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Electricity sector in India

1
Electricity sector in India
Ramagundam Thermal Power Station, Andhra
Pradesh
Yamunanagar Thermal Power Station, Haryana
commissioned in 2008
The electricity sector in India had an installed capacity of 199.87
Gigawatt (GW) as of March 2012, the world's fifth largest.
[1]
Captive
power plants generate an additional 31.5 GW. Thermal power plants
constitute 66% of the installed capacity, hydroelectric about 19% and
rest being a combination of wind, small hydro, biomass,
waste-to-electricity, and nuclear. India generated 855 BU electricity
during 2011-12 fiscal.
In terms of fuel, coal-fired plants account for 55% of India's installed
electricity capacity, compared to South Africa's 92%; China's 77%; and
Australia's 76%. After coal, renewal hydropower accounts for 21%,
and natural gas for about 10%.
[2][3]
In December 2011, over 300 million Indian citizens had no access to
electricity. Over one third of India's rural population lacked electricity,
as did 6% of the urban population. Of those who did have access to
electricity in India, the supply was intermittent and unreliable. In 2010,
blackouts and power shedding interrupted irrigation and manufacturing
across the country.
[4][5]
The per capita average annual domestic electricity consumption in
India in 2009 was 96 kWh in rural areas and 288 kWh in urban areas
for those with access to electricity, in contrast to the worldwide per capita annual average of 2600 kWh and 6200
kWh in the European Union.
[6]
India's total domestic, agricultural and industrial per capita energy consumption
estimate vary depending on the source. Two sources place it between 400 to 700 kWh in 20082009.
[7][8]
As of
January 2012, one report found the per capita total consumption in India to be 778 kWh.
[4]
India currently suffers from a major shortage of electricity generation capacity, even though it is the world's fourth
largest energy consumer after United States, China and Russia.
[9]
The International Energy Agency estimates India
needs an investment of at least $135 billion to provide universal access of electricity to its population.
The International Energy Agency estimates India will add between 600 GW to 1200 GW of additional new power
generation capacity before 2050.
[5]
This added new capacity is equivalent to the 740 GW of total power generation
capacity of European Union (EU-27) in 2005. The technologies and fuel sources India adopts, as it adds this
electricity generation capacity, may make significant impact to global resource usage and environmental issues.
[10]
India's electricity sector is amongst the world's most active players in renewable energy utilization, especially wind
energy.
[11]
As of December 2011, India had an installed capacity of about 22.4 GW of renewal technologies-based
electricity, exceeding the total installed electricity capacity in Austria by all technologies.
India's network losses exceeded 32% in 2010 including non-technical losses, compared to world average of less than
15%. Both technical and non-technical factors contribute to these losses, but quantifying their proportions is
difficult. Some experts estimate that technical losses are about 15% to 20%, A high proportion of nontechnical
losses are caused by illegal tapping of lines, but faulty electric meters that underestimate actual consumption also
contribute to reduced payment collection. A case study in Kerala estimated that replacing faulty meters could reduce
distribution losses from 34% to 29%.
[5]
Key implementation challenges for India's electricity sector include new project management and execution,
ensuring availability of fuel quantities and qualities, lack of initiative to develop large coal and natural gas resources
present in India, land acquisition, environmental clearances at state and central government level, and training of
Electricity sector in India
2
skilled manpower to prevent talent shortages for operating latest technology plants.
[7]
History
The first demonstration of electric light in Calcutta was conducted on 24 July, 1879 by P W Fleury & Co. Mumbai
saw electric lighting for the first time in 1882 at Crawford Market. First hydro-electric installation in India was setup
by Crompton & Co for the Darjeeling Municipality in 1896. The Bombay Electric Supply & Tramways Company
(B.E.S.T.) set up a generating station in 1905 to provide electricity for the tramway. The first electric train ran
between Bombay's Victoria Terminus and Kurla along the Harbour Line, in February 1925. In November, 1931,
electrification of the meter gauge track between Madras Beach and Tambaram was started.
Demand
Demand drivers
Satellite pictures of India show thick haze and
black carbon smoke above India and other Asian
countries. This problem is particularly severe
along the Ganges Basin in northern India. Major
sources of particulate matter and aerosols are
believed to be smoke from biomass burning in
rural parts of India, and air pollution from large
cities in northern India.
"Expanding access to energy means including 2.4 billion people:
1.4 billion that still has no access to electricity (87% of whom
live in the rural areas) and 1 billion that only has access to
unreliable electricity networks. We need smart and practical
approaches because energy, as a driver of development, plays a
central role in both fighting poverty and addressing climate
change. The implications are enormous: families forego
entrepreneurial endeavors, children cannot study after dark,
health clinics do not function properly, and women are burdened
with time consuming chores such as pounding grain or hauling
water, leaving them with less time to engage in income
generating activities. Further, it is estimated that kitchen smoke
leads to around 1.5 million premature deaths every year, more
than the number of deaths from malaria each year. After gaining
access to energy, households generate more income, are more
productive and are less hungry, further multiplying the
Millenium Development Goal's progress."
Rebeca Grynspan, UNDP Associate Administrator and Under
Secretary General, Bloomberg New Energy Summit, April 7, 2011
[12]
Of the 1.4 billion people of the world who have no access to electricity in the world, India accounts for over 300
million.
Some 800 million Indians use traditional fuels fuelwood, agricultural waste and biomass cakes for cooking and
general heating needs. These traditional fuels are burnt in cook stoves, known as chulah or chulha in some parts of
India.
[13][14]
Traditional fuel is inefficient source of energy, its burning releases high levels of smoke, PM10
particulate matter, NOX, SOX, PAHs, polyaromatics, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide and other air
pollutants.
