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1 A unit used for measuring the probable demand for water by a plumbing fixture unit
fixture, or the probable discharge of liquid waste from the fixture.
2 A fixture unit is equivalent to___ gallons per minute. 7-1/2
3 It is also equivalent to ___ cubic feet per minute. 1
Fixture unit of a:
4 Water closet 6 units
5 Slop sink 3 units
6 Residential sink 2-1/2 units
7 Floor drain 1 unit
8 Bathtub 2 units
9 Kitchen sink 2 units
10 Laundry tub 2 units
11 Roof drain 1 unit
12 Lavatory 1 unit
13 Shower bath 2 units
14 Hotel/public sink 2 units
Pipe sizes for water supply:
15 Sill cocks 1/2" diam.
16 Hot water boiler 1/2" diam.
17 Laundry trays 1/2" diam.
18 Bathtub 1/2" diam.
19 Lavatories 3/8" diam.
20 Water closet tank 3/8" diam.
21 Minimum size of water seal for each fixture trap? 2"
22 Maximum distance of vent from trap seal? 5 ft. horizontally
developed length
Materials used in Plumbing installations:
23 Conveniently installed for bldgs less than 25 storeys high. Cast Iron pipe
24 Made of alloy of cast iron & silicon, for laboratories/industries. Acid Resistant
cast iron pipe
25 Type of cast iron pipe usually used for bldg installation. SV type
26 Type of cast iron pipe used for underground installation. XV type
27 Type of pipe that has the same property as that of concrete. Asbestos pipe
28 Type of pipe recommended for house sewer & septic tank installation. Bituminous fiber
29 Made of alloy of zinc & copper. Brass pipe
Plumbing Ventilation
30 Value of atmospheric pressure at sea level. 65.47 newtons
Types of vents:
31 Also known as a back vent, which serves a single trap Individual vent
32 Portion of the soil stack above the highest installed fixture branch. Main soil & waste vent
33 Portion of the vent pipe system which ventilates two fixture traps. Unit vent
34 It eliminates minus & plus pressures. Relief vent
35 Installation common to barber shops & hospital surgical rooms. Looped vent
36 Used for underground public rest rooms. Utility vent
37 A conduit used to convey foul odor from fixture or room. Local vent
Scientific Terms used in water supply & heat systems
38 What will result if water at high speed is suddenly stopped or slowed? Water hammering
39 A column of water exerts a pressure of _______ regardless of
the diameter of the column. 0.43 psi
40 Pressure exerted by water at rest. Static pressure
41 Pressure forcing a steam of water gas/steam through an opening. Service pressure
42 Refers to the pressure range measured over a period of 24 hours. Normal pressure
43 Pressure over & above the manufacturer's rating that will overtax equip't. Excess pressure
44 Maximum or minimum pressures at w/c proper functioning can be
determined. Critical pressure
45 A valve best suited for main supply lines & pump lines where operation
is very frequent. Gate valve
46 A valve actuated by a stem screw & hand wheel suited for installation
that calls for throttling. Globe valve
47 A valve where its main function is to check or prevent reversal of flow in
the line, principally used in industrial pipings. Check valve
48 A valve operating in the same manner of the globe valve, used in making
90 degree turn in a line, thus, reducing the number of joints. Angle valve
49 A valve located at the lower end of the pump and used mainly to prevent
loss of priming of the pump. Foot valve
50 A valve used on water systems, heating systems, compressed air lines &
other pipe lines with excessive pressure. Safety valve
51 Type of globe valve w/c has wide bearing surfaces, produces good
resistance to the cutting effect of scale, dirt & other foreign matters. Plug type disc valve
52 Type of globe valve w/c has a pressure tight bearing between the disc & Conventional
the seat, recommended for cold & any temperature service. disc valve
53 Type of globe valve used for different services such as oil, gasoline,
steam, hot or cold water, can be turned over or removed without Composition
removing the valve. disc valve
54 Type of gate valve w/c is used where the stem must be installed pointing Wedged shaped or
downward. tapered disc
55 Type of gate valve used in cold & sewage disposal installations, its parellel
faces drop in a vertical position & are forced apart by the disc spreader. Double disc valve
Water service fittings & devices:
56 It serves as a control stop for the water service, it also serves as a shut off
for disconnection of service. Corporation stop
