Anda di halaman 1dari 8

Word, sentence, and paragraph squeezing: preparing to write a summary

Comment. The purpose of this lesson is to build students' confidence in summarising


material. They work bottom-up, categorising words in groups, then summarising
sentences and paragraphs in groups.
1. Words (see grid below). T cuts up the words below and puts them into a bag
(one per student), reserving the first three as a model. Then, the teacher writes
an eample of subordinate terms (hyponyms) on the board, such as !"ahrain!,
!the #.$.%.!, and !&man!. 'tudents should subsume them under a general
category such as !((ulf) countries!. $fter that, 's pull cards from bags and find
their partners, people in the same !word family!. T can flash the grid below onto
the 'martboard if desired to review categories. To make this warmer even more
interactive, the T can follow up by having groups generate their own subordinate
terms ) other groups can guess what the general category is. *aturally, this can
be competitive.
2. 's move to net stage+ !sentence s,uee-ing!. They make long sentences shorter
(tip+ if time, the teacher can personalise the sentences, using their own students'
names).
3. 's move to the last stage+ !paragraph s,uee-ing!. They summarise paragraphs
in .ust one sentence (tip+ tell 's the most important information in each paragraph
is usually in the topic sentence, the first sentence).
4. Tell 's that summarising a longer article is the essentially the same as
!paragraph s,uee-ing!. They might, however, have to add linking words and
possibly add short introductory and concluding paragraphs.
Word squeezing
Categories: countries, vegetables, stationery, electronic gadgets, automobile names,
transportation, nationalities, fruit (four for odd numbers in class).
Bahrain the U..!. "man
onion cucum#er carrot
paper penci$ stap$er
phone %&pod mp3 p$ayer
B'W (yundai 'itsu#ishi
#us car #icyc$e
"mani )audi !mirati
app$e pear #anana
gua*a
)entence +squeezing,
Rewrite these sentences using summary words and phrases. Write a shorter sentence,
choosing only the most important words or ideas. #1 is an example.
1. $fter she turned on the oven, T./. mied the sugar, flour, eggs, milk, oil, and vanilla
in the mier, poured the batter into the buttered pans, and put the cake in the oven.
00000000T.J. baked a cake.00000000000000000000000000000000000000000
2. $bdulla picked up his laptop from the table near the door, put on his shoes, and
walked outside to his car.
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
3. When 1halifa reached his car, he saw the window was broken, the stereo missing,
and his laptop gone.
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
4. 2n 3ohamed's mp4 library collection, you can find mysteries, novels, biographies,
how-to manuals, and science fiction thrillers.
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
-. With his new credit card, 'aif bought groceries at the supermarket, shoes at a
department store, and a new set of tires for his sports car at an auto supply store.
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
.. %id and 2braheem like to go walking, in-line skating, .ogging, hiking, and bicycling.
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
/. $fter clearing away the old leaves and branches, Tari, dug up the hard ground,
mied in fertiliser and new soil, raked it all smooth and planted seeds.
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
0. "ader owns an mp4 player, up-to-date mobile, i-pod, and very cool camera.
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
1. When 3asooad and 'alem heard about the imminent desert storm, they closed the
windows, put tape across the glass, and moved plants and chairs indoors.
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
12. $yman put his pens and pencils neatly in a row, turned off the radio, put his books
on his desk, and sat down in his chair.
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
)entence +squeezing, 34ey5
Rewrite these sentences using summary words and phrases. Write a shorter sentence,
choosing only the most important words or ideas. #1 is an example.
1. $fter she turned on the oven, T./. mied the sugar, flour, eggs, milk, oil, and vanilla
in the mier, poured the batter into the buttered pans, and put the cake in the oven.
6.7. #a4ed a ca4e.
2. $bdulla picked up his laptop from the table near the door, put on his shoes, and
walked outside to his car.
#du$$a got ready 8or wor49schoo$.
3. When 1halifa reached his car, he saw the window was broken, the stereo missing,
and his laptop gone.
:ha$i8a was ro##ed.
4. 2n 3ohamed's mp4 library collection, you can find mysteries, novels, biographies,
how-to manuals, and science fiction thrillers.
'ohamed has many mp3 #oo4s.
-. With his new credit card, 'aif bought groceries at the supermarket, shoes at a
department store, and a new set of tires for his sports car at an auto supply store.
)ai8 purchased se*era$ items 3using his new credit card5.
.. %id and 2braheem like to go walking, in-line skating, .ogging, hiking, and bicycling.
%#raheem and !id $i4e doing sports9e;ercise.
(note the change in word order for names no "copy paste"!)
/. $fter clearing away the old leaves and branches, Tari, dug up the hard ground,
mied in fertiliser and new soil, raked it all smooth and planted seeds.
6ariq p$anted a garden.
0. "ader owns an mp4 player, up-to-date mobile, i-pod, and very cool camera.
Bader has many e$ectronic gadgets.
1. When 3asooad and 'alem heard about the imminent desert storm, they closed the
windows, put tape across the glass, and moved plants and chairs indoors.
)a$em and 'asooad prepared 8or the storm.
(note the change in word order for names no "copy paste"!)
12. $yman put his pens and pencils neatly in a row, turned off the radio, put his books
on his desk, and sat down in his chair.
yman got ready to study.
<aragraph +squeezing,
It is usually possible to summarise a paragraph in one or two sentences. In order to do so,
read the paragraph, making sure you understand the main ideas, and b) look at the topic
sentence. If its a good topic sentence, you can use this as a base for your summary. !or
the paragraphs below, write a one"sentence summary.
!;. 'hopping malls have produced a revolution in shopping and living
habits in many industrialised countries. "efore 5678, there were no malls,
