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SEPTEMBER 2005 653

Optimization Aspects on the Hand of the Fabrics


SAVVAS G. VASSILIADIS
Technological Education Institute of Piraeus, P. Ralli & Thivon 250, GR-12244, Athens, Greece

DEMETRIOS T. VENETSANOS AND CHRISTOPHER G. PROVATIDIS1


National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, Iroon Polytechneiou str. 9
GR-15780 Athens, Greece

ABSTRACT
Fabric hand is an essential property of textile fabrics. It affects the sensorial perception
of humans when they touch a fabric. The feeling of hand depends on many factors; mainly
on the low stress mechanical behavior of the fabric as well as on the subjective aspects of
the person assessing the fabric such as sensitivity, culture, etc. The hand of the fabrics can
be approached either by subjective estimations or by objective measurements. Both
evaluation methods provide the necessary information for the calculation of the total hand
value (THV) of the fabric. The THV is a function of multiple variables: the primary hand
values. The complex expression of the THV introduces difficulties in predicting the
conditions for the maximization of its final value. The present work provides a mathe-
matical tool for a parametric study and definition of the quantities, which have to change,
in order to maximize the THV of the fabric.

The concept of the ideal fabric is based mainly on the hand is a multi-parametric property, it is essential to
good appearance, the good hand and the related comfort define the appropriate actions so that the change of the
provided. Thus hand is considered as a major factor hand will be the expected one in order to achieve the
strongly contributing to the final quality of the fabric. It desirable value.
becomes more important since the consumer’s demand
for higher quality is continuously increasing [4]. Hand Hand and Mechanical Properties of the Fabric
depends mainly on the micro-mechanical structure of the
fabric and the mechanical properties of the materials Hand is a complex sensory property of the fabric. It is
used. Fabric hand is more or less independent of the main complex since it corresponds to the perception someone
macro-mechanical properties of the fabric. It is possible senses when touching a fabric. Many structural factors
to find some different fabrics with comparable macro- affect the final hand feeling. Hand, as a complex prop-
mechanical properties such as breaking strength, tearing erty, contains information related to the roughness of the
strength, etc., but with totally different sensorial proper- surface of the fabric, the bending and shearing rigidity,
ties and more precisely with totally different hand. Such the elastic resilience, etc. All these parameters are simul-
cases enabled a lot of research on the estimation of the taneously assessed when the fabric is being touched.
factors and the determination of the parameters affecting These particular mechanical characteristics are perceived
the fabric hand. Hand is not a static property of the in a combined sense, resulting in the creation of inte-
fabric. It changes even after the wash and wear cycles grated feelings. The mechanical stimulation generates
[5]. Using subjective assessment or objective mechanical perceptions such as softness, crispness, silkness, etc. In
measurements it is possible to find a suitable expression order to approach the hand of the fabrics in a systematic
for the description of the fabric hand. If the resulting way, it is preferable to express and rate the partial per-
value is not sufficient or it is considered as poor, mea- ceptions instead of focusing to the final total hand feel-
sures must be taken in order to change the proper pa- ing. These hand components are defined according to a
rameters and improve the hand of the fabric. Since fabric standard way and form the set of the primary hand
values.
The main components of the hand are related to the
1
To whom correspondence should be addressed: tel: ⫹30 210 structural and mechanical characteristics of the fabric.
7721520; fax: ⫹30 210 7722347; email: cprovat@central.ntua.gr There is not a well-defined and clear one-to-one corre-

Textile Res. J. 75(9), 653– 661 (2005) DOI: 10.1177/0040517505057528 © 2005 SAGE Publications www.sagepublications.com
654 TEXTILE RESEARCH JOURNAL

