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r g m o n

Int. J. Mach. Tools Manufact. Vol. 36, No. 6, pp. 713-728, 1996

Copyright 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd

Printed in Great Britain. All rights reserved

0890-6955/96515.00 + .00

0890- 6955( 95) 00055- 0

T HE RE GUL AT I ON OF P OS I T I ON E RROR I N C ONT OURI NG

S YS T E MS

R. J. SEETHALERt and I. YELLOWLEYt

(Received 15 July 1994; in final form 3 May 1995)

Ab6t r aet - - The aulLhors discuss t he use of a novel hardware configuration i n t he cont rol of posi t i on er r or

duri ng cont our i ng operat i ons. The archi t ect ure descri bed allows real t i me er r or cont rol i n mul t i pl e axis

systems; t hi s is achi eved by allowing any axis wi t h a phase lag which exceeds t hat specified, t o slow down

t he ent i r e system unt i l i t is i n conformance. The performance of t he system is demonst r at ed by bot h

si mul at i on and exper i ment , using corneri ng and circular i nt erpol at i on as examples. The maj or cont r i but i on

of t he work is t hought to be t he ability of t he system t o cope, i n real t i me, with system const rai nt s and

nonl i neari t i es. Copyri ght (~) 1996 El sevi er Science Lt d

1. I NTRODUCTI ON

In t he last decade considerable effort has been devot ed to t he design of high speed

contouring algorithms. The simultaneous devel opment of faster comput er hardware,

has also had a significant impact on t he feasible level of complexity in control strategies

and t he bandwi dt h of t he measuring subsystems.

The probl em of reducing pat h error or individual axis errors may be achieved t hrough

path preproce,;sing, in which a dynami c model of t he machine system is utilised in t he

pat h planning process (Pak [1], has given a recent machi ne tool rel at ed exampl e). The

paper which follows is, however, concerned with t he real time control of error, which

from a viewpoint of practice, is perhaps a mor e recent activity. Several ot her authors

have exami ned this area, notably Tomizuka, [2, 3], who has at t empt ed to minimise

pat h error t hrough t he achi evement of as close as possible to zero phase lag bet ween

t he command and actual position of each axis. The essence of t he work described by

Tomi zuka is t he use of a compensating filter which attempts to cancel t he dynamics

of t he control loop; it should be evident that this t ype of approach presupposes a good

knowledge of plant structure and parameters. Additional problems are likely with any

such system due to physical constraints and nonlinearities; in t he case of t he previous

work, t he aut hors have suggested ways to avoid large accelerations and i ndeed later

work by Weck [4] has proposed a solution to this probl em which involves placing a

low pass filter in front of t he controller. The solution proposed by Weck alleviates t he

amplifier saturation probl em and in practice, has been shown to lead to an improved

performance in corner tracking.

A rat her different approach to t he minimisation of path error has been i nt roduced

by Kor en [5, 6], who sets out to minimise path error, while still allowing actual

individual axi,; position errors. The approach requires t he calculation of a pat h error

from t he individual errors of t he individual axes. It t hen uses this pat h er r or to

compensat e t he individual axes. The strategy suggested by Koren requires very fast

hardware to allow this procedure of cross coupling errors to be achieved in a realistic

fashion.

The approach t aken in this paper is i nt ended to allow t he possibility of controlling

error in real t i me, even in those cases where constraints such as amplifier saturation

are encount ered. The approach derives much from t he architecture of a control system

t De pa r t me nt of Mechani cal Engi neeri ng, Uni versi t y of Bri t i sh Col umbi a, Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5.

713

714 R. J . Seethaler and I. Yellowley

architecture devel oped at t he University of British Columbia [7]. A brief description

of t he architecture is given in t he following section.

2. UBC CONTROLLER

The controller utilises either t he 8 bit STD or 32 bi t STD 32 Bus. The master

processor is an I NTEL 80X86. In typical cases up to 15 axis slave controllers may be

installed. The software system includes a two stage interpolation syst em and, in t he

work described in this paper, t he mast er updates t he position of each slave every

16 msec (this corresponds to approximately four times t he velocity loop time constant

of t he axis servos). The slave processors are usually based upon I NTEL 80C196

microcontrollers; t hese i mpl ement loop closing, a digital lead lag filter and a second

stage interpolation process. The controllers interpolate 32 times bet ween every mast er

position, t he l oop is closed at t he same time leading to a servo updat e rat e, in this

case, of 0.5 msec. The first and second stage interpolation frequencies are i mport ant

paramet ers in controlling t he path error.

The architecture, which is shown in Fig. 1, ensures that most of t he workl oad is

t aken from t he mast er and t ransferred !o t he slave controllers and that t he requi red

bandwidth of t he bus is reduced for any fixed number of slaves and servo updat e time.

The maj or additional feat ure of t he architecture is t he addition of parallelism t hrough

t he use of so-called state lines to connect t he axis slaves and t he process/technology

slaves. Each of t he state lines represents an ANDI NG of t he condition of all boards

which write to it, t hey are usually achieved, physically t hrough t he use of open collector

lines. The normal mode of use of t he line is to have each board write and read from

t he lines at t he end and start, respectively, of t he second stage interpolation cycle.

