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Sifat-Sifat Cahaya

Dr. Ahmad Marzuki


Physics Department
Sebelas Maret University
Diambil dari berbagai sumber
Apa itu cahaya?
Semenjak abad ke 17 orang telah
mengamati cahaya bahawasannya
cahaya dapat
1. merambat melalui garis lurus
2. memantul
3. membias
4. transmit energy dari satu titik
ke titik yang lain
WAVE THEORY (tokoh:
Christian Huygens dan Robert Hooke,
Cahaya merupakan sebuah
gelombang
PARTICLE (corpuscular) THEORY (Tokoh: Isaac Newton dan Pierre Laplace)
Cahaya pada dasarnya adalah deretan/barisan partikel-pertikel kecil yang
biasa disebut corpuskel
Ada dua teori yang biasa digunakan
untuk menerangkan fenomena di atas
Teori Partikel Newton dapat dengan mudah menerangkan
Perambatan cahaya secara lurus, pemantulan, transmisi
energi namun gagal menerangkan fenomena pembiasan.
Newtons explanation of refraction required that
light must travel faster in water than in air.
Teori gelombang Huygen dapatdengan mudah menerangkan
hal pemantulan, transmisi energi dan pemantulan
namun gagal menerangkan mengapa cahaya merambat
menurut garis lurus
The wave theorys explanation of refraction
required that light must travel
slower in water than in air.
Perdebatan tentang apa sebenarnya cahaya itu
berlanjut
hingga pertengahan 1800s.
1801 - interference of light was discovered
1816 - diffraction of light (actually observed
in the 1600s but not given much significance)
was explained using interference principles
Teori partikel tidak dapat menerangkan kedua fenomena di atas
The final blow to the particle
theory came in 1850 when
Jean Foucault discovered that
light traveled faster in air
than in water.
Pada masa berikutnya secara umum kemudian
dipercaya bahwa cahaya merupakan sebuah
gelombang.
Gelombang apa dia?
Pada tahun 1865 James Maxwell (diinisiasi antara lain oleh Michail Faraday)
mengembangkan teori gelombang elektromagnetik yang menyatakan bahwasannya
cahaya merupakan merupakan gelombang e/m : a periodic disturbance involving electric
and magnetic forces.
In 1885, Heinrich Hertz
experimentally confirmed
the e/m theory.
Implikasi dari persamaan Maxwell
Light travels at constant speed
0 0
1

