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EXCELCOMINDO SUBMARINE NETWORK SYSTEM Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Training Handbook © COPYRIGHT ALCATEL, 2004 J Volume 5
EXCELCOMINDO SUBMARINE NETWORK SYSTEM Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Training Handbook © COPYRIGHT ALCATEL, 2004 J Volume 5

EXCELCOMINDO SUBMARINE NETWORK SYSTEM

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Training Handbook

© COPYRIGHT ALCATEL, 2004
©
COPYRIGHT
ALCATEL, 2004
 

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Training Handbook

Contents

Copyright Notice

Issue 12

  • 1. Fundamentals of SDH

EXCELCOMINDO SUBMARINE NETWORK SYSTEM

J Volume 5 - Issue 1

i

 

COPYRIGHT AND PROTECTIVE NOTICES

The copyright in this document and the associated drawings are owned by Alcatel Submarine Networks. Without the written consent of Alcatel Submarine Networks given by contract or otherwise, the book or document must not be copied or reprinted or reproduced in any material form, either wholly or in part and the contents of the book or document or any method or technique available therefrom must not be disclosed to any other person whomsoever.

The publication of information herein does not imply freedom from patent and other protective rights of Alcatel Submarine Networks or others.

Alcatel Submarine Networks takes every precaution to ensure that data and other material in this publication are correct and complete, but accepts no liability of any kind for any error or omission therein and as far as allowed by law, will not accept any liability for any death or personal injury, loss or damage arising from any error therein or omissions therefrom.

Performance figures and other data quoted herein are typical and must be specifically confirmed by Alcatel Submarine Networks before they become applicable to any particular tender, order or contract.

Due to the possibility of changes, the values quoted in any components table should be confirmed by reference to those quoted on the appropriate detailed schematic drawing or in the appropriate stock list.

Unless otherwise stated, Alcatel Submarine Networks makes no representation and gives no warranty in respect of the source of origin of manufacture of the goods or any part thereof.

All items (including electrical components, mechanical piece parts, etc.) used on the equipment described are allocated a code designation.

In the case of electrical components the code is allocated to an item having specific electrical parameters and not the products of an individual manufacturer. Hence in any equipment it is possible for items to have the same code designation, but to differ considerably in appearance, depending upon the actual manufacturer. Such components are direct electrical and mechanical replacements.

Issue 12

---oOo---

S.959

 
 

Fundamentals of SDH

 

© All rights reserved. Passing on and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization from Alcatel

 

Training manual 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. 01 Edition 2002

   
 

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Note : Please print this document with comments pages

 

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01

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Contents

 

1

Introduction to the synchronous system

 
 

1.1

Transmission networks

 
 

1.2

Plesiochronous hierarchy

 
 

1.3

Synchronous hierarchy

 
 

1.4

SDH transport network

 

2

Base frame components

 
 

2.1

Container : Cn

 
 

2.2

Virtual container : VCn

 
 

2.3

Tributary Unit (Group) : TU (TUG)

 
 

2.4

Administrative Unit (Group) : AU (AUG)

 
 

2.5

ITU-T Multiplexing Structure

 
 

2.6

ETSI Multiplexing Structure

 
 

2.7

Base Frame : STM-1

 
 

2.8

Base elements : Overview

 

3

 

Section Overhead

 
 

3.1

Definition of Path and Section

 
 

3.2

Example of Path and section

 
 

3.3

STM-1 Section Overhead : SOH

 
 

3.4

STM-1 Regeneration Section Overhead : RSOH

 
 

3.5

STM-1 Multiplexing Section Overhead : MSOH

 

4

 

Pointer

 
 

4.1

AU-4 Pointer addressing area

 
 

4.2

Au- Pointer management

 
 

4.3

AU-4 Pointer settings

 
 

4.4

AU-4 Pointer and justification use

 
 

4.5

Pointer justifications depending on clock deviation

 

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01

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Contents

5

Path Overhead, Low rate Multiplexing Mapping

 

5.1

VC-4, VC-3 POH

 
 

5.2

140 Mbit/s mapping

 
 

5.3

VC3->TUG3->VC-4 Generation

 
 

5.4

STM-1 made up of 3 x VC-3

 
 

5.5

VC-2, VC-12, VC-11, POH

 
 

5.6

Asynchronous mapping at 2 Mbit/s

 
 