The result in t he simplest case of a single state line which is used in this application

is one of t he following:

(a) Should t he line be high t he interpolation and control functions go ahead as

normal.

(b) Should t he line be low, t he past interpolation step is repeat ed, i.e. no furt her

position is added to t he position command; t he loop is however closed normally.

One may see t hen that t he effective command velocity may be reduced t hrough t he

use of t he single state line, and that any of t he slaves, ei t her axis slaves or process

slaves, may achieve this end, t he final velocity achieved t hen being det er mi ned by t he

tightest of t he constraints. A previous paper, Ref, [8], has exami ned t he use of this

mechani sm in force control.

2.1. Basic interpolation system

The position increments calculated by t he first stage interpolation system which runs

on t he mast er, are t ransferred over t he backplane (STD or STD32) to buffers in biport

Master

CPU

80x86

STD BUS

Slave

CPU

Axis I

Slave

CPU

Axis 2

Coordinating line

State line

Front plane Bus

Fig. 1. UBC controller architecture.

Slave

CPU

Axis 3

F

w

r

Regulation of Position Error in Contouring Systems 715

r am on each of t he axis slaves. The slave processors t hemsel ves t hen per f or m a second

stage i nt er pol at i on or splining of posi t i on. The aim of t he syst em is t o allow a hi gh

accuracy of fitting t he commanded pat h wi t hout requi ri ng ei t her a large comput at i onal

effort at t he mast er or a hi gh bandwi dt h in t he communi cat i on system. The part i cul ar

i nt erpol at i on scheme whi ch is used is parabol i c in nat ur e and was chosen t o mi ni mi se

comput at i on [9]. The scheme assumes t hat poi nt s are evenl y spaced in t i me, and t hat

t her e is a linear variation in velocity over each mast er sampl i ng peri od. Thi s leads t o

t he following f or mul a for di spl acement

x = Xi + [Xi+l - x i ] t [Xi +2 - Xi ~ A~ - Xi q - Xi - 1 ] " (~ -- -2att)

(1)

wher e 0 -< t -'-: At, x is t he commanded di spl acement at t i me t, Xi is t he cur r ent first

stage i ncrement .

The posi t i on spline of equat i on (1) still allows t he possibility of large discontinuities

in velocity at t he end poi nt s of t he first stage i nt erpol at i on. Thi s will result in t he

commandi ng of large and per haps infeasible accelerations. Thi s pr obl em will be

addressed in a following section which discusses t he so-called velocity spline.

2.2. S ervo l oop

The l oop closing mechani sm i mpl ement ed on each of t he slave mi crocont rol l ers

utilises a si mpl e l ead or lag filter. Repl aci ng this with a cont i nuous filter, leads t o t he

bl ock di agram shown in Fig. 2, which depicts t he experi ment al , per manent magnet ,

d.c. ser vomot or dri ven posi t i on l oop.

Ther e are t wo very i mpor t ant characteristics of t he syst em shown in Fig. 2. Firstly

it has a l i mi t ed accel erat i on due t o current sat urat i on, which is given by,

Xma x = lma x g t ~ ( 2)

and secondl y t her e is a steady-state lag bet ween t he reference and t he actual posi t i on

for a r amp i nput . It may also be poi nt ed out t hat for t he t ype of syst em under

consi derat i on here, this is also t he steady-state lag t o a sinusoidal i nput ( pr ovi ded t hat

t he i nput frequency is significantly less t han t he bandwi dt h) . The magni t ude of t he lag

is given by t he following expressi on,

b Kt sa

d~ - a----K Ke" (3)

2.3. The appl i cat i on o f the state line to the mi ni mi sat i on o f error

The ai m of t he error cont rol pr ocedur e is t he mai nt enance of a small and const ant

level of phase lag bet ween command and actual posi t i on on each axis. The aut hors

will demonst r at e t he use of t he state line t o achieve this end; since a const ant phase

U T ] T d

Fig. 2. Block diagram of position loop.

716 R. J. Seethaler and I. Yellowley

lag requires an axis error which is proport i onal to axis velocity, then t he control of

t he state line requires a knowledge of bot h velocity and position error.

The met hod used t o control error using the state line is to pull the state line low

when t he actual error exceeds t he allowable; any axis may pull the state line low when

this occurs. The allowable error, as ment i oned earlier, is related to velocity, however

since static errors will exist and since one does not wish to reduce the allowable

acceleration and bandwi dt h, t he allowable error is expressed in t he form bel ow,

eaUowabl e = V4 ' "1" 8s t at i c .

(4)

The first t erm allows for t he expect ed error proport i onal to velocity and ~s t at i c allows

for friction induced errors and a reasonabl e level of allowable acceleration. The state

line is allowed to return to a high level once t he actual error is less than t he allowable.

The process described allows the modul at i on of axis velocities in a coordi nat ed fashion

and effectively reduces the frequency of t he reference position component s.

