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CONFLICT OF LAWS

ATTY. BENZON JUDD C. CONG, J.D., L.L.M.


1
st
Semester, School Year 2014-2015


COURSE OUTLINE AND MATERIALS:

References:
Agpalo, Ruben. Conflict of Laws. (2004);
Coquia, Jorge R. and Aguiling-Pangalangan, Elizabeth. Conflict of Laws: Cases Materials and
Comments. (2000);
Paras, Edgardo L. Philippine Conflict of Laws. (1996);
Sempio-Diy, Alicia V. Handbook on Conflict of Laws. (2004);
Salonga, Jovito. Private International Law. (1995).

I. INTRODUCTION
A. SCOPE OF CONFLICT OF LAWS
1. Definition of Conflict of Laws
2. Elements of Conflict of Laws
3. Functions of Conflict of Laws
4. Significance / Importance of Conflict of Laws
5. Identifying Issues of Conflict of Laws

B. CONFLICT OF LAWS AND PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW
1. Distinguish
2. Sources

C. CONFLICT OF LAWS UNDER COMMON LAW AND PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW UNDER
CIVIL LAW

D. SOURCES OF CONFLICTS OF LAW RULES
1. Domestic
a. Constitution, Arts. IV and V, Sec. 1;
b. Civil Code, Arts. 14, 15, 16, 17, 815, 816, 817, 818, 819, 829, 1039, 1319, and
1753;
c. Family Code of the Philippines, Arts. 10, 21, 26, 35, 36, 37, 38, 80, 96, 184 and
187;
d. Revised Penal Code, Art. 2;
e. Corporation Code, Secs. 123, 129 and 133;
f. Rules of Court, Rule 4, Sec. 2; Rule 8, Sec. 6; Rule 11, Sec. 2; Rule 14, Sec. 12, 14,
15 and 16; Rule 23, Secs. 11 and 12; Rule 39, Sec. 48; Rule 73, Sec. 1; Rule 77, Sec.
1, Rule 92, Sec. 1; Rule 131, Sec. 3(n); Rule 132, Secs. 19(a), 24 and 25;
2. International
a. Statutes of Hague Convention Conference on Private International Law;
b. Convention on the Jurisdiction of the Selected Forum in the Case of International
Sales of Goods, 15 April 1958;
c. Convention on the Settlement of the Conflicts between the Law of Nationality and
the Law of Domicile, 15 June 1955;
d. Convention on the Recognition of the Legal Personality of Foreign Companies,
Associations and Institutions, 01 June 1956;
e. Convention on the Choice of Court Agreements, 30 June 2005;
f. Protocol on the Law Applicable to Maintenance Obligations, 23 November 2007;

E. GENERAL FRAMEWORK OF RESOLUTION OF CONFLICTS PROBLEMS
1. Jurisdiction
2. Choice of Law/ Characterization
3. Enforcement of Judgment

Saudi Arabian Airlines v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 122191, 8 October 1998;
Salvador H. Laurel v. Ramon Garcia, G.R. No. 92013, 25 July 1990;
Kazuhiro Hasegawa and Nippon Engineering Consultants Co., Ltd. v. Kitamura, G.R. No.
149177, 23 November 2007;
Guerreros Transport Services, Inc. v. Blayblock Transportation Services Employees
Association, G.R. No. L-41518 / 71 SCRA 621, 30 June 1976;
Northern Pacific R. Co. v. Babcock, 154 US 190, 28 May 1894;
International School Alliance of Educators v. Hon. Leonardo A. Quisumbing, G.R. No.
128845 / 333 SCRA 13, 1 June 2000;
Cayetano Lim v. Insular Collector of Customs, G.R. No. L-11759 / 36 Phil 472, 16 March
1917;

II. JURISDICTION AND CHOICE OF FORUM
A. JURISDICTION AND VENUE
1. Distinction
2. Rules on Venue
a. Stipulations as to venue
b. Arbitral Clauses
c. Special rules on libel suits

Rules of Court, Rule 4
Republic Act 4363
Davao Light & Power Co., Inc. v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 111685, 20 August 2001;
Unimasters Conglomeration, Inc. v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 119657, 7 February 1997;
Augusto Benedicto Santos III v. Northwest Orient Lines, G.R. No. 101538 / 210 SCRA 256, 23
June 1992;
Carnival Cruise Lines, Inc. v. Shute, 111 S. Ct. 1522, 113 L. Ed. 2d 622 / 499 US 585, 17
April 1991;
The Bremen v. Zapata Off-Shore Co., No. 71-322 / 407 US 1, 12 June 1972;
Yamada v. Yasuda, 2-98-1073, Appellate Court of Illinois, 1999;
Sweet Lines, Inc. v. Teves, G.R. No. L-37750, 19 May 1978;
Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corp v. Jack Robert Sherman, G.R. No. 72494 / 176
SCRA331, 11 August 1989;
Del Monte Corporation v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 136154, 07 February 2001;
LM Power Engineering Corporation v. Capitol Industrial Construction Groups, Inc., G.R. No.
141833, 26 March 2003;
Frabelle Fishing Corporation v. The Philippine American Life Insurance Company, G.R. No.
158560, 17 August 2007;
Jorge Gonzales v. Hon. Oscar B. Pimentel, G.R. No. 167994, 22 January 2007;
Time, Inc. v. Andres Reyes, G.R. No. L-28882, 31 May 1971;

