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UNIT-I PN Junction Diode

1. What is an insulator, a semiconductor and a metal? Explain ith the help
o! ener"# $and dia"rams.
insulator is
a material
that o!!ers
a &er# lo
le&el o!
# under
Pressure !rom an applied &olta"e source. In this material 'or$idden ener"# "ap
is lar"e (E
*e.+,.-o, electron can not ac.uire enou"h ener"# and hence conduction is not
possi$le. Ex/ Diamond is a per!ect insulator.
% semiconductor, is a material that has a conducti&it# le&el somehere in
$eteen the extremes o! an insulator and a conductor. Ener"# "ap is onl# a$out
1e&. Ex/ )ermanium, -ilicon(Ener"# "ap o! )ermanium is a$out 0.123 e& and
!or silicon it is 1.41e&,.
5onductor is a material that ill support a "enerous !lo o! char"e hen a
&olta"e source o! limited ma"nitude is applied across its terminals. There
is no ener"# "ap in conductors. 5onduction $and and &alence $and are
o&erlapped. Ex/5opper,%luminium.
4. What is meant $# dopin"? Explain a$out intrinsic 6 extrinsic semiconductors,
N-t#pe material 6 P-t#pe material.
%ddin" impurities in a semiconductor is called Dopin".
Pure semiconductor is called Intrinsic semiconductor. -emiconductor ith
impurities added are called extrinsic semiconductor.
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EDC-Unit1 Question&Answer
E7T8IN-I5 9%TE8I%:-;
n- and p-t#pe
The characteristics o! semiconductor materials can $e altered si"ni!icantl# $# the addition
o! certain impurit# atoms into the relati&el# pure semiconductor material. These
impurities, althou"h onl# added to perhaps 1 part in 10 million, can alter the $and structure
su!!icientl# to totall# chan"e the electrical properties o! the material. % semiconductor
material that has $een su$<ected to the dopin" process is called an extrinsic material. There
are to extrinsic materials o! immeasura$le importance to semiconductor de&ice !a$rication/ n-
t#pe and p-t#pe.
n-T#pe 9aterial
=oth the n- and p-t#pe materials are !ormed $# addin" a
predetermined num$er o! impurit# atoms into a "ermanium
or silicon $ase. The n-t#pe is created $# introducin" those
impurit# elements that ha&e five &alence electrons
(pentavalent,, such as antimony, arsenic, and phosphorus.
The e!!ect o! such impurit# elements is indicated in
'i"ure.1 %ntimon# impurit# in n-t#pe material
'i".1 (usin" antimon# as the impurit# in a silicon $ase,. Note that the !our co&alent $onds
are still present. There is, hoe&er, an additional !i!th electron due to the impurit# atom,
hich is unassociated ith an# particular co&alent $ond. This remainin" electron, loosel#
$ound to its
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EDC-Unit1 Question&Answer
parent (antimon#, atom, is relati&el# !ree to mo&e ithin the nel# !ormed n-t#pe
material. -ince the inserted impurit# atom has donated a relati&el# >!ree electron to the
structure/ Di!!used impurities ith !i&e &alence electrons are called donor atoms. The e!!ect o!
this dopin" process on the relati&e conducti&it# can $est $e descri$ed throu"h the use o! the
ener"#-$and dia"ram o! 'i". 1.1.
'i"ure 1.1 E!!ect o! donor impurities on the ener"# $and
structure. p-T#pe 9aterial
The p-t#pe material is !ormed $# dopin" a pure "ermanium or silicon cr#stal ith
impurit# atoms ha&in" three &alence electrons. The elements most !re.uentl# used !or this
purpose are boron, gallium, and indium. The e!!ect o! one o! these elements, $oron, on a $ase
o! silicon is indicated in 'i". 1.4.
'i"ure 1.11 =oron
impurit# in p-t#pe
Note that there is no an insu!!icient num$er o!
electrons to complete the co&alent $onds o! the
nel# !ormed lattice. The resultin" &acanc# is
called a hole and is represented $# a small circle
or positi&e si"n due to the a$sence o! a ne"ati&e
char"e. -ince the resultin" &acanc# ill readil#
accept a >!ree electron/ The di!!used
impurities ith three &alence electrons are called acceptor atoms.
