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‘handle’. Part I: hair diameter, bending and

frictional properties1

In cooperation with the working group2 ‘Hair Care Products’ of the DGK (Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer

Wissenschaftliche und Angewandte Kosmetik e.V.: German Association for Scientific and Applied Cosmetics)

*DWI at RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstrasse 8, D-52074 Aachen, Germany and Wella AG, Berliner Allee 65,

64274 Darmstadt, Germany

1

Dedicated to the memory of our revered teacher, colleague and friend Prof. Dr Dres. h.c. Helmut Zahn.

2

Members of the DGK Working Group ‘Hair Care Products’: H. Schmidt-Lewerkuehne, Chairman (Beiers-

dorf), H. Leidreiter, Deputy Chairman (Degussa), U. Assmus (Fresenius), H. Hensen (Cognis), P. Hoessel

(BASF), G. Lang (Wella), A. Markowetz (Procter & Gamble), V. Martin (Zschimmer & Schwarz), B. Noecker

(KPSS), E. Poppe (Henkel-Schwarzkopf), E. Schulze-zur-Wiesche (Henkel-Schwarzkopf), A. Schwan-Jonczyk

(Wella), A. Wendt (National Starch & Chemicals), J. Wood (KPSS), F.-J. Wortmann (DWI).

Synopsis

regions. Significant differences were determined

The expert working group ‘Hair Care Products’ of between the hair types in diameters, ellipticity,

the DGK currently conducts a wide study to contrib- bending stiffness and friction. The results lead to

ute to the understanding of how single hair fibre conclude that ‘handle’ is perceived as inferior when

and hair collective properties contribute towards the hair is thick and bending stiffness thus high. For

hair ‘handle’ and ‘feel’. During the first stage of this such hair differences in handle rating are related to

study four hair types were selected from a large differences in friction, namely in the tip region. For

group of individual European hair braids, according thin and thus ‘soft’ hair fibre friction seems to play

to either similar or widely different panel ratings for only a minor role.

handle. Against the background of the panel test

and the state of the literature the working group

Résumé

readily identified the bending properties of single

fibres interacting in the tress as a fibre collective Le groupe d’experts ‘Hair Care Products’ du DGK

and fibre friction as being of central relevance for entreprend actuellement une large étude afin de

hair ‘handle’ and ‘feel’. Fibre diameters of the hair contribuer à comprendre de la façon dont la fibre

types were determined by Optical Fibre Diameter simple, aussi bien que les propriétés de collective

Analyzer and by weighing. From these data mean de cheveux, contribuent vers la ‘main’ et ‘sensa-

ellipticity and bending stiffness distributions were tion’ des cheveux. Pendant la première étape de

calculated. Single fibre friction was determined by l’étude, quatre types des cheveux ont été choisis

parmi un grand groupe de différentes tresses

européennes de cheveux, selon les estimations

Correspondence: F.-J. Wortmann, University of Manche-

ster, Dep. Textiles & Paper, Sackville Street, Manchester

semblables ou largement différentes de panneau

M60 1QD, UK, Tel.: +44 (0) 161 306 4158; fax: +44 (0) pour la main. Selon l’expertise de panneau, aussi

161 306 4153; E-mail: f-j.wortmann@manchester.ac.uk bien que la littérature, le groupe de travail a

Investigation of hair handle F.-J. Wortmann and A. Schwan-Jonczyk

aisément identifié les propriétés de recourbement in the selected tresses, the conclusions that can be

des fibres simples agissant l’un sur l’autre dans les drawn thereof for their bending properties and

tresses comme une collective des fibres, et le frotte- results for single fibre friction. The results are con-

ment de fibre, qu’étant de l’importance centrale sidered in relation to panel ratings for handle.

pour la ‘main’ et ‘sensation’ des cheveux. Les di-

amétres des fibres des cheveux ont été déterminés

Materials and methods

par OFDA et en pesant. De ces données nous av-

ons calculées les distributions d’ellipticité moyenne

Material

et de la rigidité à la flexion. Le frottement de fibre

simple a été déterminé par la méthode de cabestan This study is based on hair tresses derived from

pour les régions de racine, milieu, et de bout. Des four individual braids that were cosmetically

différences significatives ont été déterminées entre unprocessed. The hair types were selected by the

les différents types de cheveux saisit des diamétres, members of the working group as reflecting

l’ellipticité, la rigidité à la flexion et le frottement. extremes in ‘hair handle’ and were derived from a