B. CATEGORIES OF JURISDICTION
1. Definition
2. Jurisdiction Over the Person
a. Service of summons as requirement of procedural due process
b. Jurisdictional issues under conflicts of law cases as a question of due process
c. Governing law lex fori - law of the forum;
d. Foreign corporations
Doing business
Rules on service of summons on foreign corporations

Sec. 123, 127, 128 and 133, Corporation Code of the Philippines;
Rule 1, Sec. 1 (f) of the Implementing Rules and Regulations of the Foreign Investments Act
Sec. 12, Rule 14, Rules of Court;
A.M. No. 11-3-6 (New Rules on Service of Summons on Foreign Juridical Entities)
Patricia S. Villareal v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 107314, 17 September 1998;
Pennoyer v. Neff, 95 US 714 (1878);
International Shoe Co. v. Washington, 326 US 310 (1945) ;
Northwest Orient Airlines, Inc. v. Court of Appeals and C.F. Sharp & Co., Inc., G.R. No.
112573 / 241 SCRA 192, 09 February 1995;
The Home Insurance Company v. Eastern Shipping Lines, G.R. No. L-34382 / 123 SCRA 424,
20 July 1983;
European Resources and Technologies, Inc. v. Ingenieuburo Birkham, G.R. No. 159586, 26
July 2004;
Agilent Technologies Singapore (Pte) Ltd. v. Integrated Silicon Technology, Philippine
Corp., G.R. No. 154618, 14 April 2004;
National Equipment Rental, Ltd. v. Szukhent, 375 US 311, 6 January 1964;
Perkins v. Benguet Consolidated Mining Co., 342 US 437, 72 S. Ct. 413 96, 3 March 1952;
McGee v. International Life Insurance Co., 78 S. Ct. 199, 2 L. Ed. 2d 223 / 355 US 220, 16
December 1957;
Philsec Investment Corporation v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 103493 / 274 SCRA 102, 19
June 1997;
Worldwide Volkswagen Corporation v. Woodson, 444 US 286, 21 January 1980;
Calder v. Jones, 104 S. Ct. 1482, 79 L. Ed. 2d 804 / 465 US 783, 20 March 1984;
Keeton v. Hustler Magazine, Inc. et al., 465 US 770, 20 March 1984;
Asahi Metal Industry Co. v. Superior Court, 480 US 102, 24 February 1987;
Rush v. Savchuk, 444 US 320 (1980);
Vicenta Pantaleon v. Honorato Asuncion, G.R. No. L-13141 / 1105 Phil 761, 22 May 1959;
Pedro T. Santos v. PNOC Exploration Corporation, G.R. No. 170943, 23 September 2008;
Burger King Corp. v. Rudzewicz, No. 83-2097 / 471 US 462, 20 May 1985;
Shaffer v. Heitner, 433 US 186 22 Ill.433 US 186, 97 S. Ct. 2569, 53 L. Ed. 2d 683 (1977);
William Gemperle v. Helen Schenker, G.R. No. L-18164 / 19 SCRA 45, 23 January 1967;
Dolores de los Santos v. Hon. Judge Camilo Montesa, Jr., G.R. No. 73531 / 221 SCRA 15, 06
April 1993;
Antonio Carballo v. Demetrio B. Encarnacion, G.R. No. L-5675 / 92 Phil. 974, 27 April 1953;
Menandro B. Laureano v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 114776 / 324 SCRA 414, 02 February
2000;
Victoria Regner v. Cynthia R. Logarta, G.R. No. 168747 / 537 SCRA 277, 19 October 2007;
Far East International Import and Export Corporation v. Nankai Kogyo Co., LTD., et al.,
G.R. No. L-13525, 30 November 1962;

3. Jurisdiction Over the Res
a. Even if a person is not within the jurisdiction of a state, if he has property in there,
the court may exercise jurisdiction.

Gulf Oil Corporation v. Gilbert, 330 US 501, 10 March 1947;
Travelers Health Association v. Virginia, 339 US 643, 05 June 1950;
World-Wide Volkswagen Corp v. Woodson, supra.;
Schmidt v. Driscoll, 249 Minn 376 / 82 NW 2d 365, 12 April 1957;
El Banco-Espanol-Filipino v. Vicente Palanca, G.R. No. L-11390 / 37 Phil 921, 26 March 1918;
Idonah Slade Perkins v. Arsenio P. Dizon, G.R. No. 46631 / 69 Phil 186, 16 November 1939;
Mullane v. Central Hanover Bank & Trust Co., Trustee, et al., 399 US 306 22 Ill.339 US 306,
70 S. Ct. 652, 94 L. Ed. 865 (1950);
Marjorie E. Goodwine v. Superior Court of Los Angeles County, Docket No. L.A. 28464 / 63
Cal. 2d 481, 407 P. 2d 47 Cal. Rptr. 201, 4 November 1965;
Lazaro B. Rayray v. Chae Kyung Lee, G.R. No. L-18176, 26 October 1966;