The velocity used to calculate t he allowable error within the controller is a reference

velocity which is calculated by splining t he first stage interpolation increments. The

approach used here is different from that i mposed by the position spline since one

wishes to avoid discontinuities in the velocity. The variation in velocity allowed is again

linear and is shown in Fig. 3. The approach shown in Fig. 3 comprises fixing t he

command velocity at t he j unct i on of t wo first stage intervals to t he average of t he

values over t he t wo increments. It thus t akes t wo mast er sampling intervals to accelerate

from zero to a constant velocity. The velocity spline is described mathematically in

equat i on (5). The velocity spline is not equal to the derivative of the position spline

and in fact if one integrated t he velocity spline t he distances travelled woul d not

correspond to t hose required. The spline is used to calculate allowable error, which

in turn is used through the state line to smoot h and extend the time domain command

signal.

x t]

V(t) = ( Xi + 1 - Xi _ l ) --b ( Xi + 2 - Xi + 1 - X i --[- i - l ) ~

(5)

The most obvi ous approach to t he use of the state line for error control woul d seem

to be t he use of an error criterion in t he form,

lea.ow ab d 1 4 ' V I + 8 stati c .

(6)

The criterion above allows an error band around the actual position, and results in

the state line being triggered when the actual position is leading t he reference position.

Such an approach forces t he system to slow down more than necessary. A sign sensitive

error criterion may be formul at ed as an alternative as follows,

8

- - - - - Ve l o c i t y s pl i ne

Fi g. 3. V eloc i ty spli ne.

Regulation of Position Error in Contouring Systems 717

sign(V) e a l l o wa b l e < sign(V) cb V + ~s t a t i c ( 7 )

The experi ment al results which follow in section 3 use t he criteria in equat i on (7),

t he value of phase used is t he same as would result from t he type 1 system, used i n

response to a ramp input [see equation (3)]. The selection of a value for t he constant

in t he criteria is mor e complex, t he t orque available at standstill must clearly exceed

any frictional loads, however at t he same time one wishes to have t he system respond

to rapid changes in input (ei t her in reference or disturbance). The r equi r ement to

allow high values of acceleration, even when t he velocity is low, leads to t he notion

of det ermi ni ng t he value of ~s t a t i c in t he following fashion,

1

~s t a t i c = ,~rnax K Ka" (8)

This leads to t he expression for t he total value of allowable error as follows,

b Ktsa

eal l owabl e - - V~ --I- ~st at i c = V

1

a K K e + Ima~ KKa" (9)

2.4. The influence oJ: the state line approach on dynamic performance

The system with t he state line inactive simply acts as a normal servo system. In

those cases when t he actual error surpasses t he allowable error, t he system structure

is altered, and it becomes necessary to examine dynamic response and stability.

If one assumes that t he static error, ( ~ s t a t i c ) , is small, t hen according to equat i on

(9), t he error must be,

s R(s) b Ktsa

E(s) - a K Ke (10)

t hen t he velocity error can be expressed in t he following form,

El ( s ) = s R( s) b Ktsa (s + a) S O(s) Ktsa

a Ke (s + b) Ke (11)

t he out put of t he system is t hen,

Ka Kt Ke

O( s ) = El ( s ) ~ - s i

(12)

and t he resulting closed loop transfer function is given by

Ka Kt b Ktsa (s + a)

F(s) = . ( 1 3 )

a (s + b) (Jes + Ka Kt Kt sa)

Since b, Je, Ktsa, Ka and Kt are always positive, t he system will always be stable.

It is interesting to not e that t he system performance is i ndependent of t he compensat or

gain, K and that t h e sYstem becomes a simple lag when t he Compensator is used to

cancel exactly t he velocity loop.

2.5. The selection of appropriate system parameters

Ther e are a number of paramet ers which must be set to reasonable values if t he

state line approach described her e is to be successful. As in all systems, t he compensating

filter must be'. considered. In this case however t he selection of sampling/interpolation

718 R. J . Seethaler and I. Yeilowley

intervals and t he coefficients in t he error criterion used to trigger t he state line are

equally important.

2.5.1. S ampl i ng times. For t he velocity spline to have any possibility to give

satisfactory results, it is necessary to choose a master sampling time that allows t he

system two first stage interpolation periods to slow down from maxi mum speed to zero

speed, thus,

Vma x

N - (14)

2 amax AT

where Vm~x is t he maxi mum traverse velocity, amax is t he maxi mum requi red acceler-

ation, AT is t he second stage interpolation sampling period and N is t he number of

second stage steps t aken for each first stage interpolation increment.

