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UPGRADING HISTORIC SITES

WITHIN
CONTEMPORARY URBAN DEVELOPMENT
Sitangika Srivastava
This dissertation is submitted in part fulflment of the regulations for the MA in Urban Design.
Department of Planning
Oxford Brookes University
2013
2
In the current scenario, nations around the globe are going through
a rapid process of development. The progress in scientifc and
technological innovation to culture and art outlooks is seen
manifested in urban design and development. While there is
urbanization on one hand, on the other, the relics from the past
are losing their value. Their signifcance is being noted only be
the conservationists and historians. Taking this into account, the
presented research questions how to integrate historic sites within
contemporary urban development through the transformation of
their public realm, thereby enhancing the visitor experience. The
aim of the research was to produce a set of guidelines in response
to this question.
This dissertation has been structured and presented in seven chapters.
A research overview with the aspects of urban transformation and
heritage values has been presented in frst chapter. It also defnes
the research methodology. Chapter two presents the theoretical
frame work forming the conceptual base of the research carried
out. This has been formulated based on an exhaustive literature
review relevant to the aims and objective of the research proposal.
India, currently a developing country, has a rich cultural past with a
legacy of historical assets from ancient to modern times. A review
of monuments in India has been presented in the next chapter 3.
Following this, chapter 4 discusses case studies and the analytical
framework used to conduct them. The studies were based in the
context of UK, a developed country. A set of design principles were
drawn from these studies.
Qutb Complex, a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in New
Delhi, is further used as a reference site from India. Though it
is a popular tourist attraction, it lies isolated amidst the busy
traffc network. A study was conducted using the same analytical
framework following an analysis of its context from an urban
design perspective. These are presented in chapter 5. Following
this, a design proposal in the form of guidelines is presented. This
was obtained by applying the design principles on this site. This
lead to the further development of universal guidelines presented
in Chapter 6 fulflling the desired outcome. Some of the detailed
information is given in the appendices included after the reference
citation. In the end, conclusions arrived at and suggestions for scope
for further research are presented in chapter 7.
Words: 21,964
ABSTRACT
3
With a background in Exhibition Design and keen interest in constructing spatial narratives,
historic sites with the layers of history they behold has always intrigued my interest. But their
perception as only a tourist attraction, a place of interest only for historians or another derelict
site to be avoided motivated me to explore them from the perspective of urban design and their
relevance to the contemporary audience. Thus, the presented research questions the methods
of bridging historic sites within the current landscape by upgrading their status in the urban
form.
As a methodology, being based in UK- a developed nation and having a background in India-
a developing country, I have taken the opportunity to conduct my research by looking at the
factors which both these contexts provide. While the case studies were selected from sites in
UK, the conclusions obtained were applied to a UNESCO World Heritage Site in India.
In conclusion, through the process of inquiry by design, this research provides a set of guidelines
in response to the research question: How to integrate historic sites within contemporary
urban development through the transformation of their public realm, enhancing the visitor
experience?
PREFACE
4
With the completion of this dissertation my course MA Urban Design at Oxford Brookes
University also concludes. With great pleasure, I would like to take this as an opportunity to
thank everyone who made it an enjoyable and an enriching experience. I would like to thank
my supervisor Prof. Brain Goodey for mentoring me through the course of this research. His
guidance, encouragement and belief in my abilities not only strengthened this piece of work
but widened my understanding of the realms of urban design. His motivation gave me the
opportunity to explore the various dimensions of this research topic.
I would like to thank JCUD and its faculty members, Prof Georgia Butina Watson for sharing
her knowledge and facilitating us with all the resources, Dr Alan Reeve, Dr Laura Novo
de Azevedo, Dr Jon Cooper, Dr Regina Lim and Dr Tom Medcalf for introducing us to the
discipline and guiding through the studio projects. I would like to thank my classmates for
critical urban design discussions during studio hours and being a family otherwise.
I would like to thank my parents and siblings, for giving me the chance to explore my desired
path of study in a new cultural context and keeping me motivated throughout its course. I
would also like to thank my friends back at home for being there for me in every little way
possible. Above all, I thank my late grandmother without whose blessings none of it would
have been possible.
Thank you Oxford Brookes University, for giving me a home away from home.
Sitangika Srivastava
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
5
ABSTRACT ...........................................................................................................................02
PREFACE ...............................................................................................................................03
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ...................................................................................................04
TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................................05
LIST OF TABLES ..................................................................................................................12
LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................................14
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................20
Chapter Introduction .....................................................................................................20
1.1 Research Overview....................................................................................................21
1.2 Urban Transformation And Public Realm ................................................................21
1.3 Heritage, The Concept .............................................................................................21
1.3.1 Heritage Typology
1.3.2 Heritage: Value and Uses
1.3.3 Heritage in the Changing World
1.4 Monuments In India .................................................................................................24
1.5 Visitor Experience Design .......................................................................................25
1.5.1 Visitor Interpretation at Heritage Sites
TABLE OF CONTENTS
6
1.5.2 The New Visitor
Conclusion ....................................................................................................................26
1.6 Research Question ...................................................................................................26
1.7 Research Approach ..................................................................................................26
1.7.1 Aim
1.7.2 Objectives
1.7.3 Methods and Stages
1.8 Structure of the Report .............................................................................................27
Expected Conclusions ...................................................................................................28
CHAPTER 2: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK .............................................................29
Chapter Introduction .....................................................................................................29
2.1 City And Urban Heritage ........................................................................................30
2.1.2 Heritage- Led Urban Transformation
2.2 Institutional Frameworks ........................................................................................32
2.2.1 International Level
2.2.2 National Level
2.2.3 Local Level
2.2.4 Private Sector and Property Owners
2.2.5 Public Participation
2.3 Conservation Policies .............................................................................................33
7
2.3.1 Listed Building
2.3.2 Scheduled Monuments
2.3.3 WHS Status
2.4 Monument: The Defnition .....................................................................................36
2.4.1 Monument Typology
2.4.2 Values of Monuments
2.5 Public Realm ...........................................................................................................38
2.5.1 Buffer Zone
2.5.2 Issues
2.6 Setting .....................................................................................................................40
2.7 Visitors At Monuments ...........................................................................................40
2.7.1 Leisure Economy
2.7.2 Visitors In Historic Towns
Conclusions ...................................................................................................................42
CHAPTER 3: STATUS OF MONUMENTS IN INDIA .....................................................43
Chapter Introduction .....................................................................................................43
3.1 Indian Architecture .................................................................................................44
3.2 Institutional Framework ..........................................................................................44
3.2.1 Government Organizations
3.2.2 Management Policies
8
3.3 Typology Of Indian Monuments .............................................................................46
3.3.1 Sacred Places
3.3.2 Forts and Palaces
3.3.3 Mausoleums
3.3.4 Gardens and Landscape
3.3.5 Thematic Spaces
3.3.6 Indian Administration/Public Buildings
3.3.7 Historic Towns
3.4 People At Monuments .............................................................................................53
3.4.1 Local Community
3.4.2 Monuments in Daily Life
3.4.3 Tourists
Conclusion ....................................................................................................................54
CHAPTER 4: ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK and CASE STUDIES .............................56
Chapter Introduction .....................................................................................................56
4.1 Analytical Framework .............................................................................................57
4.2 Site Selection Criteria .............................................................................................57
4.3 Developing the Framework ....................................................................................57
4.3.1 Data and Information
4.3.2 Spatial Perception
9
4.4 Building the Instrument ..........................................................................................59
4.4.1 Framework Section A: Interpretation
4.4.2 Framework Section B: Experience
4.5 Framework Testing ................................................................................................65
4.6 Comparative Review .............................................................................................70
4.6.1 Soft Visitor Management
4.6.2 Hard Visitor Management
4.6.3 Propaganda
4.6.4 Value- addition for Tourism
4.7 Case Study .............................................................................................................71
4.8 Design Principles ...................................................................................................72
4.8.1 The Monument
4.8.2 The Public Realm
4.8.3 The Setting
4.8.4 The City
Conclusions ..................................................................................................................75
CHAPTER 5: TEST SITE ..................................................................................................76
Chapter Introduction ....................................................................................................76
5.1 Site Selection .........................................................................................................77
5.2 Monuments within Qutb Complex ........................................................................78
10
5.3 Site Context .............................................................................................................80
5.4 Heritage Interpretation Analysis .............................................................................82
5.5 Site Study Conclusions ...........................................................................................92
5.5.1 Values Derived
5.5.2 SWOT Analysis
5.5.3 Conclusions from heritage interpretation analysis
5.6 Design Actions ........................................................................................................94
Conclusion ....................................................................................................................97

CHAPTER 6: PROPOSED GUIDELINES ........................................................................98
Chapter Introduction .....................................................................................................98
6.1 Design Proposal for Qutb Complex ........................................................................99
6.1.1 Approach to Site
6.1.2 Qutb Complex Interpretation
6.1.3 Qutb Setting
6.2 Universal Guidelines .............................................................................................107
6.2.1 Analysis of Site and Setting
6.2.2 Guidelines at Scale of Monument
6.2.3 Guidelines at Scale of Public Realm
6.2.4 Guidelines at Scale of the Setting
6.2.5 Guidelines at Scale of the City
11
Conclusion ..................................................................................................................109
CHAPTER 7: CONCLUSIONS .........................................................................................111
Chapter Introduction ...................................................................................................111
7.1 Response to Research Question ............................................................................112
7.2 Further Scope of Work ..........................................................................................114
7.3 Research Limitations ............................................................................................115
BIBLIOGRAPHY ...............................................................................................................116
APPENDICES ....................................................................................................................128
A: Factors Affecting Historic Properties .....................................................................129
B: Field Evidence, Rochester Castle ...........................................................................131
C: Field Evidence, Worcester Cathedral .....................................................................143
D: Field Evidence, Oxford Castle ...............................................................................155
E: Field Evidence, Tower of London ..........................................................................166
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Table 4.1: Section A, Interpretation ........................................................................................60
Table 4.2a: Section B1, Experience ........................................................................................63
Table 4.2b: Section B2, Experience ........................................................................................64
Table 4.2c: Section B3, Experience ........................................................................................65
Table 4.3: Section A, Setting ...................................................................................................67
Table 4.4: Section B, Interpretation ........................................................................................68
Table 4.5a: Section C1, Experience ........................................................................................68
Table 4.5b: Section C2, Experience ........................................................................................69
Table 4.5c: Section C3, Experience ........................................................................................69
Table 5.1: Setting Analysis, Qutb Complex ............................................................................84
Table 5.2: Interpretation Analysis, Qutb Complex ..................................................................86
Table 5.3: Experience Analysis (Section C1), Qutb Complex .................................................88
Table 5.4: Experience Analysis (Section C2), Qutb Complex .................................................89
Table 5.5: Experience Analysis (Section C3), Qutb Complex .................................................92
Table 5.6: Design Actions of Qutb Complex ..........................................................................97
Table B.1: Framework Section A, Interpretation, Rochester Castle ......................................134
Table B.2: Framework Section B1, Experience, Rochester Castle ........................................136
Table B.3: Framework Section B2, Experience, Rochester Castle ........................................137
LIST OF TABLES
13
Table B.4: Framework Section B3, Experience, Rochester Castle ........................................140
Table C.1: Framework Section A, Interpretation, Worcester Cathedral ................................146
Table C.2: Framework Section B1, Experience, Worcester Cathedral ..................................148
Table C.3: Framework Section B2, Experience, Worcester Cathedral ..................................149
Table C.4: Framework Section B3, Experience, Worcester Cathedral ..................................152
Table D.1: Framework Section A, Interpretation, Oxford Castle ..........................................158
Table D.2: Framework Section B1, Experience, Oxford Castle ...........................................160
Table D.3: Framework Section B2 Experience, Oxford Castle .............................................161
Table D.4: Framework Section B3, Experience, Oxford Castle ............................................164
Table E.1: Setting, Tower of London ....................................................................................170
Table E.2: Framework Section B, Interpretation, Tower of London .....................................172
Table E.3: Framework Section C1, Experience, Tower of London .......................................174
Table E.4: Framework Section C2, Experience, Tower of London .......................................175
Table E 5: Framework Section C3, Experience, Tower of London .......................................178

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Fig 1.1: Methodology Chart. (Source: Authors Own, 2013) ...........................................................................................................................27
Fig 2.1: Phoenix Initiative, Coventry. (Source: Waterman, 2009) ....................................................................................................................31
Fig 2.2: DCMS (2013) Actions for Historic Environments. (Source: https://www.gov.uk/government/policies/protecting-conserving-and-
providing-access-to-the-historic-environment-in-england) ..............................................................................................................................32
Fig 2.3: Listing of Building. (Source: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/principles-of-selection-for-listing-buildings,2013) .....34
Fig 2.4: Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979. (Source: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1979/46) .........................34
Fig 2.5: Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention. (Source: UNESCO, 2012) ...............................35
Fig 2.6a: Nelsons Column, London. (Source: http://www.best-london-attractions.co.uk/nelsons-column.html,2013) ..................................36
Fig 2.6b: Parthenon, Greece. (Source: http://www.nashville.gov/Parks-and-Recreation/Parthenon.aspx, 2013) ............................................36
Fig 3.1: Jaisalmer Fort and its Urban Setting. (Source: Aparajita Barai, 2013) ...............................................................................................44
Fig 3.2a: Tourists at Shore Temple. (Source: Authors Own, 2012) .................................................................................................................47
Fig 3.2b: Shore Temple Structure. (Source: Authors Own, 2012) ...................................................................................................................47
Fig 3.3: Shop outside north Indian temple selling offering made to Gods. (Source: Authors Own, 2012) ....................................................47
Fig 3.4: Prayers at Jama Masjid, Delhi. (Source: http://indiaafricaconnect.in/index.php?param=news/195/panorama/115,2013) .................47
Fig 3.5: Stepwell, Adalaj. (Source: Authors Own, 2009) ................................................................................................................................48
Fig 3.6: Independence Day Celebrations at Red Fort, Delhi. (Source: http://www.hindustantimes.com/photos-news/Photos-India/
HappyIndependenceDay/Article4-1108306.aspx, 2013) ..................................................................................................................................48
LIST OF FIGURES
15
Fig 3.7: Humayuns Tomb, Delhi. (Source: Authors Own, 2012) ...................................................................................................................49
Fig 3.8: Shalimar Bagh, Srinagar. (Source: Authors Own, 2012) ...................................................................................................................49
Fig 3.9: Plan of Ranakpur Temple, developed on the concept of mandala. (Source: Jain, 2002) ....................................................................50
Fig 3.10: Version of Chattri in British India. (Source: Authors Own, 2012)....................................................................................................51
Fig 3.11: Peacock Courtyard, City Palace, Udaipur. (Source: http://karimsahai.photoshelter.com/image/I0000E0wC2IpYZTI, 2013) ........51
Fig 3.12: Victoria Terminal (Chatrapati Shivaji Terminal), Mumbai. (Source: http://www.fickr.com/photos/betta_design/3064581931/,
2013) .................................................................................................................................................................................................................52
Fig 3.13: Presidents House (Rashtrapati Bhavan), New Delhi. (Source: http://www.fickr.com/photos/rkarthikphotography/5847847104/
sizes/l/in/photostream/, 2013) ...........................................................................................................................................................................52
Fig 3.14: Cinema personalities at Taj Mahal for flm promotion. (Source: http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/tom-cruise-is-
here/article2685738.ece, 2013) .........................................................................................................................................................................53
Fig 4.1: Rochester Castle and Cathedral. (Source: Authors Own, 2013) ........................................................................................................65
Fig 4.2: Worcester Cathedral. (Source: http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/2358153, 2013) ..........................................................................66
Fig 4.3: Public Event Oxford Castle. (Source: Claudia Redondo Torregrosa, 2013) .......................................................................................66
Fig 4.4: Tower of London. (Source: http://www.hrp.org.uk/TowerOfLondon/, 2013) .....................................................................................72
Fig 4.5: Delivering the values of a Monument. (Source: Authors Own, 2013) ...............................................................................................72
Fig 5.1: Monuments within Qutb Complex. (Source: Mitra, 2002) .................................................................................................................77
Fig 5.2: Qutb Complex, UNESCO World Heritage Site. (Source: Sumegha Mantri, 2011) ............................................................................77
Fig 5.3: Qutb Minar. (Source: Authors Own, 2011) ........................................................................................................................................78
Fig 5.4: Corridor of Quwwat-ul- Isman Mosque adjacent to Qutb Minar. (Source: Authors Own, 2011) ......................................................78
Fig 5.5: Iron Pillar. (Source: http://pixels-memories.blogspot.in/2012/10/iron-pillar-new-delhi.html, 2013) .................................................79
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Fig 5.6: Smiths Folly (Background - Qutb Minar, Alai Darwaza & Zamins Tomb). (Source: http://pixels-memories.blogspot.in/2012/12/
qutb-complex-new-delhi.html, 2013) ...............................................................................................................................................................79
Fig 5.7: Mughal Sarai Remnants. (Source: Sumegha Mantri, 2011) ................................................................................................................79
Fig 5.8: Alai Darwaza. (Source: Authors Own, 2011) .....................................................................................................................................79
Fig 5.9: Network of Routes. (Source: Authors Own, 2013) ............................................................................................................................80
Fig 5.10: Resources in the Setting. (Source: Authors Own, 2013) ..................................................................................................................81
Fig 5.11: Edges of Qutb Complex. (Source: Authors Own, 2013) ..................................................................................................................81
Fig 5.12: Adham Khans Tomb (Qutb Minar in the Background). (Source: http://www.fickr.com/photos/webethere/3021032621/sizes/l/in/
photostream/, 2013) ..........................................................................................................................................................................................83
Fig 5.13: Qutb Minar seen from Metro Station. (Source: http://indiatoday.intoday.in/gallery/central-secretariatqutub-minar-metro-line-gets-
operational/3/3604.html#photo3, 2013) ............................................................................................................................................................83
Fig 5.14: Information Panels. (Source: Authors Own, 2011) ..........................................................................................................................85
Fig 5.15: Reconstructed Image of Qutb Complex. (Source: ASI, 2013) ..........................................................................................................86
Fig 6.1: Qutb Complex Area Maspterplan, (Source: Authors Own, 2013) .....................................................................................................99
Fig 6.2a: Primary Roads. (Source: Authors Own, 2013) ...............................................................................................................................100
Fig 6.2b: Secondary Roads. (Source: Authors Own, 2013) ...........................................................................................................................100
Fig 6.2c: Tertiary Streets. (Source: Authors Own, 2013) ..............................................................................................................................100
Fig 6.2d: Vegetation Surveillance Routes. (Source: Authors Own, 2013) ....................................................................................................100
Fig 6.3: Integrating the site. (Source: Authors Own, 2013) ...........................................................................................................................101
Fig 6.4: Landuse zones at Qutb Complex. (Source: Authors Own, 2013) ....................................................................................................101
Fig 6.5a: Public Event at Millennium Place, Coventry. (Source: http://london2012.cswp.org.uk/image-gallery?title=london-2012-open-
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weekend%2C-millennium-place%2C-coventry, 2013) ..................................................................................................................................102
Fig 6.6: Event at Tower of London Moat. (Source: http://www.pavilion-towerofondon.co.uk/news.php, 2013) .........................................102
Fig 6.7: Navigation System. (Source: Authors Own, 2013) ..........................................................................................................................103
Fig 6.8: Trail Route connecting sites. (Source: Authors Own, 2013) ............................................................................................................104
Fig 6.9: Historic Trail Van. (Source: Malika Soin, 2013) ..............................................................................................................................105
Fig 6.10: Historic Trail Road Section. (Source: Authors Own, 2013) ...........................................................................................................105
Fig 6.11: Landuse distribution Concept. (Source: Authors Own, 2013) .......................................................................................................106
Fig 6.12: Height Regulations. (Source (Qutb Minar): http://www.shutterstock.com/pic-60132508/stock-vector-vector-illustration-of-qutab-
minar-in-delhi.html, 2013. Authors Own, 2013) ...........................................................................................................................................106
Fig 6.13: Adding Surveillance- Active frontage overlooking the vegetation (Plan). (Source: Authors Own, 2013) ....................................106
Fig 6.14: Adding surveillance (Section). (Source: Authors Own, 2013) .......................................................................................................107
Fig B.1: Rochester Castle Map. (Source: Ashbee, 2012) ...............................................................................................................................131
Fig B.2: Rochester Heritage Trail Map. (Source: Moss, 2005) ......................................................................................................................131
Fig B.3: Cafe adjacent to the Castle. (Source: Authors Own, 2013) .............................................................................................................132
Fig B.4: Information Panel. (Source: Authors Own, 2013) ...........................................................................................................................132
Fig B.5: Reconstructed image of the Keep. (Source: Ashbee, 2012) .............................................................................................................132
Fig B.6: Celebrated Historic High Street. (Source: Authors Own, 2013) .....................................................................................................141
Fig B.7: Attractions on High Street. (Source: Malvern Hills District Council, 2013) ....................................................................................141
Fig B.8: Reference to Works of Charles Dickens. (Source: Authors Own, 2013) .........................................................................................141
Fig B.9: The Portal, Entrance to castle at the river. (Source: Authors Own, 2013) .......................................................................................141
Fig B.10: Framed Vista unfolding on Arrival. (Source: Authors Own, 2013) ...............................................................................................141
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Fig B.11: Within the Keep. (Source: Authors Own, 2013) ............................................................................................................................142
Fig B.12: Marketing Image for Rochester. (Source: Medway Council, 2013) ...............................................................................................142
Fig C.1: The Path- Pedestrianized High Street. (Source: Authors Own, 2013) .............................................................................................143
Fig C.2: Tourists Worcester Map. (Source: www.visitworcester.com/maps.asp, 2013) ................................................................................143
Fig C.3: Place branding. (Source: www.visitworcester.com, 2013) ...............................................................................................................144
Fig C.4: Navigation within the Cathedral. (Source: (s.n.) Worcester Cathedral, 2013) .................................................................................144
Fig C.5: Cathedral model for reference. (Source: Authors Own, 2013) ........................................................................................................144
Fig C.6: Highlighting the Alter as the focal point. (Source: Authors Own, 2013) ........................................................................................144
Fig C.7: Cathedral separated by high speed traffc motor road. (Source: Authors Own, 2013) ....................................................................153
Fig C.8: Cathedral in Royal Worcester Porcelain Works. (Source: Authors Own, 2013) .............................................................................153
Fig C.9: On Historic Street with Preserved buildings. (Source: Authors Own, 2013) ..................................................................................153
Fig D.1: Tourist Attractions Map. (Source: www.visitoxfordandoxfordshire/travel-information/map.aspx, 2013) ......................................155
Fig D.2: Oxford Castle Complex. (Source: Continuum Group, n.d.) .............................................................................................................156
Fig D.3: Entrance to Castle block. (Source: Authors Own, 2013) ................................................................................................................156
Fig D.4: Costumed tour guide. (Source: Authors Own, 2013) ......................................................................................................................156
Fig D.5: Exemplifying Castle History (at the entrance). (Source: Authors Own, 2013) ...............................................................................165
Fig D.6: Life as a prisoner exhibition. (Source: Authors Own, 2013) ...........................................................................................................165
Fig D.7: Illustration of Oxford Skyline (from the tower). (Source: Authors Own, 2013) .............................................................................165
Fig D.8: Alices Shop in Oxford. (Source: http://www.aliceinwonderlandshop.co.uk/history.html, 2013) ...................................................165
Fig E.1: Tower of London Setting. (Source: Daphne Hoekman, 2013) ..........................................................................................................166
Fig E.2: Tower of London Place Image. (Source: http://www.hrp.org.uk/towerofondon/, 2013) .................................................................166
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Fig E.3: Tower of London Map. (Source: Historic Royal Palaces, 2013) ......................................................................................................167
Fig E.4: Public plaza with visitor facilities. (Source: Authors Own, 2013) ..................................................................................................168
Fig E.5: Relative Scale of White Tower. (Source: Authors Own, 2013) .......................................................................................................168
Fig E.6: Beefeaters Guided Tour. (Source: Authors Own, 2013) .................................................................................................................168
Fig E.7: Public Transport Links. (Source: http://www.hrp.org.uk/TowerOfLondon/planyourvisit/gettinghere, 2013) .................................179
Fig E.8: Artworks introducing the Tower of London in the subway. (Source: Authors Own, 2013) ............................................................179
Fig E.9: Exhibitions within White Tower using audio/visual, real objects and themes. (Source: Authors Own, 2013) ...............................179
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CHAPTER 1
Chapter Introduction
This chapter provides an overview of the presented research
document. It establishes its relevance and usability in the current
urban design scenario by dwelling into the conceptual understanding
of the key themes that have led to the research question. It provides
the defnitions of the overarching concepts. It establishes the aims
and objectives. It also provides the methodology used and the
expected conclusions. It gives the structure of the dissertation as
well.
INTRODUCTION
21
1.1 RESEARCH OVERVIEW
The proposed research is set in the context where rapid urbanization
and ever increasing scientifc and technological innovations are
infuencing the land-use patterns and our lifestyle choices. In this
ever evolving landscape the heritage sites act as anchors, providing
consistency, rootedness and a sense of belonging. They however
stand as isolated islands bearing the test of time. Though there are
conservation policies and practices to safeguard them, but these
alone cannot ensure their well- being. There is a need to fnd ways
in which their value is exemplifed and they can maintain their
qualities in these changing times.
The aim of the research is to bridge the gap between historic sites
and urban development. Closer studies of the key elements to this
problem indicate that there are possible means of making historic
sites a player in urban transformation of cities.
1.2 URBAN TRANSFORMATION and PUBLIC
REALM
Transformation is a marked change in form, nature, or appearance.
This approach fnds its roots in the work of M.R.G. Conzen. It was
in early 1900s in Berlin, when he and other geographers tested
the morphological approach in order to study urban settlements.
In relation to urban design, it affects the urban morphology and
typology. People invest in places with meanings related to rules
which they have learned through their own cultural backgrounds
(Bentley, 1999: 03). These transformations are mostly evident in
the design of public spaces and buildings in reaction to internal and
external socioeconomic processes. Historic sites are set in spaces
that need to abide by the preservation and conservation rules.
This public realm, by conforming to the globally evolving spatial
practices and the needs of a monument acts as a method of building
a coherent historic urban landscape.
1.3 HERITAGE, THE CONCEPT
If personal memories can be mediated by the materiality of
photographs, then collective might also- and perhaps must- be
buttressed by preserving authentic traces of the past as mnemonics,
symbols or (an increasingly fashionable trope) icons (Fairclough,
Harrison, Jameson and Scholield, 2008: 297).
The amount of time and effort which many people put into
improving unloved places, or protecting loved ones from
negative change, bears witness to an active resilience which
is not the preserve of any particular social group (Bentley,
1999).
22
The term heritage originates from the traditional societies in which
values were derived from ancestral relationships. From values
of the past, to the things of the past, heritage has fnally come to
mean simply a veneer of pastness (Davison, 2008: 32). Thus, the
two concepts of heritage as ideals and heritage as things are closely
knotted. Further illustrating this concept, Smith (2006) emphasises
heritage as a process, and its practice the construction of identity. He
defnes it as a management and conservation protocols, techniques
and procedures. Thus, heritage refects contemporary socio- cultural
values, debates and aspiration.
As agreed upon by UNESCO and ICOMOS, the scope of heritage
includes natural and cultural heritage with monuments, and groups
of buildings and sites. Australia refers to its heritage as place,
cultural signifcance and fabric, Canada refers to material culture,
geographic environments and human environments, New Zealand
to place, and China to immovable physical remains, (Yahaya,
2006: 299). Thus a gap has been identifed in the scope and
terminology adopted by different countries.
1.3.1 Heritage Typology
Heritage is both tangible objects and intangible cultural
experience. Intangible Cultural Heritage is defned as the practices,
representations, expressions, knowledge and skills that communities,
groups or individuals recognise as part of their cultural heritage.
Tangible heritage includes buildings and historic places, monuments,
artefacts which are considered worthy of preservation for the future
(UNESCO, 2013). McManamon refers to it as places and objects
of commemoration and remembrance. They are further categorized
as natural heritage which is the landscapes and cultural heritage
which encompasses historic buildings, monuments and collections
of information on how people lived, in the form of paintings,
stories, books, etc. In 1994, the application of information and
communication technology to generate computer visualizations of
artefacts and virtual reality environments lead to the emergence of
virtual heritage.
The proposed research will focus on monuments as heritage.
Monuments stand in complex relation to time: they state a past or
its imitation, but are erected to impress contemporary publics with
the relation to history to those who hold power and the durability of
that relation expressed in stone or bronze (Miles, 1997: 59).
1.3.2 Heritage: Value and Uses
L. Smith (2009) has put forward the perspective that heritage is not
a material object. The site is only a tool which enables us to engage
23
and understand the cultural process. They are a proof of event,
leading to meaning making and remembering. It is not a commodity
but an experience of something vital and alive. It is a moment of
action, not something frozen in material form (Smith, 2009: 87).
While associated memories are passed down in the process, new
ones are constantly created.
Heritage also provides a physical manifestation to the ephemeral
concept of identity. This is due to the links it establishes with our
past, fostering a sense of belonging and continuity. This also triggers
the ideologies of place- branding and creation of icons symbolic.