[15][16][17][18]
Some reports, including one by the World Health Organization, claim 300,000 to 400,000
people in India die of indoor air pollution and carbon monoxide poisoning every year because of biomass burning
and use of chullahs.
[19]
Traditional fuel burning in conventional cook stoves releases unnecessarily large amounts of
pollutants, between 5 to 15 times higher than industrial combustion of coal, thereby affecting outdoor air quality,
haze and smog, chronic health problems, damage to forests, ecosystems and global climate. Burning of biomass and
firewood will not stop, these reports claim, unless electricity or clean burning fuel and combustion technologies
become reliably available and widely adopted in rural and urban India. The growth of electricity sector in India may
help find a sustainable alternative to traditional fuel burning.
Electricity sector in India
3
In addition to air pollution problems, a 2007 study finds that discharge of untreated sewage is single most important
cause for pollution of surface and ground water in India. There is a large gap between generation and treatment of
domestic wastewater in India. The problem is not only that India lacks sufficient treatment capacity but also that the
sewage treatment plants that exist do not operate and are not maintained. Majority of the government-owned sewage
treatment plants remain closed most of the time in part because of the lack of reliable electricity supply to operate the
plants. The wastewater generated in these areas normally percolates in the soil or evaporates. The uncollected wastes
accumulate in the urban areas cause unhygienic conditions, release heavy metals and pollutants that leaches to
surface and groundwater.
[20][21]
Almost all rivers, lakes and water bodies are severely polluted in India. Water
pollution also adversely impacts river, wetland and ocean life. Reliable generation and supply of electricity is
essential for addressing India's water pollution and associated environmental issues.
Other drivers for India's electricity sector are its rapidly growing economy, rising exports, improving infrastructure
and increasing household incomes.
Demand trends
Electricity transmission grid in eastern India.
As in previous years, during the year 201011, demand for electricity
in India far outstripped availability, both in terms of base load energy
and peak availability. Base load requirement was 861,591 (MU)
against availability of 788,355 MU, a 8.5% deficit. During peak loads,
the demand was for 122 GW against availability of 110 GW, a 9.8%
shortfall.
[22]
In a May 2011 report, India's Central Electricity Authority anticipated,
for 201112 year, a base load energy deficit and peaking shortage to be
10.3% and 12.9% respectively. The peaking shortage would prevail in all regions of the country, varying from 5.9%
in the North-Eastern region to 14.5% in the Southern Region. India also expects all regions to face energy shortage
varying from 0.3% in the North-Eastern region to 11.0% in the Western region. India's Central Electricity Authority
expects a surplus output in some of the states of Northern India, those with predominantly hydropower capacity, but
only during the monsoon months. In these states, shortage conditions would prevail during winter season.
[22]
According to this report, the five states with largest power demand and availability, as of May 2011, were
Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat.
In late 2011 newspaper articles, Gujarat was declared a power surplus state, with about 23 GW more power
available than its internal demand. The state was expecting more capacity to become available. It was expecting to
find customers, sell excess capacity to meet power demand in other states of India, thereby generate revenues for the
state.
[23][24]
Despite an ambitious rural electrification program,
[25]
some 400 million Indians lose electricity access during
blackouts.
[26]
While 80% of Indian villages have at least an electricity line, just 52.5% of rural households have
access to electricity. In urban areas, the access to electricity is 93.1% in 2008. The overall electrification rate in India
is 64.5% while 35.5% of the population still live without access to electricity.
[27]
According to a sample of 97,882 households in 2002, electricity was the main source of lighting for 53% of rural
households compared to 36% in 1993.
[28]
The 17th electric power survey of India report claims:
[29]
Over 201011, India's industrial demand accounted for 35% of electrical power requirement, domestic household
use accounted for 28%, agriculture 21%, commercial 9%, public lighting and other miscellaneous applications
accounted for the rest.
The electrical energy demand for 201617 is expected to be at least 1392 Tera Watt Hours, with a peak electric
demand of 218 GW.
Electricity sector in India
4
The electrical energy demand for 202122 is expected to be at least 1915 Tera Watt Hours, with a peak electric
demand of 298 GW.
If current average transmission and distribution average losses remain same (32%), India needs to add about 135
GW of power generation capacity, before 2017, to satisfy the projected demand after losses.
McKinsey claims
[30]
that India's demand for electricity may cross 300 GW, earlier than most estimates. To explain
their estimates, they point to four reasons:
India's manufacturing sector is likely to grow faster than in the past
Domestic demand will increase more rapidly as the quality of life for more Indians improve
About 125,000 villages are likely to get connected to India's electricity grid
Currently blackouts and load shedding artificially suppresses demand; this demand will be sought as revenue
potential by power distribution companies
A demand of 300GW will require about 400 GW of installed capacity, McKinsey notes. The extra capacity is
necessary to account for plant availability, infrastructure maintenance, spinning reserve and losses.
In 2010, electricity losses in India during transmission and distribution were about 24%, while losses because of
consumer theft or billing deficiencies added another 1015%.
[31]
According to two studies published in 2004, theft of electricity in India, amounted to a nationwide loss of $4.5
billion.
[32][33]
This led several states of India to enact and implement regulatory, and institutional framework;
develop a new industry and market structure; and privatize distribution. The state of Andhra Pradesh, for example,
enacted an electricity reform law; unbundled the utility into one generation, one transmission, and four distribution
and supply companies; and established an independent regulatory commission responsible for licensing, setting
tariffs, and promoting efficiency and competition. Some state governments amended the Indian Electricity Act of
1910 to make electricity theft a cognizable offense and impose stringent penalties. A separate law, unprecedented in
India, provided for mandatory imprisonment and penalties for offenders, allowed constitution of special courts and
tribunals for speedy trial, and recognized collusion by utility staff as a criminal offense. The state government made
advance preparations and constituted special courts and appellate tribunals as soon as the new law came into force.