2.5.2. Compens at or paramet ers. The servo loop contains a l ead lag compensat or

that must be utilised to mat ch t he gains of all axes. The servo loop itself is a third

or der system. It is found that good performance is attained when t he compensat or

lead is used to cancel t he velocity loop, this requires that [see equation (13)],

Kt sa Ka K t

a - Je (15)

The phase lag bet ween t he reference and t he actual position is t he same for all axes

and should within most systems be comparable to t he time constant of t he velocity

loop which has been cancelled, thus,

b = d~ K K a K t K e (16)

Je

The next par amet er to be chosen is t he compensat or gain which will be rel at ed to

t he allowable errors. If one follows t he argument given earlier and allows maxi mum

t orque to be devel oped at zero velocity t hen t he gain of t he compensat or is uniquely

defined, [see equat i on (9)], as

ma x

m

K - ~ s t a t i c Ka" (17)

The selection of t he filter paramet ers in t he manner described above, leads to a

simple second or der system with undamped natural frequency and damping ratio given

by t he following expressions,

o . = (18)

~ = ~ J ( ~ ) . (19)

3. THE EXAMI NATI ON OF SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

A high performance servo system was chosen to exami ne system performance. The

experi ment al apparatus consists of a controller, PWIVl amplifiers, and high performance

brushed per manent magnet d.c. servomotors. The servomotors are equipped with

t achomet ers and two t rack 1000 line encoders. The t achomet er signals are fed back to

t he amplifiers while t he encoder signals are utilised by t he control comput er. Figure

Regulation Of Position Error in Contouring Systems 719

[ ] " Ac tuator Computer controller [ Amplifier [

Requi red

posi ti on +/

[BLUI : }

t - - __

Di gi tal filter D/A Converte~ C ur r e nt T orque

~ _ _ . _ . . . I . . . . . . . .

Pl --; : , ; o; . . . . .

I I ~ Ac tuator speed

Ac tual posi ti on [BLU]

Enc od er

_ ~ posi ti on

[BLU]

Fig. 4. Schematic block diagram of position loop.

4 shows a sc, hemat i c block diagram of a single axis of t he system and Table 1 gives

t he values of t he various constants within t he system.

The first phase of t he work concerned with t he evaluation of new control strategies,

involved t he creation of a realistic simulation model of t he system. The program that

was devel oped allows t he examination of t he path performance of an arbitrary number

of axes and t he introduction of nonlinear influences. The maj or nonlinearity in t he

basic system comprises t he current limit of t he amplifier, which is included in t he

simulation. The ordi nary differential equations corresponding to t he analog part of t he

loop were solved using a second or der Runge- Kut t a algorithm, while t he time domai n

equations of t he digital part (including t he state line), were solved directly. The

values of t he various paramet ers in t he model were chosen to correspond to t he high

performance experi ment al servo system, which was also constructed and tested to

validate t he results from t he simulated model. Results from t he experi ment al system

are given in t he next section.

The maj ori t y of t he simulations have been concerned with corner tracking capability.

The path chosen requires one of t he servos to change direction, while t he second may,

in essence, continue at constant velocity. Most of t he simulations of this rat her difficult

cont our have used a nominal speed of 500 rpm (one mot or will thus reverse to - 500 rpm

during t he corner) and 1000 rpm. Figures 5 and 6 show enl argement s of t he simulated

system performance (500 rpm and 1000 rpm). Both figures demonst rat e t he large

overshoot to be expect ed with t he system without t he state line activated. The system

with state line activation essentially corresponds to t he theoretical second stage inter-

pol at ed pat h t hrough t he corner.

Table 1. Experimental parameters

Name Symbol Value Units

Motor torque constant Kt 0.2967

Motor inertia Je 0.9636e-3

Tachometer feedback Ktsa 0.047

Encoder gain Ke 636.6198

Maximum current /max 10

Maximum speed omax 2000

Amplifier gain Ka 13.6136

Amplifier bandwidth fCmp~ or >750

D/A converter gain Kd 0.0049

Filter gain Kp 34.1333

Filter lead parameter A 0.9

Filter lag parameter B -0.333

Master sampling period At 16

Slave sampling period AT 0.5

Position loop ramp phase lag qb 3

Position loop static error 8static 5

Position loop natural frequency o~ 666.67

Position loop damping ratio ~ 1

N m / A

N m s 2

V/(rad/sec)

BLU/rad

A-

rpm

A/V

Hz

msec

msec

msec

BLU

rad/sec

7 2 0 R. J . Se e t h al e r and I . Y e l l o w l e y

3300

E nl ar ge me nt o f corner t r ac k i ng at 500 RPM

o o

3200 ~ . ~ o o

~ e'l \ , , o

3100- .o/ \ t,

, . e / ~ ' \ , o

- .o V " , ~ . , , o

i ~ o

2,002'00 / . / i f / ~, , . o

o

2600

25000 ' , I i i I i i \ i

2600 2800 3000 3200 3400 3600 3800 4000

T h e t a 1 [BLU]

Fi g. 5 . Si mul at e d pat h s i n c o r ne r t r ac k i ng at 5 0 0 rpm: , r e f e r e nc e po s i t i o n ( f i rst s t age i nt e r po l at i o n) ;

- - - , r e f e r e nc e po s i t i o n ( s e c o n d s t age i nt e r po l at i o n) ; o o o, ac t ual po s i t i o n o f s i mpl e s e r vo s y s t e m and

* * * , ac t ual po s i t i o n o f s y s t e m w i t h ac t i ve s t at e l i ne .