5.7

Generation of a VC-12 Multiframe

 
 

5.8

Organisation of the STM-1 made up of VC-12

 

5.9

TU-12 Unit Numbering in a VC-4

 
 

5.10 ATM cell insertion into a VC-4

 

6

High-Rate Multiplexing

 
 

6.1

Byte interleaved Multiplexing

 
 

6.2

STM-N Section Overhead

 
 

6.3

Contiguous Concatenation

 

7

Usage of SDH Networks

 
 

7.1

Example of SDH Network

 
 

7.2

Principle of Partitioning & Layering

 
 

7.3

Partitioning of Layer Networks & Sub-Networks

 

7.4

SDH Layer Networks

 
 

7.5

Example : Layers used by a Low Order Path

 

7.6

Definition of reference Points

 
 

7.7

Relation between Reference Points & Transport Entities

8

The Functional Model

 
 

8.1

Layer function : Adaptation

 
 

8.2

Layer Function : Termination

 
 

8.3

Layer Function : Connection

 
 

8.4

Atomic & Basic Functions in a Network Element

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01

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Contents

 

9

Alarm and Error Handling

 
 

9.1

Communication Alarms

 
 

9.2

Alarm Indication Signal : AIS

 
 

9.3

Remote Defect Indication : RDI

 
 

9.4

Alarm and Error Processing within an NE

 
 

9.5

Explanation of Alarm and Error Codes

 
 

9.6

Alarm and Error Processing

 
 

9.7

Performance Monitoring : PM

 
 

9.8

Tandem Connections

 

10

Protection and Restoration

 
 

10.1

Equipment Protection : EPS

 
 

10.2

Network Protection

 
 

10.3

Network Restoration

 

11

Network Synchronisation

 
 

11.1

Synchronisation Distribution

 
 

11.2

Clocks Types and Distribution in the Network

 
 

11.3

Synchronisation Diagram

 
 

11.4

Synchronous Equipment Timing

 
 

11.5

Synchronisation Signals : Quality and Priority

 
 

11.6

Linear Networks without SSM

 
 

11.7

Linear Network with SSM

 

12

 

Optical Interfaces

 
 

12.1

Classification of Optical Interfaces

 
 

12.2

Laser Safety

 
 

12.3

Automatic laser Shutdown : ALS

 
 

12.4

Laser Operation Actions

 

13

 

Appendices

 

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01

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© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01

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Self assessment of the objectives

Contract number :

 
 

Course title : Fundamentals of SDH Client (Company, centre) :

       
 

Language : English

dates from :

 

to :

 
 

Number of trainees :

Location :

     
 

Surname, First name :

       
     

Did you meet the following objectives ? Tick the corresponding box Please, return this sheet to the trainer at the end of the training

 
       

Yes (or

No (or

   
     

Instructional objectives

Globally

globally

Comments

 
       

yes)

no)

   
 

1.

To be able to list the advantages of SDH

       
 

2.

To be able to describe the SDH frame

       
 

3.

To be to be able to describe the function of OH bytes

     
 

4.

To be able to describe the function of the pointer

       
 

5.

to be able to describe the multiplexing structure in an SDH frame

     
 

6.

To be able to describe the multiplexing of STM- 1 frames

     
 

7.

To be able to describe the layering of SDH Networks

       
 

8.

To be able to describe the functional model in SDH

       
 

9.

to be able to describe the way the alarms are managed in an SDH network

       
 

10.

To be able to describe the different kinds of protection in SDH

       
 

11.

To be able to describe the principles of synchronisation of SDH networks

       
 

12.

To be able to list the optical interfaces used in SDH

       

             

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01

     

Page 0.7

         

Self assessment of the objectives (continued)

 
   

Yes (or

No (or

   
 

Instructional objectives

Globally

globally

Comments

 
   

yes)

no)

   
 

Other comments

   
 

Thank you for your answers to this questionnaire

 
         

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01

     

Page 0.8

   

1 Introduction to the synchronous system

 
   

1.1

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VT ZZA Ed.01

 
 
 

1 Introduction to the synchronous system Session presentation

Objective: to be able to list the advantages of SDH program:

1.1 Transmission networks

1.2 Plesiochronous hierarchy

1.3 Synchronous hierarchy

1.4 SDH transport network

 

1.2

               
       

1 Introduction to the Synchronous System Transmission networks

     

