103
C154
SABM
-----------x T3103 expiry
C152
MS Serving cell Target Cell BSC
HO CMD HANDOVER COMMAND
<----------------------- <------------------------------------------------------------------------ start T3103
HANDOVER ACCESS C154
------------------------------------------------------------->
-------------------------------------------------------------> HO DETECTION
PHYSICAL INFORMATION ---------------------------------->
<------------------------------------------------------------- start T3105
SABM
-------------------------------------------------------------> ESTABLISH INDICATION
UA ---------------------------------->
<------------------------------------------------------------- stop T3105
HANDOVER COMPLETE
----------------------------------------------------- - - - -X
SABM
-----------------------> ESTABLISH INDICATION
UA ------------------------------------------------------------------------>
<-----------------------
HO FAILURE HANDOVER FAILURE
-----------------------> ------------------------------------------------------------------------> C152
Release of new channel
> All incoming internal DR failures due to radio problems are counted in the same counter
C152.
> This counter is provided in Type 29
> Both radio failures with Reversion Old SDCCH Channel and radio drop are counted together.
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ANNEX 3:Directed Retry Indicators
Incoming internal DR - counters
DR FAIL. CASES > Incoming internal DR counters
Request MC153, C153
Congestion MC555, C155
BSS Pb C153-C154-C155
Attempt C154
Radio (MS access problem) C152
BSS Pb C154-C151-C152
Success MC151, C151
Execution
Preparation
INCOMING INTERNAL Directed Retry
REQUEST
CONGESTION
ATTEMPT
MS ACCESS PB
BSS PB
SUCCESS
BSS PB
Preparation Failure
Execution Failure
Type 29 counters becomes a standard (PMC)
> All MCxxx counters are available in Type 110.
> All Cxxx counters are available in Type 29.
> Type 29 counters becomes a standard in B8.
Alcatel 354
> Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS
Specific indicators for densification techniques > Directed Retry > Incoming DR
DRIBCAR: efficiency of the incoming internal DR preparation = MC15A/MC153
DRIBCNR: rate of incoming internal DR failures due to congestion = MC155/MC153
DRIBEFR: efficiency of the incoming internal DR execution = MC717A/MC153
Other indicators can be computed
from Type 110 counters:
DRIBSUR: global efficiency of incoming internal DR
= MC717A/MC153 = MC151/MC153
from Type 29 counters
rate of incoming internal DR preparation failures due to BSS problems
= (C153-C154-C155)/C153
rate of incoming internal DR execution failures due to BSS problems
= (C154-C151-C152)/C154
rate of incoming internal DR execution failures due to radio access problems
= C152/C154
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ANNEX 3:Directed Retry Indicators
Outgoing internal DR - failures
DR FAIL. CASES > Outgoing internal DR failures
Directed Retry procedure from the serving cell point of view
> DR Preparation:
congestion on the target cell (no specific counter on the serving
cell)
BSS problem (no specific counter)
> DR Execution:
radio problem: the MS reverts to the old channel
radio problem: the MS drops
BSS problem (no specific counter)
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ANNEX 3:Directed Retry Indicators
Outgoing internal DR - radio failure ROC
DR FAIL. CASES > Outgoing internal DR fail: reversion old channel
C144A, C143A:
Forced DR
C144C,C143E:
Normal DR
MS Serving cell Target Cell BSC
HO CMD HANDOVER COMMAND
<-------SDCCH----- <------------------------------------------------------------------------ start T3103
HANDOVER ACCESS MC144E
----------------------TCH--------------------------------> C144A or C144C
-------------------------------------------------------------> HO DETECTION
PHYSICAL INFORMATION ---------------------------------->
<------------------------------------------------------------- start T3105
SABM
-------------------------------------------------------------> ESTABLISH INDICATION
UA ---------------------------------->
<------------------------------------------------------------- stop T3105
HANDOVER COMPLETE
----------------------------------------------------- - - - -X
SABM
-----------------------> ESTABLISH INDICATION
UA ------------------------------------------------------------------------>
<-----------------------
HO FAILURE HANDOVER FAILURE
-----------------------> ------------------------------------------------------------------------> C143A or C143E
Release of new channel
Alcatel 357
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ANNEX 3:Directed Retry Indicators
Outgoing internal DR - radio failure drop
DR FAIL. CASES > Outgoing internal DR fail: drop
C144A,C143B:
Forced DR
C144C,C143F:
Normal DR
MS serving cell target cell BSC MSC
HO CMD HANDOVER COMMAND
<----------------------- <------------------------------------------------------------------------ start T3103
MC144E
SABM C144A or C144C
----------x
T3103 expiry
C143B or C143F
------------------------>
ASSIGNMENT
FAILURE
Radio interface
message failure
Release of SDCCH and TCH
> Counters C144A, C143B, C144C, C143F are type 29.