Heritage could also be used to invoke and express emotion, memory
and belonging. It is an embodiment of thought and emotion. It
symbolically represents intangible meanings and affects that emerge
due to cultural and political forces on the urban form. Heritage is
also a tool for collective memory and remembering. This may help
us bind ourselves, or may see us become bound to, national or a
range of sub- national collectives or communities, but it remains a
process of intense emotional power (Smith, 2009: 66).
As defned by Casey (2000), reminiscence is a performance of
remembering, explicitly social and framed by exchange of meaning
and memory. Heritage sites are places of this performance. On a
visit, personal and family memories are created. Above all, heritage
provides sense of place, both as a category of thought and its
construct in reality. It is an anchor to place ourselves in social order
and also in a geographical location.
1.3.3 Heritage in the Changing World
In urban development what stays and what goes is a critical decision.
Archaeological Heritage Management is the processes and
strategies that are applied to protect, manage and regulate the use
of archaeological resources. Laurajane Smith (2006) describes it as
an intersection of archaeology with law, conservation and planning
policies. The frst wave for conservation started in response to the
inappropriate development close to sites of national or religious
importance. The second wave was area based conservation as
a reaction to the disruptions caused by clearance policies and
re- development schemes. Ashworth and Tunbridge (1990) have
pointed out that there are implications on the demography and
social composition due to townscape conservation policies. The
third wave attempts to revitalize historic quarters through local
economic development.
Beyond planning policies, urban revitalization of the public
realm needs to reconcile the mismatch between monuments and
contemporary market. Their social public realm needs to respond to
modern urbanism and an international audience.
24
1.4 MONUMENTS IN INDIA
The place value of a site is a local phenomenon. The contrast is
exemplifed when comparing a developed and a developing area.
Since Indian independence in 1947, the country has been going
through a phase of intense urbanism. While it seeks to bring in
growth and development, the development policies have rendered
the monuments as isolated islands which demand to be integrated
physically and socially.
Indian urban layout has the intrinsic qualities responding to the
climatic and social demands. It is overlaid with forms and motifs of
the number of political powers that it hosted. It speaks a language
which engages with multiple cultural societies.
[T]he ancient architecture of India was material evidence of the
distinct and primordial nature of Indian civilization; a form of text
in stone, more stable and hence authentic than ephemeral written
records, in which one could read essential truths about the values
and creative propensities of the peoples who had produced it
(Scriver, 2007: 28).
Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) was established in 1862
with a mandate to survey, document and catalogue the surviving
architectural monuments of Indian antiquity (Scriver, 2007: 36).
It functions under the Ministry of Culture, Government of India.
Non- proft organizations such as Indian National Trust for Art and
Cultural Heritage (INTACH) are also working in coordination with
the government and other interest groups of local, national and
international level for heritage conservation.
Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act,
1958 defnes monuments as any structure, erection or monument,
or any tumulus or place of interment, or any cave, rock-sculpture,
inscription or monolith which is of historical, archaeological or
artistic interest and which has been in existence for not less than
100 years (ASI, 2013). These also include remains of ancient
monuments, their site and the adjoining land which might be
required protection, access and inspection of the structure.
ASI currently holds 3650 ancient sites and monuments ranging
from prehistoric to colonial periods. As a preservation strategy, they
simply lie on manicured green gardens, spotted with some benches
and at times with few public facilities in a deserted corner. An area of
100m around them comes under the part of the heritage site. These
places, niches and corners are often illegally occupied by members
of the local community and low income groups.
25
1.5 VISITOR EXPERIENCE DESIGN
In todays consumerist world, places are being branded and marketed
for the distinct experiences they provide. Visitor experience design
focuses on generating situations which are attractive, stimulating,
thought provoking and memorable. It is a tool to unlock the secrets of
our own world. Uzzel (1989) has put forward four principles served
by visitor interpretation. Firstly, it is soft visitor management
through which they are made aware of the value of the site and
the consequences of their actions over there. Secondly, its hard
visitor management which restricts the access by carefully designed
paths and walkways while it also narrates the stories. Thirdly, it is a
tool for building networks. Finally, it markets them as products for
tourism industry.
1.5.1 Visitor Interpretation at Heritage Sites
[H]eritage is a moment of experience, remembering and meaning
making that may occur at physical places (Smith, 2006). The
Society for the Interpretation of Britains Heritage was formed only
in 1975 (Machin, 1989). Martin Selby (2010) states that there is
a need to provide signs and symbols to the consumers to enable
them to interpret a cultural history. It leads to forming opinions and
seeing the place for yourself. Interpretation can thus be associated
with the explanations of the unfamiliar worlds. It builds upon
previous stock of knowledge and validates the current experiences.
Therefore, for a rich visitor experience, it is necessary to formulate
appropriate designs for interpretation which would ensure the safety
of the heritage structure and communicate relevant data.
1.5.2 The New Visitor
People are the users and the caretakers. The interpretation strategies
are the tools that determine the interaction between people and
place. This group includes both tourists and the residents of a city.
The new visitor is exposed to a plethora of mixed- media. We are
in which e-tangibles are engaged with, consumed and viewed. This
has been associated with complex, far- reaching paradigm shifts at
the heart of society and culture, correlated with dramatic increase
in speed and de-materialization into data (Freyer, Noel and Rucki,
2008).
Taking into account the shift in spatial design preference, the ideas
of leisure and the search for the exotic gives opportunities to turn
historic sites into leisure/luxury destinations. Living history sites
emphasize their location- specifc importance, suggesting that in
contrast with the anonymised virtual access that a user might have
undertaken in a visit to a traditional museum, it is still important
to bodily experience the past (Groot, 2010). By harnessing their
cultural, economic and social potentials, monuments can be
26
connected back to the landscape. With supplying their spatial design
with the needs of the new visitor, historic sites can be bridged with
contemporary developments.
CONCLUSION
Cities are a composite of urban form, cultural values, social
structures, economic forces and technological revolutions. They
represent a society that fashioned and used them. In order to
accommodate the demands of the society and to keep pace with time,
urban transformation becomes a necessity. These changes however
need to take place in a manner such that the urban infrastructure
speaks the contemporary language while the prized elements of the
landscape are not lost.
Though specialized bodies work towards conservation and protection
of monuments, their safeguard can be ensure only when the public
recognizes their worth. It can be concluded that communicating
their values to the crowd will foster associations between them.
Proposed strategies for the people while responding to the changing
spatial requirements will enhance the values of these sites.
These when translated through the design of their spatial narrative
and urban development of their surroundings will function as
links between historic sites and new developments. The proposed
research explores how this intersection between historic sites and
urban development can be achieved. It focuses on monuments in
particular.
How to integrate historic sites within contemporary urban
development through the transformation of their public
realm, enhancing the visitor experience?
1.7 RESEARCH APPROACH
In order to investigate the research question and produce a set of
widely acceptable conclusions, the aim of the research has been
defned. To achieve it, a set of objectives have been identifed with
the methodology to approach them. These are as below:
1.7.1 Aim
The aim of the research is to formulate urban design guidelines to
integrate historic sites with contemporary urban fabric of a city.
This is proposed to be done through the urban transformation of
their public realm. It will be in the context of monuments, thereby
enhancing visitors experience on site.
1.7.2 Objectives
1. To develop the conceptual framework defning the parameters of
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTION
27
heritage interpretation, the values of a monument in urban form and
the relationship of public with historic sites.
2. To develop a conceptual framework for understanding status of
monuments in a different socio- economic context.
3. To use the above theoretical base for developing a methodology
for conducting case studies which give information on interpretation
techniques and how they can be used for building a relationship
between the monument and its surrounding developments.
4. To develop urban design principles for integrating historic sites
with its setting, as a response to the research problem.
5. To formulate urban design guidelines by testing the principles in
a different cultural context.