57 Installed between the curb & the sidewalk line, functions as a control stop
for service between the cub & the building, a shut off for the building in
case the basement becomes flooded, a control valve in case the building
is not used in winter time. Curb stop
58 A physical separation , which may be a low inlet into the indirect waste
receptor from the fixture, appliance or device indirectly connected. Airbreak
59 The flow of water or other liquids, mixture or substances into the distributing
pipes of a potable water supply from any source other than its intended source. Backflow
60 Backflow preventer. Check valve
61 Also known as an individual vent. Back vent
62 A type of pipe connection in which a ball-shaped end is held in a cup-like shell
and allows movement in every direction. Ball joint
63 A series of 2 or more similar adjacent fixtures. Battery of fixtures
64 The enlarged portion of a pipe to receive another end of a pipe. Bell or Hub
65 Synonymous with faucet, cock, tap, or plug. Bibb
66 A fixture used for washing the middle part of the body, aso called a "sitz" bath. Bidet
67 A pipe flange that is not drilled for bolt holes. Blank flange
68 A flange that closes the end of a pipe, no opening for the passage of liquid/gas. Blind flange
69 A controlled outlet of a pipeline to discharge liquid or detritus. Blow-off
70 Any part of the piping system other than a main, riser or stack. Branch
71 A horizontal vent connecting one or more individual vertical back vents with
the vent stack or stack vent. Branch vent
72 That part of the lowest horizontal piping of a drainage system w/c receives the
discharge from soil, waste & other drainage pipes inside the walls of the bldg
& conveys it to the building sewer beginning 0.6 meter outside the bldg wall. Building drain
73 That portion of an underground system, w/c cannot drain by gravity into the
building sewer. Building subdrain
74 Plugging an opening with oakum, lead or other materials that are pounded into
the annular space. Also, the material pounded into the annular opening. Caulking
75 A fitting, screwed or caulked over the end of a pipe for closing the pipe end. Cap
76 A fitting that is inside threaded , used to join outside threaded pipes. Coupling
77 A fitting that is threaded all throughout. Close nipple
78 A fitting used for closing an end of an inside threaded pipe. Plug
79 A fitting used for common vents. Double sanitary wye
80 A device designed & installed to separate & retain deleterious, hazardous or
undesirable matters from normal wastes & permits normal sewage or liquid Clarifier or
wastes to discharge into the disposal terminal by gravity. interceptor
81 An arrangement of venting so installed that one vent pipe will serve 2 traps. Common vent
82 A vertical pipe to convey rainwater. Conductor/downspout
83 A pipe fitting w/ adjacent reverse bends & shaped like the letter "S". Double-bend fitting
84 A metallic sleeve, caulked or joined to an opening in a pipe, into which a plug is
screwed that can be removed for cleaning or examining the interior of a pipe. Ferrule
85 An interceptor of at least 3 cubic meters capacity to serve one or more fixtures
and which is remotely located. Grease interceptor
86 A device designed to retain grease from one to a minimum of four fixtures. Grease trap
87 Any and all liquid or water-borne wastes from industrial or commercial
processes, except domestic sewage. Industrial waste
88 A condition contrary to sanitary principles or injurious to health. Insanitary
89 The lowest portion of the interior part of any pipe or conduit that is not vertical. Invert
90 A cesspool that is not watertight. Leaching cesspool
91 Water satisfactory for drinking, culinary and domestic purposes. Potable water
92 An outhouse or structure used for the deposition of excrement. Privy
93 A pit beneath a privy where excrement collects. Privy vault
94 Also known as a back vent. Revent pipe
95 The vertical distance between the dip & the crown weir of a trap. Seal
96 A watertight receptacle which receives the discharge odf a sanitary plumbing
system or part thereof, to retain solids, digest organic matter through a period of
detention & to allow the liquids to discharge into the soil outside of the tank. Septic tank
97 Also known as a backflow preventer. Vacuum breaker
98 Any pipe or fitting installed in such a way that it forms an angle of not more than