4. Act of State Doctrine and Jurisdiction Over the Subject Matter

Hassan El-Fadl v. Central Bank of Jordan, et. al., No. 94-7212, 6 February 1996
Republic of the Philippines, et al v. Pimentel et al., No. 06-1204, 12 June 2008;
Islamic Republic of Iran v. Pahlavi, 62 NY 2d. 474, 5 July 1984;
Credit Suisse v. United States District Court for the Central District of California, No. 97-
70193 / 130 F.3d at 1342 (9
th
Cir.), 3 December 1997;
Kirkpatrick Inc. v. Environmental Tectonics Corp., Intl., 493 US 400, 107 L.Ed. 2d 816, 1990;
Pennhurst State School and Hosp. v. Halderman, 465 US 89, 23 January 1984;
Lord Day & Lord v. Socialist Republic of Vietnam 134 F. Supp.2d 549, 27 March 2001;
Saratoga County Chamber of Commerce, Inc. v. George E. Pataki, 798 N.E. 2d 1047, 12 June
2003;
Helen Liu v. The Republic of China, No. 87-2976 / 892 F.2d 1419, 29 December 1989;
Hazel W. French v. Banco National de Cuba, 23 N.Y. 2d 46, 15 October 1968;
In Re: Philippine National Bank, Philippine National Bank v. United States District Court for
the District of Hawaii, No. 04-71843 / 397 F.3d 768, 04 February 2005;
Republic of the Philippines v. Ferdinand E. Marcos, No. 86-6091 / 862 F.2d 1355, 02
December 1988;
Idonah Slade Perkins v. Mamerto Roxas, G.R. No. 47517 / 72 Phil 514, 27 June 1941;
Vicente Caluag v. Potenciano Pecson, G.R. No. L-1403 / 82 Phil 8, 29 October 1948;

C. CHOICE OF FORUM AND FORUM NON CONVENIENS

First Philippine International Bank v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 115849, 24 January 1996;
Raytheon International, Inc. v. Rouzie, G.R. No. 162894 / 546 SCRA 555, 26 February 2008;
The Manila Hotel Corp. v. National Labor Relations Commission, G.R. No. 120077 / 343
SCRA 1, 13 October 2000;
Communications Materials and Design, Inc. v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 102223, 22 August
1996;
Kazuhiro Hasegawa and Nippon Engineering Consultants Co., Ltd. v. Kitamura, supra.;
Bank of America NT&SA et.al. v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 120135, 31 March 2003;
Philsec Investment Corporation v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 103493, 19 June 1997;
Gil Miguel T. Puyat v. Ron Zabarte, G.R. No. 141536, 26 February 2001;
Pioneer Concrete Philippines Inc. v. Antonio T. Todaro, G.R. No. 154830 / 524 SCRA 153, 8
June 2007;
Wing On Co. v. Syyap, 64 O.G. 8311 (1964);
In re: Union Carbide Corporation Gas Plant Disaster in Bhopal, India in December 1984, US
Court of Appeals, 634 F. Supp. 842, 14 January 1986;
Piper Aircraft Co. v. Reyno, 454 US 235, 08 December 1981;
Gulf Oil v. Gilbert, supra.;
Klaus Lueck v. Sundstrand Corporation, No. 99-15961, 8 January 2001;
Yan Carlos R. Monegro v. Luis Rosa, No. 98-16846, 3 May 2000;
Erie Railroad Co. v. Tompkins / 304 US 64, 58 S. Ct. 817, 82 L.Ed. 1188 (1938);
K.K. Shell Sekiyu Osaka Hatsubaisho and Fu Hing Oil Co., Ltd. v. Court of Appeals, G.R. Nos.
90306-07, 30 July 1990;
Islamic Republic of Iran v. Pahlavi, supra.;
MacShannon v. Rockware Glass Ltd [1987] A.C. 795 at 819;
Sumitomo Bank Ltd v. Kartika Ratna Thahir, OSNo. 308/1976, 03 December 1992;
Thahir Kartika Ratna v. PT Pertambangan Minyak dan Gas Bumi Negara, 1994 SGCA 105, 25
August 1994;
The Rainbow Joy, 2005 SGCA 36, 20 July 2005;
Pacific Consultants International Asia v. Klaus K. Schonfeld, G.R. No. 166920, 19 February
2007;
Heine v. New York Insurance Company, 45 F2d 426, 01 December 1930;

III. CHOICE OF LAW AND CHARACTERIZATION
A. CONSENT BY FORUM
1. Express Consent
2. Implied Consent

B. POINTS OF CONTACT
1. Nationality; domicile; residence; place of sojourn
2. Place of establishment/ incorporation of juridical person; flag of a ship
3. Situs of a thing
4. Place where act was done
5. Place where act is intended to take effect
6. Intention of contracting parties
7. Place where proceedings are instituted

Herbert Brownell, Jr. v. Sun Life Assurance Co., Inc., G.R. No. L-5731 / 95 Phil 228, 22
June 1954;
Bienvenido Cadalin v. Philippine Overseas Employment Agency, G.R. No. 104776, 5
December 1994;
Bank of America v. American Realty Corp., G.R. No. 133876 / 321 SCRA 659, 29 December
1999;
J.A. Sison v. Board of Accountancy, G.R. No. L-2529 / 85 Phil. 276, 31 December 1949;

C. DETERMINATION OF APPLICABLE LAW: CHARACTERIZATION
1. Characterization of Conflicts Rules / Connecting Factors
a. Definition
b. Theories of Characterization
c. Sources of Problem of Characterization
d. Steps in Characterization
2. Subject Matter Characterization
3. Substantive law v. Procedural law; Borrowing Statute
4. Other Theories on Characterization
a. Center of Gravity / Grouping of Contacts
b. State-Interest Analysis
c. Cavers Principle
d. German Rule of Elective Concurrence