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ANNEX 3:Directed Retry Indicators
Outgoing internal DR - counters
DR FAIL. CASES > Outgoing internal DR counters
Preparation Request MC144E, C144A+C144C
Any preparation failure (C144A+C144C) - (C145A+C145C)
Attempt C145A+C145C
Reversion old channel C143A+C143E
Drop radio C143B+C143F
BSS Pb (C145A+C145C) - (C143A+C143E+C143B+C143F)
Success MC142E, C142A+C142C
Execution
OUTGOING INTERNAL Directed Retry
REQUEST
CONGESTION
ATTEMPT
REVERSION OLD CHANNEL
DROP RADIO
BSS PB
SUCCESS
BSS PB
Preparation Failure
Execution Failure
Alcatel 359
> Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS
Specific indicators for densification techniques > Directed Retry > Outgoing DR
DROBSUR: global efficiency of outgoing internal DR = MC142E/MC144E
Other indicators can be computed
from Type 29 counters:
efficiency of the outgoing internal DR preparation
= (C145A+C145C)/(C144A+C144C)
efficiency of the outgoing internal DR execution
= (C142A+C142C)/(C145A+C145C)
rate of outgoing internal DR execution failures due to BSS problems
= [(C145A+C145C) - (C143A+C143E+C143B+C143F)] / (C145A+C145C)
rate of outgoing internal DR execution failures due to radio problems with reversion old
channel
= (C143A+C143E) / (C145A+C145C)
rate of outgoing internal DR execution failures due to radio problems with drop
= (C143B+C143F) / (C145A+C145C)
type 29 counters are defined:
DRFOSUIN C142a NB_OUT_FORCED_IDR_SUCC
DRFOSUEN C142b NB_OUT_FORCED_EDR_SUCC
DROBSUIN C142c NB_OUT_NOR_IDR_SUCC
DROMSUEN C142d NB_OUT_NOR_EDR_SUCC
DRFORDIN C144a NB_OUT_FORCED_IDR_REQ
DRFORDEN C144b NB_OUT_FORCED_EDR_REQ
DROBRDIN C144c NB_OUT_NOR_IDR_REQ
DROMRDEN C144d NB_OUT_NOR_EDR_REQ
DROBRQIN C145c NB_OUT_NOR_IDR_ATPT
DROMRQEN C145d NB_OUT_NOR_EDR_ATPT
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ANNEX 3:Directed Retry Indicators
External DR - success
DR FAIL. CASES > External DR > successful case
The same external DR procedure leads to an incrementation of two sets of counters:
incoming external HO counters for the target cell: MC820, MC821, etc.
outgoing external DR counters for the serving cell: MC144F, MC142F, etc.
MS serving_cell BSC MSC BSC target_cell MS
TCH request queued
<------ASSIGNT REQUEST-------
EDR condition met ------ HO_REQUIRED ---------->
MC144F ----------CR (HO_REQUEST) -----> MC820
<--------- CC ------------------------ ---- CHANNEL_ACTIVATION ------>
<- CHANNEL_ACT_ACK-------------
<----- HO_REQUEST_ACK -------- Start T9113
(HO_COMMAND) MC821
<------------------------- HO_COMMAND ------------------------------------------------------ <---- HO_ACCESS -----
C145B+C145D Start T8 <---- HO_ACCESS -----
<------ HO_DETECTION--------------
<-- HO_DETECTION -------------- --- PHYSICAL_INFO -->
<--- SABM ---------------
<----- ESTABLISH_INDICATION ---- ----- UA -------------->
<----------- HO_COMPLETE ----------------------------------------
<--- HO_COMPLETE --------------- Stop T9113
<---- CLEAR_COMMAND ------ MC642
MC142F Cause : HO_SUCCESSFUL
Release of SDCCH Stop T8
> The following DR counters are provided in Type 110
for the serving cell:
MC144F: outgoing external DR requests,
MC142F: outgoing external DR successes.