?.Explain the concept o! ma<orit# and minorit#
carriers. 9a<orit# and 9inorit# 5arriers
In the intrinsic state, the num$er o! !ree electrons in )e or -i is due onl# to those !e electrons
in the &alence $and that ha&e ac.uired su!!icient ener"# !rom thermal or li"ht sources to $rea@
the co&alent $ond or to the !e impurities that could not $e remo&ed. The &acancies le!t
$ehind in the co&alent $ondin" structure represent our &er# limited suppl# o! holes. In an n-
t#pe material,
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EDC-Unit1 Question&Answer
the num$er o! holes has not chan"ed si"ni!icantl# !rom this intrinsic le&el. The net
result, there!ore, is that the num$er o! electrons !ar outei"hs the num$er o! holes. 'or this
In an n-t#pe material ('i". 1.1?a, the electron is called the ma<orit# carrier and the hole
the minorit# carrier.
'or the p-t#pe material the num$er o! holes !ar outei"hs the num$er o! electrons, as shon
in 'i". 1.1?$. There!ore/ In a p-t#pe material the hole is the ma<orit# carrier and the electron is
the minorit# carrier. When the !i!th electron o! a donor atom lea&es the parent atom, the
atom remainin" ac.uires a net positi&e char"e/ hence the positi&e si"n in the donor-ion
representation. 'or similar reasons, the ne"ati&e si"n appears in the acceptor ion.
'i"ure 1.1? (a, n-t#pe materialA ($, p-t#pe material.
in N
6 P
ials is
n in
$elo 'i"/
In N t#pe material 'ermi le&el is <ust $elo the conduction $and. In P t#pe material 'ermi
le&el is <ust a$o&e the &alence $and.
B. Explain PN diode characteristics in !orard $ias and re&erse $ias re"ions.
The semiconductor diode is !ormed $# simpl# $rin"in" these materials to"ether
(constructed !rom the same $ase;)e or -i,, as shon in 'i". 1.1B. %t the instant the to
materials are ><oined the electrons and holes in the re"ion o! the <unction ill com$ine,
resultin" in a lac@ o! carriers in the re"ion near the <unction. This re"ion o! unco&ered
positi&e and ne"ati&e ions is called the depletion re"ion due to the depletion o! carriers in
this re"ion. -ince the diode is a to-terminal de&ice, the application o! a &olta"e across its
terminals lea&es three possi$ilities/ no bias (V
C 0 +,, forward bias (V
D0 +,, and reverse bias
< 0 +,.
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'i"ure 1.1B p-n <unction ith no external $ias.
No %pplied =ias (V
C 0 +,
Under no-$ias (no applied &olta"e, conditions, an#
minorit# carriers (holes, in the n-t#pe material that
!ind themsel&es ithin the depletion re"ion ill pass
directl# into the p-t#pe material. The closer the
minorit# carrier is to the <unction, the "reater the
attraction !or the la#er o! ne"ati&e ions and the less
the opposition o! the positi&e ions in the depletion
re"ion o! the n-t#pe material. 'or the purposes o! !uture discussions e shall assume that all the
minorit# carriers o! the n-t#pe material that !ind themsel&es in the depletion re"ion due to their
random motion ill pass directl# into the p-t#pe material. -imilar discussion can $e applied to
the minorit# carriers (electrons, o! the p-t#pe material. This carrier !lo has $een indicated in
'i". 1.1B !or the minorit# carriers o! each material. The ma<orit# carriers (electrons, o! the n-
t#pe material must o&ercome the attracti&e !orces o! the la#er o! positi&e ions in the n-t#pe
material and the shield o! ne"ati&e ions in the p-t#pe material to mi"rate into the area $e#ond
the depletion re"ion o! the p-t#pe material. Eoe&er, the num$er o! ma<orit# carriers is so lar"e
in the n-t#pe material that there ill in&aria$l# $e a small num$er o! ma<orit# carriers ith
su!!icient @inetic ener"# to pass throu"h the depletion re"ion into the p-t#pe material. %"ain,
the same t#pe o! discussion can $e applied to the ma<orit# carriers (holes, o! the p-t#pe material.