High quality metering and enhanced audit information flow was implemented. Such campaigns have made a big
difference in the Indian utilities bottom line. Monthly billing has increased substantially, and the collection rate
reached more than 98%. Transmission and distribution losses were reduced by 8%.
Power cuts are common throughout India and the consequent failure to satisfy the demand for electricity has
adversely effected India's economic growth.
[34][35]
Electricity sector in India
5
Generation
Tehri Hydroelectric Power station's lake in Uttarakhand. Tehri is world's
7th tallest dam.
[36]
With a capacity of 2.4 GW, it is India's largest
hydroelectric power generation installation.
Power development in India was first started in
1897 in Darjeeling, followed by commissioning of
a hydropower station at Sivasamudram in
Karnataka during 1902.
India's electricity generation capacity additions
from 1950 to 1985 were very low when compared
to developed nations. Since 1990, India has been
one of the fastest growing markets for new
electricity generation capacity.
The country's annual electricity generation
capacity has increased in last 20 years by about
120 GW, from about 66 GW in 1991
[37]
to over
100 GW in 2001,
[38]
to over 185 GW in 2011.
[39]
India's Power Finance Corporation Limited
projects that current and approved electricity
capacity addition projects in India are expected to add about 100 GW of installed capacity between 2012 and 2017.
This growth makes India one the fastest growing markets for electricity infrastructure equipment.
[40][41]
India's
installed capacity growth rates are still less than those achieved by China, and short of capacity needed to ensure
universal availability of electricity throughout India by 2017.
State-owned and privately owned companies are significant players in India's electricity sector, with the private
sector growing at a faster rate. India's central government and state governments jointly regulate electricity sector in
India.
As of August 2011, the states and union territories of India with power surplus were Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim,
Tripura, Gujarat, Delhi and Dadra and Nagar Haveli.
[22][23]
Major economic and social drivers for India's push for electricity generation include India's goal to provide universal
access, the need to replace current highly polluting energy sources in use in India with cleaner energy sources, a
rapidly growing economy, increasing household incomes, limited domestic reserves of fossil fuels and the adverse
impact on the environment of rapid development in urban and regional areas.
[42]
The table below presents the electricity generation capacity, as well as availability to India's end user and their
demand. The difference between installed capacity and availability is the transmission, distribution and consumer
losses. The gap between availability and demand is the shortage India is suffering. This shortage in supply ignores
the effects of waiting list of users in rural, urban and industrial customers; it also ignores the demand gap from
India's unreliable electricity supply.
Electricity sector in India
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Electricity sector capacity and availability in India (excludes effect of blackouts /
power-shedding)
Item Value Date reported Reference
Total installed capacity (GW) 201.64 April 2012 <ref name=cea1111 UNIQ-ref-49-5ad8f72130d162df-QINU />
Available base load supply (MU) 837374 May 2011
[39]
Available peak load supply (GW) 118.7 May 2011
[39]
Demand base load (MU) 933741 May 2011
[39]
Demand peak load (GW) 136.2 May 2011
[39]
According to India's Ministry of Power, about 14.1 GW of new thermal power plants under construction are
expected to be put in use by December 2012, so are 2.1 GW capacity hydropower plants and a 1 GW capacity
nuclear power plant.
[39]
India's installed generation capacity should top 200 GW in 2012.
In 2010, the five largest power companies in India, by installed capacity, in decreasing order, were the state-owned
NTPC, state-owned NHPC, followed by three privately owned companies: Tata Power, Reliance Power and Adani
Power.
In India's effort to add electricity generation capacity over 20092011, both central government and state
government owned power companies have repeatedly failed to add the capacity targets because of issues with
procurement of equipment and poor project management. Private companies have delivered better results.
[43]
Thermal power
A super thermal power plant in Rajasthan
Thermal power plants convert energy rich fuel into electricity and heat.
Possible fuels include coal, natural gas, petroleum products,
agricultural waste and domestic trash / waste. Other sources of fuel
include landfill gas and biogases. In some plants, renewal fuels such as
biogas are co-fired with coal.
Coal and lignite accounted for about 57% of India's installed capacity.
However, since wind energy depends on wind speed, and hydropower
energy on water levels, thermal power plants account for over 65% of
India's generated electricity. India's electricity sector consumes about
80% of the coal produced in the country.
India expects that its projected rapid growth in electricity generation over the next couple of decades is expected to
be largely met by thermal power plants.
Fuel constraints
A large part of Indian coal reserve is similar to Gondwana coal. It is of low calorific value and high ash content. The
iron content is low in India's coal, and toxic trace element concentrations are negligible. The natural fuel value of
Indian coal is poor. On average, the Indian power plants using India's coal supply consume about 0.7 kg of coal to
generate a kWh, whereas United States thermal power plants consume about 0.45 kg of coal per kWh.
Electricity sector in India
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A thermal power plant in Maharashtra
The high ash content in India's coal affects the thermal power plant's
potential emissions. Therefore, India's Ministry of Environment &
Forests has mandated the use of beneficiated coals whose ash content
has been reduced to 34% (or lower) in power plants in urban,
ecologically sensitive and other critically polluted areas, and
ecologically sensitive areas. Coal benefaction industry has rapidly
grown in India, with current capacity topping 90 MT.
Thermal power plants can deploy a wide range of technologies. Some
of the major technologies include:
Steam cycle facilities (most commonly used for large utilities);
Gas turbines (commonly used for moderate sized peaking facilities);
Cogeneration and combined cycle facility (the combination of gas turbines or internal combustion engines with
heat recovery systems); and
Internal combustion engines (commonly used for small remote sites or stand-by power generation).