lation, but in any case it is possible to define the most TABLE I. Constants for the THV calculation.
influencing structural and mechanical parameters for ev- Winter-suit Summer-suit
ery particular component of the fabric hand. The link
between the structural and mechanical characteristics C0 ⫽ ⫺1.2293 C0 ⫽ ⫺1.3788
and the main components of the hand of the fabrics can HV Ci1 Ci2 Ci1 Ci2
serve as a tool used in analysis or synthesis problems. If
Koshi 0.5904 ⫺0.0441 ⫺0.0004 0.0006
the mechanical and structural characteristics of a fabric Numeri ⫺0.1210 0.0517 0.0000 0.0000
are known, the main components of the hand, that is, the Fukurami 0.6317 ⫺0.0506 0.5190 ⫺0.0369
total hand value of the fabric, can be estimated. On the Shari 0.0000 0.0000 0.7501 ⫺0.0361
Hari 0.0000 0.0000 0.2555 ⫺0.0352
contrary, if the total hand value is known, or the values
of the total hand components are known, it is possible to
determine which of the structural and mechanical param-
eters must be altered in order to change the initial hand the statistical evaluation of experimental results [3] and
value accordingly. Of course, the transition from the the respective values are shown in Table I.
hand values to the mechanical characteristics is rather The aforementioned method involves subjective eval-
complex and requires the modeling of their inter-corre- uation carried out by specialized personnel. However,
lation and the definition of the model variables. Even if obviously it is not possible to involve the same experts in
all these tasks are accomplished, a major problem still assessing fabrics worldwide. It means that the differ-
remains. That is the multi-parametric character of the ences in mood, culture, age, etc. between the individual
model, which predicates the creation of a methodology in experts participating in the subjective estimations influ-
order to evaluate the sensitivity of the model and the ence the judgment and the classification of the fabrics.
degree of influence of each of the mechanical and struc- The assessment has to be carried out under strict and
tural parameters to the hand values. well-defined conditions in order to preserve the repeat-
ability of the procedure.
Total Hand Value Expressions Evaluation of THV by objective measurements (sec-
Fabric hand can be quantified using the concept of the ond method for the estimation of the total hand value) are
total hand value (THV). As already mentioned, the total carried out using the Kawabata Evaluation System for
hand value calculation is based on two different ap- Fabrics (KES-F). The KES-F consists of four individual
proaches: the subjective estimation and the objective instruments, all of which are connected to a common
measurements. The correlation between the results of the personal computer for the acquisition and the storage of
two methods is often very satisfactory [6]. the mechanical data. Low stress tensile, bending and
According to the subjective estimation method the shearing tests are carried out on this system. Further-
fabrics are assessed by textile experts. They rate the more, compression tests, surface roughness and friction
primary hand values (HV), like Koshi (Stiffness), Nu- coefficient measurements are also performed. The mea-
meri (Smoothness), Shari (Crispness), Hari (Antidrape surements of the various tests are expressed in the form
stiffness) and Fukurami (Fullness and softness). Then, of charts. The use of the charts is not suitable for fast
the total hand value can be calculated (equation (1)) determination of the fabric hand because in general the
based on the primary hand values yi and the respective recorded response is not linear and the shape of the
coefficients (c0 and cij), which are different for different curves does not permit easy evaluation. This weak point
types of fabric and of their use. is bypassed by an appropriate processing of the curves in
order to retrieve characteristic parameters, such as slope,

冘 共c y ⫹ c y 兲
k
hysteresis, energy consumed, energy stored, etc. In total,
THV se ⫽ c0 ⫹ i1 i
2
i2 i (1) the quantities used for the description of hand are 14
i⫽1
parameters, derived from the measurements on the KES-
where THVse is the total hand value based on subjective F system plus the thickness and the mass per unit area of
estimation; k is the number of the primary hand values the fabric. These parameters, in a specific sequence, form
involved; c0 , cij are constants; and yi are the primary the so-called hand vector. The hand vector contains
hand values. either the raw values of the parameters or their logarith-
For the sake of a systematic approach, the hand cal- mic expressions. It is assumed that the hand vector is
culation has been made based on the use or the identity unique and corresponds to a specific hand feeling. Thus,
of a fabric. For men’s winter suit and men’s summer suit it is expected that two fabrics with the same hand vector
fabrics, the constants c0 and cij have been defined after cause the same feeling of hand.
SEPTEMBER 2005 655

The THV based on the objective measurements of the where


mechanical fabric properties is calculated as follows:

冘a
k

冘z
k a0 ⫽ d0 ⫹ i0 .
THV om ⫽ d0 ⫹ i , (2) i⫽1
i⫽1
It is obvious that the THV expression derived from
where THVom is the THV based on objective measure- subjective assessments (equation (1)) and the respective
ments; k is the number of primary hand values involved; expression derived from objective measurements (equa-
d0 is a constant and tion (8)) are of the same mathematical structure. This

冉 冊 冉 冊
similarity enables the common analysis of the contribu-
y i ⫺ M i1 y 2i ⫺ M i2
z i ⫽ d i1 ⫹ d i2 (3) tion mechanism of the particular primary hand values to
␴ i1 ␴ i2 the formation of the THV of a fabric. Although the
where dij are constants; yi are the primary hand values; following study is focused on the THV based on subjec-
Mi1 is the mean value of yi; Mi2 is the mean value of yi2; tive estimation, the general approach is not restrained
␴i1 is the standard deviation of yi; and ␴i2 is the standard exactly due to the common mathematical form of the two
deviation of yi2. THV expressions.
The primary hand values derive from the following
normalized expression (equation (4)), where the actual Correlation of the Primary Hand Values to
objective mechanical measurements are combined with the Mechanical Properties of the Fabrics
statistical data.
Fabric hand assessment is based on the definition of