E nl ar ge me nt o f c or ne r t rac k i ng at 1000 RPM

1 .4 5 .

l o o

o o

o o

1 . 4 0 0 0

~ m ~ t 0

~ O

y o o

<" _ / / ",~,

~ 1.30 2 ' ~ 0

' , , o

1 .2 5 ~ 1

i.20 I I I I I I I I

1 .2 5 t . 3 0 ! . 3 5 1 .4 0 I A 5 1 .5 0 1 .5 5 1 .6 0 1 .65 1 .7 0 1 3 5

T h e t a 1 [BLU] x 104

Fi g. 6 . Si mul at e d pat h s i n c o r ne r t r ac k i ng at 1 0 0 0 rpm: , r e f e r e nc e po s i t i o n ( f i rst s t age i nt e r po l at i o n) ;

, r e f e r e nc e po s i t i o n ( s e c o n d s t age i n t e r po l at i o n ) , o o o, ac t ual po s i t i o n o f s i mpl e s e r vo s y s t e m and

* *, ac t ual po s i t i o n o f s y s t e m w i t h ac t i ve s t at e l i ne .

4. E XP E RI ME NT AL VERI FI CATI ON

E xperi ments h ave b een c ond uc ted usi ng th e system d epi c ted i n Fi g. 2 . T h e fi rst

seri es of experi ments h ave exami ned th e prof i li ng o th e c ontour s h ow n i n Fi g. 7 ,

w h i c h i nc lud es t w o sh arp c omers , as w as th e c ase i n th e si mulati on. T h e experi ment

w as c ond uc ted at nomi nal speed s of 5 0 0 and 1 000 rpm. T h e ac tual perf ormanc e o f th e

system i n traversi ng t h e fi rst c orner w i th a nomi nal speed of 5 0 0 rpm i s s h ow n i n Fi g.

9. I t sh ould b e not ed th at th e met h od of gath eri ng d ata i nvolves t h e c alc ulat i on o f

ref erenc e posi ti on th rough th e ad d i ti on of error t o c urrent posi ti on. T h i s proc ess i s

c ard ed out at t h e master and may i n some c i rc umstanc es b e out , of ph ase b y one peri od

( 0 . 5 ms ec ) . T h i s i s t h e reason f or th e rath er c h oppy prof i le of th e ref erenc e pat h d ata.

T h e maxi mum path error w i th th e state li ne ac ti vated i s less th an t w o d egrees, i n

c ontrast t h e path tak en b y th e b ase system ( no state li ne ac ti vati on) i s sh ow n i n Fi g.

8 and d i splays approxi mately 2 6 d egrees of path error.

R egulati on of Posi ti on Error i n C ontouri ng Systems 721

150

10~

50

o

0

o

,.C

F-, -50 -

-100 -

-150

-100

X- Y Posi ti on

/ \ \ . \

I I 1 I I \ ~ "" I I

0 1130 200 300 400 500 600

T h eta I [ d eg]

700

Fig. 7. C orner trac k i ng w i th a si mple servo c ontroller: soli d , master posi ti on spli ne; d ash ed , ref erenc e

posi ti on and d as h - d ot , ac tual posi ti on.

E nlargement of c ontouri ng path

of si mple servo at 500 RPM

150[ k / / ~

1

/ \

145 F / \

/ / / ~ \ \

o

.~. tual path \

140 \

o

135 \

\

R ef erenc e path \ \

\ \

13o I I \ I \

60 8 0 100

x- D i rec ti on [ d eg]

Fig. 8. E nlargement of c ome r trac k i ng servo w i th out state li ne ac ti vati on at 5 0 0 rpm: soli d , ref erenc e posi ti on

and d ash ed , ac tual posi ti on.

T h e c orres pond i ng si tuati on w i th a nomi nal s peed of 1 0 0 0 rpm i s s h ow n i n Fi gs 1 0

and 1 1 . I n thJi s c ase t h e path errors are 7 d egrees and 90 d egrees f or t h e state li ne and

non- s t at e li ne: b as ed syst ems, respec ti vely.

T h e algori th m us ed t o tri gger th e state li ne i n t h e experi ment s i s th at s h ow n i n

eq uat i on ( 7 ) . T h e i nf luenc e o f t h e state li ne c losi ng i s t o s l o w t h e s ys t em d o w n as i t

pas s es t h rough t h e c orners, h ow e ve r t h e vari ous approac h es t o state li ne d o s i ng lead

t o very d i f f erent c ont ouri ng ef f i c i enc i es. T o b e spec i f i c , t h e c ont our s h ow n i n Fi g. 6 ,

h as a traverse t i me o f 0 . 2 2 5 sec usi ng t h e si mple non- st at e li ne syst em. T h e ad d i ti on

o f t h e state li ne s ys t em vastly red uc es error, h ow e ve r i t i nc reases t h e traverse t i me t o

0 . 2 8 5 sec . T h e us e o f t h e si mplest possi b le state li ne strategy, i n w h i c h t h e error i s

c onstrai ned t o b e less th an a c onst ant amount , lead s t o a c onsi d erab le slow i ng ( a

traverse t i me o f approxi mat ely 0 . 6 8 sec , w h e n t h e max i mum error i s 3 0 BLU ) .