India has an extensive review process, one that includes environment impact assessment, prior to a thermal power
plant being approved for construction and commissioning. The Ministry of Environment and Forests has published a
technical guidance manual to help project proposers and to prevent environmental pollution in India from thermal
power plants.
[44]
Installed thermal power capacity
The installed capacity of Thermal Power in India, as of June 30 2011, was 115649.48 MW which is 65.34%
[45]
of
total installed capacity.
Current installed base of Coal Based Thermal Power is 96,743.38 MW which comes to 54.66% of total installed
base.
Current installed base of Gas Based Thermal Power is 17,706.35 MW which is 10.00% of total installed capacity.
Current installed base of Oil Based Thermal Power is 1,199.75 MW which is 0.67% of total installed capacity.
The state of Maharashtra is the largest producer of thermal power in the country.
Hydro power
Indira Sagar Dam partially completed in 2008
In this system of power generation, the
potential of the water falling under
gravitational force is utilized to rotate a
turbine which again is coupled to a
Generator, leading to generation of
electricity. India is one of the
Electricity sector in India
8
Nagarjuna Sagar Hydroelectric power plant on
river Krishna. It is the world's largest masonry
dam, with an installed capacity of 800MW. The
dam also irrigates about 1.4 million acres of
previously drought-prone land.
pioneering countries in establishing hydro-electric power plants. The
power plants at Darjeeling and Shimsha (Shivanasamudra) were
established in 1898 and 1902 respectively and are among the first in
Asia.
India is endowed with economically exploitable and viable hydro
potential assessed to be about 84,000 MW at 60% load factor. In
addition, 6,780 MW in terms of installed capacity from Small, Mini,
and Micro Hydel schemes have been assessed. Also, 56 sites for
pumped storage schemes with an aggregate installed capacity of
94,000 MW have been identified. It is the most widely used form of
renewable energy. India is blessed with immense amount of
hydro-electric potential and ranks 5th in terms of exploitable
hydro-potential on global scenario.
The present installed capacity as of 30 June 2011 is approximately 37,367.4 MW which is 21.53% of total electricity
generation in India.
[46]
The public sector has a predominant share of 97% in this sector.
[47]
National Hydroelectric
Power Corporation (NHPC), Northeast Electric Power Company (NEEPCO), Satluj jal vidyut nigam (SJVNL), Tehri
Hydro Development Corporation, NTPC-Hydro are a few public sector companies engaged in development of
hydroelectric power in India.
Bhakra Beas Management Board (BBMB), an illustrative state-owned enterprise in north India, has an installed
capacity of 2.9 GW and generates 12000-14000 MU
[48]
per year. The cost of generation of energy after four decades
of operation is about 20 paise/kWh. BBMB is a major source of peaking power and black start to the northern grid in
India. Large reservoirs provide operational flexibility. BBMB reservoirs annually supply water for irrigation to 125
lac (12.5 million) acres of agricultural land of partner states, enabling northern India in its green revolution.
Nuclear power
Kudankulam nuclear power plant under
construction in 2009. It was 96% complete as of
March 2011, with first phase expected to be in
use in 2012. With initial installed capacity of 2
GW, this plant will be expanded to 6.8 GW
capacity.
As of 2011, India had 4.8 GW of installed electricity generation
capacity using nuclear fuels. India's Nuclear plants generated 32455
million units or 3.75% of total electricity produced in India.
[49]
India's nuclear power plant development began in 1964. India signed
an agreement with General Electric of the United States for the
construction and commissioning of two boiling water reactors at
Tarapur. In 1967, this effort was placed under India's Department of
Atomic Energy. In 1971, India set up its first pressurised heavy water
reactors with Canadian collaboration in Rajasthan. In 1987, India
created Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited to commercialize
nuclear power.
Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited is a public sector
enterprise, wholly owned by the Government of India, under the
administrative control of its Department of Atomic Energy. Its
objective is to implement and operate nuclear power stations for India's electricity sector. The state-owned company
has ambitious plans to establish 63 GW generation capacity by 2032, as a safe, environmentally benign and
economically viable source of electrical energy to meet the increasing electricity needs of India.
[50]
India's nuclear power generation effort satisfies many safeguards and oversights, such as getting ISO-14001
accreditation for environment management system and peer review by World Association of Nuclear Operators
Electricity sector in India
9
including a pre-start up peer review. Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited admits, in its annual report for
2011, that its biggest challenge is to address the public and policy maker perceptions about the safety of nuclear
power, particularly after the Fukushima incident in Japan.
[49]
In 2011, India had 18 pressurized heavy water reactors in operation, with another four projects of 2.8 GW capacity
launched. The country plans to implement fast breeder reactors, using plutonium based fuel. Plutonium is obtained
by reprocessing spent fuel of first stage reactors. India successfully launched its first prototype fast breeder reactor of
500 MW capacity in Tamil Nadu, and now operates two such reactors.
India has nuclear power plants operating in the following states: Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh,
Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. These reactors have an installed electricity generation capacity between 100 to 540 MW
each. New reactors with installed capacity of 1000 MW per reactor are expected to be in use by 2012.
In 2011, The Wall Street Journal reported the discovery of uranium in a new mine in India, the country's largest ever.
The estimated reserves of 64,000 tonnes, could be as large as 150,000 tonnes (making the mine one of the world's
largest). The new mine is expected to provide India with a fuel that it currently imports. Nuclear fuel supply
constraints had limited India's ability to grow its nuclear power generation capacity. The newly discovered ore,
unlike those in Australia, is of slightly lower grade. This mine is expected to be in operation in 2012.
[51]
India's share of nuclear power plant generation capacity is just 1.2% of worldwide nuclear power production
capacity, making it the 15th largest nuclear power producer. Nuclear power provided 3% of the country's total
electricity generation in 2011. India aims to supply 9% of it electricity needs with nuclear power by 2032.