> The following DR counters are provided in Type 29
for the serving cell:
C144B: forced outgoing external DR requests,
C144D: normal outgoing external DR requests,
C145B: forced outgoing external DR attempts,
C145D: normal outgoing external DR attempts,
C142B: forced outgoing external DR successes,
C142D: normal outgoing external DR successes.
> As for internal DR, external DR Counters are available permanently
> No counter is provided for the target cell for an external DR since an incoming DR cannot
always be discriminated from an incoming external HO. Therefore incoming external DRs are
counted together with incoming external HOs in the related counters.
Alcatel 361
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ANNEX 3:Directed Retry Indicators
Outgoing external DR - failures
DR FAIL. CASES > Outgoing external DR failures
Directed Retry procedure from the serving cell point of view
> DR Preparation:
congestion on the target cell (no specific counter on the serving
cell)
BSS problem (no specific counter)
> DR Execution:
radio problem: the MS reverts to the old channel
radio problem: the MS drops
BSS problem (no specific counter)
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ANNEX 3:Directed Retry Indicators
Outgoing external DR - radio failure ROC
DR FAIL. CASES > Outgoing external DR fail: reversion old channel
C145B,C143C: Forced DR
C145D,C143G: Normal DR
MS serving_cell BSC MSC BSC target_cell MS
ASSIGNT REQUEST
---------------------> TCH request queued
EDR condition met ---- HO_REQUIRED ------->
MC144F ----------CR (HO_REQUEST) ------------------->
<-------- CC --------------------------------------- - CHANNEL_ACT ---------->
<--- CHA_ACT_ACK --------
<----- HO_REQUEST_ACK----------------------- Start T9113
(HO-COMMAND) included
<-------------------------- HO_COMMAND ------------------------------------------------
Start T8 X --- HO_ACCESS -----
C145B+C145D X ---- HO_ACCESS -----
----- SABM -------->
<--- UA ------------- -- ESTABLISH_INDICATION->
----- HO_FAILURE (reversion to old channel) ------------------------------------------>
C143C+C143G ----- CLEAR_COMMAND ---------------------->
Radio interface fail : Reversion to old channel
Release of connection
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ANNEX 3:Directed Retry Indicators
Outgoing external DR - radio failure drop
DR FAIL. CASES > Outgoing external DR fail: drop
C145B,C143D: Forced DR
C145D,C143H: Normal DR
MS serving_cell BSC MSC BSC target_cell MS
ASSIGNT REQUEST
---------------------> TCH request queued
EDR condition met ---- HO_REQUIRED ------->
MC144F ----------CR (HO_REQUEST) ------------------->
<-------- CC --------------------------------------- - CHANNEL_ACT ---------->
<--- CHA_ACT_ACK --------
<----- HO_REQUEST_ACK----------------------- Start T9113
(HO-COMMAND) included
<-------------------------- HO_COMMAND ------------------------------------------------
Start T8 X --- HO_ACCESS -----
C145B+C145D X ---- HO_ACCESS -----
----- SABM --- X
----- SABM --- X
----- SABM --- X
T8 expiry ----- CLEAR_REQUEST ->
C143D+C143H Radio interface message fail
Release of connection
Alcatel 364
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ANNEX 3:Directed Retry Indicators
Outgoing external DR - counters
DR FAIL. CASES > Outgoing external DR counters
Preparation Request MC144F, C144B+C144D
Any preparation failure (C144B+C144D) - (C145B+C145D)
Attempt C145B+C145D
Reversion old channel C143C+C143G
Drop radio C143D+C143H
BSS Pb (C145+C145D) - (C143C+C143G+C143D+C143H)
Success MC142F, C142B+C142D
Execution
OUTGOING EXTERNAL Directed Retry
REQUEST
CONGESTION
ATTEMPT
REVERSION OLD CHANNEL
DROP RADIO
BSS PB
SUCCESS
BSS PB
Preparation Failure
Execution Failure
> Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS
Specific indicators for densification techniques > Directed Retry > Outgoing DR
DROMSUR: global efficiency of outgoing external DR = MC142F/MC144F
Other indicators can be computed
from Type 29 counters:
efficiency of the outgoing internal DR preparation
= (C145B+C145D)/(C144B+C144D)
efficiency of the outgoing internal DR execution
= (C142B+C142D)/(C145B+C145D)
rate of outgoing internal DR execution failures due to BSS problems
= [(C145B+C145D) - (C143C+C143G+C143D+C143H)] / (C145B+C145D)
rate of outgoing internal DR execution failures due to radio problems with reversion old
channel
= (C143C+C143G) / (C145B+C145D)
rate of outgoing internal DR execution failures due to radio problems with drop
= (C143D+C143H) / (C145B+C145D)
Interesting indicator:
TCQUSUDSR: rate of outgoing internal and external directed retries (forced + normal)
successfully performed over all RTCH requests queued during normal assignment.