but now almost every city or region in industrialised countries has one.
3any people even think of them as social centers. 2n a way, malls have
taken the place of the main streets of a town or city. 'hops and services
that were once spread over several city blocks are now in one place at the
mall. %veryone can save time by doing their shopping at the mall. *ow
people young and old, with time on their hands, often say, 9:et;s go to the
mall<=
)ummary: #$rowing numbers of) shopping malls ha%e changed the
cultures of numerous industrialised countries.
$lthough every shopping mall is a big different in design, shoppers
often feel comfortable in a new mall. That is because malls share certain
features. >ou can almost always find most of the following+ a department
store, a pharmacy, a toy store, a bookshop, clothing shops for all ages,
shoe shops, a bank, and places to eat. These businesses are all under one
roof. 3ost malls are enclosed so that shoppers never have to go outdoors
once they get to the mall. 'ome malls also have doors to shops on the
outside of the mall. #sually a mall is surrounded by a large parking area.
)ummary:
00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
3alls are not eactly alike, however. 2n the suburb of a large city, the
local mall may be large and beautiful. 2t may be several stories high,
housing as many as fifty businesses. These can range from small specialty
shops to large luury department stores. The roofs of these malls are
sometimes made of glass, and there may be a courtyard with plants and
mountains. 2n a poor, rural town, however, the local mall may be plain and
rather small. 2t may offer only essential shopping and services such as a
supermarket, a pi--a parlor, a card and gift shop, a :aundromat, and a
bank. $ll the shops are generally on one level and the interior of the mall is
plain and undecorated.
)ummary:
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
While shopping malls have changed life in the modern world, not all
of their effects have been positive. 3ost of the shops and services found in
malls are parts of large corporations. These businesses take away
customers from smaller shops in nearby towns, forcing many of them to
close. That has led to fewer individually owned businesses and less control
over .obs. 2n addition, malls are harmful to the environment. They are often
built on land that is important to the survival of birds and wild animals.
Wherever they are built, they cover large areas with buildings and parking
lots ) instead of grass and trees. Thus, they contribute to the general loss
of nature and rainwater to refill underground a,uifers. ?inally, malls are
usually built far away from the city or town centre. This means that people
must drive their car to the mall, resulting in increased air pollution and
heavy traffic on nearby roads.
)ummary:
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
<aragraph +squeezing, 34ey5
It is usually possible to summarise a paragraph in one or two sentences. In order to do so,
read the paragraph, making sure you understand the main ideas, and b) look at the topic
sentence. If its a good topic sentence, you can use this as a base for your summary. !or
the paragraphs below, write a one"sentence summary.
!;. 'hopping malls have produced a revolution in shopping and living
habits in many industrialised countries. "efore 5678, there were no malls,
but now almost every city or region in industrialised countries has one.
3any people even think of them as social centers. 2n a way, malls have
taken the place of the main streets of a town or city. 'hops and services
that were once spread over several city blocks are now in one place at the
mall. %veryone can save time by doing their shopping at the mall. *ow
people young and old, with time on their hands, often say, 9:et;s go to the
mall<=
)ummary: #$rowing numbers of) shopping malls ha%e changed the
cultures of numerous industrialised countries.
$lthough every shopping mall is a big different in design, shoppers
often feel comfortable in a new mall. That is because malls share certain
features. >ou can almost always find most of the following+ a department
store, a pharmacy, a toy store, a bookshop, clothing shops for all ages,
shoe shops, a bank, and places to eat. These businesses are all under one
roof. 3ost malls are enclosed so that shoppers never have to go outdoors
once they get to the mall. 'ome malls also have doors to shops on the
outside of the mall. #sually a mall is surrounded by a large parking area.
)ummary: 3$most5 a$$ shopping ma$$s ha*e simi$ar
characteristics.
3alls are not eactly alike, however. 2n the suburb of a large city, the
local mall may be large and beautiful. 2t may be several stories high,
housing as many as fifty businesses. These can range from small specialty
shops to large luury department stores. The roofs of these malls are
sometimes made of glass, and there may be a courtyard with plants and
mountains. 2n a poor, rural town, however, the local mall may be plain and
rather small. 2t may offer only essential shopping and services such as a
supermarket, a pi--a parlor, a card and gift shop, a :aundromat, and a
bank. $ll the shops are generally on one level and the interior of the mall is
plain and undecorated.
)ummary: 'a$$s *ary in $u;ury according to their
geographica$ $ocation.
3or: =arge cities ha*e more $u;urious ma$$s whi$e sma$$ ones
ha*e simp$er ones.5
While shopping malls have changed life in the modern world, not all
of their effects have been positive. 3ost of the shops and services found in
malls are parts of large corporations. These businesses take away
customers from smaller shops in nearby towns, forcing many of them to
close. That has led to fewer individually owned businesses and less control
over .obs. 2n addition, malls are harmful to the environment. They are often
built on land that is important to the survival of birds and wild animals.
Wherever they are built, they cover large areas with buildings and parking
lots ) instead of grass and trees. Thus, they contribute to the general loss
of nature and rainwater to refill underground a,uifers. ?inally, malls are
usually built far away from the city or town centre. This means that people
must drive their car to the mall, resulting in increased air pollution and
heavy traffic on nearby roads.
)ummary: 'a$$s o8ten negati*e$y e88ect their $oca$ areas9the
surrounding area.