冘 x j ⫺ x៮ j
16
the fabric descriptors, which are better known as the
yi ⫽ d0 ⫹ dj , (4) primary hand values. Initially, before the 1980s, the
j⫽1
␴j
primary hand values were not strictly and exactly de-
where: dj are constants; xj are mechanical characteristic fined. Each expert had a rough and intuitive approach to
values; x៮ j is the: mean value of xj; ␴j is the standard the exact meaning of the primary hand values. Often the
deviation of xj. evaluations were based on different criteria, thus they
Equation (3) can be transformed as follows: were not directly comparable. The Hand Evaluation and
Standardisation Committee organized by Kawabata in
d i1 M i1 d i1 d i2 M i2 d i2 2 Japan has contributed to the formulation and to the
zi ⫽ ⫺ ⫹ y ⫺ ⫹ y f fixation of the definitions. Briefly, the most frequently
␴ i1 ␴ i1 i ␴ i2 ␴ i2 i
used primary hand values are Koshi, Numeri and Fuku-
zi ⫽ ⫺ 冉 d i1 M i1 d i2 M i2
␴ i1

␴ i2

d i1
y ⫹ 冊
d i2 2
␴ i1 i ␴ i2 i
y (5)
rami corresponding roughly to stiffness, smoothness and
fullness/softness [3]. The Japanese terms took an inter-
national character and they are used worldwide.
If the constants are replaced by: The previously mentioned primary hand descriptors

冉 冊
are associated and correlated to the physical properties of
di1 Mi1 di2 Mi2 di1 di2
ai0 ⫽ ⫺ ⫹ ai1 ⫽ ai2 ⫽ , (6) the fabric. The physical properties can be objectively
␴i1 ␴i2 ␴i1 ␴i2 measured and numerically represented. This connection
then equation (5), by substitution, becomes: between the subjective characterization of the hand of
the fabric and the objective measurement of the physical
z i ⫽ a i2 y 2i ⫹ a i1 y i ⫹ a i0 . (7) properties of the fabrics is of high importance and is also
very useful because it permits the definition of the ac-
Equation (2), using equation (7), finally gives the general tions for the control of the primary hand values of the
expression of THV based on objective measurements: fabric through the control of its particular physical prop-
erties. Obviously there is not a clear one-to-one correla-
冘 z ⫽ d ⫹ 冘 共a y ⫹ a y ⫹ a 兲
k k
tion of the physical properties and the primary hand
THV om ⫽ d0 ⫹ i 0
2
i2 i i1 i i0
descriptors, but there is a qualitative relation between
i⫽1 i⫽1
them. It is worth to recall that the perception of the

冘 共a y ⫹ a y 兲
k specific hand properties has been supported by classify-
⫽ a0 ⫹ i1 i
2
i2 i , (8) ing the fabrics, according to their end use. Thus, certain
i⫽1 hand coefficients have been found for fabrics for winter
656 TEXTILE RESEARCH JOURNAL

and summer use or for men’s suits and women’s dresses


classes. However, for a certain end use of a fabric, the
intensity of the hand feeling and thus the perception
TH̃V ⫽ 关 y 1 y 2 y 3 兴 冋 c 12 0 0
0 c 22 0
0 0 c 32
册冋 册y1
y2
y3

冋 册
sensitivity can be correlated to its respective mechanical
y1
properties. More precisely the estimation of the hand
⫹ 关 c 11 c 21 c 31 兴 y2 N
coefficients has been based on the criterion of the min- y3

冋 册冋 册
imization of the difference between the THV deriving
from a subjective evaluation and the corresponding cal- 1 2c 12 0 0 y1
culated value from the objective measurements. Table II TH̃V ⫽ 关 y 1 y 2 y 3 兴 0 2c 22 0 y2
2 0 0 2c 32 y3
presents the correspondence of the primary hand values

冋 册
(HV) to the physical properties of the fabrics [2]. y1
⫹ 关 c 11 c 21 c 31 兴 y2 (11)
y3
TABLE II. Primary hand values and the related physical properties.
Thus, TH̃V obtains the general quadratic form:
HV Equivalent descriptor Physical properties