c
Light consists of an oscillation of electric and magnetic field
Youngs Double-Slit Experiment indicated light behaved as
a wave (1801)
The alternating black and bright bands appearing on the
screen is analogous to the water waves that pass through a
barrier with two openings
Light has wavelike property
Light: Wavelength and Frequency
Example
FM radio, e.g., 103.5 MHz (WTOP station) => = 2.90 m
Visible light, e.g., red 700 nm => = 4.29 X 10
14
Hz
Visible light falls in the 400 to
700 nm range
In the order of decreasing
wavelength
Radio waves: 1 m
Microwave: 1 mm
Infrared radiation: 1 m
Visible light: 500 nm
Ultraviolet radiation: 100 nm
X-rays: 1 nm
Gamma rays: 10
-3
nm
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Light: spectrum and color
Newton found that the white light from the Sun is composed
of light of different color, or spectrum (1670).
Visible light is that portion of the
electromagnetic spectrum which stimulates the
retina of the
human eye.
Visible spectrum
wavelengths range
from about 400 nm (violet) to 760 nm (red).
Light travels at about 3 x 10
8
m/s through
empty space and slightly slower through air.
Remember that for all waves, v = f.
At the end of the century, many physicists felt that
all the significant laws of physics had been discovered.
Hertz even stated, The wave theory of light is, from
the point of view of human beings, a certainty.
That view was soon to change.
Around 1900,
the photoelectric effect was observed.
the emission of electrons by a substance
when illuminated by e/m radiation
Careful study of the photoelectric effect
was performed by many scientists.
The wave theory could not totally explain the
photoelectric effect, but a variation of the
old particle theory could!
Max Planck and
Albert Einstein
subsequently proposed the
QUANTUM THEORY.
The Quantum Theory
The transfer of energy between
light radiation and matter occurs in
discrete units called quanta, the magnitude
of which depends on the frequency of radiation.
Although we still commonly characterize
light as a wave, it is actually neither a
wave nor a particle. It seems to have
characteristics of both.
The modern view of the nature of
light recognizes the dual character:
Light is radiant energy transported
in photons that are guided along
their path by a wave field.
Dual properties of Light:
(1) waves and (2) particles
Light is an electromagnetic radiation wave, e.g, Youngs
double slit experiment
Light is also a particle-like packet of energy - photon
Light particle is called photon
The energy of phone is related to the wavelength of light
Light has a dual personality; it behaves as a stream of
particle like photons, but each photon has wavelike
properties
Plancks law relates the energy of a photon to its
wavelength or frequency
E = energy of a photon
h = Plancks constant
= 6.625 x 10
34
J s
c = speed of light
= wavelength of light
Energy of photon is inversely proportional to the
wavelength of light
Example: 633-nm red-light photon
E = 3.14 x 10
19
J
or E = 1.96 eV
eV: electron volt, a small energy unit = 1.602 x 10
19
J
Dual properties of Light: Plancks Law
Tugas 1 :
Tanpa harus mengurangi waktu lebaran kalian, soal
no 1-1 hingga 1-11 harus kalian kerjakan.
Tugas dikumpulkan paling lambat tanggal: 13
September 2011
Things you should know
Spectral Lines
Bright spectrum lines can be seen when a chemical substance is
heated and valoprized (Kirchhoff, ~1850)
Each chemical element has its own
unique set of spectral lines.
Kirchhoffs Laws on Spectrum
Three different spectrum: continuous spectrum, emission-line
spectrum, and absorption line spectrum
Kirchhoffs Laws on Spectrum
Law 1- Continuous spectrum: a hot opaque body, such as a
perfect blackbody, produce a continuous spectrum a complete
rainbow of colors without any spectral line
Law 2 emission line spectrum: a hot, transparent gas
produces an emission line spectrum a series of bright spectral
lines against a dark background
Law 3 absorption line spectrum: a relatively cool, transparent
gas in front of a source of a continuous spectrum produces an
absorption line spectrum a series of dark spectral lines
amongst the colors of the continuous spectrum. Further, the
dark lines of a particular gas occur at exactly the same
wavelength as the bright lines of that same gas.
An atomconsists of a small, dense nucleus at the center,
surrounded by electrons which orbit the nucleus.
The nucleus contains more than 99% of the mass of an atom,
but concentrates in an extremely small volume
Structure of Atom
A nucleus contains two
types of particles:
protons and neutrons
A proton has a positive
electric change, equal and
opposite to that of an
electron.
A neutron, about the same
mass of a proton, has no
electric charge.
An atom has no net
electric charge
The number of protons in an atoms nucleus is the atomic
number for that particular element
The same element may have different numbers of neutrons in its
nucleus, which are called isotopes
Periodic Table
Electrons occupy only
certain orbits or energy
levels
When an electron
jumps from one orbit to
another, it emits or
absorbs a photon of
appropriate energy.
The energy of the
photon equals the
difference in energy
between the two orbits.
Bohrs Model of Atom
Bohrs Model of Hydrogen
Bohrs Model of Atom
Absorption is produced when electron absorbs incoming
photon and jumps from a lower orbit to a higher orbit
Emission is produced when electron jumps from a higher
orbit to a lower orbit and emits a photon of the same energy
Bohrs Atomic Model for Hydrogen
The strongest hydrogen
spectral line from the
Sun, H line at 656 nm, is
caused by electron-
transition between n=3
orbit and n=1orbit
Lyman series lines:
between n=1 orbit and
higher orbits (n=2, n=3,
n=4,)
Balmer series lines:
between n-2 orbit and
higher orbits (n=3, 4,
5,)
Doppler Effect
Doppler effect: the wavelength of light is affected by
motion between the light source and an observer
Red Shift: The object is moving away from the observer,
the line is shifted toward the longer wavelength
Blue Shift: The object is moving towards the observer,
the line is shifted toward the shorter wavelength
D/
o
= v/c
D = wavelength shift

o
= wavelength if source is not moving
v = velocity of source
c = speed of light
Doppler Effect
Questions: what if the objects motion perpendicular to our
line of sight?