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Dr.

: Youssef Gomaa Youssef


CE 402: Part A
Shallow Foundation Design
Lecture No. (6): Eccentric Footing
Fayoum University
Faculty of Engineering
Department of Civil Engineering
Eccentric Footing
Eccentric footing: A spread or wall footing that also must
resist a moment in addition to the axial column load.
A
e < A/6
Eccentric Loads or Moments
( )
f
M
e
P W
=
+
. . D L L L
P P P = +
A
e < A/6
CE 402: Foundation Engineering Design
Eccentric Footing
Combined axial and bending stresses increase the pressure on one
edge or corner of a footing. We assume again a linear distribution
based on a constant relationship to settling.
If the pressure combination is in tension, this effectively means the
contact is gone between soil and footing and the pressure is really
zero.
To avoid zero pressure, the eccentricity must stay within the kern. The
maximum pressure must not exceed the net allowable soil pressure.
CE 402: Foundation Engineering Design
The kern
To avoid zero pressure, the
eccentricity must stay within
the kern.
A
A/3
CE 402: Foundation Engineering Design
Eccentric Loads or Moments Cases
A
e <A/6
Case (a)
e =A/6
Case (b)
e >A/6
Case (c)
CE 402: Foundation Engineering Design
For case A and B (not case C)
Eccentric Loads or Moments
)
6
1 (
*
min
A
e
B A
P
q =
)
6
1 (
*
max
A
e
B A
P
q + =
B C
P
q
* * 3
* 2
max
=
For case c
e >A/6
Case (c)
C
A C 75 . 0 3 >
a
q q 20 . 1
max
s
CE 402: Foundation Engineering Design
Footing Subjected to Double Moment
For contact pressure to remain (+) ve everywhere,
) 6 6 1 (
* B
e
A
e
B A
P
q
B A
=
0 . 1
6 6
s +
B
e
A
e
B A
CE 402: Foundation Engineering Design
Design of Eccentric Footing
Plain concrete footing (P.C.)
Assume thickness of P.C.:
t = (0.25 to 0.50)
Dim. of P.C. = A * B * t
a
S G
q
P
B A Area
.
50 . 1
* = =
Area A= Assume
f L F
D H M M *
.
+ =
L F
L F
P
M
e
.
.
=
s G L F
P P
. .
* 15 . 1 =
6
A
e s Check
A
A
1
t
1
t

P
F.L
P
G.S
q
max
G.S
M

H

D
f
q
min
)
6
1 (
*
.
max
A
e
B A
P
q q
L F
a
+ = =
B
CE 402: Foundation Engineering Design
Design of Spread Footing
Reinforced concrete footing (R.C.)
1
2 A A X =
*
cu
M
d C
b F
=
1
cov t d er = +
Dim. of R.C. = A
1
* B
1
* t
1
1
2 B B X =
t X ) 0 . 1 8 . 0 ( =
)
6
1 (
*
1
1
2 1
.
2 , 1
A
e
B A
P
f
S G
=
S G
P
M
e
.
1
1
=
3
2
* )
2
)( ( 2 / )
2
(
2
1
3 1
2
1
3
a A
f f
a A
f M
I

+

=
2
1 2 1
)
2
( * )
2
(
b B f f
M
II
+
=
A
1
t
1
P
G.S
f
1
G.S
a

f
2
f
3
CE 402: Foundation Engineering Design
Design of Spread Footing
Shear Stress:
0.75
cu
su
c
f
q

=
*
s
s su
Q
q q
b d
= s
Q
s
: shear force at critical sec. (II).
q
s
: shear stress.
q
su
: ultimate shear strength.
If q
s
> q
su
, Increase d
Notes:
No shear RFT in Footing.
)
2
( *
2
) (
1 4 1
) (
d
a A f f
Q
II s

+
=
)
2
( *
2
) (
1 2 1
) (
d
b B f f
Q
III s

+
=
t
1
P
G.S
(II)

G.S
a

(II)

(II)

d

A
1
f
1
f
2
f
4
CE 402: Foundation Engineering Design
Design of Spread Footing
Punching Stress:
| |
*2* ( ) ( )
p
A d a d b d = + + +
p
p
p
Q
q
A
=
| |
0.5 ( / ) / /
cup cu c cu c
q a b f f = + s
If q
p
> q
cup
, Increase d
t
1
A
1
P
G.S
G.S
a

d/2

a
d/2

d/2

d/2

b

f
1
f
2
)] ( * ) [(
2
) (
50 . 1
2 1
.
d b d a
f f
P Q
S G p
+ +
+
=
CE 402: Foundation Engineering Design
Design of Spread Footing
Footing Reinforcement:
Notes:
Minimum number of bars per meter is five.
Minimum diameter for main RFT is 12mm.
Number of bars may be taken 5 to 8.
Diameter of bars may be selected from 12 to 18mm.
t
1
G.S
a

G.S
A
1
j d f
M
A
y
II
s
* *
2
=
j d f
M
A
y
I
s
* *
1
=
Main RFT
As
2
Main RFT
As
1
CE 402: Foundation Engineering Design
Design of Eccentric Footing
Example(1):
Make a complete design for a footing supporting a 30cm X 60cm
column load of 120t at ground surface (G.S.), 20m.t moment
and 10t horizontal force at G.S. The foundation level is 2.00 m
below G.S. and the net allowable bearing capacity is 0.80kg/cm
2
.
Make the design considering the following two cases:
1- with plain concrete base
2- without Plain concrete base
a