I t i s b eli eve.d th at t h e perf ormanc e i mprove me nt d emons t rat ed b y t h e s ys t em i s f ai rly

i mpressi ve, gi i ven t h e f ac t th at t h e ampli f i ers are saturated d uri ng t h e c orneri ng oper-

7 2 2 R. J . Seeth aler and I . Y ellow ley

,5 o I

1 4 5 ~

u

.g

I

135

130

E nlargement of c ontouri ng path of

UBC c ontroller at 5 0 0 RPM

/f'

i i \ \

6O 8O

x- D i rec ti on [(leg]

1 00

Fig. 9. E nlargement of c ome r trac k i ng of servo w i th state li ne ac ti vati on at 5 0 0 rpm: soli d , ref erenc e posi ti on

and d ash ed , ac tual posi ti on.

E nlargement of c ontouri ng path of si mple servo at 1000 RPM

7 0 0

6 8 0

f

660 / \

/ \

g 64 0, / \

"~ 6 2 o i / \

~" 600 A c tual path \

5 8 0

5 6O I I

300 400 500

x-Direction [deg]

\

\

\

\

Fig. 10. C lose- up of c ome r trac k i ng w i th out state li ne ac ti vati on at 1 000 rpm: soli d , ref erenc e posi ti on and

d ash ed , ac tual posi ti on.

ati on. Wh i l e t h e ac tual perf ormanc e of any syst em i s h eavi ly d e pe nd e nt on th e q uali ty

and perf ormanc e of t h e b asi c c ontrol c ompone nt s , t h e evaluat i on of t h e state li ne

syst em on t h e b asi s of t h e si mple perf ormanc e i nd i c ator s h o w n i n e q uat i on ( 2 0 ) , w oul d

lead one t o b el i eve th at i t i s relati vely suc c essf ul, t h e i nd ex b e i ng 1 5 0 0 and 8 0 0 f or

5 0 0 and 1 0 0 0 rpm, respec ti vely. ( T h e d i f f erenc e b ei ng attri b utab le t o t h e more severe

prof i le req ui rement s and t h e l onger peri od of saturati on i n t h e c ase of t h e h i gh er

nomi nal vel oc i t y. )

pat h veloc i t y

"q - pat h error ( 2 0 )

T h e s e c ond seri es of experi ment s w ere c onc erned w i t h c i rc ular i nt erpolat i on and

Regulation of Position Error in Contouring Systems 723

Enlargement of c ontouri ng path of

UBC controller at !000 RPM

i f Actual path

g

5

x-Direction [degl

Fig. 11. Close-up of corner tracking with state line activation at 1000 rpm: solid, reference position and

dashed, actual position.

hence related to frequency response. The state line system of course will not exhibit

t he usual form of frequency response since at hi gher frequencies it will stretch out

periods of high acceleration to avoid error. Before continuing to a consideration of

t he system performance it is as well to examine t he constraints which apply to this

particular mode of interpolation.

The most obvious constraint on any circular interpolation system is set by t he

i nt erpol at or itself, which must ensure that t he maxi mum position error ( r ef er ence to

t heoret i cal ), :is less t han 1 BLU, see Fig. 12. For t he two stage interpolation system

used here, it has been shown [9, 10], that

J(4 2.6667]

2~r A tfm~ x = V \ ~ / " (21)

The maxi mum frequency of circular interpolation is thus rel at ed to t he radius and

t he first stage interpolation time. The maxi mum allowable velocity of t he system also

places a limit on t he maxi mum allowable frequency of circular interpolation. Accordi ng

to Seet hal er [111] this leads to t he following constraint,

O~max = 2"tr fm~x rmax.

(22)

The third and final maj or constraint is that due to current saturation of t he amplifier.

In this case t he maxi mum t orque and acceleration are limited leading to t he following

HTH 38-6-E

U

Fig. 12. Circular interpolation.

724 R. J . Seet hal er and I. Yel l owl ey

6

~5

o = -4

3

Radi us vs f r equency

~x

I - I I I I L I I I I . . . . . .

0

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0

Radi us [BLU] x 10 4

Fi g. 13. Maxi mum radi us vs maxi mum f r equency: dot t ed l i ne, l i mi t i ng vel oci t y const r ai nt ; das hed l i ne,

l i mi t i ng accel er at i on const r ai nt and sol i d l i ne, posi t i on spl i ne const r ai nt .