Alcatel 366
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ANNEX 4
GSM BSS Protocol Stacks
ANNEX 4
GSM BSS Protocol Stacks
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ANNEX 4
GSM BSS Protocol Stacks
> Signaling Links
A-Interface MT-Link signaling #7 System with SCCP
MSC BSC
BSC
BTS
Abis Interface RSL with LAPD Protocol
BTS
MS
Air-Interface (CCCH/SACCH/FACCH) with LAPDm Protocol
BSC OMC-R
OML Link with X25 connection LAPB Protocol
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ANNEX 4
GSM BSS Protocol Stacks
> The reference Model
7 Application
6 Presentation
4 Transport
5 Session
2 Data Link
3 Network
1 Physical
User of Transport Service
Transport Service Network
Service
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ANNEX 4
GSM BSS Protocol Stacks
> Layer 1
Physical; Responsible for the transparent transmission of
information across the physical medium (HDB3, PCM, AMI)
> Layer 2
Data Link; Responsible for providing a reliable transfer between
the terminal and the network (#7, LAPD,etc.)
> Layer 3
Network; responsible for setting up and maintaining the
connection across a network (CM, MM, RR, Message routing, etc.)
Alcatel 370
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ANNEX 4
GSM BSS Protocol Stacks
> Layer 4
Transport; responsible for the control of quality of service (Layer of
information)
> Layer 5
Session; Handles the coordination between the user processes (Set
up transfer of information)
> Layer 6
Presentation; responsible for ensuring that the information is
presented to the eventual user in a meaningful way (Type format.
Ex. ASCII)
> Layer 7
Application; provides user interface to lower levels (Operating
System)
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ANNEX 4
GSM BSS Protocol Stacks
> BSS protocol stacks
BTS
PSTN
ISDN
Air Intfc Abis Intfc A Intfc B .. F Intfc
MS
BSC MSC
CM
MM
RR
LAPDm
digit
radio
RR BSSAP
LAPDm LAPD
digit
radio
64 kb/s 64 kb/s 64 kb/s 64 kb/s
LAPD
RR
BTSM
BSSAP
CM
MM
BSSAP
SCCP
MTP
SCCP
MTP
LAYER 2
LAYER 1
LAYER 3
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ANNEX 4
GSM BSS Protocol Stacks
> BSS protocol stacks (detailed)
SSCS
SSTM 3
SSTM 2
SSCS
SSTM 3
SSTM 2
SSGT
MAP
SSGT
MAP
SSCS
SSTM 3
SSTM 2
PCM TS
DTAP
SSCS
SSTM 3
SSTM 2
PCM TS
DTAP
LAPD LAPDm LAPD
SS (SMS) SS (SMS)
BSS
MAP
MM
CC
BSS
MAP
RR
RR
RR' BTSM BTSM
LAPDm
(SMS)
SS
CC
MM
(Relay)
MS BTS BSC MSC / VLR
NSS
(ex. : HLR)
Um A bis A (D)
1
2
3
(Relay
64 kbit/s
or PCM TS
64 kbit/s
or PCM TS
PCM TS PCM TS
Phycal
Layer
Phycal
Layer
Alcatel 373
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ANNEX 4
GSM BSS Protocol Stacks
> Signaling on the A Interface
Uses #7 with Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP) with a
new Application Base Station Application Part (BSSAP). BSSAP is
divided into Direct Transfer Application Part (DTAP) and Base
Station Subsystem Management Application Part (BSSMAP)
DTAP
BSSMAP
SCCP
MTP 1-3
User Data
Layer 1-3
BSSAP
375 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
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ANNEX 4
GSM BSS Protocol Stacks
> BSSMAP
Contains the messages, which are exchanged between the BSC
and the MSC and which are evaluated from the BSC.