Mobile communication network

     

Subscriber

         

Subscriber

 

system

           

system

 
       

Intelligent network

       
     

Switching

 

Switching

     
     

system

 

system

     
   

Access

 

PDH / SDH

 

Access

   
   

system

exchange

transport

exchange

system

   
     

Narrowband

network

Narrowband

     
     

Broadband

 

Broadband

     
   

Copper

 

Optical

Microwave

 

Copper

   
   

Optical

   

Optical

   
   

Radio

 

Satellite

 

Radio

   

Voice

           

Voice

 

Data

           

Data

 

Images

           

Images

 
       

Management network

       
               

1.3

The "Transport" function comprises the transmission of traffic :

from one exchange to another

from one access system to another

directly between subscriber terminals

                       
           

1 Introduction to the Synchronous System

             

Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy : PDH

               

G.752

       

JAPAN

           

32.064

*3

97.728

*4

397.200

 
         

G.752

*5

           

UNITED

STATES

1.544

G.753

*4

6.312

G.752

*7

44.736

*6

274.176

     
 

Interoperation

*3

       

*3

       
   

(G.802)

G.757

       

G.755

       
     

G.742

 

G.751

 

G.751

       
   

2.048

 

8.448

   

34.368

 

139.264

 

564.992

 

EUROPE

 

*4

 

*4

   

*4

 

*4

   
   

Frame structure not defined in the ITU-T

   

Values in Mbit/s

 
                       

1.4

The Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH):

 

is NOT designed for high rates

is based on three different standards

does not provide optical interconnections for interfaces supplied by different manufacturers

defines a cost intensive and fairly inflexible multiplexing structure

has a low binary rate dedicated for monitoring and a limited transmission quality

does not provide centralized network management

has an exclusively point-to-point connection topology

The PDH standards were approved by the ITU-T in 1988 (G.702)

 
 

1 Introduction to the Synchronous System

 

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy : SDH

The SDH results from the SONET concepts proposed in the USA.

The first SDH standards were approved by the ITU-T in 11/1988 (recommendation series G.7xx):

They define the rate, the frame and the multiplexing processes.

The SDH is an international, high-rate telecommunication networks standard.

The SDH is defined as an assembly of normalized digital transport structures.

The SDH provides centralized network management.

 

1.5

   
   

1 Introduction to the Synchronous System SDH transport network

 

Plesiochronous

Plesiochronous

 

Signals

Signals

   

SDH Network

 

ATM

ATM

   

1.6

   
   

1 Introduction to the Synchronous System Evaluation

   

Objective: to be able to list the advantages of SDH

Thank you for answering the self-assessment of the objectives sheet

 
   

1.7

   

2 Base frame components

 
   

2.1

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VT ZZA Ed.01

 
 
 

2 Base Frame Components Session presentation

Objective: to be able to describe the SDH frame program:

2.1 Container : Cn

2.2 Virtual container : VCn

2.3 Tributary Unit (Group) : TU (TUG)

2.4 Administrative Unit (Group) : AU (AUG)

2.5 ITU-T Multiplexing Structure

2.6 ETSI Multiplexing Structure

2.7 Base Frame : STM-1

2.8 Base elements : Overview

 

2.2

       
       

2 Base Frame Components Container : Cn

     

139.264 Mbit/s

 
       

44.736 Mbit/s

     

n = 4

 
       

n = 3

   

n = 11

   
 

1.544 Mbit/s

 

C-n

 
   

n = 12

 

n = 3

     

n = 2

 
   

2.048 Mbit/s

 

34.368 Mbit/s

     

6.312 Mbit/s

 
       

2.3

C-n: Container, n = index of the container (n = 11, 12, 2, 3, 4)

The rate of a container depends on the signal which is being transported.

The mapping of a signal in the corresponding container is specified in G.707

             
           

2 Base Frame Components Container : VCn

 

P

               
 

O

 

VC-4

   

C-4

139.264 Mbit/s

 
 

H

               
       

P

         
       

O

VC-3

       
       

H

         
           

C-3

44.736

Mbit/s

 
           

34.368

Mbit/s

 

P

                 

O

H

   

C-n

P

         
   

O

H

VC-2

C-2

6.312 Mbit/s

 
       

P

         
       

O

VC-12

C-12

2.048 Mbit/s

 
       

H

         
       

P

         
     

VC-n

O

VC-11

C-11

1.544 Mbit/s

 
       

H

         
                 

2.4

VC-n: Virtual Container, it is made up of a C-n and a POH

POH: Path OverHead

The POH is an additional transport-capacity designed for the container:

it carries details on e.g. the payload contents.