Otma x m / ma x g t~ ee = ( 2 ~r f ma x ) 2 r ma x . ( 2 3 )

The relative i mport ance of t he t hree constraints for the system under consideration

are shown in Fig. 13. It is seen that the maximum velocity constraint is only active at

low frequencies and large radii. For t he system under consideration with a slave

sampling time of 0.5 msec and a master sampling time of 16 msec, the t wo constraints

meet at refit = 5900 BLU and r e f i t = 2.9 Hz. At radii less than refit t he position spline

imposes t he domi nant constraint. At radii higher than t he critical radius, current

saturation is dominant. ( Not e t he state line cannot i mprove t he situation if the position

spline constraint is vi ol at ed. )

If one at t empt s to use reference commands along the position spline constraint for

radii larger than refit, t he state line should pull the actual response down to t he limiting

acceleration constraint line. This means that the out put frequency will be reduced,

however clearly considerable distortion of the time domain waveform will result (the

axes will still be coordi nat ed).

Two experiments have been conduct ed, in t he first a feedrat e has been chosen which

will not saturate t he system. During the course of t he first experiment, t en circles were

cont oured and t he third is shown in Figs 14 and 15. The state line is not activated in

t hese experiments. Tabl e 2 gives t he pertinent geometric parameters.

Figure 14 shows t he actual path during the low feedrat e experiment. The system is

able to follow the cont our well. No state line is .needed, because the saturation limit

is not reached. The actual pat h error formed from consideration of errors on each

axis, is shown in Fig. 15, from which it is seen that t he maximum value of axis error

is approxi mat el y 45 BLUs.

In t he second experiment, t he f ee&at e was chosen such that current saturation and

the maxi mum requi red speed woul d make it impossible for the simple servo (wi t hout

state line activation) to follow the path. Tabl e 3 shows t he paramet ers for this exper-

iment.

Tabl e 2. Par amet er s for l ow f eedr at e ci rcul ar i nt er pol at i on

Name Val ue Uni t s

Fr equency 3 Hz

Radi us 5000 BLU

Feedr at e 94248 BLU/ s e c

,.d

no

4O

31 f

20

I

-101-

Regulation o f Position Error in Contouring Systems

Path during circular interpolation

6OOO

Z(

-4OOO

-60001 I I I I 1 I I I I

-5000 -4000 -3000 -2000 -1000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000

x-Axis [BLU]

Fig. 14. Path of low fee&ate circular interpolation experiment.

-20

-30

- 4 0

-513

5 t o 1 5 2 0 2 5 3 0 3 5 4 0 4 5

5000

Path error during circular interpolation

S a mp l e s

Fig. 15. Path error of servo system during low feedrate experiment.

Table 3. Parameters for high feedrate circular interpolation

725

Name Value Units

Frequency 3 Hz

Radius 8000 BLU

Feedrate 150796 BLU/sec

1:0000

Path during circular interpolation

,.-1

m

8000

7000-

6000-

5000- i ~

4 0 0 0 -

31 1 1 1 1 1 -

I 0 0 0

0 2o00 400o 6000 8ooo Ioooo t2000

x-Axi s [BLU]

Fig;. 16. Path of the simple servo system during the high feedrate experiment.

Figure 16 shows t he actual path described by t he two axes during t he high feedrat e

experi ment using t he servo systems without state line activation. The system is not

able to follow t he r ef er ence pat h, because acceleration levels have driven t he amplifiers

into saturation, and t he requi red velocity exceeds t he maxi mum velocity of t he actuators.

726 R. J . Seet hal er and I. Yel l owl ey

8 0 0 0

6 0 0 0 i

4000

20oo

m

o

m

-2000

~ -4ooo

-6000

-8000

Pat h duri ng ci rcul ar i nt erpol at i on

45000 -4000 -2000 2000 4000 6000 8000

x- Axi s [BLUI

Fi g. 17. Pat h of ser vo syst em wi t h act i ve st at e l i ne dur i ng hi gh f eedr at e exper i ment .

Pat h er r or duri ng ci rcul ar i nt er pol at i on

60

4O

20

0

m

-2o

~ . 4 o

.60-

- go

I 0 2 0 3 0 40 50 60 7 0 8 0 9 0 1 0 0

Sampl es

Fig. 18. Pat h er r or of ser vo syst em wi t h act i ve st at e line dur i ng hi gh f e e &a t e exper i ment .

Figure 17 shows t he path described by the same t wo servos with the state line activated.

T h e ac tual path error i s s h ow n i n Fi g. 1 8 and i s s een t o h ave a maxi mum val ue o f

7 8 BLU .

4.1. Traverse time and velocity for circular interpolation

While t he state line system has been shown to be effective in controlling error, it is

in or der t o examine the efficiency with which it performs this function. Of most interest

is a comparison bet ween t he performance of t he real time system with t he best that

could be achieved with t he application of a dynamic model, in a preprocessing stage.

The section which follows calculates t he theoretical change in peri od which woul d

result from such a procedure.

A

Fi g. 19. I nf l uence of a const r ai nt on t he t i me t aken t o t r aver se a ci rcl e.

R egulat i on of Position Er r or in Cont ouri ng Systems 727

T ab le 4. ExpeEimental veloc i ty measurements and c ompari son w i th b est attai nab le i n a preproc essor

Ori gi nal frequency Ori gi nal peri od Fi nal peri od

( Hz ) ( ms e c ) ( ms ec ) Peri od rat i o Cal cul at ed peri od rat i o

333 333 1 1

250 250 1 1

200 208 1.04 1

167 189 1.13 1.13

2O

0

-20

LII

2

8 d o

T i me [ r eset ]

1000

Fig. 20. Pat h er r or for servo wi t h no state li ne ac ti vati on (6 Hz).