1.7.3 Methods and Stages
In order to achieve the above defned aims and objectives, the
following methodology has been devised. Steps 1 to 5 correspond
to the above fve objectives (fg 1.1).
Developing the
Conceptual Framework
1
Literature Review
Data Collection
and
Building Linkages
3
Case Studies
Developing Urban Design
Principles
4
Literature &
Case Study
Conclusions
Testing the Principles for
formulating Guidelines
5
Inquiry By
Design
Comparative
Analysis
Study of the key themes:
Urban Transformation,
Heritage Interpretation,
Visitors in Historic Towns
Study of UK based
monuments by on- site
spatial perception
By building linkages
between themes in theory
and case studies
Applying the principles
to a site in India, and
identifying which elements
in the guidelines need to
be alter.
Conceptual Framework-
Different socio- economic
context
2
Literature Review
Study of the status of
monuments in India
Fig 1.1: Methodology Chart
1.8 STRUCTURE OF THE REPORT
The presented report is structured parallel to the stages identifed in
section 1.7c above. Followed by this frst introductory chapter which
28
sets the scene, the conducted research is presented as described
below:
Chapter 2: Theoretical Framework
This presents the conceptual backbone. It is developed on various
theories associated with historic sites, their values, methods to
safeguard them and public engagement with them. It pins down the
defnitions used over the course of the research.
Chapter 3: Status of Monuments in India
This seeks question the value of monuments in a different socio-
economic scenario versus England. Through the case of India, it
presents their use by the public and conservation methods used by
the authorities.
Chapter 4: Analytical Framework and Case Studies
This presents the development of the framework to be used for
conducting site studies. It gives the inductive approach of testing
and refning the tool through study of three heritage interpretation
cases. Further, it presents the study of Tower of London by using
this framework. In conclusion, it gives a set of design principles
drawn from the conclusions of theory and practice studies.
Chapter 5: Reference Site
This presents the spatial analysis of the site selected in India to test
the principles for formulating the guidelines. The chapter presents
the description of the site, study of the urban design qualities of its
setting followed by an analysis using the framework from chapter
four. Structuring the analysis on its values, urban design qualities
and visitors experience, it presents a set of design actions. These
are then used as the brief for designing development.
Chapter 6: Proposed Guidelines
This chapter presents the design proposal for the reference site- Qutb
Minar. This is refned and presented as the generic design guidelines
as the outcome.
Chapter 7: Conclusions
This presents the response to the research question. It also gives the
limitations encountered and the scope for further work on the topic.
EXPECTED CONCLUSIONS
Heritage assets are unique and non- renewable resources which need
to be used frugally. In response to the ever developing urban form and
changing lifestyle preferences, this research will prove that historic
sites are not frozen in time. Focusing on monuments, the research
will fnd connections to bridge the gap between historic sites and
innovative, growing infrastructure. Through urban transformation,
the research will communicate the values of monuments, making
them pertinent to the contemporary audience.
29
CHAPTER 2
Chapter Introduction
This chapter questions the values of monuments and visitors
interaction with them. It investigates into conservation and
management techniques infuencing future developments. It reviews
the urban form at three scales with monument in the centre, further
its public realm and then the setting.
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
30
2.1 CITY and URBAN HERITAGE
Culture is the dynamic component of human society bridging past
to the future. Intellectual, political, economic and social trends are
etched with the characteristic spirit of their era (Landry, 2008: 14).
Historic objects occupying a large proportion of landscape are its
manifestations. Urban heritage is an interpretation of history by a
wide range of users; its value though, is not simply in the historic
attributes of the built fabric and spatial aspects of the townscape,
but also in the life of its contemporary resident community,
differentiating it from other forms of heritage (Orbasli, 2000: 1).
Every city and society seems to be going through a process of
museumifcation. The past is being commoditized and culture
marketed for economic benefts.
2.1.2 HERITAGE- LED URBAN TRANSFORMATION
The alteration of a buildings context; the moving of an object from
one site to another; renaming and re- classifcation through legal
frameworks such as listing and shifted ownership; re- framing
through strategies of display and mediation; all these can be read
as curatorial interventions that affect the value and meaning of the
object for the beholder in critical ways (Arrhenius, 2012: 140).
Urban heritage as a link to history is a combination of physical
parts, historic associations and mythical story telling (Orbasli,
2000: 12).While experienced in the present, it simultaneously adds
layers for next generations. Heritage-led urban transformation
aims to conserve and present the environment while ensuring that
it continues as a desirable place to live. Since historic sites foster
sense of place in vast measures, design will respond to and reinforce
locally distinct patterns of landscape and culture. [T]he result of
historic processes and only if we understand these can we hope to
achieve a quality of design intervention that responds to the genius
loci or spirit of place (Samuels and Clark, 2008: 5).
Destruction, conservation, restoration and adaptive re- use are the
patterns that set fate of the structures that have lost their value in
their current use. The decisions are governed by their physical
characteristics, state of conservation and the will to preserve them.
The city is a related collection of primary groups and purposive
associations: the frst, like family and neighbourhood, are
common to all communities, while the second are especially
characteristic to city life. These varied groups support
themselves through economic organizations that are likewise
of a more or less corporate, or at least publicly regulated,
character; and they are all housed in permanent structures,
within relatively limited area (Mumford, 2011, 1937: 93).
31
While it challenge their historical authenticity, unique interventions
are required which would reinvest their value to the society. The
management of change and the active use of remains for present
and future purpose are preferable to an infexible reverence for a
sacrosanct past. The past must be chosen and changed, made in
present. Choosing a past helps us to construct a future (Lynch, 1972,
2007: 301). PhoenixInitiative, Coventry illustrated in fg 2.1 is an
example of a regeneration scheme revitalized the run- down city
centre quarter. The masterplan presents a metaphorical journey from
past to future by linking public places, starting from the Cathedral
and culminating at the Millennium Place.
Fig 2.1: Phoenix Initiative, Coventry
Source: Waterman, 2009
32
2.2 INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORKS
City- making is about making choices, applying values, using
politics to turn values into policies and exerting power to get your
way. Choices refect our beliefs and attitudes, which are based on
values and value judgements. These in turn areshaped by our culture
(Landry, 2006: 14). It is a battle of power, and politics its medium
of delivery.
2.2.1 International Level
The threats imposed by the on- going rapid urbanization,
globalization, warfare and natural disasters keeps the heritage
assets at a risk. But there is no international law for their protection.
National parties could sign up to international conventions which
provide a code of practice but implementation in their countries is
voluntarily. Even The sites with World Heritage Site (WHS) status
are also not protected by UNESCO directly but are managed under
the national conservation, planning or environmental policies. To
avoid overlapping interests of expert organizations, International
Council of Museum (ICOM) was created in 1946 to ensure the
protection, conservation and transmission of cultural goods. Thus
all archaeological collections and movable property fall within the
purview of ICOM.
2.2.2 National Level
The responsibility of monuments is designated to a Ministry
supported by national legislations. In India and Turkey, it is managed
by the joint ministry for culture and tourism. The Department of
Culture, Media & Sports (DCMS) of Government of UK is the
ministerial department working in the feld. It supported by 44
agencies and public bodies. The issues and action are given in the
policy for Protecting, conserving and providing access to the historic
environment in England. Figure 2.2 below gives its set of actions.
Fig 2.2: DCMS (2013) Actions for Historic Environments
Source: https://www.gov.uk/government/policies/protecting-conserving-and-providing-access-to-
the-historic-environment-in-england
Promoting the understanding, valuing, caring and enjoyment of the historic environment through
funding English Heritage
Nominating places in the UK for World Heritage Site status
Protecting buildings of special architectural or historic interest by giving them listed status, which
prevents them being demolished, extended or altered without permission
Protecting nationally important sites and monuments of archaeological or historic interest by
giving them scheduled status, which protects them from being changed without permission
Protecting shipwreck sites of archaeological, historical or artistic importance by giving them
protected wreck site status
Allowing charities and faith groups to claim grants equal to the VAT they pay on maintaining
memorials and listed places of worship
Co- sponsoring the Churches Conservation Trust with the Church of England, which maintains
over 340 churches of architectural, historical or archaeological importance
Appointing the Chair of the Heritage Lottery Fund, which gives out grants of National Lottery
money, and making sure it meets its funding agreements
33
2.2.3 Local Level
The local planning departments are responsible for the protection
of monuments through development controls, regeneration and
environmental improvement initiatives, authorizing permissions
for change in uses and reviewing the applications within its own
planning. Non- governmental organization and other societies can
support them.
2.2.4 Private Sector and Property Owners
Applying protection regulations on privately owned property is a
burden on the owners. The state can issue a notice if the owner
fails at the maintenance of the structure. Though the protection
increases the economic value of the land, it is problematic when it
has a higher development value. The bargaining power of a private
developer can infuence the decisions regarding their upkeep.
2.2.5 Public Participation
It plays an important role in the decision making process. Common
inheritance functions beyond the legal ownership. It engages local
community, ethnic groups or society as a whole. This sense of
ownership is indicative of what is valued.
2.3 CONSERVATION POLICIES
Heritage planning and management is governed by internationally
recognized codes such as the Venice Charter, 1994 and UNESCO
World Heritage Convention, 1970. These transnational agreements
systematically advocate the responsible parties maintain the
cultural value of cultural heritage assets for the enjoyment of present
and future generation (McKercher and du Cros, 2003: 43).What is
listed is often viewed as what is important.
2.3.1 Listed Building
Buildings are listed to conserve a representative sample and interpret
its intrinsic values for public appreciation. UK follows a three grade
listing system protecting buildings against unauthorized demolition,
alteration or extension as below:
Grade I are buildings of exceptional interest.
Grade II are particularly important buildings of more than
special interest.
Grade III are buildings of special interest, justifying every effort
to preserve them (DCMS, 2013).
As per the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act
1990 the Secretary of State compiles and approves the list of graded
buildings for reference to the development authorities. Fig 2.3 gives
34
the criteria for the assessment of the buildings.
Architectural
Interest
Its architectural design, decoration or craftsmanship; Nationally
important examples of particular building types and techniques and
signifcant plan forms
Historic
Interest
Illustrating important aspects of the nations social, economic, cultural,
or military history and/or have close historical associations with
nationally important people.
Age and rarity
Before 1700, all buildings that contain a signifcant proportion of their
original fabric are listed;
1700 to 1840, most buildings are listed;
After 1840, because of the greatly increased number of buildings
erected and the much larger numbers that have survived, progressively
greater selection is necessary;
Careful selection is required for buildings from the period after 1945;
Less than 30 years old, if they are of outstanding quality and under
threat
Aesthetic
Merits
For intrinsic architectural quality and craftsmanship. Though they
might have little external visual quality, but they could be valued for
technological innovation or for their contributions in social or economic
history.
Selectivity
For representing their particular architectural styles. Those which are
most signifcant go onto the list.
National
Interest
Vernacular buildings representing distinct local characteristics are put
on the list of the national historic stock.
State of Repair
The building is listed for the other above mentioned criteria irrespective
of the state of repair.
Fig 2.3: DCMS (2013) Listing of Building
Source: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/principles-of-selection-for-listing-buildings
2.3.2 Scheduled Monuments
UK Governments party to the European Convention on the Protection
of the Archaeological Heritage (the Valetta Convention) requires
it to institute a legal system for the protection of archaeological
heritage, on land and under water. (DCMS, 2010: 5). The Ancient
Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 or 1979 Act, fg
2.4, places a duty on the Secretary of State for DCMS to compile
and maintain a schedule of monuments. Any form of damage to a
scheduled monument is a criminal offence.
An Act to consolidate and amend the law relating to ancient monuments; to make provision
for the investigation, preservation and recording of matters of archaeological or historical
interest and (in connection therewith) for the regulation of operations or activities affecting
such matters; to provide for the recovery of grants under section 10 of the Town and Country
Planning (Amendment) Act 1972 or under section 4 of the Historic Buildings and Ancient
Monuments Act 1953 in certain circumstances; and to provide for grants by the Secretary of
State to the Architectural Heritage Fund.
Fig 2.4: Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979
Source: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1979/46
2.3.3 WHS Status
2010 marked the 40th anniversary of the signing of UNESCO
World Heritage Convention, which launched the concept of world
heritage and began the process of listing sites deemed to possess
outstanding universal value (Chakravarty and Irazabal, 2011: 360).
35
World Heritage Sites are nominated by their national government to
the World Heritage Committee, evaluated by international Advisory
Bodies to the Convention and inscribed on the World Heritage List
by the intergovernmental UNESCO World Heritage Committee,
a process that takes at least 18 months from nomination (English
Heritage 2009: 3).
There are 890 WHS. Nominating places for WHS has numerous
advantages. Firstly, wide arrays of values get associated with the
monuments- economic, aesthetic, cultural, political and educational.
These are matched with different stakeholders who can otherwise
have conficting opinions. Secondly, though owned by individuals
or authorities, monuments are essentially collective. DCMR (2007)
states that the potential benefts gained can be accessed on the
criteria of Tourism impacts, Agricultural and Landscape impacts,
Social and Community impacts, Education, Learning and Cultural
impacts, Funding and Investments, and Partnership Developments.
UK currently has 28 sites listed on it. Fig 2.5 gives the criteria for
making into the list.
(i) represent a masterpiece of human creative genius;
(ii) exhibit an important interchange of human values, over a span of time or within a cultural
area of the world, on developments in architecture or technology, monumental arts, town-
planning or landscape design;
(iii) bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization
which is living or which has disappeared;
(iv) be an outstanding example of a type of building, architectural or technological ensemble or
landscape which illustrates (a) signifcant stage(s) in human history;
(v) be an outstanding example of a traditional human settlement, land-use, or sea-use which is
representative of a culture (or cultures), or human interaction with the environment especially
when it has become vulnerable under the impact of irreversible change;
(vi)be directly or tangibly associated with events or living traditions, with ideas, or with beliefs,
with artistic and literary works of outstanding universal signifcance. (The Committee considers
that this criterion should preferably be used in conjunction with other criteria);
(vii) contain superlative natural phenomena or areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic
importance;
(viii) be outstanding examples representing major stages of earths history, including the record
of life, signifcant on-going geological processes in the development of landforms, or signifcant
geomorphic or physiographic features;
(ix) be outstanding examples representing signifcant on-going ecological and biological
processes in the evolution and development of terrestrial, fresh water, coastal and marine
ecosystems and communities of plants and animals;
(x)contain the most important and signifcant natural habitats for in-situ conservation of
biological diversity, including those containing threatened species of Outstanding Universal
Value from the point of view of science or conservation.
Fig 2.5: Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention
Source: (UNESCO, 2012: 30)
Protection and management is ensured by the following measures:
Legislative, regulatory and contractual measures for protection
Boundaries for effective protection
Buffer zones
Management systems
Sustainable use
36
2.4 MONUMENT: THE DEFINITION
Monuments are symbols of power, prosperity and extravagance.
Reigl speculated the popularization of heritage, defning monuments
as in its oldest and most original sense is a human creation, erected
for a specifc purpose of keeping single human deeds or event alive
in the minds of future generations. The term historic monument
used in the Venice Charter 1964 was reinterpreted by ICOMOS in
1965 as monument and site; and by UNESCO in 1968 as cultural
property to include both movable and immovable. The different
terminology between the UNESCO and ICOMOS was reconciled
at the World Heritage Convention 1972 (Yahaya, 2006: 292).
Since there is no international standardization, this research uses
UNESCO as its reference. It states, monuments: architectural
works, works of monumental sculpture and painting, elements or
structures of an archaeological nature, inscriptions, cave dwellings
and combinations of features, which are of Outstanding Universal
Value from the point of view of history, art or science (UNESCO,
2012: 13).
2.4.1 Monument Typology
The typology is based on form and reasons for construction.
Structures can be designed as icons, cenotaphs and memorials to
commemorate the causalities of wars, sacred places- temples and
churches, and statues, columns and triumphal arches commemorating
victories. Places could gain monumental signifcance because of the
events having an immense impact on society might have happened
there. Thordius Arrhenius (2012) has questioned the notion of age as
associated with monuments. They are categorized as intentional and
unintentional. An intentional monument, erected to commemorate
a human deed or event, always has the purpose of overcoming
distance, to in one sense refuse the passage of time. With its physical
presence it aims to create a lapse in time that renders the past present
and establishes a transparent connection to the event or the person
that the monument is to commemorate (Arrhenius, 2012: 97). In
unintentional monuments, the enigma of absence is central. They
are historical objects refecting a distanced past. Their age stands
Fig 2.6a: Nelsons Column, London
Source: http://www.best-london-attractions.co.uk/
nelsons-column.html
Fig 2.6b: Parthenon, Greece
Source: http://www.nashville.gov/Parks-and-
Recreation/Parthenon.aspx
37
atop as their virtue. Ones outlook towards them is also based on the
prevailing perception, priorities and attitude towards the past.
2.4.2 Values of Monuments
Though seemingly static in time, monuments are a representation of
the social transformations. What gets built is strongly conditioned
by the structures and dynamics of political power in society; how
and where it gets built is a subject to a host of laws, code, standards
and regulations that refect the interests of political powers and
pressure groups (Knox, 1987, 2007: 116).
2.4.2A Environmental Values
Monuments add variety,functioning as landmarks, increasing
the legibility in landscape. The unintentional monuments are
usually a reference of work of art, their designation relative and
subjective. Their primary purpose is to evoke memory and retain
their signifcance as long as the person of event is remembered. The
intentional monuments originally had a specifc function to serve.
When that becomes obsolete, for instance a kings palace in a new
democracy or warehouses in an abandoned dock, its virtues are the
invested intangible values.They become places of other activities,
get layered with meanings for individuals and communities
becoming icons of the shared past. If unattended, the intangible
values are also lost rendering the sites derelict.
2.4.2B Social Values
Monuments are anchors, providinga sense of belonging. With
accessibility and visibility, they create public importance, making
them a fxture in everyday lives. A convenient location with
liberal restrictions for visits, allows high public participation in its
activities. If they have restricted access but work in public interest,
they evoke a sense of ownership represented through these values.
Visibility is achieved by ensuring them as a part of the skyline or a
media publicized image.They thus belong to public at large though
their legal ownership could be with another authority. Changes in
the structure or surrounding of monuments are perceived by people
as changes being made to their environment.
Physical appearance, activities, and meanings are the raw materials
of the identity of places, and the dialectical links between them are
the elementary structural relations of that identity (Relph, 1976,
2007: 105). Identity is frstly of the monument itself, emerging
from the symbolic meanings, the functional attributes and the role
in construction of history. Secondly, it is shared identity of the
community alleviating cultural stress, thirdly, it is the place image
at a local scale and lastly national identity globally. Kevin Lynch has
defned identity of a place as that which provides it individuality or
distinction from other places and serves as the basis for recognition
38
as a separable entity.
2.5 PUBLIC REALM
The public realm of cities brings people together and also separates
them. Theyare the arteries and veins of a city. Besides defning
circulation patterns, they are conjunctions between buildings and
activities that boarders them. Overlaid with layers of conventions,
they refectboth human needs and psyche. A good space beckons
people in, and the progression from the street to interior is critical
in this respect. Ideally, the transition should be such that its hard
to tell where one ends and the other begins. You shouldnt have to
make a considered decision to enter; it should be almost instinctive
(Whyte, 2011; 517).
In this research, public realm refers to the buffer zone and open
space around monuments.It gives a chance to interact with historic
structures in close proximity without engaging in a touristic
expedition. It however has the challenges of ensuring protection
of the structures while responding to the trends of currentspatial
designs.
Peoples movements are the greatest spectacles of the public realm.
Its rhythm changes with time of the day. Its social compositions,
gender ratios and usesrefect the quality of experience it offers.
William H. Whyte (2011) has provided an analysis of the use of
plazas. Busy- hours such as lunch time, people occupy seats where
available. However, off- peak hours provide clues of peoples
preferences. Women incline to take places that are slightly secluded
while men are seen upfront, couples are noted to be found upfront
too but oblivious of the crowd. Certain locations also tend to be
identifed for the various kinds of groups they attract.
2.5.1 Buffer Zone
A buffer provides a layer of protection against any incompatible
actions. It is depicted in religious artworks as a circle of supernatural
forces. Indian Mandala, the model for ideal city layout is another
example. In heritage management, it regulates the activities of
thesurrounding areas. UNESCO states A buffer zone is an area
surrounding [a] property which has complementary legal and/or
customary restrictions placed on its use and development to give
an added layer of protection to the property. This should include the
immediate setting of the property, important views and other areas or
attributes that are functionally important as a support to the property
and its protection. The area constituting the buffer zone should be
determined in each case through appropriate mechanisms. This
area is in itself not of universal value but adds to the signifcance
of the core object (UNESCO, 2005: 25). These are not mandatory
if explained why they are not required.The size, components and
39
characteristics are site specifc.
2.5.2 Issues
Public places provide civic pride, social contact and a shared
aesthetic taste. They need to be comfortable and inclusive. With
undefned boundaries historic sites face issues of uncertainty of
ownership, inactivityand underused. [S]ince positive interventions
often need permission from the owner, this can make interim use
more diffcult, along with acquiring grants, getting insurance cover
and responsible risk management (Taylor, 2008: 3).Activities grow
in number, duration and scope at high quality public realm. Jan
Ghel (1971, 2007) has classifed outdoor activities in public spaces
into necessary activities, optional activities and social activities.
The necessary activities take place under all conditions but optional
activities occur only in optimal environmental conditions. Social
activities are resultant when necessary and optional activities have
a good physical framework.
Jane Jacobs (1961) in the article The Uses of Sidewalks: Safety
points safety as the fundamental criteria for creating liveable
environments. Well- defned neighbourhoods, multi- use streets
with eyes on the streets and public surveillance provide social
cohesiveness. She provides three aims that should be achieved in
designing streets: to try to secure streets where the public space is
unequivocally public, physically unmixed private or with nothing-
at- all spaces, so that the area needing surveillance has clear and
practicable limits; and to see that these public spaces have eyes on
them as continuously as possible (Jacobs, 2011: 108). Unintended
behaviour, a breakdown of community control and unattended
property invites anti-law abiding behaviour for fun or plunder makes
public realm prone to vandalism. Once a sense of disregard sets in,
obligations of civility are lowered and there are signals of no one
cares, areas become criminal hubs. Social psychologists and police
offces tend to agree that if a window in a building is broken and is
left unrepaired; all the rest of the windows will soon be broken. This
is as true in nice neighbourhoods as in run- down ones (Wilson and
Kelling, 2011: 266).
Lack of users makes a place meaningless. It is conducive with an
appropriate mix of users and uses. Michon and Antably (2013)
have noted that if a place is occupied single social groups, it
loses it heterogeneity with the imposition of the meaning by the
dominant group over others, rendering it as an object of confict.
Street culture in every community provides a set of informal rules
governing interpersonal behaviours. The rules prescribe both proper
comportment and the proper way to respond if challenged. They
regulate the use of violence and so supply a rationale allowing those
who are inclined to aggression to precipitate violent encounters in
an approved way (Anderson, 2011: 128).
40
2.6 SETTING
The setting provides the context in which the monument is
experienced. Similarity or contrast between them infuences
ones ability to appreciate it. English Heritage (2012) gives its
offcial defnition as the surroundings in which a heritage asset is
experienced. Its extent is not fxed and may change as the asset and
its surroundings evolve. Elements of a setting may make a positive
or negative contribution to the signifcance of an asset, may affect
the ability to appreciate that signifcant or may be neutral.Setting
does not have a defnite geographical boundary but extent to what
appeals to one or all the senses. It also refects the character of the
wider townscape. It is constructed of physical layout and social
structure. These are interdependent and infuenced by external
forces of politics, economy and identity creation.
2.7 VISITORS AT MONUMENTS
Monuments present images underlying with layers of history, and
intriguing possibilities of the real object. The experience of a
tourist at heritage sites is captivated by this uncertainty. Four groups
of visitors have been identifed as (i) Tourists who are not aware
of the heritage attributes of the site (ii) Tourists who are aware of
the heritage attributes of the site, but are also motivated by other
attributes to visit (iii) Tourists who are motivated by the heritage
attributes of the site, but do not consider these attributes as part of
their own heritage (iv) Tourists who are motivated by the heritage
attributes of the site, and consider the site as a part of their own
heritage. Thus, the behavioural patterns would be distinct between
heritage tourist and tourist at a heritage site where their personal
characteristics, their views and the meanings they attach to different
places comes into play.
2.7.1 LEISURE ECONOMY
The trends in urban geography that are trying to capture the role of
entertainment, culture and creative industries in the development
of the cities have provided the economic paradigm centred
around leisure especially for those areas suffering from job-
loss in traditional industries, and having little potential to attract
knowledge- based activities. Leisure economy capitalizes on
experiences consumption. It benefts for local development due to
its effects on employment and the quality of place. The important
characteristics of an experience city is its attractive atmosphere,
which comes from place- bound activities, events and services,
attractive places and diverse social spaces, which make visitors and
residents feel inspired, involved and connected to the place (Anne
Lorentzen, 2008: 840).
Heritage assets are prime attractors for leisure economy, the
41
development attempts to present cultural landscapes and
performances to provide a staged authenticity or at least the
perception of it. Not every component of the experience needs to
be authentic (or even satisfactory) so long as the combination of the
elements generates the required nostalgic feelings (Chhabra, Healy
and Sills, 2003: 707). The (perception of) authenticity of a place
is also said to be directly proportional to the tourist expenditures.
The visitors at a monument can be distinguished based on their
experience as a recreation/non- recreation activity conducted in a
leisure/non- leisure timeframe. With rising leisure economy people
are spending substantially to see the world, thereby making
history and culture assets that can be sold to the consumers looking
for experience
2.7.2 VISITORS IN HISTORIC TOWNS
Cities provide the ground for the emergence and growth of culture,
history, arts and tradition. All heritage tourism events can draw upon
the results to recognize the importance of authenticity for economic
benefts (higher expenditures associated with greater perceived
authenticity) and culture sustainability (preservation of heritage)
(Chhabra, Healy and Sills, 2003: 717).
Tourism makes the setting dynamic and adaptable to a wider
audience. Historic towns might have limited fnancial potential, a
cultural tourist boosts its economy through income and employment,
also reducing immigration of locals. It is a clean source of earning
foreign exchange. These opportunities of employment also reduce
the immigration of the locals. Tourism is a volatile industry, deterred
by crisis as it is fashion dependent and a spoilt destination is
quickly discarded for the newly discovered (Orbasli, 2000: 2). Aylin
Orbasil (2000) in the work Tourists in Historic Towns has provided
a set of benefts derived from tourism. A tourists interest in an
area increases the awareness about local heritage and initiates the
conservation of hidden sites. It starts a chain reaction of heritage-
led urban development. It engages the local communities in the
events of their areas, forming associations for a common purpose.
Redundant buildings fnd new uses. In India changes to state
governance following independence have led to a number of former
maharajs palaces being successfully converted into high- class
and atmospheric hotels, and in Europe priories and monasteries are
being converted to host new cultural pilgrims (Orbasli, 2000: 44).
It enhances cross- cultural communication through the promotion
and exchange of historic values and traditions.
Tourism at historic places also has negative impacts.The benefts
of an improved environment and better services and facilities
can only be valued if they are within the purchasing power of the
inhabitants (Orbasli, 2000: 40). Tourist activities also raise the land
values, making the survival of the local businesses diffcult, and
sites inaccessible. It puts fnancial pressure on the local residents
42
as well. The public spaces suffer from underuse, lack of security,
vandalism, added transportation costs and fnancial burden during
the off season. Pollution, traffc and overcrowding are also increase.
Noha Nasser (2003) has provided an analysis of heritage
management and presented two approaches. Firstly, it is reuniting
the urban form, its building and public spaces through their activities
and uses. Secondly, it is integrating land use planning with social
ideals which would combat both structural and functional obsolesce
according to the changing social needs.
CONCLUSIONS
For a city, its social facts are primary while the physical
infrastructure, its industries, markets and networks are subservient
to its social needs. Heritage interpretation widens the understanding
of culture, brings lost stories to limelight and makes the overlooked
monuments a part of the timeline.Historic sites tend to lack a context.
Enhancement or screening of views and vistas determines the
perception of the monument scale, structure, layout and character.
To achieve coherence between monuments and urbanization, the
former needs to integrate with the setting physically, socially and
economically. Both the setting and the monument beneft if the
urban design development emerges from the same palette unifed
in alignment, scale and legibility. It is the design of this setting
that affects the social and economic viability of the monument as
well. They further need to promoted, made accessible and united
in the global fow of people and information. From the strategy of
designing spaces on form follows function, the monuments in
order to become a part of everyday environment need to be accessed
through its reversal. Functions needs to be assigned based on the
forms to make then relevant in current times.
Monuments are fnite resources which one cannot use and discard.
Development schemes of widening the roads, slum clearance,
upgradation of infrastructure and holistically changes in the
social structure infuence the perceived value of the monuments.
With spatial associations, people and environmental qualities of
security, legibility, noise, dust and vibrations also have an impact.
Understanding the intersection of culture and politics is vital for
both the past and the present. Understanding the difference between
the two is equally important. To continue to elide the two therefore
cheapens real culture and avoids real politics (Conn, 2010: 4). It
is the integrity of the two that is required. Tourism in particular is
both a threat that needs careful management as well as an economic
opportunity to be harnessed. A balance needs to be found between
the desires of the visitors and the needs of the residents. This would
create an environment that is progressive, locally distinct yet
globally acceptable.
43
CHAPTER 3
Chapter Introduction
Monuments are inimitable; carrying economic, community and
infrastructural potential. But their optimum utilization suffers in
developing countries with the gravities of population, pressure on
infrastructure and the tendency of such undertaking to be sectarian
political projects. Illustrating this, the following chapter highlights
the status of monuments in India.
STATUS OF MONUMENTS IN INDIA
44
The ancient architecture of India was material evidence of the
distinct and primordial nature of Indian civilization; a form of
text in stone, more stable and hence authentic than ephemeral
written records, in which one could read essential truths about
the values and creative propensities of the peoples who had
produced it (Scriver, 2007).
3.1 INDIAN ARCHITECTURE
From Indus Valley Civilization to the current urban development
schemes for Indian Subcontinent, it can be seen that there has been
a rich tradition of city planning and architecture that responds to
the climatic and social demands of the on- going era, inlaid with
intrinsic forms and motifs. Town planning policies and the impact
of conservation guidelines infuenced their perception and use.
Issues such as WHS designation, interpretation, marketing, visitor
management, and revenue generation are often complex and
controversial. The responsibility of managing them appropriately
and ensuring that the resources are not damaged by the visitors,
conficts of interest, or environmental conditions is therefore vital
(Chakravarty and Irazabal, 2011: 360).
3.2 INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK
The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains
Act of 1958 was enforced on 29th August 1958. According to the
Act, ancient and historical monuments, sculpture carvings and
other like objects, archaeological sites and remains are protected
and preserved. Archaeological excavations are regulated and are
of National importance (GOI, 2013).The cultural renaissance of
early nineteenth century led to Bengal Regulation XIX 1810 and
Madras Regulation VII of 1817. These vested the government with
the power to intervene in case of injury or misuse of buildings
remarkable for their antiquity. According to the Legal Mandate of
the Ministry of Culture, Government of India (GOI), Article 51A (F)
of the constitution states that "It shall be the duty of every citizen
of India to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite
Fig 3.1: Jaisalmer Fort and its Urban Setting
Source: Aparajita Barai
45
culture" (GOI, 2013). The task is conducted through a management
framework based on administrative and technical sectorisation of
responsibilities. Non- proft organizations such as Indian National
Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage (INTACH) also work in
coordination with the government and other interest groups from
local to international level.
3.2.1 GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS
Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) the premier authority for
protection of monuments as a procedure, scrutinises identifed
structures, gives a period to two months notice for objections and
thereby acquires them. It works through trained archaeologists,
conservators, epigraphist, architects and scientists for conducting
archaeological research projects through its Circles, Museums,
Excavation Branches, Prehistory Branch, Epigraphy Branches,
Science Branch, Horticulture Branch, Building Survey Project,
Temple Survey Projects and Underwater Archaeology Wing
divided into 24 circles. Under the state government, Department
of Archaeology and Museums have been established for the
preservation and beautifcation of their regional tangible heritage,
especially those other than under ASI.
Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM)
was launched for development and investment requirements in the
urban sector. The mission aims is to encourage reforms and fast
track planned development of identifed cities. (MUD, 2013: 5).
The development of heritage areas also falls within the realm of this
scheme. It takes into account both the protected and unprotected
buildings, group of buildings, neighbourhoods, and public spaces
that give a character and distinct identity to cities.
Beyond the site boundary, the planning and development authorities
come into picture. The Town and Country Planning Organisation
(TCPO), technical arm of the Ministry of Urban Development,
Government of India, is an apex technical advisory and consultant
organisation on matters concerning urban and regional planning
strategies, research, appraisal, and monitoring of central
government schemes and development policies (MUD, GOI, 2013).
It is responsible for the creating masterplans. The Housing and
Urban Development Minister Debi Prasad Misra has been quoted
by the Institute of Town Planners India (ITTPI) saying Most of the
people are not conversant with heritage planning. Besides, major
conservation zones have not been identifed yet (Indian Express,
2013). There are possible collaborations between the ASI, Tourism
Department and citys Municipal Corporations. A gap has been
identifed in the ways in which governmental agencies and entities
managing a towns heritage collaborate due to the lack of fnancial
resources for such large projects and the imprecise allocation of
civic responsibilities to public authorities.
46
3.2.2 MANAGEMENT POLICIES
Heritage can also be protected and regulated through the Urban and
Regional Planning and Development Acts, and Urban Local Bodies
Acts (ULBs) and their building bye- laws. The application of ASI
Act and counterpart State legislations is limited to monuments
protected by ASI and their counters in State which lays down the
prohibited and regulated zones around protected monuments (MUD,
2006). JNNURM has proposed adopting a process of listing to focus
on urban heritage as a part of development plans. It will identify
heritage zones, potential tourism, establish ownerships especially
of privately owned buildings and determine their potential for use.
The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains
AMASR (Amendment and Validation) Act, 2010 has setup the
National Monuments Authority (NMA) under the Ministry of
Culture, GOI. NMA and Competent Authorities (CA) take the
applications for grants of permissions for any construction in a
prohibited or regulated area to ensure mutual growth of people and
preservation of monuments. Appendix A provides a set of ten factors
which affects heritage properties due to natural and human forces.
3.3 TYPOLOGY OF INDIAN MONUMENTS
Babur, the sixteenth century founder of the Mughal Empire,
noted this when contrasting Hindustan (roughly equivalent
to the modern nations of India and Pakistan) to his home
territories around Kabul: It is a strange country. Compared
to ours, it is another world. Its mountains, animals and plants,
people and languages, even its rain and winds are altogether
different. (Ruggles, 2008:3).
The Indian architectural traditions contribute to construction of
identity as a response to culture, climate, people, materials and not
literally an imitation of built form. India possesses a wide typology
of historic resources. These are:
Archaeological sites
Fortifcations, Citadels, Palaces, and Administrative complexes
Religious Places (living or not in use)
Tombs, Memorials, Funerary structures
Traditional city network ruins
The following sections provide an overview of the signifcance of
these places, their public interface and their infuence on setting and
uses.
3.3.1 Sacred Places
Embedded in the natural landscape, the cultural diversity formed the
religious practices, travel patterns, ideas of leisure and pilgrimage,
47
and the development of their settings. The temples were the most
glorifed pieces of landscape, lavish in details and imposition of
wealth. [I]t is imbued with a complex system of symbolism by which
invaders, and thus no longer used for worship but only of historic
value. They are ASI protected monuments, marked as places to visit
on a tourists iternnary. They are surrounded with small touristic
enterprises. The living temples are managed by their trusts. They
undergo a process of maintenance and upgradation rather than
conservation which would freeze them in time. The government
has little interference and only caters to the tourism benefts that
can be derived. Their settings lined with sweet shops, forists and
packs of offerings made to God are indicators of activities inside.
The footfall changes with time of the day as it is also governed by
the time of the rituals.
Fig 3.2a: Tourists at Shore Temple
Source: Authors Own
Fig 3.2b: Shore Temple Structure
Source: Authors Own
Fig 3.3: Shop outside north
Indian temple selling offering
made to Gods
Source: Authors Own
it embodies the most elevated notions of
Hindu philosophy while still serving the
requirements of everyday religious life. It
is, therefore, an expression both of Hindu
society and of the most profound levels
of Hindu civilization (Michell, 1988:14).
They were built as prayer houses to resting
places and also sites of knowledge. They
are valued as either living (worshipped) or
only for historic value. The Shore Temple
in Mahabalipuram and Sun Temple in
Konark are examples of those damaged by
Fig 3.4: Prayers at Jama Masjid, Delhi
Source: http://indiaafricaconnect.in/index.php?param=news/195/panorama/115
48
Mosques or Masjid are the primary places of congregation for
Muslims offering prayers. Conventionally it has a courtyard with
pillared cloisters on three sides and the sacred sanctuary on the forth.
Jami Masjid in the city of Fatehpur was built by Mughal emperor
Akbar 1571. It was the largest and the most imposing structure
according to which the other buildings were aligned. Jama Masjid
in Delhi built by Akbars grandson Shah Jahan can accommodate
approximately 25,000 people in its courtyard. For this sheer quality
of people that it houses, it has been targeted by terrorists twice in
2006 and 2010 during prayer hours.
Most of the living religious sites do not hold the status of a monument
by ASI. Churches and gurudwaras are managed, maintained and
protected by their trusts. Their activities can be supported by GOI
for tourism.
Secular Sites: Adalaj- ni- vav, was stepwell built as a resthouse
for the travellers. Built by a Muslim rulerwith Hindu motifs, it
illustrates Indian secularism. A small niche with the carving of Lord
Ganeshais visited as a ritual by newly married couples. The open
lawns are used to celebrate the nine day festival of navaratri.The
site is often frequented as hideouts and dating points by the young
couples from conservative communities as it seldom sees local
visitors. Jantar- Mantar in New Delhi, an architectural astronomical
observatory is a landmark amidst Lutyens Connaught Place. It is
often used as a site for public protests and mass movements.
Fig 3.5: Stepwell, Adalaj
Source: Authors Own
3.3.2 Forts and Palaces
Forts and palaces are resonant of royalty. Under the British rule
many were sieged and used as military garrisons. Akbars Fort
in Allahabad is thus under the army. Red Fort, New Delhi is an
expression of political power and identity. Its Lahore Gate is the
venue of Independence Day fag hoisting and offcial speech by the
prime minister. These narrate the origin of capitals, often presented
Fig 3.6: Independence Day Celebrations at Red Fort,
Delhi
Source: http://www.hindustantimes.com/photos-
news/Photos-India/HappyIndependenceDay/Arti-
cle4-1108306.aspx
49
to visitors through Son et lumire shows. The Jaipur City Palace is
still owned by the royalty and partially converted into a Museum.
Fig 3.7: Humayuns Tomb, Delhi
Source: Authors Own
3.3.3 Mausoleums
Mausoleums, the burial places of the Mughals were exquisite and
elaborate. Usually set in the centre of gardens and approached
through ceremonial gateways, are now visited for their sculptural
details and open spaces. Taj Mahal is the most splendid example. It
was built by the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan between 1623- 1653
is globally recognised as the icon for India and included among the
wonders of the world. Incredible India campaign launched by the
Ministry of Tourism uses it as the centrepiece describing it as the
most photographed monument in the world.
3.3.4 Gardens and Landscape
Gardens are viewed through their spatial construct and experienced
through the auditory and olfactory senses. They help in providing
picturesque views and vistas. They are the living entities of our
landscape, suggesting the progression of time. However artifcially
built, they provide habitation for plants, animals and people. It thus
gives a dynamic experience of being in space. In the Indian context,
four part Mughal gardens laid out with axial walkways that intersect
Fig 3.8: Shalimar Bagh, Srinagar
Source: Authors Own
50
in the centre, called char bagh was a metaphor for organization
and domestication of landscape. Like the onion forms of domes in
architecture, this garden typology also provides India an identity.
Though the manicured lawns are visited for their fneness by the
tourists, they provide open spaces for the residents. In order to
maintain their charm, the walkways are regulated with barriers
and instructions prohibiting walking on the grass, playing in the
fountain, and plucking fowers. These forms are popular in painting,
textiles and carpets. The experience of being in the garden, whether
an actual site or a representation in art, seems always to inform the
selection and arrangement of its components (Ruggles, 2008: 74).
3.3.5 Thematic Spaces
The spatial themes of Indian architecture have remained the same
across time and landscape. This continuity is by commonality
in both physical and metaphysical parameters. They evolved in
scale and details to accommodate demands of the era. Some of the
simplest and most obvious features of spatiality have been sustained
for centuries in almost all types of built forms, ranging from the
most mundane to the most sacred. If one eliminates the elaborate
trimmings, the essential features can still be discerned right across
the spectrum (Jain, 2002: 3). The process has led to the formation of
spaces such as pavilions, threshold, courtyards and terraces.
Pavilions offer the experience of simultaneously being inside and
outside. Usually located in gardens, or adjacent to a waterbody,
they work as panoramic viewpoints. They are gathering places as
mandapas in temples, pleasure pavilions as baradaris in palaces,
chattris as roadside shelters. It was used for the statue of King
Fig 3.9: Plan of Ranakpur Temple, developed on the concept of mandala
Source: Jain (2002)
51
George V near the President
House (former viceroys
house) by the British.
Elaborately carved and
monumental in scale, the
courtyard, Sringar Chowk
of Jodhpur fort was the site
of royal coronations making
it the most important public
space within it. In religious
buildings, masses gather
here for prayers.
Fig 3.10: Version of Chattri in British India
Source: Authors Own

