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1.

0 BIDANG KAJIAN, ISU DAN PEMBOLEHUBAH UTAMA


Bidang kajian dalam artikel ini adalah tertumpu kepada latihan pliometrik untuk kanak-kanak.
Bidang kajian ini memfokuskan kepada program latihan pliometrik khususnya untuk kanak-
kanak. Tujuan artikel ini ditulis adalah untuk memberi garis panduan kepada guru dan jurulatih
mengenai program latihan pliometrik yang boleh dilaksanakan kepada kanak-kanak. Artikel ini
ditulis adalah untuk menerangkan fungsi dan kelebihan melaksanakan latihan pliometrik
terhadap kanak-kanak. Malah artikel ini juga menjelaskan beberapa reka bentuk program
latihan pliometrik yang boleh dilaksanakan terhadap kanak-kanak. Dalam artikel ini juga, penulis
menyatakan prinsip-prinsip yang perlu ada untuk melaksanakan latihan pliometrik. Jadi, bidang
kajian dalam artikel ini memfokus tentang program latihan pliometrik terhadap kanak-kanak.
Isu yang hendak diketengahkan dalam artikel ini oleh penulis ialah yang pertama adalah
mengenai konsep dan prinsip-prinsip latihan pliometrik terhadap kanak-kanak. rinsip-prinsip
yang perlu ada dalam latihan pliometrik mengikut kesesuaian tahap kanak-kanak. !ang mana,
terdapat tiga fasa dalam perinsip-prinsip latihan pliometrik iaitu fasa pertama fasa eksentrik,
fasa kedua adalah fasa perlaksanaan dan fasa ketiga adalah fasa sepusat.
Isu yang kedua pula ialah jenis latihan pliometrik yang sesuai untuk peringkat kanak-kanak.
Antara "ontoh jenis latihan pliometri adalah seperti lompat sebelah kaki, tekan tubi sambil
menepuk tangan dan sebagainya.
Isu yang ketiga yang hendak diketangahkan oleh penulis di dalam artikel ini ialah, peringkat-
peringkat latihan pliometrik terhadap kanak-kanak. eringkat-peringkat latihan pliometrik untuk
kanak-kanak ini terbahagi kepada tiga peringkat iaitu peringkat pertama adalah peringkat
senaman peringkat rendah dari aspek intensiti dan akti#iti yang dilakukan dan peringkat ini
disarankan terhadap lingkungan umur $ hingga %% tahun. Antara "ontoh akti#iti peringkat
pertama ini ialah lompat kedua kaki men"apai satu tahap ketinggian dan lompat sisi kedua kaki.
eringkat kedua adalah peringkat senaman peringkat sederhana dari segi intensiti dan akti#iti
yang dilakukan dan peringkat ini disarankan terhadap lingkungan umur %&-%' tahun. Antara
"ontoh akti#iti yang boleh dilaksanakan ialah tekan tubi atas kotak, lompat sebelah kaki dan
lompat kijang. eringkat ketiga adalah peringkat senaman impak tinggi dari segi intensiti dan
jenis akti#iti yang dilaksanakan dan disarankan terhadap lingkungan umur %( hingga %) tahun.
Antara "ontoh akti#iti yang boleh dilaksanakan ialah lompatan ke atas halangan.
Isu yang keempat dalam artikel ini adalah faedah latihan pliometrik terhadap kanak-kanak.
*aedah-faedah yang boleh didapati melalui latihan pliometrik ini adalah meningkatkan
ke"ergasan kanak-kanak, menggalakkan gaya hidup sihat, meningkatkan pen"apaian kanak-
kanak dalam sukan dan meningkatkan kekuatan tulang dan menga+al berat badan kanak-
kanak.
2.0 PERNYATAAN MASALAH
Di dalam artikel ini, terdapat beberapa masalah kajian atau pernyataan masalah yang timbul.
Antara pernyataan masalah yang boleh didapati dalam artikel ini adalah seperti,
i.Adakah reka bentuk program latihan pliometrik mempengaruhi latihan-latihan pliometrik untuk
kanak-kanak.
ii.Apakah jenis latihan pliometrik yang sesuai kepada kanak-kanak mengikut tahap umur,
jantina, berat, ketinggian dan bentuk tubuh badan kanak-kanak.
iii.Adakah peringkat umur kanak-kanak mempengaruhi program latihan pliometrik.
i#.Adakah jantina kanak-kanak mempengaruhi latihan pliometrik.
#.Apakah pendedahan yang diberikan kepada guru dan jurulatih mengenai program latihan
pliometrik.