Saudi Arabian Airlines v. Court of Appeals, supra.;
Allison G. Gibbs v. Government of the Philippine Islands, G.R. No. L-35694 / 59 Phil. 293,
23 December 1933;
Bienvenido Cadalin v. Philippine Overseas Employment Authority, supra.;
Auten v. Auten, 308 N.Y. 155 (1954);
Georgia Babcock v. William Jackson, 12 N.Y. 2d 473 (1963);
Sy Joc Lieng v. Petronila Encarnacion, G.R. No. L-4718 / 16 Phil 137, 19 March 1920;
In the Matter of the Estate of Emil H. Johnson, G.R. No. L-12767 / 39 Phil 156, 16 November
1918;
A.W. Fluemer v. Annie Cousins Hix, G.R. No. L-32636 / 54 Phil 610, 17 March 1930;
Williamette Iron & Steel Works v. A.H. Muzzal, G.R. No. L-42538 / 61 Phil 471, 21 May 1935;
The Collector of Internal Revenue v. Douglas Fisher, G.R. Nos. L-11622/11668, 28 January 1961;
Vicente Rosal Pardo v. Republic of the Philippines, G.R. No. L-2248 / 85 Phil 323, 23 January
1950;
Philippine Commercial and Industrial Bank v. Hon. Venicio Escolin, G.R. Nos. L-27936-37, L-
27860 / 56 SCRA 266, 29 March 1974;
Sps. Cesar and Suthira Zalamea v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 104235, 18 November 1993;
Manufacturers Hanover Trust Co. v. Rafael Ma. Guerrero, G.R. No. 136804, 19 February 2003;
Crescent Petroleum, Ltd. v. M/V Lok Maheshwari, G.R. No. 155014, 11 November 2005;
EDI-Staff Builders International Inc. v. National Labor Relations Commission, G.R. No. 145587 /
537 SCRA 409, 26 October 2007;
Cayetano Lim v. Insular Collector of Customs, supra.;

D. RENVOI
1. Definition
2. Application
3. Problem
4. Double Renvoi v. Transmission
5. Various ways of dealing with the problem of renvoi

Adolfo Aznar v. Helen Christensen Garcia, G.R. No. L-16749 / 7 SCRA 95, 31 January 1963;
Testate Estate of Amos Bellis, et.al. v. Edward A. Bellis, G.R. No.L-23678, 6 June 1967
Saudi Arabian Airlines v. Court of Appeals, supra.;
Paula T. Llorente v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 124371, 23 November 2000;

E. APPLICATION OF FOREIGN LAW
1. Theories on the Application of Foreign Law
a. Theory of Comity
b. Theory of Vested Right
c. Theory of Local Law
d. Theory of Harmony of Laws
e. Theory of Justice
2. Proof of Foreign Law / Judicial Notice
a. Extent of Judicial Notice
3. Doctrine of Processual Presumption
4. Exception to the Application of Foreign Laws

Board of Commissioners v. Hon. Joselito de la Rosa, G.R. Nos. 95122-23 / 197 SCRA 858, 31
May 1991;
In re: Union Carbide Corporation Gas Plant Disaster in Bhopal, India in December 1984,
supra.;
Tirso Dacanay v. Pedro V. Florendo, G.R. No. L-2071, 19 September 1950;
Yao Kee v. Aida Sy-Gonzales, G.R. No. L-55960, 24 November 1988;
Bank of America v. American Realty Corporation, supra.;
Renato D. Tayag v. Benguet Consolidated, Inc. G.R. No. 23145, 29 November 1968;
United Airlines Inc. v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 124110, 20 April 2001;
Bienvenido Cadalin v. Philippine Overseas Employment Agency, supra.;
Pakistan International Airlines v. Ople, G.R. No. 61594 / 190 SCRA 90, 28 September 1990;
Huntington v. Attrill, 146 US 657, 12 December 1892;
Testate Estate of Amos G. Bellis et al. v. Edward Bellis, supra.;
Sps. Cesar and Suthira Zalamea v. Court of Appeals, supra.;
Grace J. Garcia-Recio Recio v. Rederick A. Recio, G.R. No. 138322, 2 October 2001;
Asiavest Merchant Bankers (M) Berhad v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 110263 / 361 SCRA
489, 20 July 2001;
Intercontinental Hotels Corporation v. Jack Golden, 15 NY 2d 9, 19 November 1964;

IV. CHOICE OF LAW ISSUES
A. PERSONAL STATUS, LEGAL PERSONALITY AND CAPACITY
1. General Theories in Status and Capacity
a. Definition of Status and Capacity
b. Kinds of Capacity
c. Characteristics of Status

Articles 15, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, and 42, Civil Code
Claro M. Recto v. Esperanza P. Harden, G.R. No. L-6897 / 100 Phil 427, 29 November 1956;
Constanza Yanez de Barnuevo v. Gabriel Fuster, G.R. No. L-7487 / 29 Phil. 606, 29
December 1913 ;
Government of the Philippine Islands v. George I. Frank, G.R. No. L-2935 / 13 Phil 236, 23
March 1909;