Koshi Stiffness Bending and shear stiffness, areal 1 T


density, compressibility, TH̃V ⫽ y Cy ⫹ cTy . (12)
2
thickness
Numeri Smoothness Roughness, friction, hairiness If rank (C) ⬎ 3, equation (12) cannot be plotted,
Fukurami Fullness/softness Bending, tensile, compression
stiffness and hysteresis whereas, if rank (C) ⫽ 3, a family of visual presentations
can be obtained by setting TH̃V equal to various constant
values. In this way, a sort of parametric investigation is
Analysis of the THV Variation carried out with respect to TH̃V, thus disclosing the
mathematical nature of the TH̃V function. In the special
If the primary hand values derive from subjective case where rank (C) ⫽ 3 and TH̃V, equation (12) takes
evaluation of the fabrics, which is carried out by textile the following form:
experts, the expression of the THV is given by equation 1 T
(1). In the case of the men’s winter suit fabrics, there are y Cy ⫹ cTy ⫽ 0 . (13)
2
three contributing primary hand values: Koshi, Numeri
and Fukurami denoted by y1 , y2 and y3 , respectively. We Equation (13) represents a second-order surface in three-
examine the case of the men’s winter suit fabrics as a dimensional space. The exact type of the surface is
typical example. However, the method is applicable to defined by matrix C and vector c.
any other case simply by changing the respective vari- At this point, some remarks concerning equation (9)
ables. The THV expression for the men’s winter suit should be made. From the theory, it is known that equa-
fabrics becomes: tions with similar form to equation (9) may be written in
a reduced form if two linear transformations take place,

冘 共c y ⫹ c y 兲 if k ⫽ 3 N
k namely an appropriate rotation and an appropriate trans-
THV ⫽ c 0 ⫹ i1 i
2
i2 i lation. In this way, the reference coordinate system is
i⫽1 transformed to a principal coordinate system. As equa-
tion (11), which is the matrix notation of equation (9),
THV ⫽ c 12 y 12 ⫹ c 11 y 1 ⫹ c 22 y 22 shows in a very representative way, matrix C is a diag-
onal matrix or, equivalently, the TH̃V function has no
⫹ c 21 y 2 ⫹ c 32 y 32 ⫹ c 31 y 3 ⫹ c 0 (9)
nonlinear terms related to products between the primary
hand values. This means that equation (9) is expressed in
If c0 is moved to the left-hand-side, the equivalent total
a coordinate system that has the same orientation with
hand value TH̃V for the men’s winter suit fabrics now
the corresponding principal coordinate system, thus no
becomes:
rotation is required. Furthermore, vector c is not null.
This fact, in combination with the diagonal form of
TH̃V ⫽ THV ⫺ c 0 ⫽ c 12 y 12 ⫹ c 11 y 1
matrix C, suggests that only a translation is required for
⫹ c 22 y 22 ⫹ c 21 y 2 ⫹ c 32 y 32 ⫹ c 31 y 3 . (10) the reference coordinate system to become principal.
Basic manipulation of equation (9) (see Appendix 4)
Equation (10) can be written using matrix notation as: leads to the following form:
SEPTEMBER 2005 657

sign共 A1 兲 䡠 冉冑 冊 2
yT1
共 兩A1 兩兲2
⫹ sign共 A2 兲 䡠 冉冑 冊 2
yT2
共 兩A2 兩兲2

⫹ sign共 A3 兲 䡠 冉冑 冊 2
yT3
共 兩A3 兩兲2
⫽1 , (14)

where yTi are the primary hand values, expressed in the


principal coordinate system; and

A i are constants A1 ⫽ 冉 A
c12
A
, A2 ⫽ , A3 ⫽
c22
A
c32
,A 冊
⫽ 冉冊 冉
1
4

2
c11

2
c21

c12 c22 c32
2
c31
冊 .

For the particular case of men’s winter suits, it becomes:

C⫽ 冋 2c12 0 0
0 2c22 0
0 0 2c32

⫽ 冋 ⫺ 2 䡠 0.0441
0
0
0
2 䡠 0.0517
0
0
0
⫺ 2 䡠 0.0506
册 FIGURE 1. Surface form for the special case THV⫽0.