3.0 CADANGAN OBJEKTIF / PERSOALAN DAN HIPOTESISI KAJIAN
Di dalam artikel ini, penulis atau penyelidik tidak membangkitkan atau menyatakan objektif,
persoalan dan hipotesis kajian. -leh yang demikian terdapat beberapa objektif, persoalan dan
hipotesis kajian yang boleh di"adangkan dalam artikel ini.
..%/adangan objektif kajian,
i.0ntuk memberi garis panduan kepada guru dan jurulatih tentang program latihan pliometrik.
ii.0ntuk membandingkan jenis latihan pliometrik terhadap kanak-kanak mengikut peringkat
umur.
iii.Men"ari keberkesanan latihan pliometrik di dalam melakukan akti#iti sukan yang khusus.
i#.Menilai keberkesanan latihan pliometrik terhadap tubuh badan kanak-kanak.
#.0ntuk menggalakkan kanak-kanak mengamalkan "ara hidup yang aktif dan sihat melalui
program latihan pliometrik.
#i.0ntuk meningkatkan pen"apaian kanak-kanak di dalam sukan olahraga.
3.2Cada!a "#$%&a'a (a)*a+
i.Apakah jenis latihan yang sesuai untuk program latihan pliometrik terhadap kanak-kanak.
ii.Apakah sikap kanak-kanak terhadap latihan pliometrik yang dilaksanakan.
iii.Apakah reka bentuk program yang sesuai untuk latihan pliometrik bagi kanak-kanak.
3.3 Cada!a ,*"&-#%*% (a)*a+
i.Terdapat perbe1aan latihan pliometrik diantara kanak-kanak yang berlainan berat, ketinggian
dan bentuk tubuh badan.
ii.Terdapat perbe1aan peringkat latihan di dalam program pliometrik mengikut had umur kanak-
kanak.
iii.Terdapat perbe1aan latihan pliometrik antara jantina kanak-kanak.
i#.2eka bentuk program latihan pliometrik mempengaruhi latihan pliometrik untuk kanak-kanak.
#.3urangnya pendedahan yang diberikan kepada guru dan jurulatih mengenai program latihan
pliometrik.
..0 DEFINISI PEMBOLEHUBAH
'.%Definisi operasional
i.4atihan liometrik
Menurut ota"h dan /hu tahun &555, menyatakan latihan pliometrik adalah satu bentuk latihan
untuk merangsang otot men"apai daya yang maksimum dalam satu jangkamasa yang singkat.
Menurut ota"h dan /hu lagi, pliometrik berasal daripada perkataan !unani iaitu yang
memba+a erti 6o yang bererti more 7lebih8 dan Metri" yang bererti to measure 7untuk
mengukur8.
Menurut Donald /hu di dalam buku 9Jumping Into lyometri": menyatakan latihan pliometrik
adalah satu bentuk latihan lompatan. Manakala menurut *red ;ilt di dalam buku yang sama
iaitu 9Jumping Into lyometri": menyatakan pliometri" berasal daripada perkataan latin iaitu
9measurable in"rease.:
Menurut 2yan ret1 tahun &55<, menyatakan baha+a latihan pliometrik adalah latihan untuk
pergerakan yang "epat dan kuat yang digunakan untuk meregangkan otot bagi mengaktifkan
9stre"th-shortening "y"le:.
**.Kaa(/Kaa(
Adalah merupakan golongan yang belum men"apai tahap de+asa.
0.0 PEMBOLEHUBAH BERSANDAR DAN PERBOLEH UBAH BEBAS
embolehubah utama yang dikaji dalam artikel ini adalah latihan pliometrik dan kanak-kanak.
Ini menunjukkan latihan pliometrik adalah pembolehubah bersandar yang mana ianya adalah
faktor yang hendak diperhatikan dalam kajian. Manakala pembolehubah tak bersandar ialah
kanak-kanak yang mana ianya menentukan hubungan dengan fenomena yang diperhatikan
dalam kajian ini.
1.0 KAEDAH PENGUKURAN
3ajian ini menggunakan kaedah pemerhatian dan teori-teori kajian lepas bagi mengukur
sejauhmana kaedah latihan pliometrik yang sesuai dihasilkan bagi perkembangan fi1ikal dan
me+ujudkan gaya hidup sihat.
2.0 SAMPEL YANG DIGUNAKAN
Dalam mengkaji kajian ini, penyelidik menggunakan sample kajian dalam lingkungan umur
diantara $ hingga %% tahun, %&-%' tahun, dan %( hingga %) tahun bagi melihat sejauh mana
latihan pliometrik dapat membantu perkembangan fi1ikal sekaligus me+ujudkan gaya hidup
sihat.