B. PERSONAL LAW: NATIONALITY, RESIDENCE AND DOMICILE
1. Definition
2. Importance of Personal Law
3. Theories on Personal Law
a. Nationality Theory
Definition of Nationality and Citizenship
Determination (Who are citizens of the Philippines?)
Classification of Citizens in the Philippines
Theory of effective nationality
Procedure for Naturalization
Loss of Philippine Citizenship
Reacquisition of Citizenship
Problem in the Application of Nationality Theory
Dual or Multiple Citizenship
Statelessness
Nationality of Juridical Person
b. Domiciliary Theory
Definition of Domicile
Kinds
Rules on Domicile
Domicile distinguished from Residence
Domicile of Juridical Person

Art. IV and Art. V, Sec. 1, 1987 Philippine Constitution
Republic Act 9225, Retention and Reacquisition of Citizenship Act (2003)
White v. Tennant, 31 W. Va. 790, 8 SE 596, 01 December 1988;
Laureto A. Talaroc v. Alejandro D. Uy, G.R. No. L-5397 / 92 Phil. 52, 26 September 1952
Juan G. Frivaldo v. Commission on Elections, G.R. Nos. 120295 and 123755/ 257 SCRA 727,
28 June 1996
Gaudencio M. Cordora v. Commission on Elections, G.R. No. 176947, 19 February 2009
Eremes Kookooritchkin v. Solictor General, G.R. No. L-1812, 81 Phil. 435, 27 August 1948
Mateo Caasi v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 88831 and 94508 / 191 SCRA 229, 08 November
1990
Wilfred Uytengsu v. Republic of the Philippines, G.R. No. L-6379 / 95 Phil. 890, 29
September 1954
Imelda Romualdez-Marcos v. Commission on Elections, G.R. No. 119976 / 248 SCRA 300, 18
September 1995
In the Matter of the Adoption of the Minor Norma Lee Caber, Caraballo v. Republic of the
Philippines, G.R. No. L-15080 / 4 SCRA 1055, 25 April 1962
Allison G. Gibbs v. Government of the Philippine Islands, supra.;
Juan L. Alcantara v. Secretary of the Interior, G.R. No. L-43592 / 61 Phil 459, 17 May 1935;
A.L. Vellila v. Juan Posadas, Jr., G.R. No. L-43314 / 62 Phil 624, 19 December 1935;
Pedro Gallego v. Vicente Verra, G.R. No. L-48641 / 73 Phil 450, 24 November 1941;
Florentia Villahermosa v. Commissioner of Immigration, G.R. No. L-1663, 31 March 1948;
Robert Cu v. Republic of the Philippines, G.R. No. L-3018, 18 July 1951;
Philippine Trust Co. v. Magdalena C. Bohanan, G.R. No. L-12105, 30 January 1960;
Adolfo Aznar v. Helen Christensen Garcia, supra.;
Lao Chay v. Hon. Emilio L. Galang, G.R. No. L-19977, 30 October 1964;
Zita Ngo Burca v. Republic of the Philippines, G.R. No. L-24252, 30 January 1967;
Mo Ya Lim Yao v. Commissioner of Immigration, G.R. No. L-21289 / 41 SCRA 292, 4 October
1971;
Paula T. Llorente v. Court of Appeals, supra.;
Aniceto G. Saludo, Jr. v. American Express International, G.R. No. 159507, 19 April 2006;

C. FAMILY LAW
1. Marriage
a. Philippine Policy on Marriage
b. Extrinsic Validity of Marriage
c. Intrinsic Validity of Marriage
d. Effects of Marriage Property Relations
2. Divorce
a. Divorce distinguished from Annulment and Legal Separation
b. Effect of Divorce Obtained by Filipinos
c. Divorce Between Foreigners
d. Divorce Between a Foreigner and a Filipina
3. Paternity and Filiation
a. Definition of Paternity and Filiation
b. Conflict rules on Paternity and Filiation
Status of Children
Rights of Children
Doctrine of Immutability of Status of Child
4. Adoption
a. Definition and Purpose of Adoption
b. Conflict rules on Adoption (Effect of Adoption, Foreign Adoption and Philippine Law
on Adoption with foreign element)

Article 15, 16 (2) and 220, Civil Code
Articles 3, 10, 21, 26, 35, 36, 37, 38, 80, 96, 184, 187, Family Code
Hague Convention
Domestic Adoption Act of 1998
Inter-country Adoption Act of 1995
Imelda M. Pilapil v. Hon. Corona Ibay-Somera, G.R. No. 80116, 30 June 1989;
Wolfgang O. Roehr v. Maria Carmen D. Rodriguez, G.R. No. 142820, 20 June 2003;
Herbert Cang v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 105308, 25 September 1998;
Maria Rebecca M. Bayot v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 155635, 7 November 2008;
Republic of the Philippines v. Cipriano Orbecido III, G.R. No. 154380, 5 October 2005;
Gerbert Corpuz v. Daisylyn T. Sto. Tomas, G.R. No. 186571, 11 August 2010;
Grace J. Garcia-Recio Recio v. Rederick A. Recio, G.R. No. 138322, 2 October 2001;
Mora Adong v. Cheong Seng Gee, G.R. No. 18081 / 43 Phil 43, 3 March 1922;
Ana M. Ramirez v. Otto Gmur, G.R. No. L-11796 / 42 Phil 855, 5 August 1918;
Annie Cousins Hix v. A.W. Fluemer, G.R. No. L-34259 / 55 Phil 851, 21 March 1931;
Manuela Barretto Gonzalez v. Gonzalez, G.R. No. L-37048 / 58 Phil 67, 7 March 1933;
Salud R. Arca v. Alfredo Javier, G.R. No. L-6768 / 50 OG 3538, 31 July 1954;
Wong Woo Yiu v. Hon. Martiniano Vivo, G.R. No. L-21076 / 13 SCRA 552, 31 March 1965;
Pastor B. Tenchavez v. Vicenta F. Escano, G.R. No. L-19671, 29 November 1965;
Alice Reyes Van Dorn v. Hon. Manuel V. Romillo, G.R. No. L-68470 / 139 SCRA 139, 8 October
1985;
Sylvia Lichauco de Leon v. Hon. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 80965 / 186 SCRA 347, 6 June 1990;
Yao Kee v. Aida Sy-Gonzales, supra.;
Tomas Eugenio, Sr. v. Hon. Alejandro M. Velez, G.R. Nos. 85140 and 86470 / 185 SCRA 435, 17
May 1990;
Board of Commissioners v. Hon. Joselito de la Rosa, supra.;
Lazaro B. Ray Ray v. Chae Kyung Lee, supra.;

