Anda di halaman 1dari 27

Structural Design against Earthquakes

Manoj Kumar
Scientist,
Structures Division,
ADE, Bangalore

Noise, Vibration & Harshness: Theory and Practice


Proficience Hall,
Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore

December 10, 2008


What is an earthquake?
z The shaking or trembling of earth
caused by the sudden release of
energy.

Causes:
z Rockslides
z Landslides
z Volcanic eruption
z Nuclear explosions
z Forces which are released along fault
z Reservoir Induced seismicity
Earthquake waves

Body Waves:

P and S waves

Surface Waves:

R and L waves
Body Waves: P and S waves
z Body waves
• P or primary waves
• fastest waves about 5.4km/s
• travel through solids, liquids, or
gases
• compressional wave, material
movement is in the same
direction as wave movement

• S or secondary waves
• slower than P waves, 3.3km/s
• travel through solids only
• shear waves - move material
perpendicular to wave
movement
Surface Waves: R and L waves

z Surface Waves
• Travel just below or along the ground’s surface
• Slower than body waves; rolling and side-to-side movement
• Especially damaging to buildings
Measure of an Earthquake/ Energy released

Two earthquake size measurements

Magnitude – estimates the amount of energy


released at the source of the earthquake

Intensity – a measure of the degree of


earthquake shaking at a given locale based
on the amount of damage

TABLE : 1
MAGNITUDES OF EARTHQUAKES AND ENERGY RELEASED

M (Richter) 5.0 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.4 8.6

E (1020 ergs) 0.08 2.5 14.1 80 446 2500 10000 20000


Measure of an Earthquake/ Energy
released
An increase in magnitude (M) by 1.0 implies 10 times higher waveform
amplitude and about 31 times higher energy released.

The energy released by a M6.3 earthquake is equivalent to that released


by the 1945 Atom Bomb dropped on Hiroshima.
Destructive energy

India, 2001 Pakistan, 2005


Destructive energy

Turkey, 1999
Destructive energy

Taiwan, 1999 India, 2001


Aseismic design of structures
z Earthquake causes the ground to move in all three directions.

z The various parts of structure move differently with respect to


the foundation, and due to this relative deformation, additional
forces are exerted on the structure.
General Principle and Design Criteria
(IS 1893 : 2002)
The design approach adopted in this standard is to ensure that
structures

z possess at least a minimum strength to withstand minor


earthquakes ( <DBE ), which occur frequently, without damage;

z Resist moderate earthquakes ( DBE ) without significant structural


damage though some non-structural damage may occur

z and aims that structures withstand a major earthquake ( MCE )


without collapse,
General Principle and Design Criteria
z The magnitude of the forces induced in a structure due to a
given ground acceleration will depend, amongst other things,
mass of the structure, the material, and the damping, ductility
and energy dissipation capacity of the structure.

z By enhancing ductility and energy dissipation capacity in the


structure, the induced seismic forces can be reduced.
Design Philosophy

z The guiding principles governing the conceptual design against


seismic hazard are:
• Structural simplicity;
• Uniformity, symmetry and redundancy;
• Bi-directional resistance and stiffness;
• Torsional resistance;
• Adequate foundation.
Analysis Methods

(nonlinear) time step analysis F


for MDOF,
From this: Response spectrum u
V(x), M(x)
F

u
Δt
t
Fb

equivalent static force,

Koyna, Maharashtra 1967, M6.5


How to deal with huge earthquake forces
z Allow inelastic response (Ductile Behavior)

z Increase damping (Energy dissipation devices)

z Increase natural period (Base Isolation)


Energy dissipation by Ductile Behavior
z Structures subjected to several cycles of cyclic loading.

contd…
Energy dissipation by Ductile Behavior
z Under seismic loading, for a given energy input, elastoplastic
response differs from elastic response in following ways:
• the energy gets dissipated;
• The induced force is less; and
• the maximum deflection is more.

Thus, while ductility helps in reducing induced forces and in


dissipating some of the input energy, it also demands large
deformations to be accommodated by the structure.
Increase damping (Energy dissipation devices)
z Another approach for controlling seismic damage in
structures and improving their seismic performance is by
installing Seismic Dampers in place of structural elements,
such as diagonal braces. These dampers act like the
hydraulic shock absorbers in cars - much of the sudden jerks
are absorbed in the hydraulic fluids and only little is
transmitted above to the chassis of the car. When seismic
energy is transmitted through them, dampers absorb part of
it, and thus damp the motion of the structure.
Energy dissipation devices
Energy dissipation devices (Types of dampers)
z Viscous Dampers (energy is absorbed by silicone-based fluid
passing between piston cylinder arrangement)

z Friction Dampers (energy is absorbed by surfaces with friction


between them rubbing against each other)

z Yielding Dampers (energy is absorbed by metallic


components that yield)

z Visco-elastic dampers (energy is absorbed by utilizing the


controlled shearing of solids)

Thus by equipping a structure with additional devices which


have high damping capacity, we can greatly decrease the
seismic energy entering the structure.
Increase natural period (Base Isolation)
z As the name suggest, in this approach the structure (building,
bridge or a machine/equipment) is separated from its
foundation.

Principle of Base Isolation


The fundamental principle of base isolation is to modify the
response of the structure so that ground can move below it
without transmitting these motions into the structure.
Structure acceleration and displacement

Rigid Structure zero period


Flexible Structure Infinite Period
Base isolation or seismic isolation
z The energy input from an earthquake is proportional to velocity
squared.
z Implementation of base isolation is based on the assumption
that over mid frequency range, for a period of 0.5 sec to 4 sec
the energy input is constant, that is, velocity is constant.

For a constant velocity, displacement α period,


and acceleration α (period)-1

if the period is doubled, the displacement will double but the


acceleration (hence force induced) will be halved.
Types of Isolators
z Sliding systems
z Elastomeric Rubber
z Springs
z Roller and ball bearings
Thank you!
References
z Base Isolation of Structures: Design Guidelines 2001, Travor E Kelley, Holmes Consulting
Group Ltd.
z Base Isolation of Structures, Seminar Report June 2006, Manoj Kumar, Deptt. of Civil Engg.,
G B Pant University, Pantnagar.
z Dynamics of Structures: Theory and application to earthquake engineering, Anil K Chopra,
Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.
z Elements of Earthquake Engineering, Jai Krishna, A V Chandrasekaran 1994, South Asian
Publishers, New Delhi.
z IS 1893: 2002, Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures Part 1, General
Provisions and Buildings (Fifth Revision), Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi.
z RC Design, S U Pillai, D Menon, 2005 Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd, New Delhi
z www.iitk.ac.in
z www.nicee.org
z www.nisee.berkeley.edu

www.manojsaini.co.cc