The resultin" !lo due to the ma<orit# carriers is also shon in 'i". 1.1B. In the a$sence o! an
applied $ias &olta"e, the net !lo o! char"e in an# one direction !or a semiconductor diode is
Fero. The s#m$ol !or a diode is repeated in 'i". 1.13 ith the associated n- and p-t#pe re"ions.
Note that the arro is associated ith the p-t#pe component and the $ar ith the n-t#pe re"ion.
%s indicated, !or V
= 0 +, the current in an# direction is 0 m%.
'i"ure 1.13 No-$ias conditions !or a semiconductor diode.
8e&erse-=ias 5ondition (V
< 0 +,
I! an external potential o! V &olts is applied across the p-n <unction such that the positi&e
terminal is connected to the n-t#pe material and the ne"ati&e terminal is connected to the p-
t#pe material as shon in 'i". 1.1*, the num$er o! unco&ered positi&e ions in the depletion
re"ion o! the n-t#pe material ill increase due to the lar"e num$er o! >!ree electrons dran
to the positi&e
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EDC-Unit1 Question&Answer
potential o! the applied &olta"e. 'or similar reasons, the num$er o! unco&ered ne"ati&e ions
ill increase in the p-t#pe material. The net e!!ect, there!ore, is a idenin" o! the depletion
re"ion. This idenin" o! the depletion re"ion ill esta$lish too "reat a $arrier !or the ma<orit#
carriers to o&ercome, e!!ecti&el# reducin" the ma<orit# carrier !lo to Fero as shon in 'i".
'i"ure 1.1* 8e&erse-$iased p-n <unction.
The num$er o! minorit# carriers, hoe&er, that !ind
themsel&es enterin" the depletion re"ion ill not
chan"e, resultin" in minorit#-carrier !lo &ectors o!
the same ma"nitude indicated in 'i". 1.1B ith no
applied &olta"e the current that exists under re&erse-
$ias conditions is called the re&erse saturation current
and is represented $# I
'orard-=ias 5ondition (V
D 0 +,
% forward-bias or >on condition is esta$lished $# appl#in" the positi&e potential to the p-
t#pe material and the ne"ati&e potential to the n-t#pe material as shon in 'i". 1.12. %
semiconductor diode is !orard-$iased hen the association p-t#pe and positi&e and n-t#pe
and ne"ati&e has $een esta$lished.
'i"ure 1.12 'orard-$iased p-n junction
The application o! a !orard-$ias potential V
>pressure electrons in the n-t#pe material and holes in
the p-t#pe material to recom$ine ith the ions near the
$oundar# and reduce the idth o! the depletion re"ion as
shon in 'i". 1.12. The resultin" minorit#-carrier !lo o!
electrons !rom the p-t#pe material to the n-t#pe material (and
o! holes !rom the n-t#pe material to the p-t#pe material, has not chan"ed in ma"nitude (since
the conduction le&el is controlled primaril# $# the limited num$er o! impurities in the material,,
$ut the reduction in the idth o! the depletion re"ion has resulted in a hea&# ma<orit# !lo
across the <unction. %n electron o! the n-t#pe material no >sees a reduced $arrier at the
<unction due to the reduced depletion re"ion and a stron" attraction !or the positi&e potential
applied to the p-t#pe material. %s the applied $ias increases in ma"nitude the depletion re"ion
ill continue to decrease in idth until a !lood
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o! electrons can pass throu"h the <unction, resultin" in an exponential rise in current as shon in
the !orard-$ias re"ion o! the characteristics o! 'i". 1.1G. Note that the &ertical scale o! 'i".
1.1G is measured in milliamperes and the horiFontal scale in the !orard-$ias re"ion has a
maximum o! 1 +. T#picall#, there!ore, the &olta"e across a !orard-$iased diode ill $e less
than 1 +.
'i"ure 1.1G -ilicon semiconductor diode characteristics.