In fact all the messages, which are exchanged as RR (Radio
Resource Management Services between the MSC, BSC and MS).
Also control Information concerning the MSC and BSC.
Example: Paging, HND_CMD, Reset
> DTAP
Messages which are exchanged between an NSS and an MS
transparent. In this case, the BSC transfers the messages without
evaluation transparent. Mainly Messages from Mobility
Management (MM) and Call control (CC)
Alcatel 375
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ANNEX 4
GSM BSS Protocol Stacks
> Relationship between DTAP, CC, MM, BSSMAP, RR
MS
BSS
MSC
Call Control (CC) DTAP
Radio Resource (RR)
BSSMAP
Back
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ANNEX 5
LCS
ANNEX 5
LCS
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ANNEX 5
LCS
LCS function (linked to MC02i) and other counters
> LCS allows to access the MS location provided by the BSS.
On MS request to know its own location (MC02 impacted, see the
previous slide)
On network request (especially during Emergency calls)
On external request (LCS Client)
> Positioning methods provided can be:
Cell-ID or Cell-ID + TA (Timing Advance)
Conventional (standalone) GPS
Assisted GPS (with the help of A-GPS server to compute location)
MS based (MB): MS is able to perform a pre computation
MS assisted (MA): MS sends info, Network computes
> Assisted GPS Method:
Mobile-based: The MS performs OTD signal measurements and computes its own
location estimate. In this case the network provides the MS with the additional information
such as BTS coordinates and the RTD values. These assistance data can be either
broadcast on the CBCH (using SMSCB function) or provided by the BSS in a point to point
connection (either spontaneously or on request from the MS).
Mobile-assisted: The MS performs and reports OTD signal measurements to the network
and the network computes the MS location estimate.
With
OTD: Observed Time Difference: the time interval that is observed by an MS between
the receptions of signals (bursts) from two different BTSs.
RTD: Real Time Difference: This means the relative synchronization difference in the
network between two BTSs.
> Finally, 4 methods are possible for positioning:
Cell ID+ TA
Conventional (MS equipped with GPS System)
A-GPS MS Based
A-GPS MS Assisted
> These 4 Methods induce a set of counters (2 per method) to give the average latitude and
longitude of mobiles in the cell.
> These counters are located in the MFS and can be used in RNO (cartographic part).
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ANNEX 5
LCS
> LCS function: Architecture
SMLC
BTS
BTS
MS
BSC
MSC
HLR
GMLC
OSP
Lg
Lh
External
LCS client
Le
A
Abis
Abis
Lb
SMLC function integrated in MFS:
- receives the loc. Request from the GMLC through the
MSC/BSC
- Schedules all the necessary actions to get MS location
- Computes MS location
- Provides the result back to the GMLC
MFS
A-GPS
server
SAGI
GPS
reference
network
LCS: Location Services
SMLC: Serving Mobile Location Center
GMLC: Gateway Mobile Location Center
A-GPS: Assisted GPS
Where is my son?
Where is the accident?
Emergency call
2
Where am I?
1
3
MS Request
Network Request
External Request 3
2
1
> In case of MS requests for its location, MC02 is impacted:
MC02i = Number of Mobile Originating SDCCH establishments for LCS purpose.
> In all cases, some counters related to LCS provide specific information (attempts,
success, failures)
see the next slide.
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ANNEX 5
LCS
Example: Mobile terminated location request failure / success (External request)
SMLC MS BSC BTS LCS Client MSC
BSSAP-LE Perform_Location_Request
.
GMLC
BSSMAP Perform_Location_Request
BSSAP-LE Perform_Location_Response
BSSMAP Perform_Location_Response
BSSMAP Clear Command and Release
Adequat positionning method chosen by SMLC
HLR
Paging
Authentication + Ciphering
LCS Service Response
LCS Service Request
Send_Routing_Info rqst
Send_Routing_Info resp
Provide_Subscriber_Location
Provide_Subscriber_Location Result
MC923a
MC923b
MC923d
MC923c
BSSAP-LE Perform_Location_Response (failure)
BSSMAP Perform_Location_Response (failure)
BSSMAP Perform_Location_Abort
Failure
Success
> Four counters
MC923a NB_LCS_REQ Number of location requests received from the MSC in CS domain.
MC923b NB_LCS_SUCC Number of successful location requests performed in a BSS.