VC-n = C-n + POH

n = 11, 12, 2, 3, 4

               
           

2 Base Frame Components TU

P

               

O

 

VC-4

     

C-4

139.264 Mbit/s

 

H

                 
       

P

         
     

TU-3

O

VC-3

       
       

H

         
           

C-3

44.736

Mbit/s

 
           

34.368

Mbit/s

 
       

P

         
     

TU-2

O

VC-2

C-2

6.312 Mbit/s

 
       

H

     
       

P

         
     

TU-12

O

VC-12

C-12

2.048 Mbit/s

 
       

H

     
       

P

         
     

TU-11

O

VC-11

C-11

1.544 Mbit/s

 
       

H

       
 

high order

   

low order

       
                 

2.5

TU: Tributary Unit, it is made up of a low order VC-n (n=11,12, 2, 3) and a pointer

The pointer is an additional rate used to locate its VC-n within the TU: Pointers allow to transport virtual containers phase shifted related to their TU, which facilitates data processing in the network element.

For high order container (VC-3, VC-4) see: Administrative Unit (AU)

TU-n = VC-n + PTR

n = 11, 12, 2, 3

                       
                   

2 Base Frame Components TUG

P

                       

O

 

VC-4

             

C-4

139.264 Mbit/s

 

H

                         
   

X3

                     
       

X1

   

P

           
     

TUG-3

   

TU-3

O

 

VC-3

       
             

H

           
       

X7

         

C-3

44.736

Mbit/s

 
                     

34.368

Mbit/s

 
         

X1

   

P

         
       

TUG-2

 

TU-2

 

O

VC-2

C-2

6.312 Mbit/s

 
               

H

         
           

X3

             
               

P

         
           

TU-12

 

O

VC-12

C-12

2.048 Mbit/s

 
               

H

         
           

X4

             
               

P

         
           

TU-11

 

O

VC-11

C-11

1.544 Mbit/s

 
               

H

         
 

high order

           

low order

       
                         

2.6

TUG: Tributary Unit Group, the TUG-2 / TUG-3 can consist of several types of capacity payloads with different sizes.

The TUG-2 is 4 X TU-11 or

  • 3 X TU-12 or

  • 1 X TU-2.

The TUG-3 is 7 X TUG-2 or

  • 1 X TU-3.

The TUG is obtained through byte interleaved multiplexing.

For high order container (VC-3, VC-4) see: Administrative Unit Group (AUG)

TUG-k = m * TU-n

n = 11, 12, 2, 3

                           
                     

2 Base Frame Components AUG

 

X1

                         
       

P

               

139.264 Mbit/s

 

AUG

   

AU-4

O

VC-4

           

C-4

 
       

H

                     
           

X3

                 
 

X3

       

X1

 

P

           
         

TUG-3

TU-3

O

 

VC-3

       
                 

H

         
             

X7

               
       

P

               

44.736

34.368

Mbit/s

Mbit/s

 
     

AU-3

O

H

VC-3

           

C-3

 
           

X7

                 
               

X1

 

P

         
             

TUG-2

TU-2

 

O

VC-2

C-2

6.312 Mbit/s

 
                   

H

         
               

X3

             
                   

P

         
               

TU-12

 

O

VC-12

C-12

2.048 Mbit/s

 
                   

H

     
               

X4

             
                   

P

         
               

TU-11

 

O

VC-11

C-11

1.544 Mbit/s

 
                   

H

       
     

high order

         

low order

       
                             

2.7

AU: Administrative Unit, it is made up of a high order VC-n (n = 3,4) and a pointer.

The AU-3 multiplexing structure is designed for compatibility with SONET frames.

Two types of virtual containers VC-n are used:

Lower order VC-n (n = 11,12, 2, 3) This entity contains a single container n associated with the POH.

 

Higher order VC-n (n = 3, 4) This entity contains either a single container n or a TUG (Tributary Unit Group) assembly (TUG-2 or TUG-3) associated with the POH.