forty-five (45) degrees with the vertical line. Vertical pipe
99 Normal water pressure is measured at ____. 80 psi
100 High water pressure is measured at ____. 160 psi
Definition of terms:
1 An electric phenomena, manifestations. Electricity
2 An electric path composed of a conductor, or of several conductors &
conducting electric devices joined together through w/c an electric current flows
when the path is complete & an EMF is applied. Electric circuit
3 The force w/c causes the movement of electricity in a conductor. Electromotive force
4 A circuit connected to form a continuous path from the source of
current back to the same point. Closed circuit
5 A circuit in which conducting elements are disconnected as to prevent
the flow of electricity. Open circuit
6 A condition resulting from bridging any part of a circuit w/ a conductor of a very
low resistance. Short circuit
7 The basic unit of electric current. Amperes
8 The flow of electric current in a circuit. Amperage
9 The current carrying capacity of a wire or cable expressed in amperes. Ampacity
10 When a circuit is divided into two or more branches, each branch transmitting
part of the current. The conductor of each branch taken separately. Shunt
11 Ohm's Law is formulated by ___________? George Simon Ohm
12 Formula for Ohm's Law? I (current flow) =
V (EMF)/R (resistance)
13 Unit of EMF, measure of the pressure or force w/c keeps electricity in motion. Voltage
14 Measure of the power consumed. Watt
15 A machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. Generator
16 A machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Motor
17 An overcurrent protective device consisting of a metal strip, ribbon or wire w/c
is designed to open an electric circuit. Fuse
18 A cable provided with a metal wrapping usually steel wires or tapes, for the
purposes of mechanical protection. Armored cable
19 A surge of unidirectional polarity. Impulse
20 A cable designed for service underwater. Submarine cable
21 A luminous discharge due to ionization of the air surrounding a conductor
caused voltage of gradient. Corona
Types of Cables:
22 A fabricated assembly of insulated conductors enclosed in flexible metal sheath. Armored cable (AC)
23 A factory assembled cable of one or more conductors each individually insulated
& enclosed in a metal sheath of interlocking tape of a smooth or corrugated tube. Metal clad cable (MC)
24 A factory assembled of one or more conductors insulated w/ a highly
compressed refractory mineral insulation enclosed in a liquid & gas tight
continuous copper sheath. Used for servicce feeders or branch circuit. Mineral Insulated (MI)
25 A factory assembled 2 or more insulated conductors, used specifically for one Non-metallic
or two famliy dwellings not exceeding 3 storey buildings. Sheathed Cable (NM)
26 A moisture resistant cable used for underground connections including direct Underground Feeder &
burial in the ground as feeder or branch circuit. Branch Circuit (UF)
27 A factory assembled 2 or more insulated conductors w/ or w/o associated bare
or covered grounding under a metallic sheath. Used for installation in cable Power and Control
trays, raceways. Tray Cable (TC)
28 Used for general purpose such as appliance branch circuits. Flat Conductor
Cable (FCC)
29 An assembly of parallel conductors formed integrally with an insulating material Flat Cable
web designed specifically for field installation in metal surface or raceways. Assemblies (FC)
30 This type of cable is used in hazardous locations & in cable trays or in raceways. Shielded Non-Metallic
Sheathed Cable (SNM)
Electrical & Mechanical terms:
31 The heat production expressed as calories per square meter of body surface. Metabolism
32 Exposing a substance, or area to air circulation Aeration
33 Device for measuring quality (of moisture content) of steam or other vapor. Calorimeter
34 Any absorbent or absorber liquid or solid that will remove waste or water vapor
from a material. Desiccant
35 Transfer of heat by motion of the particles of the heated substance itself. Convection
1 A piping system that contains water under pressure at all times for immediate
release through sprinklers. Wet pipe system
2 A piping system that contains air (may be nitrogen) under pressure, used where
piping is subject to freezing. Dry pipe system
3 A standpipe system used by firefighters to connect hoses to buildings. Dry standpipe
4 A standpipe system where pipes are filled with water permanently connected to