3. Explain diode current e.uation.
DIHDE TE89IN%: 5E%8%5TE8I-TI5-
E.uation !or diode <unction current/
here +
C @TI.A +
J diode terminal &olta"e, +olts
Io J temperature-dependent saturation current, K%
T J a$solute temperature o! p-n <unction, L
@ J =oltFmannMs constant 1.?2x 10
. J electron char"e 1.*x10
C empirical constant, 1 !or )e and 4 !or -i
*. Explain temperature e!!ects on pn diode
characteristics. Temperature E!!ects
Temperature can ha&e a mar@ed e!!ect on the characteristics o! a silicon semiconductor diode
as shon in 'i". 1.4B. It has $een !ound experimentall# that the re&erse saturation current I
ill <ust a$out dou$le in ma"nitude !or e&er# 10N5 increase in temperature.
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'i"ure 1.4B +ariation in diode characteristics ith
temperature chan"e.
It is not uncommon !or a "ermanium diode
ith an I
in the order o! 1 or 4 % at 43N5
to ha&e a lea@a"e current o! 100 % J 0.1
m% at a temperature o! 100N5. T#pical
&alues o! I
!or silicon are much loer than
that o! "ermanium !or similar poer and
current le&els. The result is that e&en at
hi"h temperatures the le&els o! I
!or silicon
diodes do not reach the same hi"h le&els
o$tained !or "ermanium;a &er# important
reason that silicon de&ices en<o# a si"ni!icantl# hi"her le&el o! de&elopment and utiliFation in
desi"n. 'undamentall#, the open-circuit e.ui&alent in the re&erse $ias re"ion is $etter
realiFed at an# temperature ith silicon than ith "ermanium. The increasin" le&els o!
ith temperature account !or the loer le&els o! threshold &olta"e, as shon in 'i". 1.4B.
-impl# increase the le&el o! I
in and not rise in diode current. H! course, the le&el o! ! also
ill $e increase, $ut the increasin" le&el o! I
ill o&erpoer the smaller percent chan"e in !.
%s the temperature increases the !orard characteristics are actuall# $ecomin" more
>ideal, .
1. Explain static resistance and d#namic resistance.
D5 or -tatic 8esistance
The application o! a dc &olta"e to a circuit containin" a
semiconductor diode ill result in an operatin" point on the
characteristic cur&e that ill not chan"e ith time. The resistance o!
the diode at the operatin" point can $e !ound simpl# $# !indin" the
5orrespondin" le&els o! V
and I
as shon in 'i". 1.43 and appl#in"
the !olloin" E.uation/
e.uation (1.3,
The dc resistance le&els at the @nee and $elo ill $e "reater than the resistance le&els
o$tained !or the &ertical rise section o! the characteristics. The resistance le&els in the re&erse-
$ias re"ion ill naturall# $e .uite hi"h. -ince ohmmeters t#picall# emplo# a relati&el#
constant-current source, the resistance determined ill $e at a preset current le&el (t#picall#, a
!e mill amperes,.
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'i"ure 1.43 Determinin" the
dc resistance o! a diode at a
particular operatin" point.
%5 or D#namic 8esistance
It is o$&ious !rom E.. 1.3 that the dc
resistance o! a diode is independent o!
the shape o! the characteristic in the
re"ion surroundin" the point o! interest. I!
a sinusoidal rather than dc input is applied,
the situation ill chan"e completel#.
The &ar#in" input ill mo&e the
instantaneous operatin" point up and don
a re"ion o! the characteristics and thus
de!ines a speci!ic chan"e in current and
&olta"e as shon in 'i". 1.41. With no applied &ar#in" si"nal, the
point o! operation ould $e the "-point appearin" on 'i". 1.41
determined $# the applied dc le&els. The desi"nation "-point is deri&ed !rom the ord
#uiescent, hich means >still or un&ar#in".
'i"ure 1.41 De!inin" the d#namic or ac resistance.
% strai"ht line dran tan"ent to the cur&e throu"h the "-point as shon in 'i". 1.42 ill de!ine
a particular chan"e in &olta"e and current that can $e used to determine the ac or
dynamic resistance !or this re"ion o! the diode characteristics. In e.uation !orm,
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EDC-Unit1 Question&Answer
'i"ure 1.42 determinin" the ac resistance at a "-point.