[49]
India's
largest nuclear power plant project under implementation is at Jaitapur, Maharashtra in partnership with Areva,
France.
Other renewable energy
Renewable energy in India is a sector that is still in its infancy.
As of December 2011, India had an installed capacity of about 22.4 GW of renewal technologies-based electricity,
about 12% of its total.
[52]
For context, the total installed capacity for electricity in Switzerland was about 18 GW in
2009. The table below provides the capacity breakdown by various technologies.
Renewal energy installed capacity in India (as of August 31, 2011)
Type
[53]
Technology Installed capacity (in MW)
Grid connected power
Wind 14989
Small hydro 3154
Biomass 1084
Bagasse Cogeneration 1779
Waste-to-Energy (WtE) 74
Solar 46
Off-grid, captive power
Biomass 141
Biomass non-bagasse cogen 328
Waste-to-Energy (WtE) 76
Solar 73
Aerogen/Hybrids 1
Electricity sector in India
10
As of August 2011, India had deployed renewal energy to provide electricity in 8846 remote villages, installed 4.4
million family biogas plants, 1800 microhydel units and 4.7 million square meters of solar water heating capacity.
India anticipates to add another 3.6 GW of renewal energy installed capacity by December 2012.
[53]
India plans to add about 30 GW of installed electricity generation capacity based on renewal energy technologies, by
2017.
[52]
Renewable energy projects in India are regulated and championed by the central government's Ministry of New and
Renewable Energy.
Solar power
Solar resource map for India. The western states
of the country are naturally gifted with high solar
incidence.
India is bestowed with solar irradiation ranging from 4 to 7
kWh/square meter/day across the country, with western and southern
regions having higher solar incidence.
[54]
India is endowed with rich solar energy resource. India receives the
highest global solar radiation on a horizontal surface.
With its growing electricity demand, India has initiated steps to
develop its large potential for solar energy based power generation. In
November 2009, the Government of India launched its Jawaharlal
Nehru National Solar Mission under the National Action Plan on
Climate Change. Under this central government initiative, India plans
to generate 1 GW of power by 2013 and up to 20 GW grid-based solar
power, 2 GW of off-grid solar power and cover 20 million square
metres with solar energy collectors by 2020.
[55]
India plans utility scale
solar power generation plants through solar parks with dedicated
infrastructure by state governments, among others, the governments of
Gujarat and Rajasthan.
[54]
The Government of Gujarat taking advantage of the national initiative and high solar irradiation in the state,
launched the Solar Power Policy in 2009 and proposes to establish a number of large-scale solar parks starting with
the Charanka solar park in Patan district in the sparsely populated northern part of the state. The development of
solar parks will streamline the project development timeline by letting government agencies undertake land
acquisition and necessary permits, and provide dedicated common infrastructure for setting up solar power
generation plants largely in the private sector. This approach will facilitate the accelerated installation of private
sector solar power generation capacity reducing costs by addressing issues faced by stand alone projects. Common
infrastructure for the solar park include site preparation and leveling, power evacuation, availability of water, access
roads, security and services. In parallel with the central government's initiative, the Gujarat Electricity Regulatory
Commission has announced feed-in-tariff to mainstream solar power generation which will be applied for solar
power generation plants in the solar park. Gujarat Power Corporation Limited is the responsible agency for
developing the solar park of 500 megawatts and will lease the lands to the project developers to generate solar
power. Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation Limited will develop the transmission evacuation from the
identified interconnection points with the solar developer. This project is being supported, in part, by the Asian
Development Bank.
[54]
The first Indian solar thermal power project (2X50MW) is in progress in Phalodi (Rajasthan), and is constructed by
CORPORATE ISPAT ALLOY LTD.
The Indian Solar Loan Programme, supported by the United Nations Environment Programme has won the
prestigious Energy Globe World award for Sustainability for helping to establish a consumer financing program for
Electricity sector in India
11
solar home power systems. Over the span of three years more than 16,000 solar home systems have been financed
through 2,000 bank branches, particularly in rural areas of South India where the electricity grid does not yet extend.
Launched in 2003, the Indian Solar Loan Programme was a four-year partnership between UNEP, the UNEP Risoe
Centre, and two of India's largest banks, the Canara Bank and Syndicate Bank.
[56][57]
Land acquisition is a challenge to solar farm projects in India. Some state governments are exploring means to
address land availability through innovation; for example, by exploring means to deploy solar capacity above their
extensive irrigation canal projects, thereby harvesting solar energy while reducing the loss of irrigation water by
solar evaporation.
Wind power
Wind farm in Rajasthan.
Wind turbines midst India's agricultural farms.
India has the fifth largest installed wind power capacity in the
world.
[58]
In 2010, wind power accounted for 6% of India's total
installed power capacity, and 1.6% of the country's power output.
The development of wind power in India began in the 1990s by Tamil
Nadu Electric Board near Tuticorin, and has significantly increased in
the last few years. Suzlon is the leading Indian company in wind
power, with an installed generation capacity of 6.2 GW in India.
Vestas is another major company active in India's wind energy
initiative.
[59]
As December 2011, the installed capacity of wind power in India was
15.9 GW, spread across many states of India.
[52][58]
The largest wind
power generating state was Tamil Nadu accounting for 30% of
installed capacity, followed in decreasing order by Maharashtra,
Gujarat, Karnataka, and Rajasthan.
[60]
It is estimated that 6 GW of
additional wind power capacity will be installed in India by 2012.
[61]
In Tamil Nadu, wind power is mostly harvested in the southern
districts such as Kanyakumari, Tirunelveli and Tuticorin.
The state of Gujarat is estimated to have the maximum gross wind
power potential in India, with a potential of 10.6 GW.