public/private water mains. Wet standpipe
Kinds of pump:
5 Most common type of pump 250 GPM min. capacity single or muti-stage. Horizontal split
case pump
6 Pump used to minimize wear on the fire pump resulting from unnecessary
operations. Jockey pump
7 A pump consisting of a piston travelling up & down w/ in a cylinder w/c is
connected w/ a pipe down the source, it is manually operated. Lift pump
8 Used to deliver water at a point higher than the position of the pump itself. Force pump
9 A pump possessing moving parts (impellar & blades) w/ valves revolving
around an axis. Centrifugal pump
10 Includes all pumps in w/c the piston moves either horizontal or vertical. Reciprocating pump
Refrigeration & Air-conditioning:
11 Temperature of air for cooling. 64 F - 74 F
12 Air movement w/ in living zone. 4.57 - 7.60 MPM
13 Minimum height above FFL of a refrigerant piping crossing a passageway in a
building. 2.30 mts.
14 Height of a window type ACU from ground level. 2.13 mts.
15 1 ton of refrigeration (TR) 12,000 BTU/hr.
16 1 HP/hr. 2,544 BTU
17 1 KWhr. 3,413 BTU
18 1 person seated at rest 330 BTU (ave.)
Conveying systems:
19 Escalator speed in actual practice. 125 FPM
20 Minimum speed for escalator. 90 FPM
21 Maximum speed for escalator. 120 FPM
22 Minimum width for an escalator. 0.80 m.
23 Maximum width for an escalator. 1.20 m.
24 Minimum thread width for an escalator. 0.60 m.
25 Maximum thread width for an escalator. 1.00 m.
26 Thread depth for an escalator. 0.40 m.
27 Thread rise for an escalator. 0.20 m.
28 Maximum horizontal inclination of a moving walk. 5 degrees
29 Maximum verical inclination of a moving ramp. 15 degrees
30 Registers calls & governs response of elevator (s) to them. Control panel
31 Are fastened to car frame & counter weight at top & bottom. Guide shoes
32 That portion of a hoistway extending below the level of the bottom landing to
provide for over-travel & clearance & for parts w/c require space below the
bottom limit of car travel. Pit
33 A device to absorb impact of car or counterweight at the lower limits of travel. Suffer
It stops car & if required, counterweight in case of emergency by actuating
safety. Governor
34 Gives stability in governor ropes. Tension sheave
35 Central column where the steps of a circular staircase wind. Newel
1 Unit of luminous intensity. Candela or candlepower
2 Unit of luminous flux or quantity of light. Lumen
3 Unit used to measure the density of luminous flux. Footcandle (fc)
4 It produces discomfort & interference of vision. Glare
5 Unit of luminaire or brightness. Foot lambert
Light levels:
6 Casual visual tasks, card playing, conversation, television, listening to music. 10-20 fc
7 Easy reading, sewing, knitting, house cleaning. 20-30 fc
8 Reading newspapers, doing kitchen & laundry work, typing. 30-50 fc
9 Prolonged reading, machine sewing, hobbies, homework. 50-70 fc
10 prolonged detailed tasks such as fine sewing, reading fine print, drafting. 70-200 fc
Acoustics terminologies:
11 A physical disturbance (cyclic motion) in the atmosphere when the sound
12 generated by vibrating objects or alteration or pulsation of pressure capable of
being detected by ear. Sound
13 Formula for coefficient of absortion. Ia (absorbed energy)/
Ii (incident energy)
14 Delayed reflection of sound w/c is heard a fraction of a second after the direction
sound, relative to time & distance. Echo
15 Repetition of reflected sound due to parallel walls. Flutter
16 A reflection of sound along a curved surface from a source near the surface. Creep
17 The simplest kind of sound because it is composed entirely of sound waves of a
single frequency. Pure tone
The magnitude of sound:
18 Expressed in watts, describes the energy of the sound source. Sound power (W)
19 A dimensionless unit for expressing the ratio of two numerical values on a
logarithmic scale. Decibels (db)
20 The designation in decibels of the ratio of two sound powers. Sound power level (PWL)
21 The fraction of incident sound energy that is absorbed by a surface. Sound-absorption
22 The arithmetic average of the absorption coefficients at 250, 500, 1000, 2000 & Noise Reduction
4000 cycles per second (cps). Coefficient (NRC)
23 A room characterized by large amounts of absorption. Dead room
24 A room characterized by very small amounts of absorption. Live room
25 The persistence of sound. Reverberation
Minimum sizes of traps & cleanouts:
1 Bathtubs 1-1/2" diam.
2 Bath shower 2" diam.
3 Sitz bath 1-1/2" diam.
4 Foot bath 1-1/2" diam.
5 Bidet 1-1/2" diam.
6 Combination fixture 1-1/2" diam.
7 Floor drains 2" diam.
8 Fountain cupsidor 1-1/4" diam.
9 Sink, large hotel or public 2" diam.
10 Sink, dishwasher 1-1/4" diam.
11 Sink, slop w/ trap combined 3" diam.
12 Laundry trays 1-1/2" diam.
13 Sink, kitchen residence 1-1/2" diam.
14 Sink, pantry or bar 1-1/4" diam.
15 Sink, hotel for public 2" diam.
16 Sink, slopsink, ordinary 2" diam.
17 Urinal, lip 1-1/2" diam.
18 Urinal, through 2" diam.
19 Urinal, pedestal 3" diam.
20 Urinal, stall 2" diam.
21 Wash basin 1-1/4" diam.
22 Water closet 3" diam.
Color coding of pipings:
Steam division
1 high pressure white
2 exhaust system buff
Water division
3 fresh water, low pressure blue
4 fresh water, high pressure blue
5 saltwater piping green
Oil division
6 delivery brass/bronze
7 discharge yellow
Pneumatic division
8 all piping gray
Gas division
9 all piping black
Fuel Oil division
10 all piping black
Refrigerating division
11 pipes black
12 fittings black
1 Any act that would remove or neutralize a fire hazard. Abatement
2 Any material or mixture consisting of a fuel & oxidizer used to set off explosives. Blasting agent
3 Any liquid having a flash point at or above 37.8 deg. C (100 deg. F) Combustible liquid
4 Any liquid w/c causes fire when in contact w/ organic matter or w/ certain chemicals. Corrosive liquid
5 A vertical panel of non-combustible or fire resistive materials attached to &
extending below the bottom chord of the roof trusses, to divide the underside of
the roof into separate compartments so that heat & smoke will be directed
upwards to a roof vent. Curtain board
6 Descriptive of any material w/c by its nature or as a result of its reaction w/ other
elements produces a rapid drop in temperature of the immediate surroundings. Cryogenic
7 A normally open device installed inside an air duct system w/c automatically
closes to restrict the passage of smoke or fire. Damper
8 An exteremely hot luminous bridge formed by the passage of an electric current
across a space between two conductors or terminals due to the incandescence
of the conducting vapor. Electric arc
9 A hot piece or lump that remains after a material has partially burned, and is still
oxidizing w/o the manifestation of flames. Ember
10 The portion of a roadway or public waythat should be kept opened &
unobstructed at all times for the expedient operations of fire fighting units. Fire lane
11 The minimum temperature at w/c any material give off vapor in sufficient concen-
tration to form an ignitable mixture w/ air. Flash point
12 A process where a piece of metal is heated prior to changing its shape or
dimensions. Forging
13 A kind of stable explosive compound w/c explodes by percussion. Fulminate
14 A rocket or liquid propellant w/c consist of combinations of fuels & oxidizers
w/c ignite spontaneously on contact w/ each other. Hypergolic fuel