2. Dra the diode e.ui&alent circuits and
explain. Diode E.ui&alent 5ircuits
%n e.ui&alent circuit is a com$ination o! elements properl# chosen to $est represent the
actual terminal characteristics o! a de&ice, s#stem, or such in a particular operatin" re"ion.
In other ords, once the e.ui&alent circuit is de!ined, the de&ice s#m$ol can $e
remo&ed !rom a schematic and the e.ui&alent circuit inserted in its place ithout se&erel#
a!!ectin" the actual $eha&ior o! the s#stem. The result is o!ten a netor@ that can $e sol&ed
usin" traditional circuit anal#sis techni.ues.
Pieceise-:inear E.ui&alent 5ircuit
Hne techni.ue !or o$tainin" an e.ui&alent circuit !or a diode is to
approximate the characteristics o! the de&ice $# strai"ht-line
se"ments, as shon in 'i". 1.?1. The resultin" e.ui&alent circuit is
naturall# called the piecewise-linear e#uivalent circuit. It should $e
o$&ious !rom 'i". 1.?1 that the strai"ht-line se"ments do not result
in an exact duplication o! the actual characteristics, especiall# in
the @nee re"ion. Eoe&er, the resultin" se"ments are su!!icientl#
close to the actual cur&e to esta$lish an e.ui&alent circuit that ill pro&ide an excellent !irst
approximation to the actual $eha&ior o! the de&ice. The ideal diode is included to esta$lish
that there is onl# one direction o! conduction throu"h the de&ice, and a re&erse-$ias
condition ill result in the open-circuit state !or the de&ice. -ince a silicon semiconductor
diode does not reach the conduction state until V
reaches 0.1 + ith a !orard $ias (as
shon in 'i". 1.?1,, a $atter# V

opposin" the conduction direction must appear in the
e.ui&alent circuit as shon in 'i". 1.?4. The $atter# simpl# speci!ies that the &olta"e across
the de&ice must $e "reater than the threshold $atter# &olta"e $e!ore conduction throu"h the
de&ice in the direction dictated $# the ideal diode can $e esta$lished. When conduction is
esta$lished the resistance o! the diode ill $e the speci!ied &alue o! r
'i"ure 1.?1 De!inin" the pieceise-linear e.ui&alent circuit usin" strai"ht-line se"ments
to approximate the characteristic cur&e.
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EDC-Unit1 Question&Answer
The approximate
le&el o! r
usuall# $e
determined !rom
a speci!ied
operatin" point
on the
sheet. 'or instance, !or a silicon semiconductor diode, i! I
J 10 m% (a !orard conduction
current !or the diode, at V
J 0.2 +, e @no !or silicon that a shi!t o! 0.1 + is re.uired
$e!ore the
characteristics rise.
E.ui&alent 5ircuit
'or most
the resistance r
is su!!icientl# small to $e i"nored in comparison to the other elements o!
the netor@. The remo&al o! r
!rom the e.ui&alent circuit is the same as impl#in" that the
characteristics o! the diode. Under dc conditions has a drop o! 0.1 + across it in the conduction
state at an# le&el o! diode current.
Ideal E.ui&alent 5ircuit
No that r
has $een remo&ed !rom the e.ui&alent circuit let us ta@e it a step !urther
and esta$lish that a 0.1-+ le&el can o!ten $e i"nored in comparison to the applied &olta"e
le&el. In this case the e.ui&alent circuit ill $e reduced to that o! an ideal diode as shon in
'i". 1.?B ith its characteristics.