D. WILLS, SUCCESSION AND ADMINISTRATION OF ESTATES
a. Definition of Wills and Administration of Estate
b. Execution of a Will
- Extrinsic Validity (Made by Filipinos or Foreigners abroad and/or in the Philippines)
- Intrinsic Validity (National Law)
c. Interpretation of Wills
d. Revocation
e. Probate
f. Administration
g. Trusts

Civil Code, Arts. 16, 17, 815, 816, 817, 818, 819, 829, 1039
Allison G. Gibbs v. Government of the Philippine Islands, supra.;
Testate Estate of Amos G. Bellis v. Edward A. Bellis, supra.;
In the Matter of the Estate of Emil H. Johnson, supra.;
Juan Miciano v. Andre Brimo, G.R. No. L-22595 / 50 Phil 867, 1 November 1927;
Francisco Carmelo Varela v. Miguel Varela Calderon, G.R. No. L-36342 / 57 Phil 280, 8 October
1932;
Philippine Trust Co. v. Magdalena C. Bohanan, supra.;
Adolfo Aznar v. Helen Christensen Garcia, supra.;
Ramon N. Bilbao v. Dalmacio Bilbao, G.R. No. L-2200 / 87 Phil 144, 2 August 1950;
Severina A. vda. de Enriquez v. Miguel Abadia, G.R. No. L-7188 / 95 Phil 627 9 August 1954;
Polly Cayetano v. Hon. Tomas T. Leonidas, G.R. No. L-54919 / 129 SCRA 522, 30 May 1984;

E. PROPERTY
1. The Controlling law: lex loci or lex loci rei sitei
2. Immovable Property
3. Movable Property
4. Capacity to Transfer or Acquire Property
5. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Validity of Conveyances
6. Exceptions to Lex Situs
a. Lex Intentionis / Lex Voluntatis
b. Loan with Mortgage
c. Testate and Intestate Succession
7. Situs of Certain Properties
a. Situs of personal property for tax purposes
b. Situs of money
c. Situs of debts
d. Situs of corporate shares of stocks

Salvador H. Laurel v. Ramon Garcia, supra.;
Testate Estate of Amos G. Bellis v. Edward A. Bellis, supra.;
Gonzalo Chua Guan v. Samahang Magsasaka, G.R. No. 42091, 2 November 1935;
Wells Fargo Bank & Union Trust Company v. Collector of Internal Revenue, G.R. No. 46720,
28 June 1940;
A.W. Beam v. A.L. Yatco, G.R. No. 48122, 29 October 1948;
National Development Company v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. L-49407/L-49469, 19 August
1988;
The Holy See v. Hon. Eriberto U. Rosario, G.R. No. 101949, 1 December 1994;
Karen E. Salvacion v. Central Bank of the Philippines, G.R. No. 94723, 21 August 1997;
Natividad P. Nazareno v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 131641 / 343 SCRA 637, 23 February
2000;

F. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS
1. Trademarks / Trade Name
a. Definition of Trademark
b. How ownership is acquired?
c. Rights of Foreign Nationals under Philippine Law
d. Infringement of Trademark
2. Patent
a. Definition of Patent
b. Rights of Foreigners with Respect to Patents
c. Compulsory Licensing
3. Copyright
a. Definition of Copyright
b. Terms of Protection
c. Reciprocity and International Conventions

Civil Code, Arts. 16, 1753
Intellectual Property Code

G. OBLIGATIONS AND CONTRACTS
1. Definition of Contract
2. Essential Element of a Contract
3. Conflict rules on Contracts
a. Capacity of the parties
b. Intrinsic Validity (Lex loci contractus, lex loci voluntatis, lex loci intentionis)
c. Extrinsic Validity
4. Issues on Conflicts Contracts Cases
a. Adhesion Contracts
b. Special Contracts
c. Limitation on the Application of Conflict Rules on Contracts