[59]
Biomass power
In this system biomass, bagasse, forestry and agro residue & agricultural wastes are used as fuel to produce
electricity.
[62]
Biomass gasifier
India has been promoting biomass gasifier technologies in its rural areas, to utilize surplus biomass resources such as
rice husk, crop stalks, small wood chips, other agro-residues. The goal was to produce electricity for villages with
power plants of up to 2 MW capacities. During 2011, India installed 25 rice husk based gasifier systems for
distributed power generation in 70 remote villages of Bihar. In addition, gasifier systems are being installed at 60
rice mills in India. During the year, biomass gasifier projects of 1.20 MW in Gujarat and 0.5 MW in Tamil Nadu
were successfully installed.
[52]
Biogas
Electricity sector in India
12
Wind farms midst paddy fields in India.
This pilot program aims to install small scale biogas plants for meeting
the cooking energy needs in rural areas of India. During 2011, some
45000 small scale biogas plants were installed. Cumulatively, India has
installed 4.44 million small scale biogas plants.
In 2011, India started a new initiative with the aim to demonstrate
medium size mixed feed biogas-fertilizer pilot plants. This technology
aims for generation, purification/enrichment, bottling and piped
distribution of biogas. India approved 21 of these projects with
aggregate capacity of 37016 cubic meter per day, of which 2 projects
have been successfully commissioned by December 2011.
[52]
India has additionally commissioned 158 projects under its Biogas based Distributed/Grid Power Generation
programme, with a total installed capacity of about 2 MW.
India is rich in biomass and has a potential of 16,881MW (agro-residues and plantations), 5000MW (bagasse
cogeneration) and 2700MW (energy recovery from waste). Biomass power generation in India is an industry that
attracts investments of over INR 600 crores every year, generating more than 5000 million units of electricity and
yearly employment of more than 10 million man-days in the rural areas.
As of 2010, India burnt over 200 million tonnes of coal replacement worth of traditional biomass fuel every year to
meet its energy need for cooking and other domestic use. This traditional biomass fuel fuelwood, crop waste and
animal dung is a potential raw material for the application of biomass technologies for the recovery of cleaner fuel,
fertilizers and electricity with significantly lower pollution.
Biomass available in India can and has been playing an important role as fuel for sugar mills, textiles, paper mills,
and small and medium enterprises (SME). In particular there is a significant potential in breweries, textile mills,
fertilizer plants, the paper and pulp industry, solvent extraction units, rice mills, petrochemical plants and other
industries to harness biomass power.
[63]
Geothermal energy
India's geothermal energy installed capacity is experimental. Commercial use is insignificant.
India has potential resources to harvest geothermal energy. The resource map for India has been grouped into six
geothermal provinces:
[64]
Himalayan Province Tertiary Orogenic belt with Tertiary magmatism
Areas of Faulted blocks Aravalli belt, Naga-Lushi, West coast regions and Son-Narmada lineament.
Volcanic arc Andaman and Nicobar arc.
Deep sedimentary basin of Tertiary age such as Cambay basin in Gujarat.
Radioactive Province Surajkund, Hazaribagh, Jharkhand.
Cratonic province Peninsular India
Electricity sector in India
13
India has about 340 hot springs spread over the country. Of this, 62 are distributed along the northwest Himalaya, in
the States of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand. They are found concentrated along a
30-50-km wide thermal band mostly along the river valleys. Naga-Lusai and West Coast Provinces manifest a series
of thermal springs. Andaman and Nicobar arc is the only place in India where volcanic activity, a continuation of the
Indonesian geothermal fields, and can be good potential sites for geothermal energy. Cambay graben geothermal belt
is 200 km long and 50 km wide with Tertiary sediments. Thermal springs have been reported from the belt although
they are not of very high temperature and discharge. During oil and gas drilling in this area, in recent times, high
subsurface temperature and thermal fluid have been reported in deep drill wells in depth ranges of 1.7 to 1.9 km.
Steam blowout have also been reported in the drill holes in depth range of 1.5 to 3.4 km. The thermal springs in
India's peninsular region are more related to the faults, which allow down circulation of meteoric water to
considerable depths. The circulating water acquires heat from the normal thermal gradient in the area, and depending
upon local condition, emerges out at suitable localities. The area includes Aravalli range, Son-Narmada-Tapti
lineament, Godavari and Mahanadi valleys and South Cratonic Belts.
[64]
In a December 2011 report, India identified six most promising geothermal sites for the development of geothermal
energy. These are, in decreasing order of potential:
Tattapani in Chhattisgarh
Puga in Jammu & Kashmir
Cambay Graben in Gujarat
Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh
Surajkund in Jharkhand
Chhumathang in Jammu & Kashmir
India plans to set up its first geothermal power plant, with 25 MW capacity at Puga in Jammu and Kashmir.
[65]
Tidal wave energy
Tidal energy technologies harvest energy from the seas. The potential of tidal wave energy becomes higher in certain
regions by local effects such as shelving, funneling, reflection and resonance.
India is surrounded by sea on three sides, its potential to harness tidal energy is significant.
Energy can be extracted from tides in several ways. In one method, a reservoir is created behind a barrage and then
tidal waters pass through turbines in the barrage to generate electricity. This method requires mean tidal differences
greater than 4 meters and also favorable topographical conditions to keep installation costs low. One report claims
the most attractive locations in India, for the barrage technology, are the Gulf of Khambhat and the Gulf of Kutch on
India's west coast where the maximum tidal range is 11 m and 8 m with average tidal range of 6.77 m and 5.23 m
respectively. The Ganges Delta in the Sunderbans, West Bengal is another possibility, although with significantly
less recoverable energy; the maximum tidal range in Sunderbans is approximately 5 m with an average tidal range of
2.97 m. The report claims, barrage technology could harvest about 8 GW from tidal energy in India, mostly in
Gujarat. The barrage approach has several disadvantages, one being the effect of any badly engineered barrage on
the migratory fishes, marine ecosystem and aquatic life. Integrated barrage technology plants can be expensive to
build.