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EDC-Unit1 Question&Answer
G. Explain Transition capacitance and Di!!usion
capacitances. T8%N-ITIHN %ND DI''U-IHN
Electronic de&ices are inherentl# sensiti&e to &er# hi"h !re.uencies. 9ost shunt capaciti&e
e!!ects that can $e i"nored at loer !re.uencies $ecause the reactance %
=1I4Of& is &er#
lar"e (open-circuit e.ui&alent,. This, hoe&er, cannot $e i"nored at &er# hi"h !re.uencies.
ill $ecome su!!icientl# small due to the hi"h &alue o! f to introduce a lo-reactance
>shortin" path. In the p-n semiconductor diode, there are to capaciti&e e!!ects to $e
considered. In the re&erse-$ias re"ion e ha&e the transition- or depletion-re"ion capacitance
,, hile in the !orard-$ias re"ion e ha&e the di!!usion (5
, or stora"e
capacitance.8ecall that the $asic e.uation !or the capacitance o! a parallel-plate capacitor is
de!ined $# &='(Id, here ' is the permitti&it# o! the dielectric (insulator, $eteen the plates
o! area ( separated $# a distance d. In the re&erse-$ias re"ion there is a depletion re"ion (!ree
o! carriers, that $eha&es essentiall# li@e an insulator $eteen the la#ers o! opposite char"e.
-ince the depletion idth (d, ill increase ith increased re&erse-$ias potential, the resultin"
transition capacitance ill decrease. The !act that the capacitance is dependent on the
applied re&erse-$ias potential has application in a num$er o! electronic s#stems. %lthou"h
the e!!ect descri$ed a$o&e ill also $e present in the !orard-$ias re"ion, it is o&ershadoed
$# a capacitance e!!ect directl# dependent on the rate at hich char"e is in<ected into the
re"ions <ust outside the depletion re"ion. The capaciti&e e!!ects descri$ed a$o&e are
represented $# a capacitor in parallel ith the ideal diode, as shon in 'i". 1.?2. 'or lo- or
mid-!re.uenc# applications (except in the poer area,, hoe&er, the capacitor is
normall# not included in the diode s#m$ol.
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10. Explain $rea@ don mechanisms in semiconductor
Pener 8e"ion/There is a point here the application
o! too ne"ati&e a &olta"e ill result in a sharp
chan"e in the characteristics, as shon in 'i". 1.44.
The current increases at a &er# rapid rate in a
direction opposite to that o! the positi&e &olta"e re"ion. The re&erse-$ias potential that results
in this dramatic chan"e in characteristics is called the )ener potential and is "i&en the
s#m$ol +
. %s the &olta"e across the diode increases in the re&erse-$ias re"ion, the &elocit#
o! the minorit# carriers responsi$le !or the re&erse saturation current I
ill also
increase. E&entuall#, their &elocit# and associated @inetic ener"# ill $e su!!icient to release
additional carriers throu"h collisions ith otherise sta$le atomic structures. That is, an
ioni*ation process ill result here$# &alence electrons a$sor$ su!!icient ener"# to lea&e the
parent atom. These additional carriers can then aid the ioniFation process to the point here a
hi"h avalanche current is esta$lished and the avalanche brea+down re"ion determined. The
a&alanche re"ion (V
, can $e $rou"ht closer to the &ertical axis $# increasin" the dopin" le&els
in the p- and n-t#pe materials. Eoe&er, as V
decreases to &er# lo le&els, such as J3 +,
another mechanism, called )ener brea+down, ill contri$ute to the sharp chan"e in the
characteristic. It occurs $ecause there is a stron" electric !ield in the re"ion o! the <unction
that can disrupt the $ondin" !orces ithin the atom and >"enerate carriers. %lthou"h
the Pener $rea@don mechanism is a si"ni!icant contri$utor onl# at loer le&els o! V
, this
sharp chan"e in the characteristic at an# le&el is called the )ener region and diodes emplo#in"
this uni.ue portion o! the characteristic o! a p-n <unction are called )ener diodes.
The maximum re&erse-$ias potential that can $e applied $e!ore
enterin" the Pener re"ion is called the pea@ in&erse &olta"e
(re!erred to simpl# as the PI+ ratin", or the pea@ re&erse &olta"e
(denoted $# P8+ ratin",. I! an application re.uires a PI+ ratin"
"reater than that o! a sin"le unit, a num$er o! diodes o! the same
characteristics can $e connected in series. Diodes are also
connected in parallel to increase the current-carr#in" capacit#.