15 A piece of metal or an electrical conductor used to bypass a safety device in an
electrical system. Jumper
16 A strong oxidizing organic compound w/c releases oxygen readily. Organic peroxide
17 Descriptive of any substance that ignites spontaneously when exposed to air. Pyrophonic
18 Melting or fusing of metallic ores or compounds so as to separate impurities
from pure metals. Smelting
Type of building Urinals Bathtubs or Showers Drinking
or occupancy (fixtures per person) fountains
a) Single dwelling 1 per dwelling 1 per dwelling 1 per dwelling
b) Multiple dwelling or 1 per dwelling or 1 per dwelling or 1 per dwelling or
department apartment unit apartment unit apartment unit
a) Elementary Male Female Male Female
1:1-20 1:1-20 1:1-150 1:1-25
2:21-50 2:21-50 2:26-50 2:26-50
over 50, add 1 fixture for over 50, add 1 fixture for
each additional 50 persons 1 per 75 each additional 50 persons 1 per 75
b) Secondary Male Female Male Female
1 per 30 1 per 25 1 per 35 1 per 35 1 per 35 1 per 75
c) Colleges, Universities,
Adult centers, etc. Male Female Male Female
1 per 40 1 per 30 1 per 35 1 per 40 1 per 30 1 per 75
Office or Public
Buildings Male Female 1:1-100 Male Female
1:1-100 1:1-200 2:101-200 1:1-200 1:1-200
2:101-200 2:201-400 3:201-400 2:201-400 2:201-400
3:201-400 3:401-750 4:401-600 3:401-750 3:401-750
over 55, add 1 fixture for over 600, over 750, add 1 fixture for
each additional 500 males add 1 per each additional 500
and 2 for each 55 females each addt'l persons
300 males 1 per 75
Office or Public
Buildings (for employee Male Female 0:1-9 Male Female
use) 1:1-15 1:1-15 1:10-50 1 per 40 1 per 40
2:16-35 2:16-35 add 1 fixture
3:36-55 3:36-55 per each
over 55, add 1 fixture for additional
each additional 40 persons 50 males 1 per 75
Water Closets Lavatories
(fixtures per person) (fixtures per person)
Assembly places -
Theaters & Auditoriums Male Female Male Female
(for public use) 1:1-100 3:1-50 1:1-100 1:1-200 1:1-200
2:101-200 4:51-100 2:101-200 2:201-400 2:201-400
3:201-400 8:101-200 3:201-400 3:401-750 3:401-750
11:201-400 4:401-600
over 400, add 1 fixture per over 600, add over 750, add 1 fixture for
each addt'l 500 males & 2 1 fixture per each additional 500
per each 300 females. each addt'l persons
500 males 1 per 75
Dormitories -
School or Labor Male Female 1 per 25 Male Female
1 per 10 1 per 8 over 150, add 1 1 per 12 1 per 12 1 per 8
add 1 fixture for each addt'l fixture for each over 150, add 1 fixture for
25 males (over 10) & 1 for additional 50 each addt'l 20 males & 1 for
each addt'l 20 females (over 8) males for each 15 addt'l females
Industrial & Commercial Male Female Male Female 1 shower for each 15
1:1-10 1:1-10 up to 100, 1 per 10 persons persons exposed to
2:11-25 2:11-25 excessive heat or to
3:26-50 3:26-50 over 100, 1 per 15 persons skin contamination
4:51-75 4:51-75 with poisonous,
5:76-100 5:76-100 infectious, or irritating
over 100, add 1 fixture for material
each additional 30 persons 1 per 75