VC-3 can be: lower order TU-3 TUG-3 VC-4 AU-4 higher order AU-3

or

AU-n = VC-n + PTR

 

n = 3, 4

AUG = 1 * AU-4

or

3 * AU-3

                             
                       

2 Base Frame Components ITU-T Multiplexing Structure

 

* N

 

X1

 

P

                     

STM-N

 

AUG

 

AU-4

O

VC-4

           

C-4

139.264 Mbit/s

 
         

H

                 
             

X3

                 
       

X3

     

TUG-3

X1

 

P

           
             

TU-3

O

 

VC-3

       
                   

H

           
   

X1

   

P

   

X7

         

44.736

Mbit/s

 

STM-0

     

AU-3

O

VC-3

           

C-3

34.368

Mbit/s

 
     

H

             
               

X7

               
   

High rate

     

TUG-2

X1

TU-2

 

P

O

H

VC-2

C-2

6.312 Mbit/s

 
 

multiplexing

       

X3

             
                     

P

         
               

Low rate

TU-12

 

O

VC-12

C-12

2.048

Mbit/s

 
             

multiplexing

   

H

         
                 

X4

             
                     

P

         
                 

TU-11

 

O

VC-11

C-11

1.544

Mbit/s

 
       

Insertion of the SOH

     

H

     
                               

2.8

N = 1, 4, 16, 64 STM:

Synchronous Transport Module

ITU-T:

International Telecommunication Union – Telecommunication sector

SDH-SONET compatibility:

see Appendix A2

                               
                           

2 Base Frame Components ETSI Multiplexing Structure

 

* N

   

X1

 

P

                       

STM-N

 

AUG

 

AU-4

O

VC-4

             

C-4

139.264 Mbit/s

 
       

H

                   
               

X3

                   
                   

X1

 

P

           
                 

TUG-3

TU-3

O

 

VC-3

       
                       

H

           
                   

X7

         

44.736

Mbit/s

 
                             

C-3

34.368

Mbit/s

 
                     

X1

 

P

         
                   

TUG-2

TU-2

 

O

VC-2

       
                     

H

       
                     

X3

             
                         

P

         
                     

TU-12

 

O

VC-12

C-12

2.048

Mbit/s

 
                       

H

     
                         

P

         
                         

O

VC-11

C-11

1.544

Mbit/s

 
       

Insertion of the SOH

         

H

     
                                   

2.9

N = 1, 4, 16, 64

ETSI: European Telecommunication Standard Institute.

 

It is a subset of ITU-T standard.

 

It focuses on European digital signals to simplify equipment.

ETSI-standard will be handled in the following chapters

In the SDH signal (or data) processing takes place in three levels:

 

mapping of digital signal to container C-n

multiplexing of low order containers to high order containers via TUGs and finally via AU (AUG) into the STM-1 base frame.

multiplexing of base frame, i. e. STM-1 frames at 155.520 Mbit/s with each other to create a high-rate frame:

 

STM-4

at

622.080 Mbit/s

STM-16 at 2488.320 Mbit/s STM-64 at 9953.280 Mbit/s

       
       

2 Base Frame Components Base Frame STM-1

     

270 columns (bytes)

 
   

9

1

 
 

1

   

270

   

RSOH

   

9 rows

 

AU-4 pointer

P

 

(bytes)

   

O

C-4

     

H

 
   

MSOH

   
       

2430

MSOH + RSOH= SOH

     
       

VC-4

       

2.10

The STM-1 base frame is structured with the following characteristics:

Length

: 2430 bytes

Duration

: 125 µs

i.e. 8000 frames/s

Rate

: 155.520 Mbit/s

Payload

: 2340 bytes

i. e. 149.760 Mbit/s

 

1byte i.e. 64 kbit/s (e.g. speech channel)

STM

Synchronous Transport Module

MSOH

Multiplex Section Overhead

RSOH

Regenerator Section Overhead

SOH

Section Overhead

STM-1 = AU-4 + SOH

 
         
         

2 Base Frame Components Base Elements : Overview

Container

 

C-n

 

n = 11, 12, 2, 3, 4

Virtual Container

VC-n =

C-n + POH

n = 11, 12, 2, 3, 4

Tributary Unit

TU-n = VC-n + PTR

n = 11, 12, 2, 3

Tributary Unit Group

TUG-k = m * TU-n

 

k = 2, 3

       

m

= 4, 3, 1, 7

       

n = 11, 12, 2, 3

Administrative Unit

AU-n = VC-n + PTR

 

n = 3, 4

Administrative Unit Group

AUG = 1 * AU-4

   
   

or

3 * AU-3

   