and: total hand value THV is [0, 5]. Similarly, the domain for

冋 册
the reduced variables yT1 , y2T, yT3 and (TH̃V) can be
0.5904 easily exactly defined.
c⫽ ⫺0.1210 . The detection of extreme points, minimum or maxi-
0.6317 mum, of the THV function is important, since it can be
According to Appendix 4, the quadratic equation be- helpful in determining the actions to be taken for the
comes: optimization of the fabric hand, and can be achieved
through various methods.
⫺ 0.0441共 y 1 ⫺ 6.6939兲 2 ⫹ 0.0517共 y 2 ⫺ 1.1702兲 2 A first method for detecting extreme points is by
⫺ 0.506共 y 3 ⫺ 6.2421兲 2 ⫹ 6.5243 ⫽ 0 . (14) checking the sign of the principal minor determinants of
the matrix of the second derivative (Hessian) of the THV
Defining the reduced variables as: expression. For the particular case of men’s winter suits,
these determinants are:
y T1 ⫽ y1 ⫺ 6.6939
C 1 ⫽ 2c 2
y T2 ⫽ y2 ⫺ 1.1702 ,

y T3 ⫽ y3 ⫺ 6.2421 C2 ⫽ 冏 2c0 2 0
2c 4 冏

冏 冏
by substitution, equation (14) can be written as:
2c 2 0 0
0.0441y ⫺ 0.0517y ⫹ 0.0506y ⫽ 6.5243
2
T1
2
T2
2
T3 , C3 ⫽ 0 2c 4 0
0 0 2c 6
or
2 2 2
The hand coefficients, as determined by Kawabata and
y T1 yT2 yT3 Niwa [3], are:
⫺ ⫹ ⫽1 . (15)
12.16322 11.23372 11.35512
c 2 ⫽ ⫺ 0.0441, c 4 ⫽ ⫹ 0.0517,
The form of equation (15) corresponds to a surface of a
hyperboloid of one sheet [1]. Figure 1 represents the c 6 ⫽ ⫺ 0.0506 .
quadric surface for the case TH̃V⫽0 as a part of a Thus, the signs of the principal minor determinants are:
second-order surface. The domain for the primary hand
values y1 , y2 and y3 is [0, 10], while the domain for the sign共C1 兲 ⬍ 0, sign共C2 兲 ⬎ 0, sign共C3 兲 ⬍ 0 .
658 TEXTILE RESEARCH JOURNAL

Since the signs of the principal minor determinants This investigation is shown in Table III, where each
C1 , C2 and C3 do not coincide, the THV Hessian is not column refers to a different combination of primary hand
positively or negatively defined. Therefore, the gen- values that are kept constant. Each case is evaluated
eral THV expression, for the men’s winter suit fabrics, using the eigenvalues of the matrix C. The existence of
does not have extreme points, either minimum or an extreme point is indicated in the last row of Table III.
maximum. The detection of the extreme points of the THV function
A second equivalent method for the examination of is very useful since it denotes that the increase of the
the extreme points of the THV expression is by examin- value of one particular variable up to its higher boundary
ing its first and second derivatives. The existence of an does not result in a corresponding increase of the THV
extreme point of the function is indicated under two value. In this case, it is essential to define suitable pri-
conditions: the first derivative has to take a zero value mary hand values for the optimization of the perfor-
and, at that point, the second derivative has to be positive mance of the fabric. One of the most interesting aspects
(negative) for a minimum (maximum). In Appendix 1 in examining the extreme point (maximum or minimum)
and Appendix 2, it is proved that the expressions for the
of the particular function is that the absolute increase (or
first and the second derivative of the THV expression are
decrease, respectively) of the corresponding variables
respectively:
does not lead to the maximization of the total hand value
⭸TH̃V function. On the contrary, the manipulation of the pri-
⫽ Cy ⫹ c (16) mary hand value function must be performed carefully so
⭸y
that it will result in the maximization of the total hand
⭸ 2TH̃V value.
⫽C (17) As shown in Table III, if y2 is kept constant then the
⭸y 2
THV function has an extreme point and more precisely a
A third alternative method for the detection of the ex- maximum. In this characteristic case, it is worth noting
treme points is based on the checking of the signs of the that increased value of the variables y1 and y3 does not
eigenvalues of the matrix C. The sign of the eigenvalues result in a respective increase of THV. By increasing a
of the matrix characterizes its Hessian. In Appendix 3, it variable above a certain threshold, the value of the func-
is shown that the eigenvalues of a diagonal matrix cor- tion decreases. The graphical representation of THV
respond to its diagonal elements. Thus, the eigenvalues shows this specific trend and the maximum of THV can
of the matrix C are: easily be observed (Figure 2).
␭ 1 ⫽ ⫺ 0.0882, ␭ 2 ⫽ ⫹ 0.1034, ␭3 ⫽
⫺ 0.1012 . Conclusions
Since the sign of the eigenvalues is not the same, the
quadratic form of the THV function can not be charac- The present work discusses the optimization aspects of
terized as positive or negative definite, thus no minimum the THV function of textile fabrics and presents methods
or maximum point can be detected. If the THV function for locating the extreme points (maxima or minima) of
has no extreme points, it is characterized by a continuous the function, if such points do exist. It is shown that in
and monotonous variation within its domain. Although particular cases it is possible to get extreme points. From
the THV function, in its full expression, does not provide the fabric hand point-of-view, this fact is of importance
any information about extreme values, a further investi- both for the design of the textile fabrics and for their
gation can be carried out. In more details, it is possible to processes because it is possible to maximize the THV of
keep one or more THV variables (i.e. primary hand a fabric, which is the quantification of the consumer’s
values) constant and then try to detect extreme points. demand for higher quality.