= 0.60m. B= 0.30m
p
G.S
= 120t M=20m.t H=10t
q
a
= 0.80kg/cm
2
= 8t/m
2
.
f
cu
= 250kg/cm
2
.
f
y
=3600kg/cm
2
CE 402: Foundation Engineering Design
Design of Eccentric Footing
Plain concrete footing (P.C.)
Assume thickness of P.C.:
t = 0.30
Dim. of P.C. = 5.00* 4.65 * 0.30
2 .
5 . 22
8
120 * 50 . 1 * 50 . 1
* m
q
P
B A Area
a
S G
= = = =
m Area A 00 . 5 75 . 4 ~ = = Assume
t m M
L F
. 40 00 . 2 * 10 20
.
= + =
290 . 0
138
40
.
.
= = =
L F
L F
P
M
e
t P P
s G L F
138 120 * 15 . 1 * 15 . 1
. .
= = =
833 . 0
6
5
6
= = s
A
e
A
A
1
t
1
t

P
F.L
P
G.S
q
max
G.S
M

H=10

2.00

q
min
8 )
00 . 5
290 . 0 * 6
1 (
* 5
138
max
= + =
B
q m B 65 . 4 =
CE 402: Foundation Engineering Design
Design of Eccentric Footing
Reinforced concrete footing (R.C.)
Dim. of R.C. = 4.40 * 4.05* 0.75

m t X 30 . 0 = =
85 . 5 34 . 14 )
40 . 4
308 . 0 * 6
1 (
05 . 4 * 40 . 4
120 * 50 . 1
2 , 1
= = f
m
P
M
e
S G
308 . 0
120
70 . 1 * 10 20
.
1
1
=
+
= =
36 . 47
3
2
* )
2
6 . 0 4 . 4
)( 67 . 10 34 . 14 ( 2 / )
2
60 . 0 4 . 4
( 67 . 10
2 2
=

=
I
M
33 . 35 )
2
30 . 0 05 . 4
( * )
2
85 . 5 34 . 14
(
2
=
+
=
II
M
m X A A 40 . 4 30 . 0 * 2 00 . 5 2
1
= = =
m X B B 05 . 4 30 . 0 * 2 65 . 4 2
1
= = =
cm d 70 8 . 68
250 * 100
10 * 36 . 47
5
5
~ = =
cm t 75 5 70
1
= + =
t
1
P
G.S
F
1
=14.34
G.S
F
2
=5.85
F
3
=10.67
A
1
=4.40
1.90

0.60

CE 402: Foundation Engineering Design
Design of Spread Footing
Shear Stress:
Q
s
: shear force at critical sec. (II).
q
s
: shear stress.
q
su
: ultimate shear strength.
If q
s
> q
su
, Increase d
Notes:
No shear RFT in Footing.
71 . 15 ) 70 . 0 90 . 1 ( *
2
) 84 . 11 34 . 14 (
) (
=
+
=
II s
Q
86 . 11 ) 70 . 0
2
3 . 0 05 . 4
( *
2
) 85 . 5 34 . 14 (
) (
=
+
=
III s
Q
t
1
P
G.S
(II)

G.S
0.60

(II)

(II)

d

A
1
=4.40
1.90

f
2
=5.85
f
1
=14.34
f
4
=11.84
84 . 11 ) 6 . 0 60 . 0 90 . 1 ( *
40 . 4
) 85 . 5 84 . 11 (
85 . 5
4
= + +

+ = f
68 . 9 / 24 . 2
70 * 100
1000 * 71 . 15
2
s = = cm kg q
s
CE 402: Foundation Engineering Design
Design of Spread Footing
Punching Stress:
p
p
p
Q
q
A
=
| |
0.5 ( / ) / /
cup cu c cu c
q a b f f = + s
If q
p
> q
cup
, Increase d
t
1
A
1
P
G.S
G.S
a

d/2

a
d/2

d/2

d/2

b

f
1
f
2
88 . 166 )] 70 . 0 30 . 0 ( * ) 70 . 0 60 . 0 [(
2
) 85 . 5 34 . 14 (
120 * 50 . 1 = + +
+
=
p
Q
22 . 3 )] 70 . 30 . 0 ( ) 70 . 0 60 . 0 [( * 2 * 70 . 0 = + + + =
p
A
18 . 5
10 * 22 . 3
1000 * 88 . 166
4
= =
p
q
CE 402: Foundation Engineering Design
Design of Spread Footing
Footing Reinforcement:
Notes:
Minimum number of bars per meter is five.
Minimum diameter for main RFT is 12mm.
Number of bars may be taken 5 to 8.
Diameter of bars may be selected from 12 to 18mm.
0.75

G.S
0.60

G.S
4.40

97 . 16
826 . 0 * 70 * 3600
10 * 33 . 35
5
2
= =
s
A
75 . 22
826 . 0 * 70 * 3600
10 * 36 . 47
5
1
= =
s
A
Main RFT
6|18/m

Main RFT
8|18/m

CE 402: Foundation Engineering Design
Crane Footing
Maximum stress on soil should be less than allowable bearing capacity
a
q f s
max
The ratio between maximum and minimum stresses should be less
than four
4
) / 6 1 (
) / 6 1 (
min
max
=

+
=
A e
A e
f
f
4
min
max
s
f
f
e A 10 =
CE 402: Foundation Engineering Design
Uniform Stress
below Footing Subjected to Moment
Uniform stress required that the eccentricity at foundation level equal
zero
0 . 0 = e 0 . 0
. .
.
= =
s G
L F
P
M
e
A

P
F.L
P
G.S
q
a
G.S
M

e

c

a/2

e
a
c
A
+ + =
2 2
A
a
S G
q
P
B A
.
15 . 1
* = B