'i"ure 1.44 Pener re"ion.
11.Explain the concept o! Pener diode usin"
characteristics. PENE8 DIHDE-
The characteristic drops in an almost &ertical manner at a re&erse-$ias potential denoted
. The !act that the cur&e drops don and aa# !rom the horiFontal axis rather than up
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EDC-Unit1 Question&Answer
and aa# !or the positi&e V
re"ion re&eals that the current in the Pener re"ion
has a direction opposite to that o! a !orard-$iased diode.
'i".1.B1 Fener diode characteristics
'i"ure 1.B2 5onduction direction/
(a, Pener diodeA ($, semiconductor diode
This re"ion o! uni.ue characteristics is emplo#ed in
the desi"n o! )ener diodes, hich ha&e the "raphic
s#m$ol appearin" in 'i". 1.B2a. =oth the
semiconductor diode and Fener diode are presented
side $# side in 'i". 1.B2 to ensure that the direction
o! conduction o! each is clearl# understood to"ether
ith the re.uired polarit# o! the applied &olta"e.
'or the semiconductor diode the >on state ill
support a current in the direction o! the arro in
the s#m$ol. The location o! the Pener re"ion can
$e controlled $# &ar#in" the dopin" le&els. %n
increase in dopin", producin" an increase in the num$er o! added impurities, ill
decrease the Pener potential. Pener diodes are a&aila$le ha&in" Pener potentials o! 1.2 to 400
+ ith poer ratin"s !rom 1B J to 30 W. =ecause o! its hi"her temperature and current
capa$ilit#, silicon is usuall# pre!erred in the manu!acture o! Pener diodes.
The complete e.ui&alent circuit o! the Pener diode in the Pener re"ion includes a small
d#namic resistance and dc $atter# e.ual to the Pener potential, as shon in 'i". 1.BG.
GRIET-ECE G.Surekha Page 14
EDC-Unit1 Question&Answer
1. % PN Junction diode has a re&erse saturation current o! ?0 % at a temperature o! 143
5. %t the same temperature !ind the d#namic resistance !or 0.4+ $ias in !orard and
re&erse $ias.
Solution: -
)i&en T C 143 5C 41? Q 143C?G2 L
C ?0 % +
C - 0I4+, V
C 0.4+. To !ind out r
C ?

11*00 11*00
?B.?mv. (
and I I

1 , R C 1 !or )e A R C 4 !or -i.

5ase S I When + C - 0.4+.
I C - Io.
C +
I I (Ta@in" C 1 !or )e,
C ?B.? x 10
I ?0 x 10
C 11B? x 10
C 11B?
5ase S II When + C 0.4+.
I C ?0 x 10
?B.? 10
C ?0 x 10
S 1,
C ?0 x 10
(?B1 S 1,
C ?0 x 10
(?B0, C 10400 x 10
C 10.4 m%.
C +
10.4 10
C ?.?*
GRIET-ECE G.Surekha Page 15
EDC-Unit1 Question&Answer
4. The &olta"e across a )ermanium diode at room temperature is 0.1 &olts and 4
m% current !los throu"h it. I! the &olta"e across diode increases to 0.13 &olts,
calculate diode current. (%ssume +
C 4*m+,
-olution/ -
+ C 0.1+, I C 4 m%, T C ?00 L, +
C 4* m&.
+ C 0.13&, I C?
5ase (i, I I I

C4 10
4* 10
S 1, I
4 10
5ase (ii, I I

4 10
4* 10 ?
4 10
4 10
42.B2* 4*.G4?
4 10
4 10
1?.*2* m%
GRIET-ECE G.Surekha Page 16
EDC-Unit1 Question&Answer
? 'or PN diode, the re&erse saturation current at a $ias o! 40+ is 40n%. It is 3 % at 13
&olts. 5alculate D5 resistances at these points.
Solution: -
D5 resistance
5ase (i,
C - 40 +, I
C - 40n%.
40 10
5ase (ii,
C - 13+, I
C - 3 %
3 10
13 10
GRIET-ECE G.Surekha Page 17