20

10

0

- I o

- 20

-30

-4C

0 200 400 600 800 1000

Ti me [ mseel

Fig. 21. Pat h er r or for servo system w i th state li ne ac ti vated (6 Hz).

D uri ng c i rc ular i nterpolati on, w i th a t orq ue c onstrai nt, t h e c ont ouri ng veloc i t y mus t

b e red uc ed at f our poi nt s . Fi gure 1 9 b e l ow , s h ow s t h e proc ess w h ere only a si ngle axi s

h as suc h a c onstrai nt. T h i s f i gure s h ow s a s ys t em f ollow i ng a si ne w ave w i th ampli t ud e

A , t h e s ys t em starts slow i ng d ow n at t i me t l . T h e t i me req ui red t o travel f rom t l t o

t h e maxi mum d i splac ement i s lab eled At.

I n t h e ease w h ere b ot h axes h ave th e s ame c onstrai nt ( and t h es e d o not ove rl ap) ,

t h e rati o o f t h e ac tual peri od t o th at programmed i s gi ven b y

728 R. J . Seethaler and I. Yellowley

R =

2q + 2At - ~/2to

rr/2to

(24)

where:

tl = l s i n - l (Imax Kt K e l

to \ t o2AJe ]

(25)

A to cos(to tl)

At - Ke (26)

I max g t ~ e

A separat e set of experiments was conduct ed to track carefully t he timing of t he

circular interpolation. These used t he same paramet ers as given i n Tabl e 1. It should

however be said that t he actual amplifiers used were different. In this new series

frequencies from 4 to 6 Hz wer e chosen with t he radius set at 2000 BLU. The setting

of a very accurate current limit was found to pose some considerable probl ems (in fact

t he current limit varies slightly on some axes dependi ng upon direction and t ype of

input). Since t he actual current limit will exert a very large influence on t he performance

of t he system, a mor e realistic approach was t aken as follows. The limit was set to

approximately 15 A on each axis and t he frequency of circular interpolation increased

until saturation occurred. The performance at a higher frequency was then examined

and compared with that achievable by a preprocessor. The dat a are shown in Tabl e

4. It is seen that t he system j ust sat urat ed at 5 Hz; at 6 Hz, t he ratio of bot h t he state

line controlled peri od and that which woul d have been achieved by a preprocessor are

equal at 1.13. The actual performance in controlling error is demonst rat ed in Figs 20

and 21, where t he effectiveness of t he state line is again evident.

5. CONCLUSIONS

A new approach to the minimisation of error in contouring is proposed; t he met hod

is based upon the control of error as a function of a predi ct ed velocity. The mechanism

used to control error is t he modul at i on of velocity using a logic line (state line), which

is written to and read from by each axis slave processor within an open architecture

control system. The system has been t est ed through simulation and experi ment and

shown to perform well in bot h corner tracking and circular interpolation.

REFERENCES

[1] H. A. Pak, Adapt i ve matching and preview controllers for feed drive systems, AS ME Trans. J. Eng ng

Ind. 113, 316-320 (1991).

[2] M. Tomizuka, Zer o phase error tracking algorithm for digital control, AS ME Trans. J. Dyn. Syst.

Meas. Control 109, 65-68 (1987).

[3] J. Buttler, B. Haack and M. Tomizuka, Reference input generation for high speed coordi nat ed motion

of a two axis system, AS ME J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control 113, 67-74 (1991).

[4] M. Weck and G. Ye, Sharp comer tracking using the I KF control strategy, Ann. C1RP 39, 437-441

(1990).

[5] Y. Koren, Cross-coupled biaxial computer control for manufacturing systems, AS ME Trans. J. Dyn.

Syst. Meas. Control 102(4), 265-272 (1980).

[6] Y. Koren and C. C. Lo, Variable gain cross-coupling controller for contouring, Ann. CIRP 104,

371-374 (1991).

[7] I. Yellowley and P. R. Pottier, The integration of process and geomet ry within an open architecture

machine t ool controller, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manufact. 34(2), 277-293 (1994).

[8] R. Ar dekani and I. Yellowley, The control of multiple constraints within an open architecture machine

t ool controller, AS ME J. Eng ng Ind. (accept ed for publication).

[9] I. Yellowley and P. Pottier, A not e on a simple met hod for the i mprovement of i nt erpol at i on accuracy

in a general purpose, multiprocessor based motion controller, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manu[act. ~ ( 2 ) ,

287-292 (1989).

[10] P. Pottier, Advanced controller for machine tools, M.Sc. Thesis, McMaster University, Hami l t on,

Ont ari o (1991).

[11] R. Seethaler, A new contouring algorithm for the UBC ccontroller, M.Sc. Thesis, University of British

Columbia, Canada (1993).

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