Les résultats ménent à conclure que la ‘main’ est larger collective on the basis of panel tests conduc-

perçue en tant que subordonné, quand les fibres ted in various companies, represented in the work-

de cheveu sont épaisses, donc la rigidité à la flex- ing group. The hair types were coded for the

ion est haute. Pour un tel cheveu les différences context of this report as H1, H2, GA1 and GC3.

dans l’estimation de main sont liées aux différences H1 and H2 were medium brown, GA1 and GC3

dans le frottement, particuliérement, dans la light brown in colour. The tresses derived from

région de bout. Pour les fibres minces, donc ‘doux’, hair cut about 10 cm above the scalp. They were

le frottement de fibre de cheveux semble jouer rather long (25 cm long, 4 cm wide, approxi-

seulement un rôle mineur. mately 4 g) for hair types H1, GA1 and GC3 and

somewhat shorter (approximately 20 cm) for H2.

For the tests described below, the hair was gener-

Introduction

ally considered in three segments, referred to for

The expert working group ‘Hair Care Products’ of ease of semantics as root/middle/tip, irrespective of

the DGK (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Wissenschaftli- the fact that the hair material was obviously

che und Angewandte Kosmetik: German Associ- obtained at some distance from the scalp.

ation for Scientific and Applied Cosmetics)

currently conducts a wide study to contribute to

Handle determination

the understanding of how single hair fibre and

hair collective properties contribute towards hair The hair types were handled by panels comprising

‘handle’ and ‘feel’. an overall of about 30 experienced consumers and

During the first stage of this study a large group experts and were rated simply as either ‘good’ or

of European hair braids from individuals, made up ‘bad’. Table I summarizes the percentages of posit-

into tresses, was assessed for handle. From this ive ratings associated with each hair type.

group four braids were selected, for which experts

and experienced consumer panels in various com-

Diameter determination

panies had determined either similar or widely dif-

ferent ratings, respectively, for their overall Determining the diameter of human hair is not a

handle. straightforward task, due to hair ellipticity, variabil-

Discussing, against the background of the panel ity between hairs on a head and along an individual

test and the state of the literature [1–3], the con- fibre [4]. Against this background the diameter

tributions of specific physical and mechanical measurement by means of an Optical Fibre Diam-

properties of hair towards ‘handle’ and ‘feel’, the eter Analyzer (OFDA 100, BSC Electronics, Myaree,

working group readily identified the bending prop- WA, Australia) was chosen. This technique is based

erties of single fibres interacting in the tress as a on the principles of light microscopy and well estab-

fibre collective and fibre friction as being of central lished for wool [5]. The method enables to measure

relevance. within a few minutes a large number of fibre snip-

This paper describes investigations of the diam- pets (approximately 2000) and thus to determine a

eter and the cross-sectional geometry of the hair highly accurate diameter value for the collective.

Investigation of hair handle F.-J. Wortmann and A. Schwan-Jonczyk

(n»30) for four selected hair types Hair Panel (n » 30) Diameter Diameter

and hair diameter type positive ratings in % (OFDA) in lm* CV in % (weight) in lm* Ellipticity

H2 69 96.1 ± 0.76 16 83.4 ± 1.7 1.33

GA1 94 89.5 ± 0.75 20 74.5 ± 2.5 1.45

GC3 94 89.3 ± 0.59 17 75.1 ± 1.7 1.42

Mean fibre diameter and coefficient of variation (CV) determined by Optical Fibre Diameter

Analyzer (OFDA) (n»2000). Diameter determined by weighing (n ¼ 6) and the ellipticity

value derived according to Eq. (2).

*±95% confidence range.

CV ¼ standard deviation/mean·100%

For the OFDA measurement 2 mm fibre snippets are equivalent area. Bending stiffness (flexural

spread under standard climatic conditions (20C, stiffness, bending rigidity) of a hair is given by:

65% rh) thinly on a microscopic slide. Under these

B¼EI ð3Þ

conditions the generally elliptical snippets will tend

to lie on the long axis, so that the diameter values where E is the elastic or Young’s modulus and I

will be strongly biased towards the long axis of the the moment of inertia of the cross-section or more

hair fibre cross-section. precisely the second moment of the area.