TABLE III. Existence of extreme points in particular cases of the THV function.

THV THV兩y1:ct THV兩y2:ct THV兩y3:ct THV兩y1 ,y2:ct THV兩y1 ,y3:ct THV兩y2 ,y3:ct

Sign(␭1) ⫺ ⫺ ⫺ ⫺
Sign(␭2) ⫹ ⫹ ⫹ ⫹
Sign(␭3) ⫺ ⫺ ⫺ ⫺
Extreme point ?/ ?
/ ?max ?/ ?max ?min ?max
SEPTEMBER 2005 659

FIGURE 2. Maximization of the total


hand value function.

冤 冥
Appendix 1 2c 12 0 0 ... 0
0 2c 22 0 ... 0
⭸TH̃V
⫽ 0 0 2c 32 ... 0
CALCULATION OF THE FIRST DERIVATIVE OF THE ⭸y ... ... ... ... ...
REDUCED TH̃V FUNCTION
0 0 0 . . . 2c n2

冤冥冤 冥
The general form of the total hand value is given by
y1 c 11
the following expression: y2 c 21
⫻ y3 ⫹ c 31
TH̃V ⫽ THV ⫺ c 0 ⫽ c 12 y 12 ⫹ c 11 y 1 ⫹ c 22 y 22 ⫹ c 21 y 2 ⯗ ⯗
⫹ c 32 y 32 ⫹ c 31 y 3 ⫹ . . . ⫹ c n2 y n2 ⫹ c n1 y n . yn c n1

Recognizing that
The first derivative of TH̃V is:

冤 冥
2c12 0 0 ... 0

冤冥
⭸TH̃V 0 2c22 0 ... 0
⭸ y1 C⫽ 0 0 2c32 ... 0 and c

冤 冥
⭸TH̃V c 11 ⫹ 2c 12 y 1 ... ... ... ... ...
⭸TH̃V ⭸ y2 c 21 ⫹ 2c 22 y 2 0 0 0 . . . 2cn2
⫽ ⭸TH̃V ⫽ c 31 ⫹ 2c 32 y 2

冤冥
⭸y ⯗ c11
⭸ y3
⯗ c n1 ⫹ 2c n2 y n c21
⭸TH̃V ⫽ c31 ,

⭸ yn cn1

冤 冥冤 冥
c 12 y 1 c 11
c 22 y 2 c 21 it yields that the first derivative of the TH̃V function in
matrix notation equals to:
⫽2 c 32 y 2 ⫹ c 31 f
⯗ ⯗
⭸TH̃V
c n2 y n c n1 ⫽ Cy ⫹ c .
⭸y
660 TEXTILE RESEARCH JOURNAL

Appendix 2 C ⫺ tI

冤 冥
2c12 ⫺ t 0 0 ... 0
CALCULATION OF THE SECOND DERIVATIVE OF THE 0 2c22 ⫺ t 0 ... 0
REDUCED TH̃V FUNCTION ⫽ 0 0 2c32 ⫺ t ... 0
... ... ... ... ...
The second derivative (Hessian) of TH̃V is: . . . 2cn2 ⫺ t
0 0 0
⭸ 2TH̃V The corresponding characteristic system has a non-zero
⭸y 2 solution if:

冉 冊 冉 冊 冉 冊 冉 冊

冤 冥冤
⭸ ⭸TH̃V ⭸ ⭸TH̃V ⭸ ⭸TH̃V . . . ⭸ ⭸TH̃V 兩C ⫺ tI兩 ⫽ 0 .
⭸y1 ⭸y1 ⭸y1 ⭸y2 ⭸y1 ⭸y3 ⭸y1 ⭸yn


⭸y2 冊 冉 冊
⭸TH̃V ⭸ ⭸TH̃V ⭸ ⭸TH̃V . . .
⭸y1 ⭸y2 ⭸y2 ⭸y2 ⭸y3 冉 冊 ⭸
⭸y2 冉⭸TH̃V
⭸yn 冊 Performing elementary manipulations, it yields:

冉 冊 冉 冊 冉 冊 冉 冊

2c 12 ⫺ t 0 0 ... 0
⫽ ⭸ ⭸TH̃V ⭸ ⭸TH̃V ⭸ ⭸TH̃V . . . ⭸ ⭸TH̃V
0 2c 22 ⫺ t 0 ... 0
⭸y3 ⭸y1 ⭸y3 ⭸y2 ⭸y3 ⭸y3 ⭸y3 ⭸yn
... ... ... ... ... 0 0 2c 32 ⫺ t ... 0

冉 冊 冉 冊 冉 冊 冉 冊
... ... ... ... ...
⭸ ⭸TH̃V ⭸ ⭸TH̃V ⭸ ⭸TH̃V . . . ⭸ ⭸TH̃V . . . 2c n2 ⫺ t
0 0 0
⭸yn ⭸y1 ⭸yn ⭸y2 ⭸yn ⭸y3 ⭸yn ⭸yn
⫽ 0 N 共2c12 ⫺ t兲共2c22 ⫺ t兲共2c32 ⫺ t兲. . .共2cn2 ⫺ t兲 ⫽ 0 .
Implementing the first partial derivatives from Appendix
1 to the above equation, it yields: The roots of the last equation (eigenvalues of C) are:

冤 冥 冢 冣
2c12 0 0 ... 0 t 1 ⫽ 2c 12
0 2c22 0 ... 0 t 2 ⫽ 2c 22
⭸ 2TH̃V t 3 ⫽ 2c 32 .
⫽ 0 0 2c32 ... 0
⭸y 2 ... ... ... ... ... ⯗
. . . 2cn2 t n ⫽ 2c n2
0 0 0
Therefore, the eigenvalues of a diagonal matrix are
Recognizing that equal to its diagonal elements.

冤 冥
2c12 0 0 ... 0
0 2c22 0 ... 0 Appendix 4
C⫽ 0 0 2c32 ... 0 ,
... ... ... ... ... TRANSITION OF THE TH̃V FUNCTION INTO ITS PRINCIPAL
0 0 0 . . . 2cn2 FORM

The general quadratic form of TH̃V is:


the second derivative (Hessian) of the TH̃V function in
matrix notation is equal to: 1 T
TH̃V ⫽ y Cy ⫹ cTy ,
2
⭸ TH̃V
2
⫽C .
⭸y 2 or equivalently:

TH̃V ⫽ THV ⫺ c 0 ⫽ c 12 y 12 ⫹ c 11 y 1 ⫹ c 22 y 22 ⫹ c 21 y 2
Appendix 3
⫹ c 32 y 32 ⫹ c 31 y 3 ⫹ . . . ⫹ c n1 y n .
CALCULATION OF THE EIGENVALUES OF A DIAGONAL
MATRIX Setting TH̃V ⫽ 0, it yields:

c 12 y 12 ⫹ c 11 y 1 ⫹ c 22 y 22 ⫹ c 21 y 2 ⫹ c 32 y 32 ⫹ c 31 y 3 ⫹ . . .
Let C be a diagonal matrix. Its characteristic polyno-
mial form is: ⫹ c n1 y n ⫽ 0 f
SEPTEMBER 2005 661

f c 12 y 12 ⫹冉 冊 冉
c 11
c 12
y 1 ⫹ c 22 y 22 ⫹
c 21
y
c 22 2 冊 Setting
A 1 ⫽ 共 A/c 12兲, A 2 ⫽ 共 A/c 22兲, A 3 ⫽ 共 A/c 32兲, . . . , A n

⫹ c 32 冉 y 32 ⫹
c 31
c 32 冊 冉
y 3 ⫹ . . . ⫹ c n1 y n ⫹
c n2 2
y ⫽0
c n1 n 冊 . ⫽ 共 A/c n2兲 ,
the above equation obtains the following form:
Completing the square in the above equation, it yields:
2 2 2 2

冉 冉 冊 冉 冊冊
y T1 y T2 y T3 y Tn
c 11 c 11 2
c 11 2
⫹ ⫹ ⫹...⫹ ⫽1 ,
c 12 y 12 ⫹ 2 y1 ⫹ ⫺ A1 A2 A3 An
2c 12 2c 12 2c 12

冉 冉 冊 冉 冊冊 2 2 or in standard notation:
c 21 c 21 c 21

冉冑 冊 冉冑 冊
⫹ c 22 y ⫹2
2
2 y2 ⫹ ⫺ 2
y T1 2
y T2
2c 22 2c 22 2c 22
sign共 A 1 兲 䡠 ⫹ sign共 A 2 兲 䡠