3.0 ANALISIS YANG DIGUNAKAN
Artikel ini menggunakan kaedah kajian perpustakaan yang mana penyelidik mengkaji "ara-"ara
atau pendekatan yang sesuai dalam akti#iti pliometrik daripada kajian lampau. 6asil daripada
kajian tersebut, penyelidik men"adangkan kaedah latihan pliometrik dan tip-tip yang sesuai bagi
perkembangan fi1ikal sekaligus me+ujudkan gaya hidup sihat dikalangan kanak-kanak.
4.0 DAPATAN KAJIAN
6asil daripada program latihan pliometrik yang diran"ang dapat menjadi model yang baik untuk
meran"ang pergerakan bagi kanak-kanak. =e"ara semulajadi, kebanyakkan akti#iti dan
permainan kanak-kanak adalah akti#iti pliometrik seperti lompat sebelah dan dua belah kaki,
leaping dan galloping. Melalui kajian ini juga, guru atau pelatih dapat mengatur akti#iti pliometrik
yang sesuai berdasarkan perkembangan semasa latihan dijalankan.
Terdapat beberapa prosedur yang di"adangkan bagi menjalankan akti#iti pliometrik iaitu perlu
melakukan akti#iti memanaskan badan terlebih dahulu sebelum melakukan akti#iti pliometrik.
4atihan pliometrik perlu dilakukan terlebih dahulu sebelum ke set yang lebih tinggi. =elain
daripada itu, latihan pliometrik tidak boleh dilakukan setelah melakukan intensiti yang tinggi.
=e"ara keseluruhannya, dengan menggunakan kaedah latihan pliometrik yang disarankan akan
membantu perkembangan fi1ikal disamping me+ujudkan gaya hidup sihat dikalangan kanak-
kanak.
http,>>"ikgu+anupsi.blogspot."om>&55?>5?>tea"hing-plyometri"-training-to.html
Plyometric Training for Youth
by
Donald A. Chu, Ph.D., PT, ATC, CSCS
Plyometric training is known to be an intense form of exercise that reuires maximal efforts to create the !hysiological
change associated with elite athletic !erformance. This system became !o!ular in the late "#$s to the early %#$s and was
credited with being res!onsible for much of the &ast &uro!ean success in athletics during that time. Since then, the use of
!lyometric training has e'ol'ed into a mainstay of the training and de'elo!ment !rograms of 'irtually all(s!orting e'ents.
)ith this transition came many uestions, including the age, gender and strength le'els of the athletes who would benefit
from this form of training. This article is intended to deal with the use of !lyometric training and *unior athletes, both !re(
and !ost(!ubescent.
The fundamental reason to train with !lyometrics is to reduce the ground contact time that an athlete s!ends when
running or *um!ing. This time is reduced as the athlete matures, gets stronger, and !ractices the skills of their game. To
further enhance resistance training the athlete s!ends considerable time !racticing the s!ecific mo'ement skills they wish
to im!ro'e+ namely, running and *um!ing. These two mo'ement !atterns are often thought of as genetic endowments and
affected little by outside influences such as training !rograms. To the contrary, research has shown that 'irtually all
athletes can !ositi'ely influence their !erformance outcomes by using !lyometric training on a regular basis.
,n order to im!lement this ty!e of training with young athletes se'eral factors must be considered. The first consideration
is what controlled research studies tell us about this form of training and its effect on young children. Currently, there is
little !eer( re'iewed research to ex!lain the effects of this form of training a'ailable in the literature.
A'ery -agenbaum Ph.D. from the .ni'ersity of /assachusetts is currently studying two grou!s of children who !artici!ate
in their 0Youth Strength Training0 !rograms offered through their De!artment of 1inesiology. The grou!s are combining
!lyometric training with strength training and using 0games0 to !ro'ide cardio'ascular conditioning. Pilot studies indicate
that *um! training, in combination with resistance training, has resulted in significant increases in *um! and reach scores
and long *um! scores o'er grou!s that strength train alone.
