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SOLID-LIQUID EXTRACTION (LEACHING)

Overview
Types of system
Simple multiple extraction
Countercurrent multistage operation
Kremser equation constant underflow
Graphical solution variable underflow
onchon!Savarit method "
onchon!Savarit method ""
Overview
Solid!liquid extraction or leaching generally refers to the removal of a component from a
solid using a solvent liquid#
The desired component$ solute %&'$ is washed by the solvent %C' leaving the inert or
insoluble solid %(' undissolved# Two phases result$ the overflow$ )$ which is a clear
solution of the solute and solvent and the underflow$ *$ which is the undissolved solid with
some solution adhering to it# &t equilibrium$ the solution adhering in the underflow has the
same composition as the overflow#
Types of syste
Systems in leaching may be divided into two+ constant underflow %Type "' and variable
underflow %Type ""'# The solution being retained in the undissolved solid may vary at
different concentrations#
Type " Type ""
A B
C
A B
C
Sip!e "!tip!e e#tr$%tio&
The number of theoretical equilibrium stages may be determined graphically by contacting
the resultant underflow with fresh solvent in each stage#
The procedure is to determine the resultant mixture$ $ in each stage after which the
composition of the overflow and underflow is located using the underflow locus provided for
each system# ,quilibrium is achieved when no mass transfer exist between the underflow
%inert - solution adhering to the inert' and the overflow %clear solution'# The resulting
composition in the underflow is then mixed with another batch of fresh solvent#

3
x
&
.
x
&
/
x
&
0
x
&
1
y
&
/
y
&
0
y
&
1
y
2-/
3
&
$y
&
mass fraction solute
3
C
$
y
c

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Co"&ter%"rre&t "!tist$'e e#tr$%tio&
(reser e)"$tio& * %o&st$&t "&+erf!ow
"f the solvent or solution adhering to the undissolved solid is constant then the number of
theoretical equilibrium stages may be determined by the Kremser equation# This equation
was derived from the operating line equation# 4hen the solution retained by the inerts is
constant$ both the underflow L
n
and overflow V
n
are constant and the equation of the
operating line is straight#
V
0
V
0
V
0
L
0
L
1
L
2
V
1
V
2
V
3
L
3
1
2
3

L
0
L
1
V
1
V
2
V
N+1
L
N
1 2
N
1 A AN
2 A 1 AN
1 A 2 A
AN 1 AN
x x
y y
log
x y
x y
log
1 N

=
+
+
where y 5 mass fraction in the overflow
x 5 mass fraction in the underflow
The first or letter subscript denotes component and second or number subscript denotes
equilibrium stage#
2ote that this equation cannot be used for the entire cascade if *
.
differs from the
succeeding underflows# Therefore the compositions of streams entering and leaving the
first stage are separately calculated by material balance# Kremser equation is then applied
to the remaining stages# "n the material balance$ the inert is excluded from the calculation#
&lso$ remember that the overflow is the same concentration as the solution leaving with the
underflow6 i#e#
1 A 1 A
x y =
#
Gr$p,i%$! so!"tio& * v$ri$-!e "&+erf!ow
7or variable underflows$ the number of theoretical equilibrium stages may be determined
graphically using the onchon!Savarit 8ethod# This method can also be adapted for
systems exhibiting constant underflow#
.o&%,o&-S$v$rit et,o+
9ust li:e in the liquid!liquid extraction$ the method ma:es use of the delta$ $ to relate the
streams passing in opposite direction#
Total mass balance+
*
.
- )
n-/
5 5 )
/
- *
n
5 *
.
)
/
5 *
n
! )
n-/
Theoretical stages are calculated after locating delta# Starting at )
/
$ the underflow *
/
is
located by drawing a line to the right angle# )
0
is then located using the delta# The
procedure is continued until the last composition in the underflow is reached#
x
&
.
x
&
/
x
&
0
x
&
1
y
&
/
y
&
0
y
&
1
y
2-/
3
&
$y
&
mass fraction solute
3
C
$
y
c

m
a
s
s

f
r
a
c
t
i
o
n

s
o
l
v
e
n
t
x
2

& modification of the onchon!Savarit method can also be used# The modifications are %/'
consider each stream a mixture of solid and solution and %0' use the ratio of solid to solution
in place of enthalpy#
The underflow$ 3$ and overflow$ ;$ is redefined as
3 5 mass of solute per mass of solution6 &<%& - C'
; 5 mass of inert per mass of solution6 (<%& - C'
Stages are computed after the delta is located from the four end streams# The procedure in
=stepping off> is the same as the previous method but the tie lines are vertical in this case#
;
&
/ ;
&
0
;
&
1
;
2-/
3
&
.
3
&
/
3
&
0
3
2

3 mass &< mass & - (



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(
Refere&%es
?as$ ?#K# and @#K# rabhudesai# /AAA# Chemical ,ngineering *icense @eview# 0
nd
edition#
,ngineering ress# &ustin$ Texas#
Cro:ett$ 4illiam ,# /ABC# Chemical ,ngineering# & @eview for the #,# ,xam# 9ohn 4iley D
Sons$ "nc# 2ew ;or:#
7oust$ &lan S#$ *#&# 4enEel$ C#4# Clamp$ *# 8aus$ and *#(# &ndersen# /AB.# rinciples of
Fnit Operations# 0
nd
ed# 9ohn 4iley D Sons$ 2ew ;or:#
erry$ @obert G# and ?#4# Green# 0../# erry>s Chemical ,ngineers> Gandboo:# H
th
edition#
8cGraw!Gill# Singapore#