For the measurements fibre snippets were It is reasonable to assume that hairs on a head

obtained by means of a microtome at three posi- in reality will preferentially bend about their minor

tions along a tress (root, middle and tip). The snip- elliptic axis [3], so that

pets were pooled and the mean hair diameter was

I ¼ ab3 =4 ð4Þ

determined under standard climatic conditions

(20C, 65% rh). With Eq. (1) this yields:

In parallel, mean fibre diameter was determined

through weighing bundles of fibres of known num- I ¼ a4 =ð4"3 Þ ð5Þ

bers and length under standard climatic conditions. so that Eq. (3) becomes:

This determination was conducted for each of the

braids six-fold and for samples taken from the root B ¼ Ea4 =ð4"3 Þ: ð6Þ

and the tip section of a given braid. The results were

pooled to give the overall result for a hair type, For the current argument it is assumed that the

namely the diameter of the circle with an area equal Young’s modulus is homogeneous over the cross-

to that of the generally elliptical hair fibres. section and is equal for compressional and exten-

sional deformations as they occur in bending.

While the latter assumption is reasonable in view

Calculation of bending stiffness of the small deformations of hair during handling,

On the assumption that the OFDA measurement the first assumption has to be viewed with some

yields the value close to that for the long axis of care [6], namely due to the potentially substantial

the ellipse and the weight determination of the area contribution of the cuticle [3, 7, 8]. A reasonable

and diameter of the equivalent circle, ellipticity e, estimate for the extensional modulus of hair under

being the ratio of the long and the short axis of standard climatic conditions (20C, 65% rh) is

the ellipse: E ¼ 5.5 GPa [9].

Measurement of single fibre friction

is given by:

Twenty-five hairs were removed at random from

" ¼ ð2aÞ2 =d 2 ð2Þ

the tresses and washed with lauryl ether sulfate

where a is the long, b the short half-axis of the solution (LES 15%, pH 6.8). The hairs were dried

ellipse and d the diameter of the circle of under a hood-type drier and stored under standard

Investigation of hair handle F.-J. Wortmann and A. Schwan-Jonczyk

climatic conditions (22C, 55% rh) for 24 h. Fric- connected to the first. The third group of terms

tion was measured in a tensile tester (Zwick 1425, (23%) described the tactile properties of hair, that is

Ulm, Germany) by a variation of the high-load the perception of surface roughness and thus fric-

capstan test, described by Scott and Robbins [10]. tion. The fourth and least quoted group of terms

For the friction measurement a hair was clamped (12%) comprised descriptions associated with hair

at the root end. The free end was wound com- collective properties. The details of this part of the

pletely around a PVC-cylinder (4.5 cm circumfer- investigation will be reported elsewhere.

ence) and a weight of 500 mg was attached. After

pulling the fibre over the cylinder over a distance

Diameter

of 1 cm (10 cm min)1) for positioning purposes,

the force was recorded over a further distance of Due to the obvious relevance of hair bending prop-

6–15 cm, depending on the hair type. Subse- erties for ‘handle’, which in turn is largely con-

quently, the hair was clamped at the tip end and trolled by hair diameter, special emphasis was

the test repeated. For each tress 25 hairs were placed on the consideration of this fibre property

measured. After every fourth test the cylinder was for the different hair types. Table I gives the diam-

thoroughly cleaned with isopropanol to remove eters and the coefficients of variation of the hair

potential surface deposits. types as determined by OFDA and thus based on a

From the recorded force curves the mean large number of measurements. Judging by the

frictional force for the root-to-tip (RT) and for the confidence range and confirmed by the statistically

tip-to-root (TR) direction were determined. Further- non-conservative Least Significant Difference (LSD)

more, the curves were separated into three test [11] it turned out that, with the exception of

segments, termed for ease of semantics as ‘root’, the pair GA1 and GC3 (P ¼ 0.8), the other diame-

‘middle’ and ‘tip’, to arrive at frictional data for ters are significantly different from each other.