冉 c 31 c 31
冉 冊 冉 冊冊 2
c 31 2 共 兩A 1兩兲 2 共 兩A 2兩兲 2

冉冑 冊
⫹ c 32 y ⫹2
2
3 y3 ⫹ ⫺ ⫹... 2
2c 32 2c 32 2c 32 y T3
⫹ sign共 A 3 兲 䡠 ⫹...
⫹ c n1 冉 yn ⫹ 2
c n2 2
yn ⫹
c n1
冉 冊 冉 冊冊 2

c n1 2
⫽0
共 兩A 3兩兲 2

or equivalently
2c n1 2c n2 2c n2
⫹ sign共 A n 兲 䡠 冉冑 冊 2
y Tn
共 兩A n兩兲 2
⫽1 .

冉 冊 冉 冊
2 2 2 2
c 11 c 11 c 21 c 21 The last equation represents the TH̃V function in its
c 12 y 1 ⫹ ⫺ ⫹ c 22 y 2 ⫹ ⫺ principal form. If n ⫽ 3, as it is in the case of the winter
2c 12 4c 12 2c 22 4c 22

冉 冊 冉 冊
suit fabrics, then the equation becomes:
2 2 2
c 31 c 31 c n1
⫹ c 32 y 3 ⫹
2c 32

4c 32
⫹ . . . ⫹ c n2 y n ⫹
2c n2
2
c n1
sign共 A 1 兲 䡠 冉冑 冊 2
y T1
共 兩A 1兩兲 2
⫹ sign共 A 2 兲 䡠 冉冑 冊 2
y T2
共 兩A 2兩兲 2

Moving the constant quantities to the right-hand-side, the



4c n2
⫽0 .
⫹ sign共 A 3 兲 䡠 冉冑 冊 2
y T3
共 兩A 3兩兲 2
⫽1 .

above equation takes the following form:


Acknowledgment
c 12 冉 y1 ⫹
c 11
2c 12 冊 2
⫹ c 22 冉 y2 ⫹
c 21
2c 22 冊 冉 冊
2
⫹ c 32 y3 ⫹
c 31
2c 32
2

The present work has been partially supported by the


“Archimedes1” EPEAEK Research Project in TEI Pi-

冉 冊
⫹ . . . ⫹ c n2 y n ⫹
c n1
2c n2
2
⫽A ,
raeus, co-financed by the E.U. (E.S.F.) and the Greek
Ministry of Education.
where
Literature Cited
2 2 2 2
c 11 c 21 c 31 c n1
A⫽ ⫹ ⫹ ⫹...⫹ . 1. Cohn, P. M., Elements of Linear Algebra, Chapman and
4c 12 4c 22 4c 32 4c n2 Hall, London, (1994).
2. Bishop, D. P., Fabrics: Sensory and Mechanical Properties,
Setting
Textile Progress, 26(3), 15–28 (1996).

y T1 ⫽ y 1 ⫹冉 c 11
2c 12 冊
, y T2 ⫽ y 2 ⫹
c 21
2c 22 冉
, y T3 冊 3. Kawabata, S., The Standardisation and Analysis of Hand
Evaluation, 2nd edn, HESC, Textile Machinery Society of
Japan, Osaka (1980).


⫽ y3 ⫹
c 31
2c 32冊, . . . , y Tn ⫽ y n ⫹ 冉
c n1
2c n2 冊 4. Kawabata, S., Niwa, M., and Yamashita, Y., A Guide Line
for Manufacturing Ideal Fabrics, Intl J. Clothing Sci. Tech-
nol., 11(2/3), 134 –140 (1999).
and substituting in the previous expression, it yields: 5. Weedall, P. J., Harwood, R. J., and Shaw, N., An Assess-
ment of the Kawabata Transformation Equations for Pri-
c 12 䡠 y T1
2
⫹ c 22 䡠 y T2
2
⫹ c 32 䡠 y T3
2
⫹ . . . ⫹ c n2 䡠 y Tn
2
⫽Af mary-hand Values, J. Textile Inst. 86(3), 470 – 475, 1995.
2 2 2 2 6. Yik, K. L., Cheng, K. P. S., and How, Y. L., Subjective and
yT1 yT2 yT3 yTn
f ⫹ ⫹ ⫹...⫹ ⫽1 . Objective Evaluation of Men’s Shirting Fabrics, Intl J.
共A/c12兲 共A/c22兲 共A/c32兲 共A/cn2兲 Clothing Sci. Technol. 7(4), 17–29 (1995).