Civil Code, Arts. 17, 1306;
Warsaw Convention
Montreal Convention
Bienvenido M. Cadalin v. Philippine Overseas Employment Authority, supra.;
K.K. Shell Sekiyu Osaka Hatsubaisho and Fu Hing Oil Co., Ltd. v. Court of Appeals, supra.;
Pakistan International Airlines Corporation v. Hon. Blas F. Ople, supra.;
Bagong Filipino Overseas Corp. v. National Labor Relations Commission, G.R. No. L-66006 /
135 SCRA 278, 28 February 1985;
Triple Eight Integrated Services, Inc. v. National Labor Relations Commission, G.R. No.
129584 / 299 SCRA 608, 03 December 1998;
Government of the Philippines v. George I. Frank, supra.;
Rafael Molina v. Antonio dela Riva, G.R. No. 3412 / 6 Phil 12, 19 January 1907
Joaquin Ibanes de Aldecoa v. Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, G.R. No. L-6889 / 30
Phil 228, 23 March 1915;
Compagnie de Commerce et de Navigation DExtreme Orient v. Hamburg-Amerika Packetfacht
Actien Gesellschaft, G.R. No. L-10986 / 36 Phil 590, 31 March 1917;
King Mau Wu v. Francisco Sycip, G.R No. L-5897 / 94 Phil 784, 23 April 1954;
Parmanand Shewaram v. Philippine Airlines, G.R. No. L-20099 / 17 SCRA 606, 7 July 1966;
Agustino B. Ong Yiu v. Honorable Court of Appeals, G.R. No. L-40597 / 91 SCRA 223, 29 July
1979;
Pan American World Airways, Inc. v. Intermediate Appellate Court, G.R. No. 70462 / 164 SCRA
268, 11 August 1988;
Philippine Export and Foreign Loan Guarantee Corporation v. V.P Eusebio Construction Inc.,
G.R. No. 140047 / 434 SCRA 202, 13 July 2004;
Augusto Benedicto Santos III v. Northwest Orient Lines, supra.


H. TORTS AND CRIMES
1. Lex loci delicti commissi
2. Modern theories on foreign tort liability
a. Most Significant Relationship
b. Interest Analysis
c. Cavers principle of preference
3. Foreign Tort Claims / Alien Tort Act
4. Distinguish between torts and crimes
5. Lex Loci Delicti

Civil Code, Arts. 19 and 2176;
Revised Penal Code, Art. 2
United States - Alien Tort Statute / Alien Tort Claims Act, 28 USC. 1350
United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, 15 USC. 78dd-1, et seq.
Wildvalley Shipping Co., Ltd. v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 119602 / 342 SCRA 213, 06
October 2000
Loucks v. Standards Oil Co. of New York, 224 N.Y. 99; N.E. 198, 12 July 1918
Saudi Arabian Airlines v. Court of Appeals, supra.
Asahi Metal Industry Co. v. Superior Court, supra.
Worldwide Volkswagen Corporation v. Woodson, supra.
Bernabe Navida v. Hon. Teodoro A. Dizon, G.R. No. 125078, 30 May 2011
Filartiga v. Pena-Irala, 630 F. 2d 876 (2d Cir, 1980)
Hilao v. Estate of Ferdinand Marcos, No. No. 95-15779 O.C. No. MDL-00840, 1996
Agapita Trajano v. Ferdinand E. Marcos, 978 F.2d 493 / No. 91-15891, 21 October 1992
Alberto Guinto v. Marcos, 654 F. Supp 276 (S.D. Cal.), 1986
People of the Philippines v. Wong Cheng, G.R. No. L-18924 / 46 Phil. 729, 19 October 1922
SS Lotus Case, P.C.I.J. Ser. A, No. 10 (1927)

I. CORPORATIONS AND OTHER JURIDICAL ENTITIES
1. Definition of Corporation
2. Personal Law of Corporation
a. Nationality of Corporation
Grandfather Test
Control Test
Classification made under the Philippine Investment Law
b. Domicile of Corporation
3. Foreign Corporations
a. Definition of Foreign Corporations
b. Kinds of Foreign Corporations
c. Applicable Law in Intra-Corporate disputes of a Foreign Corporation
d. Scope of Transacting or Doing Business (License Requirements)
e. Doing Business without a License
f. Rights of a Foreign Corporations

V. RECOGNITION AND ENFORCEMENT OF FOREIGN JUDGMENT
A. Basic principle relating to the enforceability of a foreign judgment
B. Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgment
1. Distinction
2. Bases

C. Requisites for the enforcement of a foreign judgment
D. Effect of Foreign Judgments or Final Orders
E. Grounds for Non Recognition