these parts of a hair. For each of these segments the Figure 1 summarizes the results for the OFDA

‘local’ RT- and TR-frictional forces were determined. diameters in the form of a box-and-whisker plot,

According to theory and experiment [9] the results characterized by the mean (symbol), the 95% con-

are expected to be independent of hair diameter. fidence range (box) and the standard deviation

(whisker). Due to the large number of diameter

values the confidence ranges are very small com-

Results and discussion

pared to the standard deviations. The diameter dis-

Table I summarizes the percentages of positive rat- tributions overlap in fact very considerably.

ings of hair handle for the four hair types. The To further document this observation, Fig. 2

widely differing ratings lead to assigning the hair gives the experimental diameter distributions for

types to three classes, one with a low percentage hair types H2 and GA1 that have the largest and

of positive ratings (H1, 41%), one in the medium lowest diameter, respectively, and the normal dis-

range (H2, 69%) and two very similar ones in the tributions fitted to the data. Corroborating the

high range (GA1 and GC3, 94%). results in Table I and Fig. 1, the peaks are separ-

The observation of ‘good handle’ was associated ated for the distributions, though fibre diameters

by the panel members with the adjectives are spread over a range between 40 and 140 lm.

‘smooth’, ‘soft’ and ‘flexible’. Negative adjectives This leads to a strong overlap of the distributions,

associated with ‘bad handle’ were stated much less making the differences determined through the

frequent, however, ‘coarse’ and ‘blunt’ were used. statistical analysis, even for these extreme hair

In the context of the present study it is interesting types, not so very obvious.

to note, that the terms associated by the panel mem- In Table I, in addition the material diameter

bers with handle fell into four groups. The first and determined by weighing under standard climatic

largest group of terms with a quotation rate of 39% conditions is given. Again GA1 and GC3 appear as

was genuinely connected to handle and could be very similar, with pronounced differences compared

linked to geometrical hair properties, such as diam- to H1 and H2. The ellipticity values derived by

eter. The second group (26%) comprised terms rela- means of Eq. (2) are at the low end but still well

ted to fibre mechanical properties, namely bending. within the range expected for European hair [12].

Through the dependence of the bending properties However, despite the wide overlap between the

on fibre diameter (see Eq. 6), this group is directly diameter distributions, the results support and

Investigation of hair handle F.-J. Wortmann and A. Schwan-Jonczyk

four hair types as determined by

Optical Fibre Diameter Analyzer (left

y-axis), described by the arithmetic

mean ( ), the 95% confidence limits

(box) and the standard deviation

(whisker). Decadic logarithms of

bending stiffness ( ) for the hair

types (right y-axis). The units for

bending stiffness, not included in the

logarithm for reasons of simplicity,

are given. For the statistical signifi-

cance of differences see text.

Figure 2 Diameter distributions for hair types H2 ( ) H2 ( ) and GA1 (•). The lines through the data points

and GA1 (•), as determined by Optical Fibre Diameter derive from moving average smoothing and approach

Analyzer (n»2000). log-normal distributions.

corroborate the initial hypothesis, that the differ- more pronounced than those for the related diam-

ences in handle as perceived between the groups eters (Fig. 2).

H1 and H2 versus GA1 and GC3, are connected It is readily shown that the data are not nor-

with lower diameters and with the higher elliptici- mally, but largely log-normally distributed. The

ties of the latter. means, the 95% confidence limits and the coeffi-

cients of variation (CV) of bending stiffness on the

log10-scale are given in Table II. The data are

Bending

graphically summarized in Fig. 1. Judging by the

The differences between hair types become more 95% confidence limits all differences between the

pronounced when bending stiffness is considered, means on the log scale are statistically significant.

where with Eq. (6) the diameter of the long axis, This observation is corroborated by the LSD test. It

as determined by OFDA, and ellipticity enter with is interesting to note from Table II that the width

high powers. Figure 3 shows the estimated stiff- of the distribution, as given by the CV value, is in

ness distributions when bending hairs of types H2 fact substantially higher for the ‘good handle’ G-

and GA1 over their short axis, while the long axis pair compared to the ‘bad handle’ H-pair. This

defines the neutral plane. Again the distributions means that the G-types, already having lower

strongly overlap though the differences are much diameters and bending stiffness, furthermore

