Papers coated with pigments bonded by polymer latexes have been tested by dynamic
mechanical analysis. Measurements in tension and in threepoint bending have been
performed to determine the influence of the interaction zone between the coating and the
paper on the properties of the coated paper. Comparisons have also been made with results
from measurements in torsion. Experimental values of Young's modulus and the peak
height of tan 8 were higher than values theoretically calculated from data obtained on the
separate layers, the paper and the coating. This deviation is interpreted as being due to the
influence of an .interaction zone between the coating and the base paper. If the thickness of
the interaction zone is taken into account in the theoretical model, a better correlation with
the experimental values is obtained for the peak height of tanS. Higher values of the
experimental data for the shear modulus of coated paper than from a weightaverage
calculation of the shear modulus of the pure components were obtained. This can be
explained as being due to an increased stiffness of the coated paper as a result of the
interaction zone, that was not adjusted for in the model. Further evidence for the existence of
the interaction zone was provided by the pigment and latex distributions in the crosssection
of coated papers determined in a scanning electron microscope using energy dispersive
Xray analysis.
2822
tensile measurements on a coated paper of 10 p.p.h. where subscripts c and p denote coating and paper,
latex B in the coating is plotted against the dynamic respectively, k is the ratio of the tensile modulus for
strain. It is here evident that (tan 8)~ taken from the the paper to that of the coating, and A is a geometric
zero level is strain dependent, while (tan 5)=,x b taken constant.
from the baseline is strain independent. The strain The theoretical values of (tan S)~ for the coated
dependence appears to be associated with the paper, paper (latex A) are lower than the experimental values
which has been shown to have a nonlinear viscoelas in tension, as shown in Fig. 4. A suggested explanation
tic behaviour [16]. In this case, comparisons must for this discrepancy is that there is an interaction zone
therefore be made by extrapolating (tan ~ ) moa x to zero between the paper and the coating. In the coating
strain. For the (tan 8)Um~,, this is not required as the operation, it is probable that a part of the coating has
strain range studied is within the linear region of the penetrated into the base paper structure giving a fibre
polymer. In torsion, the dynamic amplitude is so small reinforced composite layer. A better agreement is
that the strain dependence can be neglected. achieved if the thickness ratio of paper and coating in
Dynamic mechanical analysis in the tension mode the model is adjusted by 5.5 gm assuming an interac
yields average properties over the whole crosssec tion zone with the same properties as the coating. This
tional area of the specimen, i.e. both for the paper and gives a thicker coating and a thinner base paper in the
the coating layers, whereas measurements in the tor model. The adjustment by 5.5 pm should be compared
sion mode exhibit a greater response to the properties with the thickness of 4.5 gm for the pure coating layer
of the outermost region of the specimen [17]. Earlier obtained by measuring the difference in thicknesses of
studies in torsion have shown that the latex content in a coated paper and an uncoated base paper.
the coating layer of a coated paper has a marked The data from the tension experiments were also
influence on the beak height of tan6 [11]. A similar compared with similar data obtained in torsion.
behaviour is here observed in the tension mode of Values of (tan 5)~ in torsion were obtained accord
deformation. A comparison of (tan6)Um~x for coated ing to the equation Ell]
papers with the two different latex polymers, latex
A and latex B, in Fig. 3, shows higher values for latex tan 5c tan 5p
A than for latex B, at a given latex content. The tan 6 tan 5torsion  (1 + BA~ + [1 + (Bk) 1] (2)
values are taken from an intermediate baseline, and
thus depend only on the properties of the coating
polymer. Although not shown, a similar behaviour is where subscripts c and p denote coating and paper,
observed for measurements made on the coatings sep respectively, k is the ratio of the shear modulus for the
arately. A structural difference between the two poly paper to that of the coating and B is a geometric
mers could explain the difference in the tan6 peak constant. The theoretical values were again lower than
values. It is possible that differences in adhesion prop the experimental values, as shown in Fig. 5. A better
erties to the pigment may also influence the peak agreement with the experimental values was again
values. obtained by introducing an interaction zone 5.5 gm
A theoretical estimate of the influence of latex con thick between the coating layer and the paper in the
tent on (tan 6)m~x may be obtained using lamination model. In the tension mode, the adjusted theoretical
theory, considering the coated paper as a threeply values were slightly below the experimental values,
laminate. The following expression is derived for the and in the torsion mode the adjusted theoretical
coated paper in tension in Appendix 1 values were slightly higher than the experimental
values.
