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CHAPTER 11

Metal-Casting Processes
2
Summary of
Casting
Processes
TABLE 11.1
Process Advantages Limitations
Sand Almost any metal cast; no limit
to size, shape or weight; low
tooling cost.
Some finishing required;
somewhat coarse finish; wide
tolerances.
Shell mold Good dimensional accuracy and
surface finish; high production
rate.
Part size limited; expensive
patterns and equipment
required.
Expendable pattern Most metals cast with no limit
to size; complex shapes
Patterns have low strength and
can be costly for low quantities
Plaster mold Intricate shapes; good
dimensional accu- racy and
finish; low porosity.
Limited to nonferrous metals;
limited size and volume of
production; mold making time
relatively long.
Ceramic mold Intricate shapes; close
tolerance parts; good surface
finish.
Limited size.
Investment Intricate shapes; excellent
surface finish and accuracy;
almost any metal cast.
Part size limited; expensive
patterns, molds, and labor.
Permanent mold Good surface finish and
dimensional accuracy; low
porosity; high production rate.
High mold cost; limited shape
and intricacy; not suitable for
high-melting-point metals.
Die Excellent dimensional accuracy
and surface finish; high
production rate.
Die cost is high; part size
limited; usually limited to
nonferrous metals; long lead
time.
Centrifugal Large cylindrical parts with
good quality; high production
rate.
Equipment is expensive; part
shape limited.
3
Die-Casting Examples
(a)
(b)
Figure 11.1 (a) The Polaroid PDC-2000 digital camera with a AZ91D die-cast, high purity
magnesium case. (b) Two-piece Polaroid camera case made by the hot-chamber die casting
process. Source: Courtesy of Polaroid Corporation and Chicago White Metal Casting, Inc.
4
General Characteristics of Casting Processes
TABLE 11.2
Typical Weig ht (kg)
Typical
surface Section thic kness (mm)
Process
materials
cast Minimum Maximum
finish
(

m, R
a
)
Porosity*
Shape
complexity*
Dimensional
accuracy* Minimum Maximum
Sand All 0.05 No limit 5-25 4 1-2 3 3 No limit
Shell All 0.05 100+ 1-3 4 2-3 2 2 --
Expendable
mold
pattern All 0.05 No limit 5-20 4 1 2 2 No limit
Plaster
mold
Nonferrous
(Al, Mg, Zn,
Cu) 0.05 50+ 1-2 3 1-2 2 1 --
Investment
All
(High melting
pt.) 0.005 100+ 1-3 3 1 1 1 75
Permanent
mold All 0.5 300 2-3 2-3 3-4 1 2 50
Die
Nonferrous
(Al, Mg, Zn,
Cu) <0.05 50 1-2 1-2 3-4 1 0.5 12
Centrifugal All -- 5000+ 2-10 1-2 3-4 3 2 100
*Relative rating: 1 best, 5 worst.
Note : These ratings are only general; significant variations can occur, depending on the methods used.
5
Surface Roughness for Various Metalworking
Processes
Figure 11.12 Surface roughness in casting and other metalworking processes. See also Figs. 22.14 and
26.4 for comparison with other manufacturing processes.
6
Casting Examples
Figure 11.2 Typical gray-
iron castings used in
automobiles, including
transmission valve body
(left) and hub rotor with
disk-brake cylinder (front).
Source: Courtesy of Central
Foundry Division of General
Motors Corporation.
Figure 11.3 A cast
transmission housing.
7
Chapter 11