Investigation of hair handle F.-J. Wortmann and A. Schwan-Jonczyk

Hair Panel (n » 30) B: geometric

type positive ratings in % log B* CV in % mean (10)9 Nm2)

H2 69 0.97 ± 0.015 31 9.25

GA1 94 0.72 ± 0.015 49 5.23

GC3 94 0.75 ± 0.011 40 5.66

Positive ratings from panels (n ¼ 30) for the four hair types. Arithmetic mean for

log10(bending stiffness) and coefficient of variation (CV) determined according to Eq. (6)

and on the basis of Optical Fibre Diameter Analyzer measurements combined with the

ellipticity values in Table I. The units for bending stiffness are 10)9 Nm2, which for reasons

of simplicity are not included in log B. Geometric mean for the bending stiffness calculated

thereof.

B, bending stiffness.

*±95% confidence range.

Friction

large population of hairs with very low diameter

and bending stiffness. Figure 4 shows the experimental curves from

The geometric means for bending stiffness are frictional measurements for the RT and TR direc-

given in Table II, showing differences that are con- tions, respectively, on a hair fibre taken from

siderably more pronounced between the H- and hair type H1. The curve for the RT direction,

the G-pair than just for diameter. The results show that is with the cuticle scales, is comparatively

that, namely H2 has a bending stiffness that is smooth and shows a minor tendency for an

about 80% higher than for GA1, which in turn is increase towards the tip end. Starting the meas-

similar to GC3. The general difference between the urement in the tip region and for the against-

H- and the G-pair of hairs for this property corres- scales direction (TR) generates a frictional force

ponds to the panel ratings. that is roughly twice as high. It is interesting to

In the context of this investigation it is interest- note that the frictional force drops considerably

ing to note that H2 has a significantly higher when approaching the middle region to a con-

bending stiffness than H1, but still a substantially stant level that is just about 50% higher than

better rating. This indicates that the second for the with-scales (RT) measurement. These

parameter investigated in this study, namely fric- high frictional forces in the tip region indicate

tion, is expected to play a major role for this more strong hair surface damage, either by cosmetic

subtle facet of handle. or natural influences.

frictional force for a fibre of hair

type H1, measured in the cuticle

scales, root-to-tip (RT) direction

(lower curve) and the against cuti-

cle scales, tip-to-root (TR) direction

(upper curve) respectively.

Investigation of hair handle F.-J. Wortmann and A. Schwan-Jonczyk

Table III Mean frictional forces of single hairs for the root, middle and tip segments

Frictional force*, cN

RT direction TR direction

Hair

type Root Middle Tip Root Middle Tip

H1 0.64 ± 0.02 0.64 ± 0.02 0.64 ± 0.03 0.97 ± 0.04 1.06 ± 0.04 1.19 ± 0.05

H2 0.62 ± 0.02 – 0.58 ± 0.02 0.96 ± 0.04 – 1.08 ± 0.04

GA1 0.67 ± 0.02 0.65 ± 0.02 0.63 ± 0.02 0.98 ± 0.03 1.09 ± 0.02 1.38 ± 0.04

GC3 0.81 ± 0.05 0.79 ± 0.04 0.81 ± 0.04 1.20 ± 0.07 1.29 ± 0.06 1.52 ± 0.07

Tests were conducted on 25 hairs for each hair type for the RT and TR directions under conditions of standard climate (22C, 55% rh).

*±95% confidence range.

Table III summarizes the results for frictional As was to be expected, frictional forces are sub-

forces in the RT and TR directions for the four stantially higher for the TR direction compared to

hair types, differentiating between root–middle–tip the RT direction, that is against rather than with

regions. Hair type H2 was somewhat shorter than the cuticle scales. The data are summarized in

the other hair types so that only the differentiation Table III and illustrated in Fig. 6. Hair types H1,

between tip and root section was possible. H2 and GA1 again show obvious similarities,

Figure 5 summarizes the results for the RT namely for the root and the middle segment, while

direction in the form of a box-and-whisker plot. It GC3 shows significantly higher frictional forces.

is quite obvious that H1, H2 and GA1 exhibit sim- For H1, H2 and GA1 all differences between the

ilar frictional forces for this test design, all being frictional forces along the hair and for the TR

around 0.65 cN and with a rather small and con- direction are significant on the 95% level. For GC3

sistent variability. For H1 no change along fibre the level still reaches 90%. Friction thus increases

length is observed, while for the RT direction there systematically and, as Fig. 4 shows, also discontin-

is a significant decrease towards the tip for H2 and uously from root to tip.