MC923c NB_LCS_FAIL_LB Number of location requests rejected by the SMLC.
MC923d NB_LCS_ABORT Number of location aborts received from the MSC in CS domain.
> Calculated indicators based on BSC counters:
Number of failures on LCS requests due to BSS problem,
Rate of LCS requests aborted,
Rate of successes on LCS requests,
Rate of failures on LCS requests,
Rate of SDCCH seizures for Location Services.
> Other counters in SMLC (MFS) provide details by type of positioning (CI+TA, Conventional GPS, MS-Assisted A-GPS,
MS-Based A-GPS) and for different Error causes.
> See the next slide.
Alcatel 380
> LCS Counters in MFS:
QOS FOLLOW UP:
P800: NB_LOC_REQ Number of received LCS requests for MS positioning received from the BSC
P801: NB_ASSIST_DATA_REQ Number of received LCS requests for GPS assistance data (initially requested by the
MS) received from the BSC.
P802: NB_ASSIST_DATA_SUCC Number of successful GPS assistance data delivery (initially requested by the MS)
responses sent to the BSC.
P803: NB_LOC_TA_SUCC Number of successful location responses sent to the BSC using TA positioning method.
P804: NB_LOC_CONV_GPS_SUCC Number of successful location responses sent to the BSC using Conventional GPS
positioning method.
P805: NB_LOC_MA_AGPS_SUCC Number of successful location responses sent to the BSC using MS-Assisted A-GPS
positioning method.
P806: NB_LOC_MB_AGPS_SUCC Number of successful location response sent to the BSC using MS-Based A-GPS
positioning method.
P807: NB_LOC_TA_PCF_REQ Number of location calculation attempts with TA positioning PCF.
P808: NB_LOC_TA_PCF_SUCC Number of location calculations successfully performed with TA positioning PCF.
P809: NB_LOC_CONV_GPS_PCF_REQ Number of location calculation attempts with Conventional GPS PCF.
P810: NB_LOC_MA_AGPS_PCF_REQ Number of location calculation attempts with MS-Assisted A-GPS PCF.
P811: NB_LOC_MA_AGPS_PCF_SUCC Number of location calculations successfully performed with MS Assisted A-GPS PCF.
P812: NB_LOC_MB_AGPS_PCF_REQ Number of location calculation attempts with MS-Based A-GPS PCF.
P813: NB_LOC_MB_AGPS_PCF_SUCC Number of location calculations successfully performed with MS-Based A-GPS.
P814: NB_LCS_PROTOCOL_ERROR Number of failed LCS procedures due to LCS protocol error.
P815: NB_LCS_INTERRUPTED_INTRA_BSC_HO Number of failed LCS procedures due to intra-BSC handover.
P816: NB_LCS_INTERRUPTED_INTER_BSC_HO Number of failed LCS procedures due to inter-BSC handover.
P817: NB_LCS_FAILURE_RRLP Number of failed LCS procedures due to RRLP problem.
P818: NB_LCS_FAILURE_TIMER_EXPIRY Number of failed LCS procedures due to LCS guard timer expiry.
P819: NB_LCS_FAILURE_INTERNAL Number of failed LCS procedures due internal problem detected by the MFS/SMLC.
P820: NB_UNKNOWN_LCS_REQ Number of LCS requests rejected because not supported by the SMLC.
P821: NB_LOC_CONV_GPS_PCF_SUCC Number of location calculations successfully performed with Conventional GPS PCF.
