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Axiomatic design

Corollaries and Theorems


Corollary
A corollary is a statement which follows
readily from a previously proven
statement. The use of the term corollary,
rather than proposition or theorem, is
intrinsically subjective. Sometimes a
corollary has a proof that explains the
derivation; sometimes the derivation is
considered to be self-evident.
Corollaries in Axiomatic design
Corollary 1 [Decoupling of Coupled Designs] Decouple or
separate parts or aspects of a solution if FRs are coupled or become
independent in the designs proposed.
Corollary 2 [Minimization of FRs] Minimize the number of FRs and
constraints.
Corollary 3 [Integration of Physical Parts] Integrate design
features in a single physical part if FRs can be independently
satisfied in the proposed solution.
Corollary 4 [Use of Standardization] Use standardized or
interchangeable parts if the use of these parts is consistent with FRs
and constraints.
Corollary 5 [Use of Symmetry] Use symmetrical shapes and/or
components if they are consistent with FRs and constraints.
Corollary 6 [Largest Tolerances] Specify the largest allowable
tolerance in stating FRs.
Corollary 7 [Uncoupled Design with Less Information] Seek an
uncoupled design that requires less information than coupled
designs in satisfying a set of FRs.
The origin of corollaries
Theorems 1/2
Theorem 1 [Coupling Due to an Insufficient Number of DPs]
When the number of DPs is less than the number of FRs, either a
coupled design results or the FRs cannot be satisfied.
Theorem 2 [Decoupling of a Coupled Design]
When a design is coupled because of a larger number of FRs than
DPs (i.e., m>n), it may be decoupled by the addition of new DPs so
as to make the number of FRs and DPs equal to each other if a
subset of the design matrix containing n x n elements constitutes a
triangular matrix.
Theorem 3 [Redundant Design]
When there are more DPs than FRs, the design is either a
redundant design or a coupled design.
Theorem 4 [Ideal Design]
In an ideal design, the number of DPs is equal to the number of FRs
and the FRs are always maintained independently of each other.
Theorems 2/2
Theorem 5 [Need for a New Design]
When a given set of FRs is changed by the addition of a new FR, by
substitution of one of the FRs with a new one, or by selection of a
completely different set of FRs, the design solution given by the
original DPs cannot satisfy the new set of FRs. Consequently, a new
design solution must be sought.
Theorem 6 [Path Independence of an Uncoupled Design]
The information content of an uncoupled design is independent of the
sequence by which the DPs are changed to satisfy the given set of
FRs.
Theorem 7 [Path Dependency of Coupled and Decoupled Design]
The information contents of coupled and decoupled designs depend
on the sequence by which the DPs are changed to satisfy the given set
of FRs.
Axiomatic design of FMS
A flexible manufacturing system (FMS) is a manufacturing system
in which there is some amount of flexibility that allows the system to
react in the case of changes, whether predicted or unpredicted. This
flexibility is generally considered to fall into two categories, which
both contain numerous subcategories.
The first category, machine flexibility, covers the system's ability to
be changed to produce new product types, and ability to change the
order of operations executed on a part.
The second category is called routing flexibility, which consists of
the ability to use multiple machines to perform the same operation
on a part, as well as the system's ability to absorb large-scale
changes, such as in volume, capacity, or capability.
Most FMS systems comprise of three main systems. The work
machines which are often automated CNC machines are connected
by a material handling system to optimize parts flow and the central
control computer which controls material movements and machine
flow.
FMS
Design process

Step 1. Establishment of design goals to satisfy a given


set of perceived needs

Step 2. Conceptualization of design solutions

Step 3. Analysis of the proposed solution

Step 4. Selection of the best design among those


proposed

Step 5. Implementation
The FMS design process
Specification of operations (SO) - definition of overall
manufacturing operations to be performed by the FMS. This defines
the intended process flow.
Definition of functional requirements (FRs) - description of
overall machine functions required to perform the manufacturing
process. It states the detailed FRs at the individual FMS
components level, such as machining type, accuracy, power
requirements and like.
FMS design - enumeration of machines, material handling
equipment, determination of the number and capacity of each of
these system components and layout of machines. The design task
is performed based on SO and FRs.
FMS performance analysis - Simulation is a popular tool for the
evaluation of FMS designs. The following performance measures
are used to evaluate FMS design: percentage resource utilization,
part flow time, time taken to produce a batch, queue at each
resource, etc.
Establishment of Functional domain

FR (Machining type, Accuracy, Surface


roughness, Volume, Part_operation)

Part_operation gives connection between


FR and operation from the set of
operations via part name and operation
sequence number for the part.
Application of Corollary 2
Minimization of number of FRs,
Joining of similar FRs is done.

FR (Machining type, Accuracy, Surface


roughness, Volume, [Part_operation])

[Part_operation] is the list of Part_operation


variables.
Creation of physical space

DP (Machine name, Number of machines,


Accuracy of machine, Maximal machinable
part volume, Machine power, Machine
cost per hour, [Part_operation])
Application of Axiom 2
Due to nonunique mapping process more
than one feasible solution will be obtained.
Therefore selecting of optimal solution
should be done. Axiom 2 and Corollary 7
give the criterion for the selection of
optimal solution based on the minimal
information content.
Methodology for the calculation of
information content for FMS
Information content for geometrical
accuracy
Information content for surface quality
Information content for production
capacity
Information content for production costs.
Application of Corollary 3
The final step in axiomatic FMS design is
integration of physical parts.
Different FRs may be satisfied with the
same or similar DPs and that means same
or similar machines.
Possible joining of machining jobs should
be done in order to decrease the number
of machines and optimize the solution.
FMS design
Example
Machine tool data
Design ranges for each surface
group of a bolt
Partial and total information
content for candidate machines
Simulation