In December 2011, the Ministry of New & Renewable Energy, Government of India and the Renewable Energy
Development Agency of Govt. of West Bengal jointly approved and agreed to implement India's first 3.75 MW
Durgaduani mini tidal power project. Indian government believes that tidal energy may be an attractive solution to
meet the local energy demands of this remote delta region.
[65]
Another tidal wave technology harvests energy from surface waves or from pressure fluctuations below the sea
surface. A report from the Ocean Engineering Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai estimates the annual
wave energy potential along the Indian coast is between 5 MW to 15 MW per meter, suggesting a theoretical
maximum potential for electricity harvesting from India's 7500 kilometer coast line may be about 40 GW. However,
Electricity sector in India
14
the realistic economical potential, the report claims, is likely to be considerably less.
[66]
A significant barrier to
surface energy harvesting is the interference of its equipment to fishing and other sea bound vessels, particularly in
unsettled weather. India built its first seas surface energy harvesting technology demonstration plant in Vizhinjam,
near Thiruruvananthpuram.
The third approach to harvesting tidal energy consists of ocean thermal energy technology. This approach tries to
harvest the solar energy trapped in ocean waters into usable energy. Oceans have a thermal gradient, the surface
being much warmer than deeper levels of ocean. This thermal gradient may be harvested using modified Rankine
cycle. India's National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT) attempted this approach over the last 20 years, but
without success. In 2003, with Saga University of Japan, NIOT attempted to build and deploy a 1 MW
demonstration plant.
[67]
However, mechanical problems prevented success. After initial tests near Kerala, the unit
was scheduled for redeployment and further development in the Lakshadweep Islands in 2005. The demonstration
project's experience have limited follow-on efforts with ocean thermal energy technology in India.
Problems with India's power sector
India's electricity sector faces many issues. Some are:
[4][18]
Government giveaways such as free electricity for farmers, partly to curry political favor, have depleted the cash
reserves of state-run electricity-distribution system. This has financially crippled the distribution network, and its
ability to pay for power to meet the demand. This situation has been worsened by government departments of
India that do not pay their bills.
Shortages of fuel: despite abundant reserves of coal, India is facing a severe shortage of coal. The country isn't
producing enough to feed its power plants. Some plants do not have reserve coal supplies to last a day of
operations. India's monopoly coal producer, state-controlled Coal India, is constrained by primitive mining
techniques and is rife with theft and corruption; Coal India has consistently missed production targets and growth
targets. Poor coal transport infrastructure has worsened these problems. To expand its coal production capacity,
Coal India needs to mine new deposits. However, most of India's coal lies under protected forests or designated
tribal lands. Any mining activity or land acquisition for infrastructure in these coal-rich areas of India, has been
rife with political demonstrations, social activism and public interest litigations.
The giant new offshore natural gas field has delivered less fuel than projected. India faces a shortage of natural
gas.
Hydroelectric power projects in India's mountainous north and northeast regions have been slowed down by
ecological, environmental and rehabilitation controversies, coupled with public interest litigations.
India's nuclear power generation potential has been stymied by political activism since the Fukushima disaster in
Japan.
Average transmission, distribution and consumer-level losses exceeding 30%.
Over 300 million people in India have no access to electricity. Of those who do, almost all find electricity supply
intermittent and unreliable.
Lack of clean and reliable energy sources such as electricity is, in part, causing about 800 million people in India
to continue using traditional biomass energy sources namely fuelwood, agricultural waste and livestock dung
for cooking and other domestic needs.
[13]
Traditional fuel combustion is the primary source of indoor air pollution
in India, causes between 300,000 to 400,000 deaths per year and other chronic health issues.
Indias coal-fired, oil-fired and natural gas-fired thermal power plants are inefficient and offer significant potential
for greenhouse gas (CO2) emission reduction through better technology. Compared to the average emissions from
coal-fired, oil-fired and natural gas-fired thermal power plants in European Union (EU-27) countries, Indias
thermal power plants emit 50 to 120 percent more CO2 per kWh produced.
[68]
Electricity sector in India
15
Resource potential in electricity sector
According to Oil and Gas Journal, India had approximately 38 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of proven natural gas reserves
as of January 2011, worlds 26th largest. United States Energy Information Administration estimates that India
produced approximately 1.8 Tcf of natural gas in 2010, while consuming roughly 2.3 Tcf of natural gas. The
electrical power and fertilizer sectors account for nearly three-quarters of natural gas consumption in India. Natural
gas is expected to be an increasingly important component of energy consumption as the country pursues energy
resource diversification and overall energy security.
[69][70]
Until 2008, the majority of India's natural gas production came from the Mumbai High complex in the northwest part
of the country. Recent discoveries in the Bay of Bengal have shifted the center of gravity of Indian natural gas
production.
The country already produces some coalbed methane and has major potential to expand this source of cleaner fuel.
According to a 2011 Oil and Gas Journal report, India is estimated to have between 600 to 2000 Tcf of shale gas
resources (one of the worlds largest). Despite its natural resource potential, and an opportunity to create energy
industry jobs, India has yet to hold a licensing round for its shale gas blocks. It is not even mentioned in India's
central government energy infrastructure or electricity generation plan documents through 2025. The traditional
natural gas reserves too have been very slow to develop in India because regulatory burdens and bureaucratic red
tape severely limit the countrys ability to harness its natural gas resources.
[4][68][71]
Rural electrification
India's Ministry of Power launched Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana as one of its flagship programme in
March 2005 with the objective of electrifying over one lakh un-electrified villages and to provide free electricity
connections to 2.34 crore rural households. This free electricity program promises energy access to India's rural
areas, but is in part creating problems for India's electricity sector.