The in- between realms are the transitional space between one
space-light values to another. Step- wells exemplify this value.
They are a realms created in- between land and water. Ghats
are characteristic features of cities on the riverfront. Associated
with rituals and mythology, they lead one to the water through a
gradual and purposeful journey of plinths, steps and small shrine
(Arya, 2002: 69).The distinction between inside and the outside is
expressed through the entrances, often seen decorated with everyday
rituals. Plinths connect the outside and inside, with opportunities
for activities to spill out. This also helps emphasise the importance
of an institution such as the Imambada in Lucknow. Similarly,
cloisters and verandas negotiate scale, light and temperature meant
to cater to diverse family activities.
Fig 3.11: Peacock Courtyard, City Palace, Udaipur
Source: http://karimsahai.photoshelter.com/image/I0000E0wC2IpYZTI
Caves have been the earliest forms of dwellings with earliest
examples from the Neolithic period, such as in Bhimbetka in central
India. Their architecture was given a more sophisticated treatment
with paintings, examples seen in Ajanta and Ellora. They were
the abode of Buddhism and Jainism. The decorative treatment of
these structures is also viewed as the early examples of integrating
architecture with sculpture.
3.3.6 Indian Administration/Public Buildings
Monuments, architectural splendours, gardens, banks, modern
rail centres, administrative offces, postal and telegraph offces,
52
halls of justice, a race course, clubs, hotels, and modern retail
centres were all carefully located in this fastidious orchestrated
representation of British Empire (Hosagrahar, 2005: 147).
The monumentality in structures continues to lie with those in
power. Like other dynasties, the relics of British hegemony is
viewed, accepted and taken pride in as anything native to the land.
At the outset, the Viceroy wanted the buildings to have a generally
Indian appearance, in order to symbolize the increasing role
Indians in government; but mindful of the strong dislike for Indian
traditions among the British in India, he proposed a compromise
style which would Indian motifs (Tillotson, 1990: 105).The shifting
of power from Calcutta (now Kolkata) to New Delhi illustrates the
advent of architectural style which synthesized English classism
with of universal forms with traditional Indian shapes, symbolizing
a happy marriage of political ideals. Herbert Baker and Edwin
Lutyens realised these principles. Known for their dynamic rhythm,
the consummate mastery of each architectural vista and the eloquent
details of doorways and cornices continue to reign supreme. The
translation of Indian principles is also seen in the works of Charles
Correa in the design of Jawahar Kala Kendra, Jaipur. It is inspired by
the principles of mandala, a cosmological diagram for architectural
planning proposed in silpa- shastra, the ancient Sanskrit treatise on
architecture.
Fig 3.12: Public Building- Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus)
Source: http://www.fickr.com/photos/betta_design/3064581931/
Fig 3.13: Presidents House (Rashtrapati Bhavan), New Delhi
Source: http://www.fickr.com/photos/rkarthikphotography/5847847104/sizes/l/in/photostream/
53
3.4 PEOPLE AT
MONUMENTS
It is the conceptual
framework of places
that informs the spatial
practices. The needs of a
developing nation are the
governing principles of
how people relate to them.
Their perception, usability
and intangible values differ
from those of a resident,
a national visitor and an
international tourist.
3.4.1 Local Community
If monuments are glorifed, the towns residents make themselves
their legitimate heirs. They provide a consistency to the landscape.
People are often connected through economic means. For instance,
Taj Ganj the area around Taj Mahal has been a home to the craftsmen
of marble inlay work for generations. Similarly, sites of Rajastan
have been a host of meenakari craftsmen. Monuments seldom see
solitary domestic visitors. They are venues for bringing families
and friends together. The manicured lawns with free entry zones
are often places to hangout for the youth of the neighbourhood.
In a developing country where the idea of foreign is still exotic,
Edensor (1998) in his book Tourists at Taj quotes a ffteen year old
schoolboy:
Sanjeev: We like to look at the tourists, try and guess where
they come from and then ask them. We come here every Friday
after school and we like to talk to the tourists so that we can
learn about different countries and also give information
about our lives, and practise our English.
3.4.2 Monuments in Daily Life
The stories of valour narrated through Indian cinema have brought
many forts and palaces to life. They are used as picturesque locations
for song sequences and theatrical performances. Their patterns and
Fig 3.14: Cinema personalities at Taj Mahal for flm
promotion
Source: http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-
national/tom-cruise-is-here/article2685738.ece
3.3.7 Historic Towns
There is often a confict between necessary urban transformations
and needs of cultural tourists. Jaipur, the third destination of the
golden triangle with Delhi and Agra was founded as a modern city
in 19th century. Operation Pink, as the renovation and restoration
efforts targeted at the city centre in 2000 were called, refects a
selective reading of Jaipurs history (Karatchkova and Weisgrau,
2007: 43).The packaged pride of the city lies in its tradition which
authorities seek to maintain.
54
techniques are used as inspiration for lifestyle product design. The
urban forms housing the monuments are neither entirely planned
and regulated, nor completely traditional and spontaneous, but
result of confict, mediation and negotiation.
3.4.3 Tourists
The monuments of India are also its brand ambassadors. For instance,
the image of Taj Mahal in Agra has been exploited in innumerable
ways. The name has been appropriated by Donal Trump for his
casino in Las Vegas, a fve star hotel in Bombay, a blues singer
and countless Indian restaurants throughout the world (Edensor,
1998: 1). After Information technology and textiles, international
tourists bring Indias third highest foreign exchange. Since some of
these monuments become tourism entrepreneurships the activities
and supporting spatial infrastructure speaks this language. For a
tourist at a monument, Edensor (1998) has identifed for key areas
of performance- walking, gazing, photographing and remembering.
These different conventions are conditioned by the degree of
external constraint over tourist, peer- group pressure, notions of
appropriate tourist etiquette, refexive awareness, the relationship
between site and visitor and the nature of the stage (Edensor, 1998:
105). The social conduct of people is also fashioned by their class,
race, nation and civilization.
With the new age digital and communication technology,
photography has become synonymous with everyday lifestyle. At the
monuments the practise is more prevalent, unless restricted. From
ipads and smartphones to DSLRs, people capture their moments
of glory and fulflling the have been there done that check list all
at the same time in the same spot. The pose and positions of those
inside the frame follow photographic conventions which facilitate
and naturalise story- telling and mode of collecting and labelling
(Edensor, 1998: 132).
CONCLUSION
From the above discussion it can be deduced that for a developing
area, the fnancial gains attained from tourism centring monuments
are of primer goals of heritage interpretation. This gives fragmented
development, fuctuating local economy depending upon tourism
trends, political fervour and governmental support. The status of
monuments in India can be visualized in three scale gradation.
Firstly, if the monument is WHS or ASI acquired and publicized,
its setting is fooded with tourism products, souvenir shops, local
handicraft stores, government emporiums and roadside tea-stalls to
restaurants. Secondly, if the sites have potential of giving the exotic
traditional Indian experience then they are converted into palatial
resorts, sub- dividing cities into tourist and non- tourist areas.
Thirdly, the sites which have not seen commercial viability lie
55
ignored and often inhabited by poor households leading to further
downfall.
Indian architectural space in the manner in which it is enclosed is
very different from the Western notion of space. The defnitions
and boundaries are soft and even ambiguous, often changing with
physical or other contextual changes. Quite often one does not
know when one is inside and when outside. Above all, it is the
manifestation of this duality that gives distinctiveness to the Indian
notion of space (Jain, 2002:122). The monuments in a city and the
built heritage at large are inherent to their place of origin and the
socio- cultural bonds. The quality of visitor experience will be based
upon the coherence of their form with the lifestyle of the citizens
and the various stakeholders. It thus becomes necessary for cities to
carry a vision for their heritage that would catalyse the upgradation
of socio- economic and cultural profles.
56
CHAPTER 4
Chapter Introduction
This chapter presents the analytical framework developed for
conducting site studies. The aim is to identify how different urban
design qualities work in context of a preserved site allowing growth
and development of its surrounding areas in a real life situation.
It gives a comparative study between the sites and a refned
framework which was further used to conduct the case study. Based
on the conclusions obtained, it presents design principles which
will be formulated into guidelines in chapter 6 by testing them on a
reference site.
ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK
& CASE STUDIES
57
Every place has more assets than frst meets the eye, hidden
in the undergrowth, invisible, unacknowledged or under-
acknowledged. Te challenge is to dig deeper and to undertake
a creativity and obstacle audit (Landry, 2006: 272).
4.1 ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK
This is used to analyse urban design qualities and the setting of
a monument. A hands-on approach using primary data was used
combining urban design and heritage interpretation theories. Sites
with culture- led regeneration schemes were visited to gain initial
understanding revived spatial confgurations and communication
techniques.
4.2 SITE SELECTION CRITERIA
This chapter identifes urban design attributes, methods and
techniques that have been employed at monuments and their
setting, contributing towards heritage interpretation and enhanced
user experience. The sites selected are monuments embedded in
contemporary urban landscape. They vary in historic land- use and
functions. This gives a palette highlighting design features that have
been applied in diverse locations. For a uniform underlying cultural
context only UK sites are used. This would aid in comparative
analysis with monuments in a developing nation- India presented in
chapter 5. Specifc site selection reasons are provided prior to their
analysis.

4.3 DEVELOPING THE FRAMEWORK
Analytical framework investigates the systems, processes, and
interactions to deconstruct the integrity of monuments in their
settings. It draws answers on following three criteria. Firstly, it is
the description of the place with available data and information to
understand the local context. Secondly, the experience it generates
by the way it is perceived and thirdly, the heritage interpretation
techniques that have been implemented on site.
4.3.1 Data and Information
The urban form reveals sets of information which enable one to
comprehend the setting of monuments in space and time. However,
one needs to be selective in what to look at in the vastness of the
information.
Place branding and Marketing: The experience unfolds
based on prior knowledge and our ability to predict it. The place
image functions as a destination pointer on the world map. It is a
58
4.3.2 Spatial Perception
Our experience of atmosphere is as much about us as about
qualities of path. Perception is the ability of the mind to make
sense of the world. It depends upon involvement in its activities
and our prior knowledge about it. This experience can be viewed
from the perspective of a resident seeking facilities that fulfl his
everyday needs, and that of a tourist seeking clues that give a sense
of discovery, fascination for the city.
[V]ery young boys probably appreciate places in terms of
who they associate with them. As they grow older they come
to value them for the activities located there, and eventually
to see them aesthetically (Malinowski and Thurnber 1996).
Thus, as they summarize it, the lake may initially be a place
to swim, but later a place to see a beautiful sunset (Lawson,
2001, p.2).
The following mechanisms of perceiving space have been put
forward by Barry Lawson (2001) in The Language of Space:
Sensation: Though were visually dominated, the sensations
of sound, smell and touch are the intriguing characteristic of a
space.
multidimensional construct, consisting of functional, emotional,
relational and strategic elements that collectively generate a
unique set of associations in the public mind (Dinnie, 2011).
Value: That which is perceived by one and all can be termed
as the evident value. The methods of promotion of historic,
aesthetic and communal values need to be deciphered.
Location and Setting: This refects the social and climatic
conditions of the site which govern the nature of activities in
vicinity.
Urban Places and Interpretation: The consumerist economy
can mark any building, association or event as heritage
destination. But it is the participation of residents in the tourism
that brings inherent local features to the visitors.
Some Basic Locations: Central Square and markets are
universal features that a visitor can adapt to. They provide a
uniform ground for comparison.
The Streetscape: Streets are reference of subtleties of local life.
Their casual details often contain a long history that exemplifes
the narrative about the city.
59
Colour: The local material determined the colour of the city
in the past. The effects of colour on emotions can be further
studied, based on general wisdom colours are either warm and
advancing or cool and receding.
Number: A column becomes a part of the colonnade, so does
the simple and regular repetition of an object eventually makes
it disappear. The foreground object becomes background with
the need for a sculpture in front.
Meaning: The long term memory works by using meanings
and concepts rather than images. The more ideas, concepts and
words are there to describe a place, it more richly it is perceived.
Context: It is this scenario that determines the meaning and
attention given to activities taking place.
4.4 BUILDING THE INSTRUMENT
To identify the scope of work and the questions to be raised, the
Phoenix Initiative in Coventry and the WHS of Maritime Greenwich
has been studied. Coventry provides a culture- led regeneration
scheme in the city centre where a narrative of its emergence from
the impact of World War II to indicators to future had been build.
Distance: It is estimated by the perceived object size and the
way it seems to move as we move our head and eyes in space.
Scale: Scale is the impact that buildings or other spatial
elements have on us on the basis of their relative rather than
absolute size. It also provides a commercial and political value.
Movement: The approach to a city and the mode of navigation
through a place also governs the perception. Moving in a car
insulates one from all the senses except sight, on the other hand
walking gives one the opportunity to interact with the elements
at a desired pace and also perceive changes in temperature,
wind, sounds, smell of material, food or other processes.
Social Order: This is exemplifed by the usage of the buildings
and the feature of landmarks.
Foreground and Background: Their relationship provides
focus or distraction on the monuments, impacting the perception
of values.
Verticality: The right angle is a special angle and the upright a
unique orientation that helps the brain respond better.
Symmetry: This geometrical characteristic helps establish the
foreground and attention seeking focal points
60
On the other hand, Greenwich provides layers of history, a variety
in heritage typology and reaps the benefts of being a WHS.
The framework enables one to record and compare the schemes
across uniform parameters. It has been done from the points of view
of both the management and visitor. Therefore the framework has
been divided into two sections,
Framework Section A: Interpretation
Framework Section B: Experience
The data collection was done by on-site personal observations, print
and online publications and references of previously conducted
studies. The parameters for the analysis are defned below followed
by the analysis tables.
4.4.1 Framework Section A: Interpretation
The concepts for this framework are broadly adapted from the
interpretative planning principles, their aim and methods put
together in the work by J. Carter (1997) in A Sense of Place.
Table 4.1: Section A, Interpretation
OBJECT
Accessible Elements
Controlled Access Elements
Controlled Access Methods
Information Replicated
Temes Used
VISITOR
Demography
Number
Interests/Expectations
Duration of Visit
TECHNIQUE
Media Used
Locations
Time of the Day
Allocation of Temes to Venues
Objective
Style
MANAGEMENT
Skills Required
Staf Required/Supervision
Maintenance Issues
A
:

I
N
T
E
R
P
R
E
T
A
T
I
O
N
61
OBJECT: This is the historic site under consideration. This could be
an independent entity in the landscape or a complex with elements
of historic value exemplifying the achievements of mankind.
Accessible Elements: Parts of the site those are open to access
(to any one without any disabilities), at regular open hours.
Controlled Access Elements: Parts of the site where entry
is checked through ticketing system, ethnicity, supervision
requirements or time restrictions.
Controlled Access Methods: The techniques used to regulate
accessibility or channelizing movement pattern.
Information Replicated: Methods of providing facts about the
place.
Themes Used: These are the ideas of the structure that has been
used on site as a way to tell the facts and create links between the
elements while creating the tourist navigation plan.
VISITOR: These are the people visiting for leisure, recreation,
artistic or scientifc interests. It includes those who engage with the
place other than the management, local interest groups and small
scale entrepreneurs.
Demography: This composition will give the people the
monument appeals to and its features that capture attention.
Number: The number of visitors will help determine
infrastructural requirements and the funds obtained from them.
Expectations: These are based on the impressions created by
media, references in stories, shared -experiences by family and
friends or published articles.
Duration of Visit: It is the time spent on site. However it is
not to be considered uniformly distributed cross the activities.
People spend time as per what captures their interest unless it is
a guided tour. People also look at things more in depth during the
initial phase of the visit and rush towards the end.
TECHNIQUE: These are the communication methodology that
orient, inform and entertain visitors. They form the spatial narratives
designed for the monuments.
Media Used: The devices provided free of cost, inclusive in
the ticket or available as supplementary guidance for a tour.
Locations: The specifc points of halt where the information
is delivered.
62
Time of the Day: Light plays a pivotal role in the activities of
the city. This is the functioning of the media/devices at specifc
times of the day.
Allocation of Themes to Venues: The use of specifc themes
at appropriate locations to bring forward ideas and provoke
ideologies.
Objective: These are the goals that the communication devices
are aiming to achieve.
Style: This is the expression that the media might have adopted
to cater to the audience.
MANAGEMENT: The organizational framework employed for
smooth running of activities on site.
Skills Required: The communication and management skill
that staff needs to portray contributing to an enhanced visitor
experience.
Staff Supervision: The activities which can be conducted only
in the presence of member of staff.
Maintenance Issues: The features on site which might need
extra attention for their functioning.
EVALUATION: These are the observations noted which highlight
the positive and negative features of heritage interpretation used on
site.
4.4.2 Framework Section B: Experience
The overarching concept for this framework of Path- Portal- Place
has been adapted from the article by E. White (1999) by the same
title. Paths are primarily dedicated to movement and having linear
confgurations. Portals are the points where paths meet. And places
are the urban rooms of the city where pedestrian life is invited,
accommodated, and experienced (White 2012: 185). In the context
of the site analysis, the terminologies are explained as below in
table 4.2(a, b, c).
63
PATH: They are the veins providing the framework for integrating
the historic site with the city. They are the circulation route that
the visitor takes from the point of entry into the complex to the
place itself. A good path makes people savour the expectations of
reaching the destination.
Container: It gives the architectural personality to the path
which can be determined by analysing the confguration of the
pathscape, the characteristics of the faades and the landscape.
Identity: It is the value of the route depended on the historic
events or activities and their awareness amongst people.
Ambience: Ambience is the sum of our memories, expectations,
emotions, sensation, preferences, choices and actions (White,
1999).
Stimulations: These are opportunities that maintain ones
interest. They can be classifed as (i) necessary activities (ii)
optional activities, and (iii) social activities.
Security: It is based on the social norms and behavioural
settings, allowing people to act in a regulated way, providing
social cohesion.
Table 4.2a: Section B1, Experience
B
1
:

E
X
P
E
R
I
E
N
C
E
PATH CONTAINER Spatial Confguration
Facades Characteristic Features
Landscaping
IDENTITY
Signifcance (Symbolism/
Reputation/Role of Place)
AMBIENCE Traffc (Type, Speed, Volume)
Human Possibilities
1. Comfort
2. Emotions/Sensations
3. Choices
4. Expectations
5. Relaxation
STIMULATIONS
Activity
1. Necessary
2. Optional
3. Social
Spatial Distribution of Hot
Spots and Cool Spots
Periodic Events
SECURITY
Social Norms/Behavioural
Settings
Treasured Memories
Measuring Passage of Time
64
PORTAL: A portal is a gateway and a point of orientation. It channels
our vision into an urban place as we approach and orchestrates the
unfoldment of our view of the space as we enter (White, 1999, 188).
Container: It gives form to point of transition from a linear
path into a dynamic place.
Identity: The role of that portal in history and associations
made by the people.
Ambience: The experience of the transition that takes place at
portal.
Stimulations: These are registered through the activities that
happen at the portal.
Security: This again is based on the behavioural settings that
the place offers.
Table 4.2b: Section B1, Experience
B
2
:

E
X
P
E
R
I
E
N
C
E
PORTAL CONTAINER Form
Boundaries
Character of Facade
IDENTITY
Signifcance (Symbolism/
Role of Place)
AMBIENCE
Experience (of arriving at,
moving through, approaching)
STIMULATIONS Type of Activities
Vantage Points
SECURITY
Social Norms/Behavioural
Settings
PLACE CONTAINER Freestanding Elements
Scalar Qualities
Movement Patterns
Visual Axis
Landscaping
HISTORICAL
SIGNIFICANCE
Role of Place
Then and Now
Symbolism
Reputation
65
Table 4.2c: Section B3, Experience
4.5 FRAMEWORK TESTING
The developed frameworks as presented in section 4.4.1 and 4.4.2
has been used to conduct studies at three sites- Rochester, Worcester
and Oxford. These were selected for the reasons explained below:
Fig 4.1: Rochester Castle and Cathedral
Socurce: Authors Own
Selecting Rochester: The remains of the Rochester Castle are set
amidst green open space. Adjacent to it is the Rochester Cathedral.
It was found in 640AD and later rebuilt in 1080 by Bishop Gundulf
is second oldest in the country. The place has the over lay of relics
of Charles Dickens. The study of this setting gives the opportunity
to look at ways in which structures from various stages of timeline
and of different historical signifcance become a whole through the
streetscape.
B
3
:

E
X
P
E
R
I
E
N
C
E
PLACE ACTIVITY
First Level
1. Aliveness
2. Movement
3. Stationary Activities
4. Dominant Functions
Second Level
1. Spatial Distribution of Activities
2. Timings
3. Contextual Conditions
4. Demography?
AMBIENCE Activity Pace
Human Possibilities
1. Comfort
2. Emotions/Sensations
3. Choices
4. Expectations
5. Relaxation
Building Age?
Light Intensity?
Sun Angle
Weather/Temperature
Ground Plane
SECURITY Social Norms/Behavioural Settings
Treasured Memories
Measuring Passage of Time
66
Selecting Worcester: Worcester Cathedral stands at the core of
the city at the terminating point of the commercial High Street.
The city was also the site for the Battle of Worcester, 1651
bringing an end to the English Civil War. This setting provides one
an opportunity to study the linkages between sites and the possible
constructions of a narrative to a visitor as the city offers a wealth
of history in its modern compact city centre.
Fig 4.2: Worcester Cathedral West Front
Source: http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/2358153
Selecting Oxford: As a monument, Oxford Castle has seen many
transformations from being a castle to being used as a prison to
being a leisure place. Its elements extend beyond the bounds of
the former fenced prison. Its analysis provides an insight into the
fragmentation of monuments and the perception of its different
parts as independent entities. The currently implemented uses
give suggestions about ftting the place for the new consumers.
The changes made have selectively retained and refurbished the
structure, such that they are in use as well providing the historic
perspective to site. Like Rochester and Worcester, this city holds
special value to the life and works of Lewis Carroll.
Fig 4.3: Public event at Oxford Castle
Source: Claudia Redondo Torregrosa
67
Table 4.3: Section A, Setting
The observations drawn on site are based on the defnitions
provided in sections 4.4.1 and 4.4.2. Field Evidence for the three
studies with their conclusions is given in Appendices B, C, D. This
process helped in both the evaluation of the site and the refnement
of the framework. As the context contributes to the holistic
experience, a section on setting has been added. Tables 4.3, 4.4
and 4.5 (a,b,c) give the fnal framework.
A
:

S
E
T
T
I
N
G
PLACE IMAGE Branding Image
Marketing Techniques
ACCESSIBILITY
Signage
1. Language
2. Currency
3. Accuracy
4. Character Path Marked
Transport Links
1. Public
2. Private Accessibility
3. Parking (for Cars, Motorbikes and Cycles)
Safety
PUBLIC
SERVICES
Refreshments
Restrooms
Childcare
NARRATIVES Focused Stories/Layers
Type of Tour Options
COLLECTABLES Available Shops
Temes on display
Type of Items
RETURN VISITS Periodic/ Seasonal Events
Promotion Methods
REVIEWS Casual Feedbacks
68
Table 4.4: Section B, Interpretation Table 4.5a: Section C1, Experience
OBJECT Accessible Elements
Controlled Access Methods
Controlled Access Elements
Information Replicated
Themes Used
VISITOR Demography
Number
Duration of Visit
1. At Monument
2. With Surroundings
3. In City
TECHNIQUE Media Used
Locations
Time of the Day
Objective
Style
MANAGEMENT Skills Required
Staff Required/Supervision
Maintenance Issues
B
:

I
N
T
E
R
P
R
E
T
A
T
I
O
N
C
1
:

E
X
P
E
R
I
E
N
C
E
PATH CONTAINER Spatial Confguration
Facades Characteristic
Features
Landscaping
IDENTITY
Signifcance (Symbolism/
Reputation/Role of Place)
AMBIENCE Traffc (Type, Speed, Volume)
Human Possibilities
1. Comfort
2. Emotions/Sensations
3. Choices
4. Relaxation
STIMULATIONS
Activity
1. Necessary
2. Optional
3. Social
Spatial Distribution of Hot
Spots and Cool Spots
Periodic Events
SECURITY
Social Norms/Behavioural
Settings
Treasured Memories
Measuring Passage of Time
69
Table 4.5b: Section C2, Experience
Table 4.5c: Section C3, Experience
C
2
:

E
X
P
E
R
I
E
N
C
E
PORTAL CONTAINER Form
Boundaries
Material
SIGNIFICANCE Role of Place
AMBIENCE
Experience (of
arriving at, moving
through, approaching)
STIMULATIONS Type of Activities
Vantage Points
SECURITY Sense of Security
PLACE CONTAINER Scalar Qualities
Movement Patterns
Visual Axis
Groundplane &
Landscaping
HISTORICAL
SIGNIFICANCE
Role of Place
Then and Now
Symbolism
Reputation
C
3
:

E
X
P
E
R
I
E
N
C
E
PLACE
ACTIVITY
First Level
1. Movement
2. Stationary Activities
3. Dominant Functions
Second Level
1. Timings
2. Contextual
Conditions
70
4.6 COMPARATIVE REVIEW
Historic sites need to be managed, marketed, interpreted and
integrated within the activities of the city. A reassessment of the
values of the unconnected resources reveals the creative potential
of the city. Each element might be small but, brought together,
the whole is large (Landy, 2006: 273). Using the information
collected through feld studies and the conclusions obtained, the
following section provides a comparative review is structured on
interpretation principles put forward by David L. Uzzell (1989) for
visitor management.
4.6.1 Soft Visitor Management
The visitor information centre followed by museums focusing on
the incredible history of the city, landmark events and its renowned
personalities communicates the value embedded in it. At Rochester
Castle place value is given by narrating signifcant episodes
and contributions of architecture to it. At Worcester, there is no
emphasis on either the cathedral or any other valuable sites. The
architecture of the city centre suggest its merit by sheer quality but
the signifcance or use has not been expressed unless one takes a
guided tour or visits the city well read in advance. In Oxford at the
castle, the interpretation is designed such that it takes the visitor
through the most important part, St. Georges tower, under guided
supervision also narrating the value of the monument. The elements
have been selectively used to showcase their uses in the past. In all
three scenarios, it should be noted that for a visitor the format for a
guided tour make the consumption for a restricted period of time.
This challenges the notions of leisure and recreation. The bite-
PLACE AMBIENCE
Activity Pace
Human Possibilities
1. Comfort
2. Emotions/Sensations
Choices
3. Expectations
4. Relaxation
Building Age
Weather/Temperature
Ground Plane
PLACE SECURITY Social Norms/Behavioural
Settings
Treasured Memories
Table 4.5c (cont.): Section C3, Experience
C
3

(
c
o
n
t
.
)
:

E
X
P
E
R
I
E
N
C
E
71
sized images and narratives provide a distracted involvement in
space.
4.6.2 Hard Visitor Management
At Rochester castle, barriers and mesh have been used to restrict
movement and safeguard property. In the setting at large, pedestrian
paths allow people to see things at leisure and move to points which
capture their interest. In Worcester, this works as well along with
restricting the access to the tower. Permissions to visits to the prayer
room in the crypt are indicated by notice outside it. At the Oxford
castle this has been done by assigning various uses to the structures.
4.6.3 Propaganda
These may or may not be conservation oriented but is a part of the
process that increases visitors awareness, respect and understanding
of the system. In Rochester, there is a clear marketing of historic
town and must see destinations. From tourist guides to local maps,
a hierarchy has been established. Worcester however has only
highlighted the primary streets, churches and museums as points of
interest. Oxford has been promoted as a university town, a mecca
for education and the abode of famous personalities. In recent years
it has been marketed as the venues for Harry Potter movie series.
These are emphasised through the variety of guided tours available.
4.6.4 Value- addition for Tourism
Since both the natural and build environment is of interest for
the public, there value is used for economic gains. The tangible
historic core brings in an infux of outsiders together with new
ideas, challenging products and services that bring together various
combinations where insiders and outsiders meet. As memories,
people buy souvenirs not for their technological qualities or utility
but for the value they engender. Rochester gains tourism potential
and global recognition due to the references of Charles Dickens than
its monuments. This can be accessed from collection of souvenirs
and the indicators of references to his works across the breadth
of the landscape. The popularity of Worcester lies in the Royal
Porcelain. This however one needs to discover. Oxford University
products are perceived as a fashion statement; the university college
architecture is popularly iconography and Alice in Wonderland
character as table- top items. The internet covers wide spectrum
of their attributes in their tourist websites. They have unanimously
categorised the attractions catering to different tastes and anticipated
time to be spent in the city.
4.7 CASE STUDY
Using the Analytical Framework presented in section 4.5, a study
was conducted at Tower of London. This Tower is a citadel
72
to defend or command the city; a royal palace for assemblies or
treaties; a prison of state for the most dangerous offenders; the
only place of coinage for all England at this time; the armoury for
warlike provision; the treasury of the ornaments and jewels of the
crown; and general conserver of the most records of the kings
courts of justice at Westminster. John Stow, Survey of London,
1598 (Historic Royal Palaces, 2011:6)
Reasons for Selection: Tower of London is the most famous historic
attraction in London. It earns global prestige being UNESCO WHS.
Its long and colourful history has seen changes in use and values.
Its study provides reference of interpretation techniques used at one
of the best preserved monuments hosting millions of international
visitors.
Appendix E give Field Evidence and conclusions from this study.
Fig 4.4: Tower of London
Source: http://www.hrp.org.uk/
TowerOfLondon/
4.8 DESIGN PRINCIPLES
From the site studies it is concluded that for monuments to be an
integral entity of urban landscape, issues need to be addressed
at four scales: (i) The Monument (ii) Its Public Realm (iii) The
Setting (iv) The City. The strategy is to identify the benefts that
these scales offer. This is by converting their values into apt (land)
uses such that people could engage with them. Using this concept,
following section gives a set of Design Principles.
4.8.1 The Monument
Fig 4.5: Delivering
the values of a
Monument
73
Visibility has been categorised into two aspects:
1. In Urban Landscape (works at the local level)
Creating vistas such that the monument acts as pointer.
Regulating the heights of the surrounding developments such
that monument continues to be a landmark in the setting.
By making it a part of the skyline so that it connects with larger
number of people from a distance.
2. As Place Image (works at the global level)
Using its image as a part of branding the city.
Souvenirs, Slogans, Print Media Marketing, Audio Visual
Productions, Social Networks
As a reference in fctional stories
As a location (in flms, periodic events)
Accessibility has been categorised as:
1. Connectivity with the urban infrastructure
Making permeable and legible routes that connect the monument
with the key arteries of the city network.
Ensuring ease of navigation with GPS plotting and directional
signage.
As the monuments are often set in protected zones, ensuring
safety by investing in the development of the activities in their
public realm.
Making physical and conceptual linkages with related historic
or leisure sites across the city. This can be expanded connections
with neighbouring towns as well. This can be done through
walks, guided tours and travel packages eg. Golden triangle.
2. Availability of the site for use
Based on the form of the monument, its protection requirements
and its state of repair identify a set of uses that it can afford.
These should be (i) permanent, to maintain consistency in the
expectations of the visitors; (ii) periodic/seasonal, for people to
look forward to participate in the events at the monument (iii)
temporary, to provide special occasion for the residents to visit;
To have parts of the complex open to access without ticketing,
so that the locals can avail the services located there without
having to participate in the guided schemes.
Access timings beyond offce hours and also scheduling
special events at different times to beneft from the expenditure
potential in leisure for urban economy.
3. Communication of Information about the monument
Documentation of the cultural values of the monuments and
making them available as educational resources. These should
be (i) on site (ii) in print and digital media (iii) as publicity tools
(iv) in virtual tours
74
4.8.2 The Public Realm
This forms the edge of the monument, gives information of what
happens inside and allows people to be connected without entering
the site. As often the monuments cannot be enjoyed by disabled,
infrm or children, the public realm provides opportunity to engage
with them. This can be achieved as:
Based on the hierarchy of the most protected and least
protected parts of the monument, activities can be allotted to
them depending on their form.
Provision of activities which provide active edges and
surveillance to otherwise fortifed sites to ensure safety in the
areas surrounding the monument.
Locating amenities for tourists in this zone.
Providing activities that would use the monument as the
backdrop bringing economic gains.
Space to feature as a public open space where possible for the
neighbouring communities, harnessing social benefts. Providing
infrastructure that will give comfortable, safe and inclusive
environment.
4.8.3 The Setting
This area provides the main users of the monuments both in terms
of visitors and caretakers.
The built environment should be oriented towards the
monument.
The provisions for the tourists should be integrated without
hindering the natural social environment of the town present in
this area. A balance between the facilities would also give an
authentic picture of the city and not a staged drama of cultural
production.
The assessment for the provision on facilities can be made from
the time that one would spend in that area. Highlighting other
historic resources of secondary level of popularity, leisure resorts
or signifcant activity areas would also capture the interest on the
visitors and retain them there.
Upgrading the potential resources would also add variety for
the residents.
4.8.4 The City
The city is the canvas where all the pieces of history, culture
and tradition come together to be experienced and interpreted.
Depending upon the perceived merit of the monument, it can either
be the prime attractor or multiple monuments together form a value
base that will attract visitors.
A network of routes that links places of interest together.
Marketing the image of the city that uses visual branding by the
75
monument as well.
Highlighting character routes with pedestrian priority.
A transport system depending upon the distance to be travelled
that guides the connected sites.
CONCLUSIONS
Visits to historic sites forge links between present and past. Their
perception of totality is based on the imagined geographies.
These spatial networks are formed by symbolic and architectural
associations and how the visitors interpret them through their
settings. This relationship is also infuenced by the cultural
preconceptions on tourists and the touristic traditions promoted on
the site.
The discussions presented in this chapter have led to the emergence
of two perspectives, one of the global tourist and the other of the
resident of the city. In order to integrate monuments with the city it
is necessary to establish connections between them and the people.
While these bonds would vary between a tourist and a resident, it
can be generalised as follows:
Since the visual dominates the sensory consumption, the
movement patterns determine the angles and views that are being
consumed. Like pieces of organic furniture in ones (home)
town, familiar sites, routes and features can provide a rich source
of memory (Edensor, 1998: 145).
Participation in its activities during seasonal or periodic event,
or as a tourism entrepreneur so that there is a regular fows of
people.
Opportunities for creating cherished memories
Promoting their symbolic and metaphorical values so that a
larger audience can relate to them.
76
CHAPTER 5
Chapter Introduction
The previous chapters focused on site studies in England. This
drove conclusions through a uniform cultural platform and use of
an on-site spatial perception based approach. To develop design
guidelines for global application, it is necessary to test them against
a different cultural, social and economic context. For doing this, a
test site has been chosen in India. This will enable conceptualization,
contextualization and presentation of design guidelines in a spatial
scenario of a developing nation. Ideally as a methodology for its
analysis, visit to the site would have been made. This analysis is
conducted from memory of earlier visits, books and case studies,
reference to photographs, videos and information available online.
TEST SITE
77
Fig 5.1: Monuments within Qutb Complex with structural ruins
Source: Mitra, 2002
5.1 SITE SELECTION
Qutb Complex is located in New Delhi, the political power node for
centuries, rendering the landscape with the relics of seven cities. It is
a UNESCO WHS inscribed in 1993. The Complex has monuments
built over generations, symbolizing values of their times. But
the site is perceived as a jigsaw with various pieces speaking of
different architectural traditions and building techniques, attracting
international visitors. The site however lacks techniques that
could illustrate the layers of stories. Though due to its scale it is
an everyday landmark for the locals, they seldom visit the site in
particular.
Fig 5.2: Qutb Complex, UNESCO World Heritage Site
Source: Sumegha Mantri
78
5.2 MONUMENTS
WITHIN QUTB
COMPLEX
The complex , represented in
fg 5.1, is the oldest surviving
example of Islamic architecture
in the Indian sub-continent. The
origin of the current structure lies
in the remains of a Hindu-Jain
Temple. The main attractions
are:
QutbMinar: It is a red and
buff coloured sandstone tower,
steps.
Quwwat- ul- Islam Mosque: Built by Qutb- ud- din Aibak
in 1192-1198 it is the earliest extant mosque of India. It was
commissioned immediately after Delhis capture from Hindu rulers,
establishing the might of Islam. It comprises a courtyard - 43.2m
by 33m, enclosed by cloisters. Its columns and other architectural
members carry the legacy of Hinduism with the use of fgurines,
undulating leaves of scroll- work and naturalistic representation
Fig 5.3: Qutb Minar
Source: Authors Own
72.5m tall, tapering from a diameter of 14.32m at the base to
2.75m at the top. It is the worlds tallest brick minaret. Essentially
a victory tower, it marked the conquest of Qutb- ud-din Aibak,
the frst Sultan of Delhi. However, only frst foor was built by
him, the remaining four eventually completed by his successors.
The structure is a combination of angular and circular futings. Its
projecting balconies with stalactite pendentive type of brackets
and inscriptional decorative bands on different storey heighten its
decorative effect (Sharma, 2001: 54). Leading to the top, it has 397
Fig 5.4: Corridor of Quwwat-ul- Isman Mosque adjacent to Qutb Minar
Source: Authors Own
79
of serpentine tendrils in Hindu
motifs.
Iron Pillar: This 4th century
marvel, shown in fg 5.5, stands
in the centre of the prayer hall of
Quwwat- ul- Islam Mosque. It
was a part of the original Vishnu
Temple. . It bears inscriptions in
Sanskrit, which record that the
pillar was set up as a standard
(dhvaja) of god Vishnu on the
hill known as Vishnupada, in the
memory of mighty king, named
Chandra (Sharma, 2001: 55). It
is 7.20m tall, 93cm buried below
the ground. It is a testimony
of ancient Indian metallurgical
geometric ornamentations (Sharma, 2001: 58); Tomb of Alau-ud-din
Khilji & School that is the frst example of the concept of combined
tomb and school in India; the Tomb of Imam Zamin which is a
shrine of a Suf saint; Sandersons Sundial which is a device for
measuring time by the position of the sun; and the Mughal Sarai that
is a traditional Sarai or a resthouse, built next to QutbMinar and
Chattri added by Major Smith. Shams- ud- din- Iltutmish extended
Fig 5.5: Iron Pillar
Source: http://pixels-memories.blogspot.
in/2012/10/iron-pillar-new-delhi.html
skills, as this column of 99.7% pure iron has not rusted in the sixteen
hundred years of its existence.
Other structures: The Qutb Complex encompasses a number
of other ancient structures and surrounding Archaeological Park.
Some of these are the Ala- i-Darwaza - the frst building wholly
employing the Islamic principles of accurate construction and
Fig 5.6: Smiths Folly (Background - Qutb Minar,
Alai Darwaza & Zamins Tomb)
Source: http://pixels-memories.blogspot.in/2012/12/
qutb-complex-new-delhi.html
Fig 5.7: Mughal Sarai Remnants
Source: Sumegha Mantri
Fig 5.8: Alai Darwaza
Source: Authors Own
80
the mosque to double its size. The unfnished Alai Minar was a
part of this extension. Iltutmishs tomb is a reminiscent of Hindu
decoration.
5.3 SITE CONTEXT
The accessibility (fg 5.9) to Qutb Complex is dependent upon
primary network of routes and secondary links with other tourist
attractions across the city and nearby residential areas. The linear
artery is lined with prime destinations, series of metro stations and
profusion of bus stops. The users of this wide, high traffc road
seldom pay heed to the activities along it. The route often suffers
from jams, especially during offce hours. The tertiary routes are
mostly walking trails through the forests surrounding the complex
and organic settlement of the village. These loom with safety issues.
Mehrauli boasts of being the frst of the seven capitals of Delhi, thus
littered with monuments and remains of ancient city walls. The site
and its surroundings provide resources (fg 5.10) that would retain
tourists for long durations.
The edges of the complex (fg 5.11) are formed by Mehrauli
village and forest areas. The village is residential with some posh
restaurants and designer boutiques that beneft from low land value
and exotic location. Residents, however, are low income earners.
Fig 5.9: Network of Routes
81
Fig 5.10: Resources in the Setting Fig 5.11: Edges of Qutb Complex
82
their guests as the place does not provide any opportunities for
leisurely activities.
Technique: The site has the provision of an audio guided tour
used mostly by the international visitors. The main explanations
are the descriptions on sandstone plaques provided adjacent to the
monuments. The nationals seem to rely more on their previous
knowledge about the place than taking a guide.
Management: The site is only guarded against anti-social behaviour
of people. No assistance is provided to address visitor queries.
Journey to Destination: The Qutb Complex lies on a very busy
motorised traffc route. The activities in the setting are also of no
interest for any visitor. The area is mostly occupied by an extremely
unsafe archaeological park, also strewn with a few tombs and
related structures, a wholesale fower market lane and inorganic
development pockets of mixed income groups. For reaching
the Qutb Complex, one can either choose to hire a private auto-
rickshaw/cab which would drop- off at the ticket entrance, or take
the metro till the Qutb Station. The Metro Station is 20 minutes
walking distance away. But due to the nature of the road, high traffc
and safety issues one is usually advised to hire another rickshaw or
bus upto the entrance.
Within the village are local businesses thriving on its population.
The forest area is known to be crime-infested.
5.4 Heritage Interpretation Analysis
Ownership: It is maintained by Archaeological Survey of India
Setting: Though Qutb Minar is identifable from a distance, the
complex as a whole is an isolated island, only a tourist attraction
giving few hints of the expanse of the landscape and the stories
it beholds. The surrounding area is charged with high speed
traffc. Narrow by-lanes take one into Mehrauli. The ticket fee to
the site is nominal for an average middle class Indian household.
Unexpectedly, the site does not provide any opportunities for
activities to engage with.
Image: Though the entire complex together creates value for the
site, however the Minar is the only recognized icon. This is both
due to its scale, visibility, the intact structure and popularity of the
name.
Visitor: The site sees a plethora of international visitors who land in
Delhi and move further to the Royal Rajasthan and monuments like
Taj Mahal at Agra. The national visitors include mostly those from
the South or the sub-urban districts. The residents only accompany
83
A
:

S
E
T
T
I
N
G
PLACE IMAGE Branding Image The Minar
Marketing Techniques UNESCO WHS
ACCESSIBILITY
Signage
1. Language
2. Currency
3. Accuracy
4. Character Path Marked
1. English and Hindi
2. Indian Rupees
3. Few available (object itself
seen from a distance)
4. No
Transport Links
1. Public
2. Private Accessibility
3. Parking (for Cars,
Motorbikes and Cycles)
1. Qutb Metro Station 20mins
walk, Auto rickshaws drop at
the entrance, Bus Stop nearby
2. Drop off point
3. Parking at metro station
Safety Road Traffc
PUBLIC
SERVICES
Refreshments
Few in the surrounding, High-
end restaurants
Restrooms Not provided separately
Childcare None
NARRATIVES Focused Stories/Layers Urban traffc
Fig 5.13: Qutb Minar seen from Metro Station
Source: http://indiatoday.intoday.in/gallery/central-sec-
retariatqutub-minar-metro-line-gets-operational/3/3604.
html#photo3
Fig 5.12: Adham Khans Tomb (Qutb Minar in the
Background)
Source: http://www.fickr.com/photos/we-
bethere/3021032621/sizes/l/in/photostream/
84
A

(
c
o
n
t
.
)
Type of Tour Options None created
COLLECTABLES Available Shops Cottage Industry complex
Themes on display Handicrafts
Type of Items Artworks from different states
RETURN
VISITS
Periodic/ Seasonal Events Qutb Festival
Promotion Methods Newspaper and Online Adverts
REVIEWS Casual Feedbacks
Worth a short trip, Though
nothing much to do there
Table 5.1: Setting Analysis, Qutb Complex
85
OBJECT Accessible Elements
Ticket to the entire complex, No en-
trance restrictions excepts some barred
cubicles
Controlled Access Methods Doors and Fences
Controlled Access Elements
Everything accessible except for the
tower
Information Replicated Text of guide book and panels
Themes Used
Red Sandstone plaques used for signage
and information labels
B
:

I
N
T
E
R
P
R
E
T
A
T
I
O
N
VISITOR Demography
School Children, Europeans/Americans,
Indians from different states, Local
couples on dates
Number Varies from seasons
Duration of Visit
1. At Monument
2. With Surroundings
3. In City
1. Approx. 2hours
2. None
3. 2-3 days
TECHNIQUE Media Used Text, Audio guide available
Locations
As labels adjacent to the structures,
Light for focusing the Minar at night
Time of the Day N/A
Fig 5.14: Information Panels
Source: Authors Own
86
Objective Information
Style Descriptive
MANAGEMENT Skills Required
Guarding the site and monitoring the
activities
Staff Required/Supervision No
Maintenance Issues Vandalism
B

(
c
o
n
t
.
)
Table 5.2: Interpretation Analysis, Qutb Complex
Fig 5.15: Reconstructed Image of Qutb Complex
Source: ASI, 2013
87
C
1
:

E
X
P
E
R
I
E
N
C
E
PATH CONTAINER Spatial Confguration
High motor traffc route to a
walk through in the ruins and
grass
Facades Characteristic Features Sandstone
Landscaping
Walkways in hand landscaping
with grass patches on the sides
IDENTITY
Signifcance (Symbolism/
Reputation/Role of Place)
Prayer areas of the mosque,
Islam
AMBIENCE Traffc (Type, Speed, Volume) People, no defnite direction
Human Possibilities
1. Comfort
2. Emotions/Sensations
3. Choices
4. Relaxation
1. Traffc menaces at the
entrance, no defned route, repair
work
2. Marvel, Scale of the arches
3. Routes and time to spend
4. Few benches
STIMULATIONS
Activity
1. Necessary
2. Optional
3. Social
1. Walking and Gazing
2. Reading, Photography
3. Exchange notes, Request for
pictures, Some there only for
socializing
C
1

(
c
o
n
t
.
)
Spatial Distribution of Hot Spots
and Cool Spots
As per the location of the
monuments, Distribution
unintentional
Periodic Events Annual Concerts
SECURITY
Social Norms/Behavioural
Settings
Scanning, Area open only during
daylight, Lack of surveillance
during off peak hours
Treasured Memories
Everyday landmark, Part of
skyline
Measuring Passage of Time Change in daylight
88
Table 5.3: Experience Analysis (Sction C1), Qutb Complex
89
C
2
:

E
X
P
E
R
I
E
N
C
E
PORTAL CONTAINER Form Arched Gateways
Boundaries Main entrance
Material Sandstone
SIGNIFICANCE Role of Place Entrance through Mughal Sarai
AMBIENCE
Experience (of arriving at,
moving through, approaching)
Wayfnding, Discovering other
features of the place
STIMULATIONS Type of Activities Security Checks
Vantage Points
Places when the Minar gets
framed within the arches
SECURITY Sense of Security
Lack of good quality public
services
Table 5.4: Experience Analysis (Section C2), Qutb Complex
90
PLACE Scalar Qualities Defnite complex wall
Movement Patterns
Not strict, As per what captures
the interest
Visual Axis
Minar giving a sense of
orientation
Groundplane & Landscaping
Hard landscape, tar fnish for
the primary route from entrance
towards the Minar
HISTORICAL
SIGNIFICANCE
Role of Place Establishment of Islam
Then and Now
Symbol of Victory to a
Landmark in the Urban
environment
Symbolism Victory
Reputation
Calligraphy in architecture,
Height, Suicidal Spot
PLACE CONTAINER Scalar Qualities Defnite complex wall
Movement Patterns
Not strict, As per what captures
the interest
Visual Axis
Minar giving a sense of
orientation
C
3
:

E
X
P
E
R
I
E
N
C
E
91
Human Possibilities
Comfort
Emotions/Sensations
Choices
Expectations
Relaxation
Opportunity to linger around.
Experience of marvel in
architecture and associated
myths with the place.
Narrative and description do
not build the story about the
place.
Building Age 1199
Light Intensity Daylight
Weather/Temperature
No protection against high
temperature or rain
Ground Plane Stone tiles
PLACE
ACTIVITY
First Level
1. Movement
2. Stationary Activities
3. Dominant Functions
1. Circular around the
individual pieces
2. Reading, Gazing, Relaxing
3. Viewing
Second Level
1. Timings
2. Contextual Conditions
1. Sunrise to Sunset
2. Very few visitors in high
temperatures of summer
PLACE AMBIENCE Activity Pace
C
3