tan ()tension  tan 5o + tan 5p (1)
(1 + 0.SAk) [1 + (0.SAk) 1]
0.15
0,10
Experimental
0.08 Latex A
0.10
o E
cO
= ~ 0.06 e
~3
Theoretical 5.5 g m
r
v
0.00 i i i i
0.00 0 20 40 60 80 100
0 20
' 40
' 6'0 80
Latex c o n t e n t ( p . p . h . )
Latex content ( p.p.h. )
Figure 4 Experimental and theoretical values of (tanfi)~ for
Figure 3 Experimental values of (tan 6)~.x in tension of latex A and coated papers (CD) in tension. Theoretical values of (tanS)~
latex B for different amounts of latex in the coating at a constant assuming an interaction zone with a thickness of 5.5 gm are also
coat weight of 10 g m 2. shown.
2823
0.15 TABLE I Tensile modulus for coated paper in machine direction.
Theoretical 5.5 #m MD
aWatertreated.
0.00 i i I i
0 20 40 60 80 1O0
Latex content ( p.p.h. ) 12
A Coating
Figure 5 Experimental and theoretical values of (tanS)~ for 10
coated papers (CD) in torsion. Theoretical values of (tan 8)~ as
suming an interaction zone with a thickness of 5.5 gm are also
8 Coated paper
shown. A
D Theoretical
6
r
[u
3.2. D y n a m i c m e c h a n i c a l a n a l y s i s o f
4
Y o u n g ' s m o d u l u s in t e n s i o n a n d
Base paper ~ i
bending.
2
Values of the tensile Young's modulus of coated pa &
2824
3.3. Analysis of the interaction zone 110
between coating and paper
It is obvious that the properties of a base paper with 100
a low grammage porous structure, consisting of only
a couple of fibres in the thickness direction, will :&
v 90
change when it is coated with a claybased polymer.
The thickness of the coating layer is not, however, c
0 10 20 30
10 p.p.h. At lower coat weights, however, the thickness
Coat w e i g h t ( g m 2 )
is unaffected by the coat weight. At this low coat
weight, the coating partially penetrates the paper Figure 8 The thickness of a coated paper as a function of the coat
structure creating a reinforced interaction zone in the weight at a constant a m o u n t of latex polymer A, 10 p.p.h.
structure, without leading to any increase in the total
thickness.
Further indications of an interaction zone between 30
the coating and the paper are provided by a deter I Theoretical interface paper/coating
mination of the pigment and latex distributions in
crosssections of coated papers using the SEM ol
el
o
!i
EDXA technique. Fig. 9 shows distribution curves for 20
9 o e o!8,
a coated paper with a latex content of 10 p.p.h, and 9 $
@
a coat weight of 10 g m 2. The intensities have been o
2825
60 also been possible to demonstrate the influence of an
interaction zone between the paper and the coating.
50 The existence of an interaction zone is revealed by
t
O the discrepancies between experimental and theoret
*5 40 ical values of the tensile Young's modulus and the
.o
.w
2826
where (Q,j)k is the stiffness element for the kth ply and and
zk is the distance from the midplane to the lower /1 ~ t !
surface of the ply k. For each ply the following expres tan 8tension  2E'~'tc+ Eptp
! _ 2tan 6r + tanSpEptp
!
sions are valid 2E'ct~ + Eptp 2E'to + Eptp
QI~

E1
1v12v21
(A2)
= ( tanS~ q ~ / 1 t2E~%) (All)
2827
12. P. KOLSETH, PhD dissertation, Royal Institute of Techno 17. T. B. LEWIS and L. E. NIELSEN, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 14
logy, Stockholm, Sweden (1983). (1970) 1449.
13. c. FELLERS, H. ANDERSSON and H. HOLLMARK, in 18. R. M. JONES, in "Mechanics of Composite Materials"
"Paper Structure and Properties", edited by J. A. Bristow and (Scripta, Washington, 1975).
P. Kolseth (Dekker, New York, 1986) p. 151. 19. z. HASHIN, J: Solids Struct. 6 (1970) 539.
14. S.J. KUANG, C. A. FERGUSON, A. REZANOWlCH and
P. LEPOUTRE, Tappi 67(8) (1984) 86.
15. A. KRISHNAGOPALAN and G. L. SIMHARD, ibid. 59(12)
(1976) 96. Received 10 M a y
16. M. RIGDAHL and L. SALMI~N J. Mater. Sci. 19 (1984) 2955. and accepted 16 November 1994
2828