GA1 respectively. The level of frictional forces is It is interesting to note that the slightly higher

significantly and about 20–25% higher for GC3 values of stiffness and frictional forces for GC3

compared to all other hair types. compared to GA1 do not lead to lower ratings for

bol), standard errors (box), and 95%

confidence limits (whisker) for the

frictional forces in root-to-tip (RT)

direction for the four hair types

(n ¼ 25).

Investigation of hair handle F.-J. Wortmann and A. Schwan-Jonczyk

bol), standard errors (box), and 95%

confidence limits (whisker) for the

frictional forces in tip-to-root (TR)

direction for the four hair types

(n ¼ 25).

GC3. However, frictional forces for GA1 and GC3 2. Yin, N.E., Kissinger, R.H., Tolgyesi, W.S. and Cott-

are very similar in the tip region (Fig. 6) which ington, E.M. The effect of fiber diameter on the cos-

the experts consider as very important for the metic aspect of hair. J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 28, 139–

overall handle rating of a tress. 150 (1977).

3. Swift, J.A. Some simple theoretical considerations on

the bending stiffness of human hair. Int. J. Cosmet.

Conclusions Sci. 17, 245–253 (1995).

4. Sauermann, G., Hoppe, U. and Lunderstädt, L. Meas-

For the present study four braids were selected on urement of the surface profile of human hair by sur-

the basis of a panel test by a group of experts for face profilometry. J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 39, 27–42

similar and dissimilar handle ratings. These were (1988).

investigated in detail for their geometrical and the 5. International Wool Textile Organisation. Test method

derived bending and frictional properties. IWTO-47–98: Measurement of the mean & distribu-

When considering the general difference in the tion of fibre diameter of wool using an optical fibre

handle ratings for H1 and H2 on the one hand diameter analyser. The Woolmark Co., Ilkley (1998).

and GA1 and GC3 on the other, the lower diame- 6. Scott, G.V. and Robbins, C.R. Stiffness of human hair

fibers. J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 29, 469–485 (1978).

ters, higher ellipticity and thus low bending stiff-

7. Swift, J.A. The cuticle controls the bending stiffness

ness of the latter appear to play an overriding role.

of hair. J. Cosmet. Sci. 29, 37–38 (2000).

H2 has a better rating than H1, though H2 has a 8. Liu, H. and Bryson, W.G. A three-component model

significantly higher diameter and bending stiffness. of the wool fibre – effects of morphology, elasticity

But it shows lower friction, namely in the tip and intermediate filament arrangement on fibre stiff-

region. On this basis it may be speculated that in ness. J. Text. Inst. 93, 121–131 (2002).

a context where the panel perceives the hair gen- 9. Robbins, C.R. Chemical and physical behavior of

erally as ‘thick’ and ‘strong’ with a generally infer- human hair, 3rd edn. Springer Verlag, New York

ior handle lower frictional forces, namely, in the (1994).

tip region make an overriding contribution 10. Scott, G.V. and Robbins, C.R. Effects of surfactant

towards improved handle ratings. For thin and solutions on hair fiber friction. J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem.

31, 179–200 (1980).

thus ‘soft’ hair fibre friction seems to play only a

11. Statistica. Computer program manual. StatSoft Inc.,

minor role.

Tulsa, OK (2001).

12. Teasdale, D., Philippen, H., Schlüter, R., Meichelbeck,

References H. and Blankenburg, G. Querschnitts - parameter von

Humanhaaren, Teil 3: Messungen an europäischen

1. Robbins, C.R. and Scott, G.V. Prediction of hair und japanischen Haarmustern. Ärztliche Kosmetologie

assembly characteristics from single fiber properties. 12, 3–8 (1982).

J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 29, 783–792 (1978).

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