Synchronous Transport Module

STM-1 = AU-4 + SOH

(Base Frame)

   

STM-N = 4 * STM-m

N = 4, 16, 64

       

m

= 1, 4, 16

         

2.11

In the SDH signal (or data) processing takes place in three levels:

mapping of digital signal to container C-n

multiplexing of low order containers to high order containers via TUGs and finally via AU (AUG) into the STM-1 base frame

multiplexing of base frame, i. e. STM-1 frames at 155.520 Mbit/s with each other to create a high-rate frame:

STM-4

at

622.080 Mbit/s

STM-16 at 2488.320 Mbit/s

STM-64 at 9953.280 Mbit/s

   
   

2 Base Frame Components Evaluation

   

Objective: to be able to describe the SDH frame

Thank you for answering the self-assessment of the objectives sheet

 
   

2.12

   

3 Section Overhead

 
   

3.1

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VT ZZA Ed.01

 
 
 

3 Section Overhead Session presentation

Objective: to be able to describe the function of OH bytes program:

3.1 Definition of Path and Section

3.2 Example of Path and section

3.3 STM-1 Section Overhead : SOH

3.4 STM-1 Regeneration Section Overhead : RSOH

3.5 STM-1 Multiplexing Section Overhead : MSOH

 

3.2

                     
               

3 Section Overhead

             

Definition of Path and Section

 

Terminal- or Cross-Connect-Multiplexer

     

Terminal- or Cross-Connect-Multiplexer

 
     

SOH

       

SOH

       
   

POH

           

POH

     
 

C

VC

 

Regenerator

 

Regenerator

 

VC

C

   

Signal

   

STM-N

STM-N

 

STM-N

 

STM-N

   

Signal

 
 

C

VC

           

VC

C

   

plesiochronous

     

Regenerator

Regenerator

Regenerator

     

plesiochronous

 
     

Section

Section

 

Section

       
     

Multiplex Section

         
         

Path

             
                       

3.3

C

Container

VC

Virtual Containe

POH

Path Overhead

SOH

Section Overhead

The SECTION is the link between two network elements.

The PATH connects the two points where the POH is generated / analyzed.

             
           

3 Section Overhead Example of Path and Section

       

2 Mbit/s

     
     

Section 2

       
     

STM-16

       
 

Section 1

STM-1

NE-B

Path 1

NE-C

Path 2

ST M-1

SDH Network

 
 

NE-A

     

NE-D

   
             

STM-4

       

STM-4

     
         

NE-E

NE-F

 
         

STM-4

   
 

2 Mbit/s

     

2 Mbit/s

2 Mbit/s

 
             

3.4

NE

Network Element

Overheads carrying specific info of every path or section, from one end to the other (e.g. Path 1 between NE-A and NE-E)

                           
                       

3 Section Overhead Section Overhead : SOH

           

9 bytes

           
     

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

     
     

A1

A1

A1

A2

A2

A2

J0

         
     

B1

D

D

E1

D

 

F1

   

RSOH

   
     

D1

D

D

D2

D

 

D3

         
           

AU-4 pointer

           
   

9 rows

B2

B2

B2

K1

   

K2

         
     

D4

   

D5

   

D6

         
     

D7

   

D8

   

D9

   

MSOH

   
     

D10

   

D11

   

D12

         
     

S1

Z1

Z1

Z2

Z2

M1

E2

         
   

Bytes reserved for national use.

             
 

*

                         
   

Unscrambled bytes. Their contents should therefore be monitored.

   
 

∆∆∆∆

Bytes depending on the medium (satellite, radio relay system,

)

 
                           

3.5

All unmarked bytes are reserved for future international normalization (medium dependence, additional national use and other purposes).

The Section OverHead (SOH) is divided into two subassemblies:

RSOH:

Regenerator Section OverHead

MSOH:

Multiplex Section OverHead

                     
                     

3 Section Overhead

                 

Regeneration Section Overhead : RSOH

 

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

   
 

A1

A1

A1

A2

A2

A2

J0

       
 

B1

D

D

E1

D

 

F1

   

RSOH:

Regenerator

                     

Section

 

D1

D

D

D2

D

 

D3