Rules of Court, Rule 39, Sec. 47 and 48, Rule 131, Sec. 3;
1958 Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards;
Republic Act No. 9285, Alternative Dispute Resolution Act (2004), Secs. 42-48;
Northwest Orient Airlines, Inc. v. Court of Appeals, supra.;
Emilie Boudard v. Stewart Tait, G.R. No. L-45193 / 67 Phil. 170, 05 April 1939;
Oil and Natural Gas Commission v. Court of Appeals and Pacific Cement Company, G.R. No.
114323, 23 July 1998
Margaret Querubin v. Wild Querubin, G.R. No. L-3693 / 87 Phil. 124, 29 July 1950;
Philsec Investment Corporation v. Court of Appeals, supra.
Arthur Eugene Perkins v. Benguet Consolidated Mining, Inc., G.R. Nos. L-1981-82 / 93 Phil.
1034, 30 October 1953
Hang Lung Bank, Ltd. v. Hon. Felintriye Saulog, G.R. No. 73765 / 201 SCRA 137, 26 August
1991
Philippine Aluminum Wheels v. FASGI Enterprises, Inc., G.R. No. 137378 / 342 SCRA 722, 12
October 2000
Soorajmull Nagarmull v. Binalbagan-Isabela Sugar Company, G.R. No. L-22470 / 33 SCRA 46,
28 May 1970
Asiavest Merchant Bankers (M) Berhad v. Court of Appeals, supra.;
Bachchan v. India Abroad Publications Inc., 585 N.Y.S. 2d 661, 13 April 1992;
William B. Borthwick v. Hon. Floreliana Castro-Bartolome, G.R. No. L-57338 / 152 SCRA
229, 23 July 1987;
Bridgeway Corp. v. Citibank, 201 F. 3d 134, 3 January 2000;
Cowans, et al. v. Teconderoga Pulp & Paper Co.219 N.Y.S. 284 (1927);
EDI-Staff Builders International Inc. v. National Labor Relations Commission, supra.;
Godard v. Gray, L.R. 6 Q.B. 139 (1870);
Hilton v. Guyot, 159 US 113, 3 June 1895;
Ingenohl v. Olsen & Company, 273 US 541, 14 March 1927;
Jorge Gonzales, et al. v. Climax Mining Ltd., et al., G.R. No. 161957 / 512 SCRA 148, 22
January 2007;
Klaxon Co. v. Stentor Electric Manufacturing Co. No. 741 / 313 US 487, 2 June 1941;
Korea Technologies Co. Ltd. v. Hon. Alberto A. Lerma, G.R. No. 143581 / 542 SCRA 1, 7
January 2008;
Hendrik Koster v. Automark Industries Incorporated, No. 80-1765 / 640 F.2d 77, 3 February
1981;
Loucks v. Standard Oil Company of New York, supra.;
National Union Fire Insurance Company of Pittsburgh v. Stolt-Nielsen Philippines, Inc., G.R.
No. 87958, 26 April 1990;
In Re: Henderson, Nouvion v. Freeman, 59 L.J. Ch. 337 (1889);
Philippine Export and Foreign Loan Guarantee Corporation v. V.P Eusebio Construction Inc.,
supra.;
Philippine International Shipping Corporation v. Honorable Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 77085 /
172 SCRA 810, 26 April 1989;
Priscilla C. Mijares v. Hon. Santiago Javier Ranada, G.R. No. 139325 / 455 SCRA 397, 12 April
2005;
Ana M. Ramirez v. Otto Gmur, supra.;
Republic of the Philippines v. Hon. Henrick F. Gingoyon, G.R. No. 166429 / 481 SCRA 457, 01
February 2006;
Scherk v. Alberto-Culver Co., No. 73-781 / 417 US 506, 17 June 1974;
Wilhelmine Siedler v. Julius H. Jacobson, 383 N.Y. S.2d 833, 28 April 1976;
Aristotel Valenzuela v. People of the Philippines, G.R. No. 160188 / 525 SCRA 306, 21 June
2007;
Zoilo Antonio Velez v. Atty. Leonard S. De Vera, A.C. No. 6697 / 496 SCRA 345, 25 July
2006;
Minoru Fujiki v. Ma. Paz Galela Marinay, G.R. No. 196049, 26 June 2013.


VI. THE INTERNET / CYBER-ERA

Panavision International, L.P. v. Dennis Toeppen, No. 97-55467 / 9
th
Circuit Court of
Appeals, 17 April 1998;
Transcraft Corp. v. Doonan Trailer Corp., 45 USPQ2d 1097 (N.D. III. 1997);
Scherr v. Abrahams, No. 97C-5453 / 1998 WL 299678, 29 May 1998;
Maritz, Inc. v. Cybergold, Inc., No. 4:96CV01340 ERW / 947 F. Supp 1328, 19 August 1996;
CompuServe v. Patterson, No. 95-3452 / 89 F. 3d 1257, 22 July 1996;
Yahoo!, Inc. v. La Ligue Contre Le Racisme et LAntisemitisme, No. C-00-21275, 7
November 2001;
Inset Systems, Inc. v. Instruction Set, Inc., No. CV-3:95 CV-01314 (AVC) / 937 F. Supp 161,
17 April 1996;
Bensusan Restaurant Corporation v. Richard B. King, Docket No. 96-9344, 10 September
1997;
America Online, Inc., v. Superior Court and Al Mendoza, Jr., No. A092813 / 90 Cal.App.4
th
1
/ 108 Ca.Rptr.2d 699, 21 June 2001;

CLASS CALENDAR:

01 17/19 June 2014
02 24/26 June 2014 INTRODUCTION
03 01/03 July 2014
JURISDICTION AND CHOICE OF FORUM
04 08/10 July 2014
05 15/17 July 2014
06 22/24 July 2014
07 29/31 July 2014
CHOICE OF LAW AND CHARACTERIZATION
08 05/07 August 2014
09 12/14 August 2014 MIDTERM EXAMINATIONS
10 19/21 August 2014
CHOICE OF LAW ISSUES
11 26/28 August 2014
12 02/04 September 2014
13 9/11 September 2014
14 16/18 September 2014
ENFORCEMENT AND RECOGNITION OF FOREIGN JUDGMENTS
15 23/25 September 2014
16 30/01 September/October 2014 INTERNET AND THE CYBER-AGE
17 07/09 October 2014 FINAL EXAMINATIONS

GRADE BREAKDOWN:

RECITATION 33.33%
MIDTERM EXAMINATIONS 33.33%
FINAL EXAMINATIONS 33.33%
TOTAL: 100.00%

CONTACT INFORMATION:

For consultations and what not, email me at bjccong@pup.edu.ph.
You can similarly ask for consultations through my office, landline number (02) 584-1807.