PCF: Positioning Calculation Function
POSITION AVERAGE USED ON RNO: Values are given in minutes
LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES:
P822: AV_TA_LAT Average of latitudes for TA Method
P823: AV_TA_LONG Average of longitudes for TA Method
P824: AV_CONV_GPS_LAT Average of latitudes for Conventional GPS Method
P825: AV_CONV_GPS_LONG Average of latitudes for Conventional GPS Method
P826: AV_MA_AGPS_LAT Average of latitudes for MS-Assisted A-GPS Method
P827: AV_MA_AGPS_LONG Average of longitudes for MS-Assisted A-GPS Method
P828: AV_MB_AGPS_LAT Average of latitudes for MS-Assisted A-GPS Method
P829: AV_MB_AGPS_LONG Average of longitudes for MS-Based A-GPS Method
STANDARD DEVIATION:
standard deviation is a measure of the dispersion around the average point
P830: ST_DEV_TA_LAT Standard deviation of the latitude of MS obtained with TA Method
P831: ST_DEV_TA_LONG Standard deviation of the longitude of MS obtained with TA Method
P832: ST_DEV_CONV_GPS_LAT Standard deviation of the latitude of MS obtained with Conventional GPS Method
P833: ST_DEV_CONV_GPS_LONG Standard deviation of the longitude of MS obtained with Conventional GPS
Method
P834: ST_DEV_MA_AGPS_LAT Standard deviation of the latitude of MS obtained with MS Assisted A-GPS Method
P835: ST_DEV_MA_AGPS_LONG Standard deviation of the longitude of MS obtained with MS Assisted A-GPS
Method
P836: ST_DEV_MB_AGPS_LAT Standard deviation of the latitude of MS obtained with MS Assisted A-GPS Method
P837: ST_DEV_MB_AGPS_LONG Standard deviation of the longitude of MS obtained with MS Assisted A-GPS
Method
Alcatel 381
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
ANNEX 6
Counters on Electromagnetic Emission (EME)
ANNEX 6
Counters on Electromagnetic Emission
(EME)
Alcatel 382
383 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
ANNEX 6
Counters on Electromagnetic Emission (EME)
> The goal of this feature is to make easier evaluating power
issues in BTSs
Recording of power emission of BTS per cell and frequency band
> Triggering of warning reports based on threshold fixed by the
operator to get the real emission of antennas (at BTS
antenna output port)
Take care of Environmental regulations
BSC
BTS
OMC-R
B9
Alcatel 383
384 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
ANNEX 6
Counters on Electromagnetic Emission (EME)
> GSM antennas are widely in living and working places
> Lack of information provided to people on their exposure to EM
fields and the risks they are running
> People concerned about their health,
risk of complaints
> Some European directives/recommendations
are already applicable or will be very soon
B9
Alcatel 384
385 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
ANNEX 6
Counters on Electromagnetic Emission (EME)
> 2 new counters (Hourly from NPA for RNO reports)
EME_PWR_GSM (850/900) (Short Name: E01)
EME_PWR_DCS (1800/1900) (Short Name: E02)
Power with 0.1 Watt steps
> Performance Measurement type
New Type: Type 33
Permanent type (PMC) with a fixed accumulation period: 1 hour
Counters available in MPM and NPA
B9
Back
> Measurements:
Only with Evolium BTS
DL power data are collected by each TRE for each band (2 considered bands: 850/900 and 1800/1900)
Recording of power effectively transmitted to the antenna in Watt
Power control, DTX and unused TS are taken into account
Loss due to stages (Any, AN) and cables between TRE output and BTS antenna output connector taken into account
Measurements averaged every hour per cell and per frequency band
> 2 new cell parameters: threshold values
EME_PWR_MAX_GSM (frequency band 850/900)
EME_PWR_MAX_DCS (frequency band 1800/1900)
Possible massively updated through an OMC Java script
Alcatel 385
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
ANNEX 7
B8 Improvements summary
ANNEX 7
B8 Improvements summary
Alcatel 386
387 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
ANNEX 7
B8 Improvements summary
> Location Services (LCS)
> SDDCH Dynamic allocation
> Counters Improvement
Inter PLMN HO
3G to 2G HO (and 2G to 2G only)
Dual band HO (New type: 32)
LapD congestion counter
QOS Follow-up
TCH assignment failure BSS PB now detailed
HO Attempts for Fast Traffic added in type 110
AMR counters added in type 110
MS penetration (per speech version and channel type) was type 1 counters
now available in type 110
HO Causes: type 26 extended from 1 to 40 cells
Directed retry: type 29 becomes a standard (for PMC)
Alcatel 387
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
ANNEX 8
B9 Improvements summary
ANNEX 8
B9 Improvements summary
Alcatel 388
389 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring
BSS Release B9
All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel
ANNEX 8
B9 Improvements summary
> Type 31: New RMS counters
For AMR monitoring
For Timing Advance analysis
For BTS Power level
> Type 33: Power at the BTS for Electromagnetic Environment
Monitoring (EME) (Annex6)
> Type 110: more counters for UMTS to GSM handover
monitoring.
The new counters were introduced in MC922 family
> 2 New counters for HO Cause 30: PS return to CS Zone
B9
Alcatel 389