[4]
Human resource development
Rapid growth of electricity sector in India demands that talent and trained personnel become available as India's new
installed capacity adds new jobs. India has initiated the process to rapidly expand energy education in the country, to
enable the existing educational institutions to introduce courses related to energy capacity addition, production,
operations and maintenance, in their regular curriculum. This initiative includes conventional and renewal energy.
A Ministry of Renewal and New Energy announcement claims State Renewable Energy Agencies are being
supported to organize short-term training programmes for installation, operation and maintenance and repair of
renewable energy systems in such places where intensive RE programme are being implemented. Renewable Energy
Chairs have been established in IIT Roorkee and IIT Kharagpur.
[52]
Education and availability of skilled workers is expected to be a key challenge in India's effort to rapidly expand its
electricity sector.
Electricity sector in India
16
Trading
India lit up at night. This media, courtesy of
NASA, was taken by the crew of Expedition 29
on October 21, 2011. It starts over Turkmenistan,
moving east. India begins past the long wavy
solid orange line, marking the lights at the
India-Pakistan borderline. New Delhi, India's
capital and the Kathiawar Peninsula are lit. So are
Mumbai, Hyderabad, Chennai, Bangalore and
many smaller cities in central and southern India,
as this International Space Station's video shifts
south-eastward through southern India, into the
Bay of Bengal. Lightning storms are also present,
represented by the flashing lights throughout the
video. The pass ends over western Indonesia.
Multi Commodity Exchange has sought permission to offer electricity
future markets in India.
[72]
Regulation and administration
The Ministry of Power is India's apex central government body
regulating the electrical energy sector in India. This ministry was
created on 2 July 1992. It is responsible for planning, policy
formulation, processing of projects for investment decisions,
monitoring project implementation, training and manpower
development, and the administration and enactment of legislation in
regard to thermal, hydro power generation, transmission and
distribution. It is also responsible for the administration of India's
Electricity Act (2003), the Energy Conservation Act (2001) and to
undertake such amendments to these Acts, as and when necessary, in
conformity with the Indian government's policy objectives.
[73]
Effective 28 May 2010, the Union Minister of Power is Sushil Kumar
Shinde.
Electricity is a concurrent subject at Entry 38 in List III of the seventh
Schedule of the Constitution of India. In India's federal governance
structure this means that both the central government and India's state governments are involved in establishing
policy and laws for its electricity sector. This principle motivates central government of India and individual state
governments to enter into memorandum of understanding to help expedite projects and reform electricity sector in
respective state.
[74]
Government owned power companies
India's Ministry of Power administers central government owned companies involved in the generation of electricity
in India. These include National Thermal Power Corporation, Damodar Valley Corporation, National Hydroelectric
Power Corporation and Nuclear Power Corporation of India. The Power Grid Corporation of India is also
administered by the Ministry; it is responsible for the inter-state transmission of electricity and the development of
national grid.
The Ministry works with various state governments in matters related to state government owned corporations in
India's electricity sector. Examples of state corporations include Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corporation
Limited, Tamil Nadu Electricity Board, Maharashtra State Electricity Board, Kerala State Electricity Board, and
Gujarat Urja Vikas Nigam Limited.
Funding of power infrastructure
India's Ministry of Power administers Rural Electrification Corporation Limited and Power Finance Corporation
Limited. These central government owned public sector enterprises provide loans and guarantees for public and
private electricity sector infrastructure projects in India.
Electricity sector in India
17
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Article Sources and Contributors
Electricity sector in India Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=494282895 Contributors: 4twenty42o, Adityarn, Ahoerstemeier, Amangarg05, Ambarish, Amitesh Bajad,
ApostleVonColorado, Arruri, Ashish itct, Auntof6, AxiomOfFaith, BPositive, Bangalore102, Bbmbjdpr, Beagel, Berkut, Bhadani, Biz123, Boolyme, Bouchecl, CalJW, Chanakyathegreat,
Chandraguptamaurya, Cherokawa, Chris the speller, Claidheamohmor, Closedmouth, Cold Season, Courcelles, DSachan, Ddlj95, Edward, Eemanish, Free Bear, G1MFG, Generalboss3,
GoingBatty, Gralo, Hrishie, IMpbt, Ias2008, IdiotSavant, Igrek, Incidious, IndianGeneralist, Ingolfson, JaGa, Jawvin, John254, Kakash, Kalyan gnp, Kerotan, Kickinpants, King Zebu, Kranix,
KuwarOnline, Kwdt2, Lalit Jagannath, Letsgiv, Linas, Longhair, Loren.wilton, Mahendra 143us, Marcus334, Materialscientist, Mattisse, NPrice, Naveen Reddy, Naveenpf, Niceguyedc, Nichalp,
Nithinbh, Nomi887, Nosedown, P.K.Niyogi, PREVRAVANTH, Pdsharma61, Peter Chastain, Piano non troppo, Pinaki ghosh, Prateekramachandra, Rakeshpsc, Ravi.sattavan, Rengasathish,
Riana, Rich Farmbrough, Rigmahroll, Rjwilmsi, Ross Rhodes, Rsrikanth05, SQGibbon, Sachinvenga, Safemariner, Sardanaphalus, Sarvagyana guru, Satyanandapatel, Sayanc, Shadowjams,
Shameer, Sharonjose, Shoeofdeath, Shradhasapra, SkyMachine, Ssm83, Sumita.saha, Sumitinnpti, Suntech, Tanmay21192, Tedder, TeleComNasSprVen, Timmonsgray, Tri400, Utcursch,
Venkatarv, Vyom25, Wikiguruindia, Ynhockey, 256 anonymous edits
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