mold
mold
1 workpiece
n workpiece
Expendable mold
Expendable mold
Permanent mold
Permanent mold
8
Sand Mold Features
Figure 11.4 Schematic illustration of a sand mold, showing various features.
9
Figure 11.5 Outline of production steps in a typical sand-casting operation.
Steps in Sand Casting
10
Ch11.2
v Ch 11.2.2
green molding sand !"("#$%#&)
v Ch 11.2.3
q 1 pattern'n mold ( pattern()*+,-./012
345)
q Taper 67(89:;<=>?1@~3 @)
q Core print "AB
v Figure 11.9
v Figure 11.11
v Figure 11.15
Core print
11
Pattern Material Characteristics
TABLE 11.3
Rating
a
Characteristic Wood Aluminum Steel Plastic Cast iron
Machinability E G F G G
Wear resistance P G E F E
Strength F G E G G
Weightb E G P G P
Repairability E P G F G
Resistance to:
Corrosionc E E P E P
Swellingc P E E E E
aE, Excellent; G, good; F, fair; P, poor.
bAs a factor in operator fatigue.
cBy water.
Source : D.C. Ekey and W.R. Winter, Introduction to Foundry Technology. New York.
McGraw-Hill, 1958.
12
Patterns for Sand Casting
Figure 11.6 A typical metal
match-plate pattern used in
sand casting.
Figure 11.7 Taper on patterns for
ease of removal from the sand mold.
13
Examples of Sand Cores and Chaplets
Figure 11.8 Examples of sand cores showing core prints and chaplets to support cores.
14
Squeeze Heads
Figure 11.9 Various designs
of squeeze heads for mold
making: (a) conventional
flat head; (b) profile head;
(c) equalizing squeeze
pistons; and (d) flexible
diaphragm. Source: !
Institute of British
Foundrymen. Used with
permission.
15
Sequence of Operations for Sand Casting
Figure 11.11 Schematic illustration of the sequence of operations for sand casting. Source: Steel
Founders' Society of America. (a) A mechanical drawing of the part is used to generate a design for the
pattern. Considerations such as part shrinkage and draft must be built into the drawing. (b-c) Patterns
have been mounted on plates equipped with pins for alignment. Note the presence of core prints designed
to hold the core in place. (d-e) Core boxes produce core halves, which are pasted together. The cores will
be used to produce the hollow area of the part shown in (a). (f) The cope half of the mold is assembled by
securing the cope pattern plate to the flask with aligning pins, and attaching inserts to form the sprue and
risers. (continued)
16
Figure 11.11 (g) The flask is rammed with sand and the plate and inserts are removed. (g) The drag half is
produced in a similar manner, with the pattern inserted. A bottom board is placed below the drag and aligned
with pins. (i) The pattern, flask, and bottom board are inverted, and the pattern is withdrawn, leaving the
appropriate imprint. (j) The core is set in place within the drag cavity. (k) The mold is closed by placing the
cope on top of the drag and buoyant forces in the liquid, which might lift the cope. (l) After the metal solidifies,
the casting is removed from the mold. (m) The sprue and risers are cut off and recycled and the casting is
cleaned, inspected, and heat treated (when necessary).
Sequence of Operations for Sand Casting
(cont.)
17
Surface Roughness for Various Metalworking
Processes
Figure 11.12 Surface roughness in casting and other metalworking processes. See also Figs. 22.14 and
26.4 for comparison with other manufacturing processes.
18
Ch11.7
v Investment casting CDEF
q GHI
" JKLMFN(Owax012PQ<JRSLMFN)
" TUVW(OslurryXYZ)
q [HI
" \]K^NE_
Pattern (wax)
Pattern (wax)
Mold (ceramics)
Mold (ceramics)
Metal casting
Metal casting
19
Figure 11.18
Schematic
illustration of
investment
casting, (lost-
wax process).
Castings by this
method can be
made with very
fine detail and
from a variety of
metals. Source:
Steel Founders'
Society of
America.
Investment
Casting
20
Investment Casting of a Rotor
Figure 11.19 Investment casting of an integrally cast rotor for a gas turbine. (a) Wax pattern assembly.
(b) Ceramic shell around wax pattern. (c) Wax is melted out and the mold is filled, under a vacuum,
with molten superalloy. (d) The cast rotor, produced to net or near-net shape. Source: Howmet
Corporation.
21
Ch 11.12
v Die casting `E
(die casting345=>?Al+Cu<aHbsteelc<
d()steel dieef45?steel<ghi()a
Hjk3;l4m)