(
C
o
n
t
.
)
92
5.5 SITE STUDY CONCLUSIONS
These conclusions further enable formulating design actions which
function as the brief for the site in response to research question.
5.5.1 Values Derived
Economic Values:
The Qutb Complex occupies an area of more than 100 acres.
The cost of residential fats/houses in the nearby middle/upper-
middle class neighbourhood ranges from Rs 65 lakhs to 70 crores
(6500 to 7 million).
The prohibited and restricted zones around the monument also
bring a loss in the revenues and facilities that could be generated.
Aesthetic Values:
The site and its surroundings behold the relics of different
dynasties and the architectural techniques of various time periods.
The site is an example of Islamic patterns in Hindu craftsmanship.
The structures of different time periods also show the transitions
of culture, people and power from Hinduism to Islam.
The setting is the starting point of the story of Delhi and its
seven capitals.
The height of Qutb Minar is an urban asset, adding variety to
skyline and providing a sense of orientation.
Cultural Values:
Qutb Minar provides a collective memory and helps link people
together.
The site provides a gathering space, a special place for leisure
outings. It can also be a venue to experience un- staged culture
for the tourists.
It also gives an opportunity to bring forward some traditional/
religious practices to the public realm.
PLACE SECURITY
Social Norms/Behavioural
Settings
Visitors own discretion
Treasured Memories
Table 5.5: Experience Analysis (Section C3), Qutb Complex
C
3

(
C
o
n
t
.
)
93
Political Values:
Having a religious base, contradicting opinions can arise over
the re- use of the site as a mosque or a temple.
It is a part of image formation of the country.
Being recognized as a UNESCO WHS, brings it into global
limelight.
Educational Values:
It is a living narrative of Indian history of culture, politics and
scientifc advancements.
It is a reference of the amalgamation of architecture in a historic
environment as seen even today.
5.5.2 SWOT Analysis
Strengths:
It is a source of tangible representation of the cultural practices
of different times in Indian history.
As a heritage asset it provides a common identity and sense of
ownership, especially due its location in the capital city which is
frequented by international tourists.
The relative scale and character makes the Minar a landmark.
Easily accessible from distant places by public and private
transport.
The complexs green areas are the only public spaces in the
neighbourhood.
Weaknesses:
The motor traffc is a hindrance, especially since the ticket
window is located across the road.
The walls have created inactive edges.
Lack of public services.
The urban form of the setting is inorganic and in pockets.
The setting does not contribute to either the value of monument
in particular nor what a WHS can offer to its visitors.
Opportunities:
The connections by both motor ways and public transport along
the east edge can be extended to the Qutb complex.
A themed open space that affords activities for the residents can
be created.
Connections can be made with neighbouring sites.
Potential of creating a heritage area which would increase the
commercial value of the place.
Threats:
Issue of non- standard pricing of privately hired transport
vehicles (auto- rickshaws).
Security, vandalism, thefts and misuse of the remaining pieces
of historic structure.
94
Complete loss of the monuments present in the archaeological
park and forest area due to ignorance of their presence, absence
of surveillance and lack of identifcation of their values.
5.5.3 Conclusions from heritage interpretation analysis
Qutb Complex is a site rich in layers of history portrayed
through the architectural practices of their times. This quality
is not communicated from the exterior and is only perceived
as a tall tower built as a mark of victory. The communication
techniques employed on site do not provide a complete picture.
The experience is of a walkthrough in an expanse of mysterious
ruins, failing to add value to each.
There are no opportunities for localities to engage with the site
other than on a touristic expedition.
For visitors as well, very few and low quality amenities have
been provided.
Though the terrace of the Minar had been a favourite spot to get
an overview of the city, the incidents of suicides and a stampede
that killed 45 school- children has led to the closing of terrace
access by government orders.
5.6 DESIGN ACTIONS:
95
CRITERIA DESIGN ACTION (DA)
AS PER THE VALUES:
Economic Values
DA1: Increase in the land cost of the surrounding development to match the loss incurred by the
inability of using the monuments land.
DA2: Provision of luxury homes, apartments and hotels.
DA3: Provision of budget to luxury facilities to retain tourists in the area.
Aesthetic Values
DA4: Enhancing the height of the minar by controlling the height of the surrounding developments.
DA5: The adjacent buildings should be high enough so that they can provide a view of the structures
other than the minar too.
DA6: Branding and marketing the area as the origin of Delhi.
DA7: Highlighting the characteristic features in designing the site interpretation.
DA8: Promoting these values through references (where used), souvenirs and lifestyle products.
Cultural Values
DA9: Allocating an area and creating a formal venue for celebrations which can be rented.
DA10: Identifying key vistas for visitors with photography points.
DA11: Image promotion
Political Values
DA12: Extending the UNESCO status from Qutb Complex being a site to heritage area by incorporating
the other features.
Educational Values
DA13: Making the site available for study. Providing student concessions. Promoting published studies
of the place to create awareness.
DA14: Specialized tours and data base that speaks of specifc attributes in depth.
96
AS PER SWOT
ANALYSIS:
Strengths
DA15: Communication of its values.
DA16: Cross connections need to improve circulation and accessibility need to be established with
environment friendly mode of commuting.
DA17: Provision of public open spaces as leisure retreats.
Weaknesses
DA18: Making visitor services a part of the whole complex by regulating the fow of traffc.
DA19: Enhancement of public amenities extending from the complex to being a part of the infrastructure
of the setting.
DA20: Ensuring active frontages along the edges with permeable and legible network of routes.
DA21: Extending the market potential of the Mehrauli village by incorporating more landuses which
address a range from budget to luxury class.
Opportunities
DA22: Extend the transportation services from public networks to the Qutb complex with junctions on
other monuments too.
DA23: Creating well connected public spaces in the surrounding areas with ensured safety and comfort.
Threats
DA24: Regulations on transportations.
DA25: Management of heritage resources through surveillance, documentation and presentation
97
CONCLUSION
The presented analysis gives the potential of the Qutb Complex to
be developed for both tourists and locals. An analysis of its values
when accessed for urban design qualities provide the actions to be
taken which would build the equation between leisure and historic
sites. These actions function as the brief for testing the guidelines
presented in chapter 5.
AS PER HERITAGE
INTERPRETATION
ANALYSIS:
Visitor Experience
DA26: Providing a guided navigation system. Presenting imagery of the place on site in its intended use
and complete form. Supporting it with a dialogue.
DA27: Activities that would engage localities as well.
DA28: Re- opening of access to the frst- second foor of the Minar.
DA29: Providing temporary and permanent amenities inside the complex.
DA30: Making ticketed and non- ticketed zones in the complex.
Table 5.6: Design Actions of Qutb Complex
98
CHAPTER 6
Chapter Introduction
This chapter aims to respond to the research question and test the
design principles presented in Section 4.8. The frst part of the
chapter presents the design proposal in the form of guidelines for
the reference site Qutb Complex. The second part presents universal
guidelines by identifying the parameters which are intrinsic to the
reference site but would change or retain in different scenarios.
PROPOSED GUIDELINES
99
6.1 DESIGN PROPOSAL FOR QUTB
COMPLEX
Through the process of site analysis presented in
Chapter 5, the three key issues identifed are access
to the complex, activities on the site edges addressing
leisure in historic places and interpretation at the
Monument. The design actions identifed in section
5.4 functions as brief for the site. Confronting these
issues, following section presents a proposal for Qutb
Complex.
Within the identifed area to present the concepts, as
a design approach, existing Aurbindo Marg, Mehrauli
Bus Terminal, Bhool-bhuliya and Metcalfes Dilkush
have been retained as it is. To conceptually present the
proposal, only the activities in immediate edges have
been presented. Fig 6.1 gives the masterplan for the
site in its setting. The features have been annotated in
the respective sections below.
Fig 6.1: Qutb Complex Area Maspterplan
Qutb Monuments
Qutb Plaza
Qutb Park
100
6.1.1 Approach to Site
The accessibility to Mehrauli village and Qutb Complex takes
into account navigability, safety and comfort. These are met by
transport services; connected, permeable and legible routes;
well- lit and active edges for crime prevention and inclusive
streets for comfort for all. As indicated in fg 6.2, four street
types are provided:
a. Primary: Connecting with the city network, with the bus
route provided. In a larger scheme, this has bus stops at places
of primary public interest and needs within Mehrauli village.
b. Secondary: Trail Route, connecting the historical places
of interest. Trail van can be booked for tour within the village
from the Qutb Plaza at the entrance.
c. Tertiary: Residential streets, these ensure safety through
active edges in the area. These are pedestrian priority, car free
routes. This also gives opportunities for tourists to explore
the native lifestyle.
d. Vegetation Surveillance: Well- lit paths at a visible
distance of 20m cutting across the vegetation to add
surveillance, accessed by cyclists and pedestrians.
Fig 6.2a: Primary Roads Fig 6.2b: Secondary Roads
Fig 6.2c: Tertiary Streets Fig 6.2d: Vegetation Surveillance Routes
101
6.1.2 Qutb Complex Interpretation
The aim is to communicate the signifcance of its elements by making
the site available for leisure or education, providing comprehensive
information and increasing its popularity.
6.1.2A Land Use: In this regard, two key proposals have been made.
i. To use the area available to ASI holistically, the ticketing area
with public services and the park has been integrated with the site
(fg 6.3). This is by shifting the high traffc Kalu Ram Road parallel
to it. This enhances the experience of being at one place. It also
eliminates traffc risks.
Fig 6.3: Integrating the site
ii. In order to increase the access to the site and also providing the
locals the opportunity to enjoy it beyond a touristic expedition. The
area is divided into three zones as illustrated in fg 6.4 and explained
below. The boundary is marked by high density framed glass fence
that restricts access without obstructing the view.
Fig 6.4: Landuse zones at Qutb Complex
Zone 1 - Qutb Monuments: The site has been given a pay boundary
and a free access area. The latter is structured into a public plaza and
green open space to bring people to the site without having to pay
for it. The pay boundary has restricted access. This is to enhance
security, provide site supervision, prevent vandalism and check the
misuse of the space for illicit purposes. The pay boundary contains
only the structures of primary importance and structural sensitivity.
102
The others remain accessible to everyone.
Zone 2 - Qutb Plaza: This is a public square enhancing the sense
of arrival. It hosts the bus stop, parking area and drop off point for
other vehicles. The services provided include ticketing, souvenir
shops, cafes and restaurants, temporary F&B kiosk permits, public
amenities such as toilets, ATM and visitor information centre. Taxi,
auto, guided tour trail van and cycles can be rented. The whole- sale
fower market street has been proposed by the government to be
removed from there. The services incorporate popular international
brands along with local ones to ensure to the tourists of trustworthy
services. As it serves the residents too, the northern edge of the plaza
hosts it at a small scale. The Millennium Place, Coventry is used as
reference as shown below.
Fig 6.5: Public Event at Millennium Place, Coventry
Source: http://london2012.cswp.org.uk/image-gallery?title=london-2012-
open-weekend%2C-millennium-place%2C-coventry
Zone 3- Qutb Park: This is green open space outside the pay
boundary providing the privilege of being in the vicinity of
historic grandeur. It can be rented for public festivals and private
events generating regular fow of residents. Gazebos and shade in
a well-lit surrounding are included. This would increase sense of
ownership with creation of personal memories. It will be used by
neighbourhoods beyond the Mehrauli village too. The use of Tower
of London moat can be seen as a reference (Fig 6.6).
Fig 6.6: Event at Tower of London Moat
Source: http://www.pavilion-towerofondon.co.uk/news.php
6.1.2B Navigation System
A navigation route has been identifed, demarcated with textures
from its surroundings. This acts as the key guide within the complex.
Since the site is not an independent monument, but an integration
of various structures from different time periods it speaks of the
different dynasties and the architectural traditions of their times. As
a concept, this sequencing is in chronological order with the most
103
recent frst to the oldest. This provides a gradual transition from
the current urban environment to the oldest. Also, since the most
recent structures are also the most intact, this sequencing makes
understanding the transition easier. The sequence is illustrated in
fg 6.7.
Fig 6.7: Navigation System
6.1.2C Information Communication Techniques
Tours need to be conducted for a comprehensive communication of
the value of the site. The following self- guided and guided tours are
proposed with different levels of complexity and fexibility of time,
depth and language:
i. Web-based, freely downloadable applications for smartphones
that identify ones location, guide through the site and provide
information.
ii. Walk through tool kits that provide the direction for movement by
registering ones location. They take tourists to the key elements as
labelled in a sequential manner on site through a defnite path. The
device provides language options of Hindi (the native language),
English and a set of international languages.
iii. Panels, leafets and guidebooks provide information in different
degrees of depth ordered in the same sequence.
iv. Specialized guided tours running approximately every 40minutes.
Time rescheduled depending upon the number of visitors in a
season. More frequently running tours to be available at a lower
cost and local language.
v. Since many of the structures are in a state of ruin, pictures in
104
their state of totality are provided using reconstructed perspectives
at specifc points giving the image of the place in full structure and
use.
6.1.2D Public Facilities
For public comfort, refreshments have been hosted at diagonally
opposite corners within the pay boundary. Gazebos, benches, ramps
and drinking fountains help beat the heat.
6.1.2E Marketing
The image of Qutb Minar is already marketed as a symbol of
Indian heritage. Facilitating rental of the site for public events with
permission grant from ASI will promote other structures as well.
To further promote the site, products inspired from the site elements
should be sold targeting both the locals, tourists and different age
groups. These could include Toys, games and illustrated story books
for Children and teenagers; Lifestyle products using the forms and
motifs in print, weave and embroidery in Coffee mugs, coasters,
linen, carpets etc; show-pieces in stone that publicize the craft
technique involved; and Mementoes like self-portraits from photo
points that can also be instantly shared through the internet.
6.1.3 Qutb Setting
The activities of the setting integrate the site with the surrounding.
The proposed design aims to address two key issues. Firstly to
harness the tourism potential that the area offers, and secondly to
promote safety that is of prime concern in this high vegetation area
with development in pockets with non- legible and crime prone
routes. These would in turn help emphasise the social, economic and
environmental values of Qutb Complex. This has been addressed as
following.
6.1.3A Historic Trail
The area bound by the
motorways on four sides is
host to the relics of many
dynasties ruling Delhi.
As monuments continue
to be discovered by ASI,
they can be connected
by a trail route and bus
services on the nearest
primary road indicated in
fg 6.8. The trail starts at
Qutb Plaza and accessed
by hop-on hop-off trail
Fig 6.8: Trail Route connecting sites
105
van (fg 6.9) with all day pass.
The van helps beat the Delhi
heat and also tour the area
beyond a walkable distance. The
hop-on hop-off service provides
fexibility of time a visitor likes
to spend. Since there is a variety
in sites, options in trail packages
will be provided. This would
capture tourist interest for longer
duration, enticing them to stay in
the area for an extended period.
Fig 6.9: Historic Trail Van
Source: Malika Soin
6.1.3B Landuse
The site boundaries focus on tourism activities. These are pedestrian
priority routes with no motor traffc. The activities extend onto the
streets. Fig 6.10 illustrates the street function.
Fig 6.10: Historic Trail Road Section
106
Using the same principle,
in plan the uses transcend
from tourist activities
along site edges, followed
by mixed tourist and
residential which merges
beyond into residential
units as shown in fg 6.11.
It is proposed to work the
same along the vertical
axis too, from commercial
on ground foors to tourist-
residential to local resident
units. The given proposal uses 5mX15m plot dimensions to present
the concept as this size makes them fexible to accommodate various
uses.
6.1.3C Visibility in Landscape
The height of Qutb Minar is its key assest which needs to be protected
through management policies. Along the edges, 2foors are provided
to increase surveillance beyond closing hours of commercial units.
Views from balconies and terraces help connect with other elements
on site too. Setting is the entire area from which the minar is visible.
A gradual progression curve is given from 6m at the edges to 68m
Fig 6.11: Landuse distribution Concept
Fig 6.12: Height Regulations
Source (Qutb Minar): http://www.shutterstock.com/pic-60132508/stock-vector-vector-illustration-
of-qutab-minar-in-delhi.html
(maximum) at furthest point. Fig 6.12 illustrates this.
Extent of Setting
Maximum
permitted
Height
6.1.3D Surveillance in the Area
As a safety measure, parts of the area
including vegetation land are proposed
to be developed thereby increasing
surveillance. Besides providing well
lit streets, active edges with eyes on
the streets and public movement will
improve sense of security. Land has
been developed at 20m+20m distances
of vegetation. Through them run
pedestrian and cycle routes too. Fig
6.13 and 6.14 explain this concept.
Fig 6.13: Adding Surveillance- Active frontage overlooking the vegetation (Plan)
107
Fig 6.14: Adding surveillance (Section)
6.2 UNIVERSAL GUIDELINES
This section responds to the research question by providing
guidelines that can be used for any monument. These are derived
from the design principles in section 4.8 and the proposal for Qutb
Complex in section 6.1 above. The guidelines respond to the entire
process from site analysis to delivering design and management
guidelines. Based on the conclusions thereby obtained, design and
management would respond to the scales of monument, public
realm, setting and city.
6.2.1 Analysis of Site and Setting
Action (A): Assessment of the place value on the following
parameter:
- Economic Values
- Aesthetic Values
- Cultural Values
- Political Values
- Educational Values
Output (O): i) For identifcation of features which are inherently
local.
ii)Helps to identify the inter-dependence between the values.
A: Safety and Vulnerability assessment of the site due to natural
and human forces.
O: For identifying appropriate conservation and protection
measures for the structure.
108
A: SWOT analysis of the immediate setting.
O: For identifcation of the potential in the urban environment to
deliver desired results.
A: Heritage Interpretation analysis at the monument
O: Will report the current status of the monument.
6.2.2 Guidelines at Scale of Monument
Desired Output: Visibility in Urban Landscape
Action: Mark the farthest locations from which the monument is
visible to naked eyes. This gives the setting under consideration.
This boundary would vary with the heights of different monuments.
Access the perceived scale of the monument against the existing
surrounding developments. Create a graph from the results obtained
showing permit for height progression as one move away from the
site. This graph would function as a height regulation policy for new
developments. Within existing developments, identify protect vistas
which frame the monument as one moves in the setting. Enforce
development regulation policy that would protect these views.
Desired Output: Global Visibility
Action: Media marketing for large scale publicity. At site
administration level, permission grants to host any cultural event
for public. This would market the site with event promotion and
give word of mouth publicity through the audience.
Desired Output: Part of everyday life
Action: Besides souvenirs which attract tourists and obvious in
appeal, launching lifestyle products inspired from the qualities of
the monument.
Desired Output: Generating a regular fow of visitors
Action: Authorities to organize periodic events at the monument
which would be beftting to site and exotic in appeal to the residents
of the town. The appropriation of use is dependent on local interest.
Desired Output: Accessibility to reach to the site
Action: Connecting the place with the public transport system
and provisions for securing private vehicles. Ease of accessibility
affects the journey to destination, forming a part of the experience
and infuencing sense of arrival.
Desired Output: Access to Information
Action: Besides public contribution, monument administration
required to ensure that information is available off site too targeting
different age groups and in different foreign languages.
6.2.3 Guidelines at Scale of Public Realm
109
Desired Output: To provide a sense of arrival
Action: Creating the path to the monument and the entrance
by reviewing the framed vistas. Use of the public realm as an
introductory space to the monument and containing amenities of
refreshments, information centre, shops and or emporiums, foreign
exchange and transport services for tourists.
Desired Output: Providing reasons to be at the monument without
having to participate in touristic activities.
Action: Removing the boundaries and defne two zones for free
and restricted access. The former would merge with the setting.
The free zone would contain structures of secondary importance (if
any). Depending upon the size, this area is to be available to rent
for private events. The public infrastructure provided in this area
should not be over-ruled by tourist interests. Facilities would run
beyond closing hours of the monument at a smaller scale for the
locals.
6.2.4 Guidelines at Scale of the Setting
Desired Output: Ensuring that the space is not a staged production
of local culture
Action: The landuse in the area to strike a balance between facilities
for tourists and points of interest for the residents. Moving in an
environment that caters to the current residents of town will provide
a correct picture of the culture in time.
Desired Output: Holding tourist interest for long durations
Action: Identifying several places of interest in the area. Linking
places conceptually and by network of special routes. Providing
transport services from the monument to these places if they are
beyond a walking distance. These points of interest need not be of
historic resources only but any leisure recluse. Providing budget to
luxury hotels and restaurants in the area so that visitors can have an
comfortable extended stay.
6.2.5 Guidelines at Scale of the City
Desired Output: Making the monument a place of importance in the
city
Action: Using the monument as a landmark by the transport system.
Depending upon the merit of the structure obtained from analysis,
making the monument a part of the package tours for tourists.
CONCLUSION
This chapter presented a set of guidelines which would upgrade the
status of Qutb Complex by making its values visible, accessible and
enjoyable by the people. This has been done by implementing a
scheme that harnesses tourism potential and creates opportunities
110
that would attract the residents too. It follows the strategy of
increasing the percentage landuse for local community needs as one
moves away from the monument. A non-payable zone at site seeks to
attract visitors for leisure and public/private events. Within the site
boundary, the narrative is sequenced in a chronological order from
the most recent structure to the oldest. The public realm provides
tourism infrastructure which gradually merges with residential
units. Places of interest are linked with a trail route. Opportunities
to visit by the locals would create personal memories and sense of
ownership. Safety and comfort is provided by active edges, tree
shades along all roads, pedestrian priority routes and surveillance
through the vegetation areas.
With respect to universal guidelines, it is noted that the analysis
process and principles remain the same. The experience of the visit
will be uniquely different as the values obtained from analysis make
it local. The difference can be identifed in historic narrative, prime
language of communication, the character of cultural activities that
the site affords and unwritten rules of public behaviour.
111
CHAPTER 7
Chapter Introduction
This chapter puts forward the essence of this research. It provides an
overview as how the objectives set in section 1.7.2 have been met. It
also gives the scope of work for future in order to take this research
forward. It also assesses the methodology used and its limitations.
CONCLUSIONS
112
7.1 RESPONSE TO RESEARCH QUESTION
With respect to goals set for objective 1, the parameters for heritage
interpretation have been established in chapter 1. Heritage is
values of the past to things of the past. They are tangible objects
and intangible cultural practices. In relation to historic sites,
its preservation provides rootedness and consistency. Heritage
interpretation is the process of the management of the resource,
communication of its values and marketing of the object.
From this framework of heritage to focusing on monuments, the
concept of their signifcance in urban form has been established
in chapter 2. Monuments are works of outstanding universal value
from the perspective of history, art or science. They portray an
image of power and prosperity. Monuments make conscious use of
architectural allusion and style. Their age, location, monumentality
and modifcations provide a social context, historic legibility
and/or obsolesce. Their values have been identifed as social and
environmental. The former is through the ideas of identity and sense
of belonging as they function as anchor points to communities and
nationalities. This is further enhanced as they provide opportunities
for public engagement and participation. The environmental value
is through their architectural qualities, adding variety and increasing
legibility in the landscape. The benefts obtained can be accessed
on their economic, aesthetic, cultural, political and educational
parameters. These are revealed through the design of the public
realm and the relation of the monument with its settings.
The second objective of developing the conceptual framework
for a different socio- economic context has been set in chapter 3.
This has been done by using the case of India. It is a developing
economy with tourism being its third largest foreign exchange
earner. Its present refects a past through the relics of the wide
range of culturally different political powers. While their value is
understood by the historians, conservationists and architects, their
interpretation faces economic challenges. Those publicised are the
ones bringing tourism gains. This further affects the urban planning,
leading to fragmented development and an incoherent public realm.
The third objective of data collection for building linkages between
heritage and urban development through case studies has been
completed in chapter 4. Using the literature from chapters 1, 2 and
3, an analytical framework was developed. This studied historic
sites embedded in contemporary urban settings. It used three
parameters for analysis. Firstly, studying heritage interpretation
which questioned the access to the site and its elements, information
communication themes and techniques, the nature of visitors at a
given place and issues regarding site supervision and maintenance.
Secondly, studying the visitors experience. This questioned the
spatial confguration and characteristics, the signifcance and
reputation of the elements, the ambience and stimulations and the
113
sense of security of being in that environment. These analysed the
nature of the journey through the setting to the object. Thirdly,
the urban quality of the setting was studied. This questioned the
convenience of accessibility, inclusivity in design, place branding
and marketing and how the surrounding is used to build the narrative
at large. The framework was developed by an inductive process
of visiting fve sites: Maritime Greenwich, Coventry Phoenix
Initiative, Rochester Castle, Worcester Cathedral and Oxford
Castle. The selection ranged in heritage monument typology and
economic settings. The fnal framework was used to conduct the
study on Tower of London, the most popular historic attraction in
London, thereby, the most popular in England. This chapter also
presents a comparative analysis of the data collected based on the
parameters of heritage interpretation established in chapter 1. These
were done based on visitor management techniques, propaganda for
place image and the value- addition for tourism.
The fourth objective of developing urban design principles has been
presented in chapter 4. These are the identifed links emerging from
the conclusions from the conceptual frameworks and the conducted
case studies. From discussion, accessibility and visibility emerge as
the key connection between historic sites and contemporary urban
development, with people and activities being the links. The design
of their urban quality on harnessing their potential values upgrades
them in the urban form. As presented in the principles in section
x, this approach need to function of four scales: the monument, its
public realm, the setting and the city. The strategy is to identify the
benefts of these scales and convert them into landuses which would
enhance the value of the monument and also provide opportunities
for people to engage in that space.
The ffth objective of formulating urban design guidelines by
testing the principles in a different socio- economic context have
been presented in chapters 5 and 6. The chosen test site was Qutb
Complex. It is a WHS located in the heart of Indian capital city of
New Delhi with Mehrauli village as its edges. Through site analysis,
a set of design actions were identifed which functioned as the brief
for testing. The analysis includes a site study of its elements and
the context, nature of heritage interpretation using the analytical
framework and SWOT analysis of the overall urban quality. The
proposed guidelines have identifed historic resources as points of
attraction for not only visitors to a town but also the residents. The
urban design of the site and surrounding seeks to integrate them for
both spatially constructing a historic narrative and providing leisure
and recreation avenues while bringing in economic benefts to the
area.
For integrating the places of interest a network of safe, connected,
permeable and legible routes with active edges and inclusive designs
have been created. It has been ensured that the complex is on the
public transport network. Fixed priced auto and taxi services also
ensure crime prevention of cheating the tourists. Hop-on hop- off
114
Trail wagons for guided tours linking the monuments within the
Mehrauli village provide an overview of the context. As the height
of Qutb Minar is one of its values, regulations have been proposed
for the heights of surrounding developments. This development
is tourism focused along the edges and fades into residential
developments. Within the complex, a spatial narrative has been
constructed linking the different elements in a chronological
order with the most recent frst. This has been done as the closest
in time closely relates to the setting, is most intact and provides a
gradual transition. Public amenities have been ensured for visitors
comfortable. A pay boundary has been created which includes
excludes monuments of secondary importance, making the site
accessible to larger audience. The public events conducted here
generate a fow of local people as visitors, enhancing the social
value of the place.
Over the course of this research, incongruence has been identifed
between urban designers, planners, policy makers, historians and
conservationists with the offcials approving the development
proposals. This mismatch in the interests of various stakeholders
is more pronounced in developing areas as compared to developed
ones. The approved designs needs to be such that it seeks to highlight
the tangible values of a monument while questioning the interest of
various interest holders. The former is achieved by ensuring that the
design emerges from a study of the site and setting from both the
perspectives of heritage interpretation and environmental qualities.
For the latter, the approving body should be a multidisciplinary panel
of experts from various departments of design, planning, education,
and culture. This can be chaired by an experienced urban designer.
This would help achieve coherence in landscape while upgrading
the status of monuments.
7.2 FURTHER SCOPE OF WORK
The presented research concludes with the design proposal for Qutb
Complex, providing a set of guidelines in response to the research
question, through the process of inquiry by design. An assessment
of their economic, social and environmental feasibility and level
of acceptance would be the next step. The submitted research has
built connections between heritage interpretation and urban design.
Taking the presented research forward would be viewing in-depth
the political, sociological, economic and ecological perspectives
towards historic sites and their implications on the urban design
of the settings. Their results obtained would inform the design
principles and guide their on- site testing. Currently, the sites
studies are based on two cultural contexts. Ideally, multiple tests
would be done using a wide palette of monument typology and
the cultural and economic character of their settings. Through an
inductive process, the amendments and refnements thus obtained in
the principles would warrant their universal applicability.
115
7.3 RESEARCH LIMITATIONS
The research question provided an opportunity of addressing a wide
spectrum of heritage typology and their relations with the urban
form. However, due to the limitations of time and comprehensive
nature of urban design curriculum, monuments as historic assets
were used as the focal point. With this, monuments have a wide
typology which infuences the nature of people visiting, their points
of interest and their interactions with the space. This affects both the
heritage interpretation of site and the visitors experience. With the
idea of presenting globally applicable guidelines, the study would
have ideally included policies and case studies of multiple economic,
social and architectural characters. Similarly, comparative studies
could have been conducted to identify how different states within
the same brackets address the issue. This work was again limited
due to time constraints. Though the principles were tested by on- site
application in a design proposal, an appraisal would have benefted
in their refnement.
116
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128
APPENDICES
129
APPENDIX A: FACTORS AFFECTING HISTORIC
PROPERTIES
In a globalising capitalist economy, the predominant material
production of space involves the organization of built environments
that facilitate the fow of proft, goods, money, labour, communication
and information; the construction of powerful administrative centres;
and the division of space into distinct functional zones (Edensor,
1998: 10). UNESCO has summarized the factors affecting heritage
properties in The Second Cycle of Periodic Reporting 2010- 2012
for Asia- Pacifc. Following section explains some of these relevant
in Indian context:
A.1 Local conditions affecting physical fabric
The monuments which remain undiscovered by ASI submit to
erosion. They succumb to vegetation, illegal occupation and
unlawful constructions. With time, they lose their authenticity and
thus their virtue. Local factors such as wind, water, relative humidity,
temperature, radiation, and micro- organisms gradually affect the
property from time of its creation. But impact is magnifed due to
smallest changes. Sites in Mehrauli village, New Delhi presented in
chapter 6 illustrate this.
A.2 Natural Disasters
Factors such as earthquakes, tsunamis, tornadoes or hurricanes,
lightening and volcanic eruptions, etcetera have disturbing effects
on cultural heritage. Qutb Minar, the tallest brick minaret suffered
damages twice due to lightening. Kedarnath Temple with its setting
in Uttrakhand suffered devastation with damage to property and
loss of lives due to cloud burst in June 2013.
A.3 Climate Change
Factors such as drought, desertifcation, changes to temperature
and oceanic waters have a direct impact on monuments kept under
stable conditions. Changes to water content of ground and air leads
to erosion.An increase in biological infestation and invasion of pests
deteriorates organic material like timber in structure, ornamentation
and fnish.
A.4 Infrastructure development
Historic sites bring in investment to the area. But a lack of
understanding of priorities, implementing high- rise housing,
commercial skyscrapers, encroachments, transport infrastructure
and polluting industries gives a negative impact to the structures.
A.5 Service Infrastructures
To make historic zones habitable, services such as water, energy and
utilities need to be supplied. The implementation and upgradation
of services should ensure minimum impact on ancient fabric.
A.6 Pollution
130
Land, water and air pollution affect natural and built heritage sites.
Taj Mahal, the white marble has been detected turning yellow.
Vehicles have been banned in its 500m radius. The falling water
table of river Yamuna fowing along it is said to be impacting its
foundation too.
A.7 Unfavourable human activities
Terrorism, vandalism, graffti, theft, illegal occupations and
constructions affect the structure directly. Monuments get targeted
to send messages to opposing communities, for instance, the
demolision of Babari Masgid in 1992 in Ayodhya- Hindu sacred
site.
A.8 Tourism
Nicholas Bautes (2007) studied the case of Udaipur, a city marked
for its Mewar royalty and the townscape oriented for a touristic
expedition. The City Palace attracts and retains tourists, given its
sheer size and range of services it offers (a post offce, a bank, travel
agency, numerous craft shops, even a World Wide Fund for Nature
India boutique) (Bautes, 2007: 95). Contrastingly Agra boasts of
two WHS, Taj Mahal and Agra Fort, and the third Fatehpur Sikri
40km away but fails to reap signifcant social or economic benefts.
Chakravarty and Irazabal (2011) have shown their problem as lack
of integration with other sites such as Jama Masjid, Ram Bagh, and
Akbars Tomb that have been overshadowed rendering Agra as a
city to be covered on a single day trip.
A.9 Interaction with society
The society maintains the value of the monuments. But the
traditional practices can impact the structure. With changes in
lifestyle preferences, the bonds with history diminish leading to
dereliction of sites too.
A.10 Management activities
Cities get a biased development plan and fragmentation due to
specialized activity paths and exclusion of other areas. As this
process continues, thinking about development in the city is
likely to be confronted by two conficting objectives: whether to
encourage further economic development to satisfy tourisms future
needs, thus requiring the preservation of the historic urban layout
and the structures within this, or whetherto concentrate on urban
redevelopment and to create innovative business activities and uses
of urban spaces (Bautes, 2007: 101).
131
APPENDIX B: FIELD EVIDENCE, ROCHESTER
CASTLE
Ownership: The castle is owned by English Heritage and managed
by Rochester City Council.
Signifcance: The Rochester Castle of 1087 is considered to be
one of the best preserved examples of Norman architecture. The
surviving structure, its Keeps is 113feet high.
Fig B.1: Rochester Castle Map
Source: Ashbee, 2012
Fig B.2: Rochester Heritage Trail Map
Source: Moss, 2005
Setting: Rochester is a commuters town with links to London
and Faversham. The castle ruins stand on the river bank. It is at a
walkable distance of 12minutes from the rail station through the
historic High Street.
Object: The Keep of the Rochester Castle is a fve foor structure
with a terrace and a well. One enters above ground level with three
132
foors of visitor tour to follow in a spiral manner around the building.
Visitors: The demography on site varied from locals to tourists.
The residents spent long hours in the public realm of the monument.
They engaged in activities such as playing games, chatting, reading,
strolling or relaxing with family and friends on the grass. The tourists
focused their visit on seeing the interiors, purchasing souvenirs
and spending minimum time with the landscape but ensuring that
they have seen everything worth a mention. Even if the number of
visitors at a time is low, there is obstruction in climbing the narrow
stairs, reading the 60cm wide panels and making photographs.
Technique: The audio guide and text of the panels is same. While
one can engage in reading and co-ordinating with the accompanying
illustrations it was diffcult to position oneself in the context of the
ruins. Except for one panel in bailey, there was no information about
the remaining green open space, key vistas or the associations of the
castle with the city.
Management: The visitor desk does not provide any information
regarding the level of diffculty one would face in climbing around
the Keep. The parts of the castle unsuitable for elderly or infrm
should be stated so.
Fig B.3: Cafe adjacent to the Castle
Source: Authors Own
Fig B.4: Information Panel
Source: Authors Own
Fig B.5: Reconstructed image of the Keep
Source: Ashbee, 2012
133
OBJECT Accessible Elements
Exterior: Bailey, North- west bastion,
Henery lls Chamber block, Keep
entrance, Rochester Cathedral, College
Green, Castle ditch
Interior: none
Controlled Access Elements
Interior: Fore building, Keep, South- east
turret
Controlled Access Methods Ticket
Information Replicated Audio guide and panel text was the same
Themes Used
Illustrations showing a reconstruction of
the activities inside the keep.
VISITOR
Demography
Mostly European tourists, few local peo-
ple in the bailey,
group of teenagers playing and reading
Number -
Interests/Expectations -
Duration of Visit
40min audio tour (+15 mins on the
tower)
A
:

I
N
T
E
R
P
R
E
T
A
T
I
O
N
Information can only
be obtained from the
tourism department.
Can be obtained
through interviews of
the visitors.
TECHNIQUE
Media Used
Audio guide (inclusive in ticket), infor-
mation panels corresponding to the guide
134
Table B.1: Framework Section A, Interpretation, Rochester Castle
Locations
Overlooking the well on three levels,
Exhibit on level two of the complete
castle model, Guide books available
online and in- store
Time of the Day 10:00 to 18:00 (at Keep)
Allocation of Themes to Venues -
Objective
Create a mental picture of its history and
use
Style
Reconstruction drawings with description
of use of each foor through key events,
supplemented with dialogues and
background score
A

(
c
o
n
t
.
)
Will be required
when recreating a
scene. Tis was only
delivering a story
MANAGEMENT
Skills Required Peoples skill at the reception desk
Staff Required/Supervision None, Danger signs
Maintenance Issues Faded panels
135
B
1
:

E
X
P
E
R
I
E
N
C
E
PATH CONTAINER Spatial Confguration
Pedestrianized street with relics of
Dickens, museums, local shops,
cafes
Facades Characteristic
Features
No. of graded buildings
Landscaping
Change in ground texture to defne
property ownership
IDENTITY
Signifcance (Symbolism/
Reputation/Role of Place)
References in stories by Charles
Dickens
AMBIENCE
Traffc (Type, Speed,
Volume)
Pedestrian on High Street, Local
shop owners and tourists, High
speed cars in the neighbourhood,
Heavy vehicular movement on A2
connecting London
Human Possibilities
Comfort
Emotions/Sensations
Choices
Expectations
Relaxation
Few Benches along the road and
some courtyards, Unexpected car
movement; Variety in architecture,
experience of local and integrated
life; Pubs, cafes and food shops
concentrated on the high street only
with out door seating
136
Table B.2: Framework Section B1, Experience, Rochester Castle
All blend in as a part
of the road, based on
the growth of the city
Will be subjective
B
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STIMULATIONS
Activity
1. Necessary
2. Optional
3. Social
1. Walking
2. Shopping, Relaxing, Eating
3. Asking for directions, Discus-
sions amongst group of travellers
Spatial Distribution of Hot
Spots and Cool Spots
Focus across the High Street (Fig
B.1)
Periodic Events Church Bell
SECURITY
Social Norms/Behavioural
Settings
Freedom of movement in the pe-
destrianzed route, Use of benches
based on property ownership or
public
Treasured Memories Reference to Dickens works
Measuring Passage of
Time
Experienced through the change in
activities on the street
137
Table B.3: Framework Section B2, Experience, Rochester Castle
B
2
:

E
X
P
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N
C
E
PORTAL CONTAINER Form Victorian doorway in Norman style
Boundaries Castle Wall
Character of Facade Kentish Ragstone
SIGNIFICANCE Role of Place
Knocked through the remains of
Richard lls north- west bastion in
1872. To provide access to the then
new public garden
AMBIENCE
Experience (of arriving
at, moving through,
approaching)
Sense of arrival with vision focused
on the castle
STIMULATIONS Type of Activities
Climbing the stairs, Seeing the
carvings, Clicking pictures
Vantage Points
Aligned view towards castle and
Medway Bridge on either side
SECURITY
Social Norms/Behavioural
Settings
Fear of car trafc on the road as
vehicles were parked along the
castle wall
Role or purpose. No
symbolic meaning
Material
Not in terms of social
norms
138
PLACE CONTAINER
Freestanding
Elements
-
Scalar Qualities
Change in the volume experienced as
one walked through the Keep
Movement Patterns -
Visual Axis
View to the River, Cathedral, Overview
of the character of the neighbourhood
Landscaping Grass with walking paths
HISTORICAL
SIGNIFICANCE
Role of Place
Confict between William ll and Bishop
Odo of Bayeux in 1088
Ten and Now
Wooden castle afer confict rebuilt in
stone
Symbolism
Example of Norman architecture, Tallest
building of its time in Europe, Symbolic
of authority of church and nobility,
Collaboration between crown and
church
Reputation
Well preserved, Educational for those
interested in hitory, Not disability
friendly, Place to laze around
Repetition from
framework A
Repetition from
framework A
Function of
monument remains
the same
B
3
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B
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PLACE ACTIVITY
First Level
1. Aliveness
2. Movement
3. Stationary
Activities
4. Dominant
Functions
1. Quiet gardens with focused tourists
inside the Keep
2. Path traced by the stairs and
information panels; Halts at panels,
windows for views outside, exhibit,
mysterious features (half arch, holes in
walls)
3. Reading, watching, photography
4. Wandering and photography
Second Level
1. Spatial
Distribution of
Activities
2. Timings
3. Contextual
Conditions
1. -
2. 16:30 for last admission
3. Activities based on the park, riverfront,
bridge and A40 (elaborated in the
description)
Aliveness to be put as
grading system
Activity distribution
provided in the
description
140
Table B.4: Framework Section B3, Experience, Rochester Castle
PLACE SECURITY
Social Norms/
Behavioural Settings
None specifed; Visitors own discretion
of not obstructing views, panels or
photographs
Treasured Memories Comparisons with other castles
Measuring Passage
of Time
aging of the building
Refected in
architecture but how
can it be measured?
PLACE AMBIENCE Activity Pace -
Human Possibilities
1. Comfort
2. Emotions/
Sensations
3. Choices
4. Expectations
5. Relaxation
1. No support system or information
available for those with disability of
special needs, Steep steps inside the
Keep with stone granules, Few benches
in the bailey, Bad experience on a rainy
day, Wind tunnels
2. Confnement, Fear of falling,
Magnifcent views
Building Age Built 1087-89, Currently ruins
Light Intensity Natural light
Sun Angle -
Weather/
Temperature
Wind tunnels, No shades against sun or
ran in the green open space
Ground Plane -
cannot be
manipulated
Repetition as
landscape and
material
Put as grading
system and instead of
aliveness
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141
Fig B.6: Celebrated Historic High Street
Source: Authors Own
Fig B.7: Attractions on High Street
Source: Malvern Hills District Council,
Fig B.9: The Portal, Entrance to
castle at the river
Source: Authors Own
Fig B.10: Framed Vista unfolding on Arrival
Source: Authors Own
Fig B.8: Reference to Works of Charles Dickens
Source: Authors Own
Journey to Destination
The one path of particular interest is the pedestrianized historic
high street of the city. The signifcance of buildings important to
local history is given on plaques on their faade. The places used
by Charles Dickens in his descriptions have been marked. The
guildhall museum provides detailed information about him through
artefacts and a flm.
Though there is a convenience of orientation towards landmark
buildings, the traffc pattern is a hindrance. The movement of cars
on certain parts of High street is unexpected. The linked routes
to the hilly neighbourhood are winding with no apparent speed
regulations, have a single sided narrow footpath and lack directional
signage. Two things that have been highlighted by the Medway
Council for the tourists are the
references by Charles Dickens
(fg B.8) and the architecture.
They are emphasised through
the exhibit in the visitor
information centre and plaques
on the facades.
The current spatial
confguration provides three
entry/exit points into the castle complex, an iron gate at Castle
Hill, Norman archway at river front and a doorway at Bakers Walk
behind the structure. As seen in fg B.10 of the birds eye view, only
the North- west bastion archway provides a visual connection and a
sense of arrival through the unfolding of the sight as one climbs up
the stairs. The high traffc Esplanade road with no points to cross it
from the river garden separates the castle.
a b
142
Conclusions:
Based on the above description and the observations recorded on
tables B.1- B.4, following conclusions have been made.
The local maps lay emphasis on the heritage of the city.
Since prime buildings were located on the High Street, they have
adapted to changing demands The setting has thus evolved but
keeping the framework intact.
The panoramic view from the Medway Bridge functions as an
Fig B.12: Marketing Image for Rochester
Source: Medway Council, 2013
Fig B.11: Within the Keep
Source: Authors Own
advertisement for the city at large and its historic landscape in
particular.
The current building heights of the new development have
preserved the skyline formed by the buildings on High Street and
the cathedral and castle.
The interpretation is designed for those on foot. Touring on
foot allows visitors to encounter other avenues they might fnd
interesting. It heightens the sense of discovery.
Since the museums and landmark buildings are consolidated in the
vicinity of the Castle, a visitor who is not staying overnight misses
out on the seeing the remaining city even through commuting
between places.
The river opens up to the visitors at the culmination point of their
journey. The setting provides a gradual progression from narrow
lanes to the vistas offered from the Keep, and ultimately reaching
out to water.
143
APPENDIX C: FIELD EVIDENCE,
WORCESTER CATHEDRAL
Ownership: The Cathedral is the mother church of Diocese of
Worcester and the seat of Bishop of Worcester.
Signifcance: Worcester Cathedral was built in 680. The current
structure was built in 1084. Its an active body and is the church of
Christ and Blessed Mary the Virgin. Its ring of bells is considered
one of the fnest in the world. The choir is part of the Three Choir
Festival, one of the oldest classical choral musical festivals of the
world, since the 18th century. It is also known for the works of the
composer Edward Elgar.
Fig C.1: The Path- Pedestrianized High Street-
Source: Authors Own
Fig C.2: Tourists Worcester Map
Source: www.visitworcester.com/maps.asp
VisitWorcester
CATHEDRAL
HUNTINGDON
HALL
GUILDHALL
THE
COMMANDERY
ROYAL
WORCESTER
PORCELAIN
& MUSEUM
Direction of Traffic Flow
POLICE STATION &
MAGISTRATES COURT
THE
TRINITY
FR
IAR
STR
EET
SILVER STREET
ST MARYS ST
ST NICHOLAS ST
ANGEL ST
CITY MUSEUM
LIBRARY &
ART GALLERY
SWAN
THEATRE
Lowesmoor
Wharf
SHRUB HILL
STATION
TUDOR
HOUSE
GREYFRIARS
Taxi Rank
Coach drop-off points
Car Park
Setting: Similar to the Rochester
Castle, the Worcester Cathedral
is situated on the bank of River
Severn. On exiting from the rail
station, through the high street it
is a 10min walk till the junction
marked by the statue of Sir
Edward Elgar.
Image: The place image (fg
C.3) is indicated as a city of
churches on the banks of a river.
144
It also give the architectural
variations.

Object: This Cathedral was
an active place of worship and
learning for fourteen centuries.
It witnessed civil wars, and
thereafter its damages restored
Fig C.3: Place branding
Source: www.visitworcester.com/
by Charles ll. It has magnifcent Victorian stained glass windows,
King Johns Tomb, Prince Arthurs Chantry, an early 12th century
chapter house, St. Wulfstans crypt and medieval cloisters. The
tower provides a birds eye view of the city.
Fig C.4: Navigation within the Cathedral
Source: (s.n.) Worcester Cathedral, 2013
Visitor: The cathedral seems to serve
as a public attraction in the non-service
hours- attracting tourists. Many also
visit for its caf and the shop to buy
religious paraphernalia. The back
lawn overlooking Severn is used by
locals for relaxation. Being at a higher
level than the river, it gives a serene
and secluded place by disconnecting
from the traffc movement along the
water.
Technique: No theme
based technique is used for
communication. Its plan on
leafet is available for free.
Detailed guidebooks can be
purchased. Some guided tours
also take place, on specifc days
and time.
Management: A visitor
management desk has been
Fig C.6: Highlighting the Alter as the focal point
Source: Authors Own
Fig C.5: Cathedral model for reference
Source: Authors Own
provided at the entrance. It limits itself to answering queries
regarding tours and accessible facilities.
145
OBJECT Accessible Elements
Interior: Nave, Quire, Chapter House,
Cloister Garth, Norman Crypt, Cloister
Caf, Gift Shop
Exterior: Front lawns, Back lawns, City
wall ruins and Kleve Walk; College
green; Edgar Tower;
Controlled Access Methods Ticketing system
Controlled Access Elements
Tower (access not available during
school secessions)
Information Replicated Guide book and tour
Themes Used None
VISITOR Demography
Local, Global, Touring group of North-
east Asians, Mostly Europeans
Number Low, Optimum, Crowded
Interests/Expectations
Duration of Visit
1. At Monument
2. With Surroundings
3. In City
1. 1hour (without visiting the tower)
2. Used by tourists only as a path
3. 1 to 2 days
A
:

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A
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146
Table C.1: Framework Section A, Interpretation, Worcester Cathedral
TECHNIQUE Media Used
Guided tour or guide book can be
purchased, Plan on leafet available free
of cost
Locations
None specifed on site, Movement to be
co-ordinated with the plan given
Time of the Day 7:30 to 18:00 everyday
Allocation of Themes to Venues
Objective Labelling the important elements
Style Map with key
MANAGEMENT Skills Required Local Knowledge
Staff Required/Supervision
For access to the tower. It is a living
place with activities of the cathedral
conducted by the priests, cafe managers
and receptionists
Maintenance Issues
Required a minimum number of visitors
to run activities such as cathedral bells,
access to tower
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B
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:

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PATH CONTAINER
Spatial
Confguration
High traffc zone with taxi stop and
commercial building followed by
pedestrianized zone with tree shades,
cafes and retail outlets
Facades
Characteristic
Features
Mixed use Shop- houses, Listed and
refurbished buildings
Landscaping
Vehicle free boulevard, disability
friendly
IDENTITY
Signifcance
(Symbolism/
Reputation/Role of
Place)
Commercial Street
AMBIENCE
Traffc (Type, Speed,
Volume)
Cars, Walking, Signifcant number of
wheel-chair users
Human Possibilities
1. Comfort
2. Emotions/
Sensations
3. Choices
Expectations
4. Relaxation
1. Seating and Cafes
2. Temptations for shopping, Uncertainty
of going in the correct direction, Lack of
maps
3. Variety in possible activities
4. Yes
Where does the path
begin? Which one?
Historic or the most
accessible one?
148
Table C.2: Framework Section B1, Experience, Worcester Cathedral
How periodic? Daily?
Yearly? Scheduled
events restrict
accessibility to the
area.
Applicable to locals
or those revisiting
STIMULATIONS
Activity
1. Necessary
2. Optional
3. Social
1. Wander, View, Consult maps and
information panels/leafets
2. Inquire, seek help, sitting, shopping,
photography, games
3. Talking, reading morning newspaper
and discussions, Children playing street
games
Spatial Distribution
of Hot Spots and
Cool Spots
Taxi point, Guildhall, Tree shade zone,
no cool spots
Periodic Events Bells
SECURITY
Social Norms/
Behavioural Settings
None specifed, Provides active edges in
a mixed use area.
Treasured Memories -
Measuring Passage
of Time
Change in the pattern of activities and
traffc patterns
B
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149
Table C.3: Framework Section B2, Experience, Worcester Cathedral
B
2
:

E
X
P
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N
C
E
PORTAL CONTAINER Form Arched doorway
Boundaries Part of the Cathedral building
Character of Facade
Material
Sandstone
IDENTITY
SIGNIFICANCE
Signifcance
(Symbolism/ Role of
Place)
Civil War, Bell ringing ranked as 5th
heaviest ring of twelve bells in the world
AMBIENCE
Experience
(of arriving at,
moving through,
approaching)
Moving through from an open spaces of
traffc sounds into a porch
STIMULATIONS Type of Activities Walking, Reading notice boards
Vantage Points None, Closed door infront
SECURITY
Social Norms/
Behavioural Settings
Sense of Security
n/a
150
B
2
:

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C
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PLACE CONTAINER
Freestanding
Elements
Scalar Qualities
Vision focused on the depth (alter at the
far end) and height (carving on the roof)
Movement Patterns
Visual Axis
No point of focus or guiding directions in
the exteriors
Groundplane &
Landscaping
Exterior: Tar Road, Unkept grass lawns
Interiors: Sandstone fooring
HISTORICAL
SIGNIFICANCE
Role of Place Place of worship for 14 centuries.
Then and Now -
Symbolism
It is dedicated to Christ and Blessed
Virgin Mary, Most important cathedral in
country in Anglo- Saxon time
Reputation Musical sensitivity of the choir
Ten- when in time?
151
B
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PLACE ACTIVITY
First Level
Aliveness
1. Movement
2. Stationary
Activities
3. Dominant
Functions
1. Linear from the nave to the quire,
around the high alter, visit to crypt and
exit from the nave. Those interested in
cafe would walk around the cloister and
exit through college green.
2. Sitting quietly
3. Walking around to see the structure
Second Level
Spatial
Distribution of
Activities
1. Timings
2. Contextual
Conditions
Demography
1. Sunday Services: 0730hrs Matins,
0800hrs Holy Communion, 1030hrs The
Cathedral Eucharist, 1600hrs evening
song or prayer
Week Days: 0730hrs Matins, 0800hrs
Holy Communion, 1730hrs evening song
or prayer
2. Vising for prayers, River front view
used as a space to relax
PLACE AMBIENCE Activity Pace
Introduced grading
system with 100%
Black as highest level
of activity pace and
20% as lowest
152
Table C.4: Framework Section B3,
Experience, Worcester Cathedral
PLACE SECURITY
Social Norms/
Behavioural Settings
Respectful treatment of the objects.
Distraction for those who wish to pray
due to visitor movement, guide talking,
preparations for concert
Treasured Memories Comparison to other cathedrals
Measuring Passage
of Time
Experienced in the cloister and not in the
nave
B
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Human Possibilities
Comfort
Emotions/
Sensations
Choices
Expectations
Relaxation
Only cathedral seating, no opportunities
provided to enjoy the surrounding.
Provides possibilities to navigate the
area but no stationary points. Expected
sanctity of place to be maintained
(subjective).
Building Age 1084
Light Intensity?
Low available natural light, provisions for
lighting the arches, warm white glow at
the high alter as the focal point. Arcade
well lit by natural light.
Sun Angle
Weather/
Temperature
-
Ground Plane Stone
153
Journey to the Destination
The High Street is the default route for tourists arriving by train.
The cathedral stands at end of this street across the round- about,
separated by the vehicular traffc (fg C.7). High street is partly
pedestrianized, dotted with landmark buildings. The shopping
experience is enhanced by cafs and pubs with on- street seating
arrangements. Though there is historic architecture, the path
focuses on commercial activities. For instance Marks & Spensers
has more prominence, better accessibility and integration with the
setting than the Cathedral. The latter, though monumental in scale
and visibility, lies isolated at the far end hidden by the trees and cut
off by the high speed motor traffc.
In the morning the path is concentrated with people on their way to
offces and the taxi spot aligned with passengers alighting from the
train station. The later part of the day is abuzz with shoppers while
the evening sees people enjoying snacks at the cafes and pubs.
The front of the cathedral faces the street, and due to its contained
structure it does not provide any hints of the presence of the river
in its vicinity with visitors movement confned within the building.
They tend to exit through the main door, without experiencing the
waterfront. Attractions such as the historic city wall, college green
and Edgar tower are also missed out as a result. Fig C.7: Cathedral separated by high speed traffc
motor road
Source: Authors Own
Fig C.9: On Historic Street with Preserved buildings
Source: Authors Own
Fig C.8: Cathedral in Royal Worcester
Porcelain Works
Source: Authors Own
The area covered by an
angle of approximately
150degrees with the
cathedral as the vertex,
forms the historic
townscape for the City of
Worcester. It contains the
relics of the civil wars,
museums, preserved
timber architecture
(fg C.9), churches,
architectural landmark
buildings and market.
154
Angular and curved streets, with unaligned junctions give low
quality permeability and navigability. The directional signage
also lack effciency. The tourist map available does not function
effciently in fnding the exact location of places.
Conclusions
The place brand image catalyses the experience.
In this context, the accessibility to places plays a key role.
It is governed by both the approach to the place and also their
opening- closing times. It challenges the idea of leisure and
recreation.
Many places are open for short durations on specifc days.
Severn cannot be enjoyed at leisure while at the cathedral because a
visitor needs to see other places of interest within limited timeframe.
Though the cathedral is renowned for its bell ringing, secessions
have limited access to a tourist. Even the daily practise secessions
take place after the closing time of the cathedral.
Though some streets of special signifcance have been
pedestrianized, it is the traffc pattern which defnes the boundaries
of the monuments and their integration with city life.
Provision of appropriate uses on the ground foor also stands out as
an important issue. For instance, historic Friar Street has continuous
doors and windows but is still inactive.
Kleve Walk at the river front harbours more residents than the
tourists with its location off the commercial centre and at a lower
level.
Though the architecture of Worcester is one of its assets, this is not
presented to visitors.
The value of Worcester porcelain in the city gets highlighted in
the dcor of the Guild Hall. However, the importance of Sir Edward
Elgar to the city is a missing link for a visitor except for his statue
near the cathedral.
155
APPENDIX D: FIELD EVIDENCE,
OXFORD CASTLE
Ownership: Oxfordshire County Council
Signifcance: The ruins of Oxford Castle are a part of the Norman
castle built in 1071. It is an example of motte - and- bailey structure
originally built in timber. It lays the foundation of the city of Oxford.
However, ongoing investigations suggest that St. Georges Tower
stood before the Normans arrived, making it the oldest secular
structure in England. The place has now been converted into a
multi- functional area.
Setting: Oxford Castle is situated at a minutes walk from the
citys main shopping centre. The castle includes the modern prison
building as well as remnants of the Saxon and Norman architecture.
Parts of it have been absorbed in the activities of the city so its
identifed zone is demarcated by the traffc of Castle Street, New
Road, Paradise Street and Tidmarsh Lane - cutting the complex off
from city activities.
Object: There are three entry points but none suggest the most
valuable features of the building or the hierarchy of elements. Inside,
since the castle was used as a prison till 1996, those qualities are
exemplifed. It does not match the notions of a castle that a visitor
would have. However, as an experience of a prison, it provides an
ambience that would suggest the lifestyle of the inmates - small
cells, iron doors and gloomy environment that wouldnt encourage
anyone to stay long. Unlike most monuments where architecture is
in-focus, Oxford Castle generates mystery, misery and fear.
Visitor: The castle complex is visited by 100-200 people everyday
during the holiday season. The seasonal activities, like performances
Fig D.1: Tourist Attractions Map
Source: www.visitoxfordandoxfordshire/travel-information/map.aspx
156
and picnics, are an attraction for the residents. The restaurants and
food-chains attract people and keep the castle active.
Technique: The history is presented through a combination
of multimedia and a theatrical/character guided tour at the St.
Fig D.2: Oxford Castle Complex
Source: Continuum Group, (n.d.)
Georges tower. The crypt shows the details of the architecture. The
tour culminates on its top with the view of the gleaming spires of
Oxford. Other things to see include the exhibition of its origin and
dioramas showing life in the prison. One can also explore the yard,
the gardens and the mound that offer intriguing points of view to
imagine.
Management: The tour is well supervised. However, the spatial
navigation of the remaining site is unorganised. The objects and
places are marked for their values but comprehending the hierarchy
and sequence is upto the visitors abilities. Public facilities are
unmarked.
Fig D.3: Entrance to Castle block
Source: Authors Own
Fig D.4: Costumed tour guide
Source: Authors Own
157
OBJECT Accessible Elements
Exterior Viewing: Debtors Tower
Interior: A & C Wing with House of
Correction (Malmaison Hotel), O3 Art
Gallery, Saxon Town Wall, Living Room
Hotel
Controlled Access Methods Ticket System
Controlled Access Elements
St. Georges Tower, D wing, Mound,
Shop,
Information Replicated None
Themes Used Setting of Jail Chambers
VISITOR Demography Local, Global, Mostly Europeans
Number Low, Optimum, Crowded
Interests/Expectations
Duration of Visit
1. At Monument
2. With Surroundings
3. In City
1. 40mins to more depending the depth to
which one sees the exhibits
2. 30mins (mound used to picnics as
well)
3. n/a
A
:

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T
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TECHNIQUE Media Used A theatrical guided tour
Locations Level 1, Tower top, Crypt
158
Table D.1: Framework Section A, Interpretation, Oxford Castle
MANAGEMENT
Skills Required Acting, Local Knowledge
Staff Required/Supervision Guided
Maintenance Issues -
Time of the Day 1000hrs to 1620 (last tour)
Allocation of Themes to Venues
Objective
Provide an image of the life in the castle
(prison)
Style Told from theperspective of prisoner
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B
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C
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PATH CONTAINER
Spatial
Confguration
Commercial Streets
Facades
Characteristic
Features
Mixture of Contemporary and period
architecture
Landscaping Tar road
IDENTITY
Signifcance
(Symbolism/
Reputation/Role of
Place)
Market and Leisure district of Oxford
AMBIENCE
Traffc (Type,
Speed, Volume)
Pedestrians, Buses and Coaches with a
bus stop at the castle entrance, hindrance
at the junctions, vehicular movement
within the compound as well
Human Possibilities
Comfort
Emotions/
Sensations
Choices
Expectations
Relaxation
Setting does not cater to the castle. No
focus to the monument and the main
entry point. Multiple options to enter and
meander with places to relax in the plaza.
160
Table D.2: Framework Section B1, Experience, Oxford Castle
B
1
(
C
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t
.
)
STIMULATIONS
Activity
1. Necessary
2. Optional
3. Social
1. Walk
2. Consult information panels
3. Relax
Spatial Distribution
of Hot Spots and
Cool Spots
Shop, Cafe, alfresco dining, Steps on the
mound, wall plates with information as
key points to halt. The lawn used mostly
by the hotel guests.
Periodic Events Regular event organized
SECURITY
Social Norms/
Behavioural Settings
None specifed, Access provisions as per
property ownership
Treasured Memories If one participates in local activities
Measuring Passage
of Time
Secluded, so not much movement at any
time of the day
161
Table D.3: Framework Section B2 Experience, Oxford Castle
B
2
:

E
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N
C
E
PORTAL CONTAINER Form A roofed narking the transition
Boundaries Open space
Character of Facade
Material
IDENTITY
SIGNIFICANCE
Signifcance
(Symbolism/ Role of
Place)
None explained
AMBIENCE
Experience
(of arriving at,
moving through,
approaching)
Walk from one open space to another
STIMULA-
TIONS
Type of Activities Walking
Vantage Points
Forefront of the mound, Then brings the
tower in focus
SECURITY
Social Norms/
Behavioural Settings
Sense of Security
n/a
162
PLACE CONTAINER
Freestanding
Elements
Scalar Qualities
Scattered, Tall and narrow, Not the most
important feature of the city
Movement Patterns
As per the guide, No organization
provided for the exhibit
Visual Axis (Small cells)
Groundplane &
Landscaping
Wooden foor tower interiors, Time line
provided on ground in landscape
HISTORICAL
SIGNIFICANCE
Role of Place Civil War, Prison
Then and Now Prison and now a leisure space
Symbolism -
Reputation Nothing much to see inside
B
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PLACE ACTIVITY
First Level
Aliveness
1. Movement
2. Stationary
Activities
3. Dominant
Functions
1. Mostly spiral inside. Scope to wander
once in the exhibit section and lawns
2. At exhibits
3. Watching and listening
163
PLACE AMBIENCE Activity Pace
Human Possibilities
Comfort
Emotions/
Sensations
Choices
Expectations
Relaxation
Narrow staircase cannot be used by all.
Ambience to created a level of discom-
fort amongst the visitors. Options to
meander around the site and connecting
areas. One expects to see a royal features.
Cafes and plaza to be used for relaxation
Building Age Built in 1071
Light Intensity? Dimly lit with fickering light at points
Sun Angle
Weather/
Temperature
Experienced in the open space with no
provisions for protection against them
B
3

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Second Level
Spatial
Distribution of
Activities
1. Timings
2. Contextual
Conditions
Demography
1. Tour and shop as per given timings
2. Time spent on the mound or cafes
depending upon the weather and indi-
viduals trip plans
164
Table D.4: Framework Section B3, Experience, Oxford Castle
PLACE SECURITY
Social Norms/
Behavioural Settings
Loss of sense of direction, Uncertainty in
the use of benches and lawns
Treasured Memories Created through events like picnics
Measuring Passage
of Time
Ground Plane Wooden foor
B
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165
Journey to Destination: Oxford castle determined the spatial
planning of the city centre, with the High Street bisecting the walled
area. It also lies at walking distance from the train station. Due to
lack of publicity, overshadowed by universities and Harry Potter
shots, it is not necessarily the frst visited. The paths, though, form
a bustling activity zone with retail outlets, cafes, restaurants and
street vendors and performers. The approach to the castle is quieter.
The infuence of Lewis Carroll has not been emphasised except
through the Alices Shop (fg D.8) on the St. Aldates Street. There
are guided tours for it, but not publicized.
Fig D.5: Exemplifying Castle History (at the entrance)
Source: Authors Own
Fig D.7: Illustration of Oxford Skyline (from the
tower)
Source: Authors Own
Fig D.6: Life as a prisoner exhibition
Source: Authors Own
Conclusion
The hierarchy of elements gets established through protection
measures and their uses.
The traffc patterns defne the totality of the site.
Though the structure has been maintained in original form, the
surrounding landscape has been developed to make it friendly to
the new visitor.
Through the Key Learning Centre, the castle disburses city
information, with the aim to attract school children.
Workshops and events create a sense of belonging for the people.
Fig D.8: Alices Shop in Oxford
Source: http://www.aliceinwonderlandshop.
co.uk/history.html
166
APPENDIX E: FIELD EVIDENCE,
TOWER OF LONDON
Setting: Like most of the forts Tower of London too sits on water
route of river Thames, close to the grand Tower Bridge. The
scale and the terrain impact its perception when seen from the
riverfront and when from the road at its entrance. The recent urban
developments of high rise buildings form the backdrop against
which it is continuously compared.
Image: An illustration of the White
Tower is used as the branding and
marketing icon, exemplifying royal
Britain. This image does not give
any information about the context
and other attractions in its vicinity or
in London at large. The global value
however does not need it to depend
on other features to bring in visitors to
that area.
Fig E.1: Tower of London Setting
Source: Daphne Hoekman
Fig E.2: Tower of London Place Image
Source: http://www.hrp.org.uk/towero-
fondon/
Object: The cultural qualities of Tower of London have attributed
it with outstanding universal values. These have been identifed by
UNESCO (2007, 2013) as below:
Landmark siting, for both protection and control of the City of
London
Symbol of Norman power
Outstanding example of late 11th-century innovative Norman
military architecture
Model example of a medieval fortress palace which evolved from
the 11th to 16th centuries
Association with State institutions
Setting for key historical events in European history
167
Fig E.3: Tower of London Map
Source: Historic Royal Palaces, 2013
168
Visitor: The site is fooded with visitors on a Europe Tour, often
accompanied by local friends
Technique: A variety of options are available to guide the exploration
Fig E.4: Public plaza with visitor facilities
Source: Authors Own
Fig E.6:Beefeaters Guided Tour
Source: Authors Own
Fig E.5: Relative Scale of White Tower
Source: Authors Own
from souvenir guide books to free Yeoman Warders beefeater tours
(fg E.6). The latter tour runs for 60minutes, marking four points-
the Moat, the Bell Tower, the Scaffold Site and the Chapel Royal of
St. Peter ad Vincula. They narrated key historic events, intriguing
associated episodes functions of different parts of the fortress and
the contribution of the setting to its activities. Narration, audio
guide, sign language and costume performances also formed
medium of communication. Within the towers are housed different
exhibits from crown jewels, royal armouries, dungeon equipment
to wall graffti by the prisoners. These were object based displays
with short labels and supported by visuals and videos at few places.
Management: Information kiosks are installed in the courtyard
around the White Tower. The Beefeaters overlooking the activities
at the site are also available for queries regarding the historic data,
site management and public amenities.
169
A
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S
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PLACE IMAGE Branding Image Simplifed Illustration of White Tower
Marketing Techniques
White Tower used as the icon, also markets through souvenirs,
part of various London tours.
ACCESSIBILITY
Signage
1. Language
2. Currency
3. Accuracy
4. Character Path Marked
1. English, German, French, Spanish, Italian, Russian,
Chinese, Japanese, Portuguese
2. GBP
3. Clear directions with both signage and posters
4. Highlights of prime exhibits
Transport Links
1. Public
2. Private Accessibility
3. Parking (for Cars, Motorbikes and
Cycles)
1. London Underground Tower Hill station, Thames clipper at
Tower Pier, DLR, Buses and Sightseeing buses
2. Cars and bikes
3. No provision at the Tower, but facility can be used at
Lower Thames Street
Safety Lack of surveillance in the area after the closing hours.
PUBLIC
SERVICES
Refreshments Cafes, chain- outlets and kiosks close to the ticket centre
Restrooms -
Childcare -
170
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NARRATIVES Focused Stories/Layers Visit focused on the Tower
Type of Tour Options
Standard ticket provides access to all tours within the tour. Audio
and an introductory guided tour.
COLLECTABLES Available Shops Online, At entrance, Inside Tower complex
Themes on display
Guide books about the tower, t-shirts, accessories and stationary
with Tower imprints; Standard London Souvenirs
Type of Items The Tower, London overall
RETURN VISITS Periodic/ Seasonal Events
Ice- rink, Venue can be hired for banquets, conferences and
receptions
Promotion Methods London tours, Venue hire, Social Media
REVIEWS Casual Feedbacks
Those interested in history and had long stay in London liked it,
Short stay visitors do not see it worth investing a day
Table E.1: Setting, Tower of London
171
OBJECT Accessible Elements
Ticket required to gain entry into the complex. Of 44 sites, 12 are
closed to public
Controlled Access Methods
Plaque stating Private, Iron gates to restrict/direct public movement
within the towers
Controlled Access Elements Spaces held for private lodging and offces
Information Replicated None
Themes Used
VISITOR Demography Global
Number Crowded, Long and slow queues
Duration of Visit
1. At Monument
2. With Surroundings
3. In City
1. Minimum 3hrs
2. 5hrs
3. Few days required to see the city
B
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A
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I
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TECHNIQUE Media Used Beefeater guided tour, Exhibits with short descriptive panels
Locations
Various points on the open spaces giving information about the
buildings
Time of the Day Every 30mins from the main entrance
Objective Stories of the tower
172
MANAGEMENT Skills Required Castle History, Public speaking
Staff Required/Supervision Not within the exhibits
Maintenance Issues Security B

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Style
Pain and passion, treachery and torture, all delivered with a smile and
swagger.
Table E.2: Framework Section B, Interpretation, Tower of London
173
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PATH CONTAINER Spatial Confguration Walled, A settlement in itself
Facades Characteristic Features Medieval city walls
Landscaping Hand landscape
IDENTITY
Signifcance (Symbolism/
Reputation/Role of Place)
Wars, Prison and prisoners, Traitors, Gruesome
AMBIENCE Traffc (Type, Speed, Volume) Visitors crowd
Human Possibilities
1. Comfort
2. Emotions/Sensations
3. Choices
4. Relaxation
1. Benches, Refreshment kiosks
2. Based on the narration by the tour guide
3. Uniform
4. Benches, lean against the railing in the queue
STIMULATIONS
Activity
1. Necessary
2. Optional
3. Social
1. Walk, listen
2. Relax, Photography
3. Conversations when waiting in queue, questions for
the guide
Spatial Distribution of Hot Spots
and Cool Spots
Hierarchy not established. White tower due to its central
location, and Crown Jewels due to the collection and
crowd appear the most sort after
174
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Periodic Events Tours, Costumed performances
SECURITY
Social Norms/Behavioural
Settings
Walk in the queue
Treasured Memories Where is Kohinoor
Measuring Passage of Time
Uniformly crowded through out the day, peoples
activities depended upon the time they had already spent
there.
Table E 3: Framework Section C1, Experience, Tower of London
175
PORTAL CONTAINER Form Arched Doorways
Boundaries Fortress doors on Castle walls
Material Kentish rag- stone
SIGNIFICANCE Role of Place Few had special value, such as traitors tower entrance
AMBIENCE
Experience (of arriving at,
moving through, approaching)
Moving through, no dramatic vistas reveal
STIMULATIONS Type of Activities
Ticket and bag check at main entrance, moving from
walkways to courtyard or indoors
Vantage Points None exemplifed
SECURITY Sense of Security Help desks, security checks
C
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P
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C
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Table E 4: Framework Section C2, Experience, Tower of London
C
3
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176
PLACE CONTAINER Scalar Qualities
Taken over by the surrounding developments,
magnifcence not experienced
Movement Patterns As governed by individual exhibits, mostly spiral
Visual Axis
Concentric, with primary White Tower in the centre,
surrounded by secondary places followed by fort walls
Groundplane & Landscaping Hard Landscaping, patches of grass not for public use
HISTORICAL
SIGNIFICANCE
Role of Place
Royal power, Refuge in troubles times, Ordnance, World
Wars, Prison and executions
Then and Now
Fort, Prison, Tourist attraction
Keeper of Crown Jewels and Royal Ravens
Symbolism Power, Royalty
Reputation Gruesome
PLACE ACTIVITY
First Level
1. Movement
2. Stationary Activities
3. Dominant Functions
1. Movement in a sequential manner within the towers, No
point of return
2. Reading, Resting at times, Watching visuals
3. Gazing
177
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PLACE AMBIENCE
Activity Pace
Human Possibilities
1. Comfort
2. Emotions/Sensations
3. Choices
4. Expectations
5. Relaxation
1. Few seats provided in the exhibits to relax,
especially at places screening flms. Only spiral stairs
of the towers for access inside, tours not friendly for
disabled or wheelchair users
2. Historic revelations
3. Follow the queue and its pace in most exhibits
4. Few scenarios of use reconstructed, object based
display
5. Points to halt provided
Building Age Built in 1070
Second Level
1. Timings
2. Contextual Conditions
1. Summer opening times
01 March - 31 October
Tuesday - Saturday 09:00 - 17:30 Sunday - Monday 10:00
- 17:30 Last admission 17:00
Winter opening times
01 November - 29 February Tuesday - Saturday 09:00 -
16:30 Sunday - Monday 10:00 - 16:30 Last admission
16:00
2. The moat used for picnics
178
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Light Intensity
Focused lights for exhibit, natural light through the
windows. No system implemented to create a particular
ambience
Weather/Temperature Ceiling fans in summer
Ground Plane Stone fooring
PLACE SECURITY
Social Norms/Behavioural
Settings
Photography restricted in some exhibits, Eating/Smoking
prohibited
Treasured Memories
Comparison to other artefacts of similar nature seen,
English conquests
Table E 5: Framework Section C3, Experience, Tower of London
179
Journey to Destination
Unlike the monuments studied in Chapter 4, Tower of London is a
complex hosting a number of buildings within ancient city walls. It
is reached by three primary routes of waterway, the underground
tube or the DLR or private vehicle upto the drop-of at plaza infront
of city walls (fg E.7).Tis edge contributes with visitor amenities of
ticketing, shops, information centre and F&B points with temporary
kiosks too. A subway
through A100 directs the
visitors to the royal abode
with buntings and posters of
the crown exhibits (fg E.8).
Tough the monument is
well accessible with stories
extending beyond its walls,
there are no physical links.
Te riverfront potential is
not fully utilized. Te setting
mostly has independent
blocks. Te only tying
factor is the use of the word
Tower as a naming device.
Te monument can be hired
for Conferences, dinner and
receptions. Te moat has
been used for public events
like ice rink, music festivals
and summer/Christmas
Prescot Street
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harf
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HMS
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Hall
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a
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To
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ley S
treet
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er Street
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a
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ithfield
St. Katharines Way
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L
lo
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Fenchurch
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Tower
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Fenchurch S
tree
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River
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T
rinity Sq. C
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M
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i e
s
Lower Thames Street Byw
ard Street Tower Hill Royal Mint Street
M
a
n
s
e
l l S
t r e
e
t
Tower
Hill
(main entrance)
Tower
of London
Fig E.8: Artworks introducing the Tower of London in
the subway
Source: Authors Own
Fig E.9: Exhibitions within White Tower using audio/
visual, real objects and themes
Source: Authors Own
Fig E.7: Public Transport Links
Source: http://www.hrp.org.uk/TowerOfLondon/planyourvisit/gettinghere
marquee. Tese connect locals with the place.
180
Conclusions
As a block, it is experienced in isolation from its setting.
On arrival, the focus is disturbed by trafc. Visitors walk in
anticipation looking for an opening into the fort walls. Te height of
fort wall keeps its activities hidden, supporting its original purpose.
Te river is an added beneft as it has ensured clear unobstructed
views at least on one side of the monument.
Tough the narrative involves Tower Hill, tourist maps do not
integrate it or other places of historic interest in a walking distance.
Te services of the neighbouring blocks are cut of due to the
ticketing windows and help desk structures. It is a dead space with
no active frontages afer the closing hours.
Te seasonal activities and private functions create associations of
people with the place.