die
n casting
22
Hot- and Cold-Chamber Die-Casting
Figure 11.23 (a) Schematic illustration of the hot-chamber die-casting process. (b) Schematic
illustration of the cold-chamber die-casting process. Source: Courtesy of Foundry Management and
Technology.
(a) (b)
23
Cold-Chamber Die-Casting Machine
(a)
Figure 11.24 (a) Schematic illustration of a cold-chamber die-casting machine.
These machines are large compared to the size of the casting because large forces are
required to keep the two halves of the dies closed.
24
Figure 11.24 (b) 800-ton hot-chamber die-casting machine, DAM 8005 (made
in Germany in 1998). This is the largest hot-chamber machine in the world
and costs about $1.25 million.
(b)
Hot-Chamber Die-Casting Machine
25
Ch11.12
v Die casting
q Hot- chamber Figure 11.23 (a)
" For nT
m
metals (Zn. Sn. Pb)
" 10
3
/hr
" P 15MPa
q Cold-chamber Figure 11.23 (b)
" For oT
m
metals (Al. Cu. Mg)
" Avoid comtamination in chamber at high temperature
(pqrstuvkw0x!<yzkw{|0}!
~M5)
" P=20~150MPa 'fine detail and thin wall

26
Die-Casting Die Cavities
Figure 11.25 Various types of cavities in a die-casting die. Source: Courtesy of
American Die Casting Institute.
27
Ch11.12
v Figure 11.24
q DieIWorkpiece=1000I1
q 25~3000 ton ;!
v Estimate of Clamping force ;!
ton 55 N 10 50 force Clamping
mm 10 section cross of cavity die a
50N/mm 50MPa pressure casting die
4
2 4
2
= =

=
28
Properties and Typical Applications of
Common Die-Casting Alloys
TABLE 11.4
Alloy
Ultimate
tensile
strength
(MPa)
Yield
strength
(MPa)
Elongation
in 50 mm
(%) Applications
Aluminum 380 (3.5 Cu-8.5 Si) 320 160 2.5 Appliances, automotive components,
electrical motor frames and housings
13 (12 Si) 300 150 2.5 Complex shapes with thin walls, parts
requiring strength at elevated
temperatures
Brass 858 (60 Cu) 380 200 15 Plumbing fiztures, lock hardware,
bushings, ornamental castings
Magnesium AZ91 B (9 Al-0.7 Zn) 230 160 3 Power tools, automotive parts, sporting
goods
Zinc No. 3 (4 Al) 280 -- 10 Automotive parts, office equipment,
household utensils, building hardware,
toys
5 (4 Al-1 Cu) 320 -- 7 Appliances, automotive parts, building
hardware, business equipment
Source: Data from American Die Casting Institute
29
Ch 11
v Advantage of die casting
q Fine detail (thin wall<0.5 mm)
q Fine surface finish
q Fine grain structure (fast cooling'grain size
small)
q Highly automated process
v Disadvantage of die casting
q High equipment cost
(machineI10
6
~10
7
NTD"dieI10
4
~10
5
NTD)
30
Single Crystal Casting
Figure 11.31 Two methods of
crystal growing: (a) crystal
pulling (Czochralski process)
and (b) the floating-zone
method. Crystal growing is
especially important in the
semiconductor industry.
Source: L. H. Van Vlack,
Materials for Engineering.
Addison-Wesley Publishing
Co., Inc., 1982.
31
Ch 11
#$I11.1~11.2.4, 11.2.6, 11.7, 11.12
%$I11.2.5, 11.4, 11.15(d)
&$I11.3, 11.5~11.6, 11.8~11.11,
11.15 (a)~(c), 11.17~11.19