2ne of the reasons why this ty!e of result might occur is the learning ability of the young child to react to the stimulus of
ground contact. ,t is well documented and a matter of !ractice that children learn to !lay skill games such as tennis and
baseball at ages as young as "(3 years. The a!!lication of these ty!es of acti'ities with children has long been utili4ed to
de'elo! hand(eye coordination s!ecific to these games. &ast &uro!ean researchers ha'e !ublished research to su!!ort that
"(3 years is an excellent time to initiate these ty!es of acti'ities because the ner'ous system is 0!lastic0 and youngsters
can ca!itali4e on motor learning to de'elo! their game skills. )hat is eually im!ortant but often o'erlooked is that
mo'ement skills in'ol'ing the lower extremities are extremely im!ortant in de'elo!ing 0athleticism0. Therefore, !lyometric
or 0*um! training0 can !lay a critical role in the de'elo!ment of athletic ability in the young athlete.
)hen designing the !lyometric training !rogram for youth we must consider the same !rogram 'ariables that are
considered in any exercise !rescri!tion. 5olume, intensity, freuency, and reco'ery, as well as, !rogression, must be
mani!ulated to suit the needs of the younger !erformer.
Footwork Drills
A uniue form of footwork drills that are 0!lyometric in nature0 and lend themsel'es to being extremely suitable for
beginning athletes ha'e been !resented by 6ohn -ra!!ier /.S., &xercise Physiologist from -argo, 7orth Dakota in the .SA.
The format includes utili4ation of one of se'eral footwork !atterns. These are known as the four(suare, eight(suare,
/uno4, and 1rumrie !atterns. The latter two are named for former 7-8 football !layers who hel!ed to de'elo! them.
The drills are used to teach a young athlete how to mo'e the feet out from under the body$s center of gra'ity 9C of :; and
reco'er, allowing the athlete to be in a balanced !osition when the feet uickly reco'er to maintain dynamic balance. This
is extremely useful in teaching the younger athlete to maintain balance and stability of the C of : while allowing the feet to
change direction and ad*ust to a changing base of su!!ort. This is 'ery s!ecific to on(court or field ad*ustments that must
be made uickly and without a great deal of conscious thought.
The general rule for all !atterns is to count 0one0 each time the athlete returns to the starting !oint. -or exam!le, when
executing a four(suare drill and going from box < to box =, the coach counts each time the athlete$s foot or feet return to
box <. -or !atterns such as the <(=(> !attern 9multi!le boxes; again count 0one0 when the athlete returns to the starting
box. These re!etitions are totaled for a s!ecific time !eriod 9such as ?(<# seconds; and recorder for future com!arisons.
Although -ra!!ier offers s!ecific routines that ha'e been de'elo!ed o'er time, the reader is limited only by their own
imagination as to how to de'elo! 'arious routines. The exam!les that are shown here merely ser'e as models for this form
of exercise.
These patterns are referenced from "Jumping Into Plyometrics", 2nd Edition - pages 72 thru 76
Volume of Plyometric Training for Youth
There is little to substantiate the exact reuirements for calculating a!!ro!riate 'olumes for no'ice athletes. The following
re!resent 0guidelines0 that should be obser'ed when !rescribing exercise for this grou! of athletes.
<. Consider the athlete. ,f they are young and inex!erienced, remember that there will be a learning cur'e associated
with any exercise drill. Se'eral sessions of training should be utili4ed to teach a!!ro!riate execution of the drill. The
learning cur'e is 'ery ra!id for this age grou!, and !ro!er execution is much more im!ortant than the number of
re!etitions achie'ed.
=. Observe the execution of the drill. -atigue is the biggest detractor of execution+ it interferes not only with
!erformance of the drill it im!edes learning as well. )hen execution falls below an acce!table le'el, sto! the drill. ,t is far
more im!ortant to see a drill !erformed correctly than to !erform re!etition for the sake of re!etition.
>. Focus and concentration of youth is limited The younger the athlete, the more likely they are to mentally wander
during the course of a training session. ,t is best to !erform fewer drills correctly than more drills incorrectly. Pre(!lanning
is essential, the coach should consider which biomechanical traits 9'ertical *um!, linear *um!, change(of(direction; they
would like to de'elo! !rior to beginning a training session. This allows for selection of exercises !rior to !ractice and sets a
!lan of training into motion.
!ntensity of Plyometric Training for Youth
,ntensity of !lyometric exercises is determined by 0effort of execution0. 6um!ing drills that reuire maximal distance or
height to be achie'ed is going to be higher in intensity that efforts such as !ut forth during the footwork drills !re'iously
described. A'ery -agenbaum has demonstrated in his studies at the .ni'ersity of /assachusetts that utili4ing a @0 box as
the maximal height utili4ed in the !erformance of *um!ing drills consisting of mo'ing on and off the box was sufficient to
achie'e statistically significant results in 'ertical *um! im!ro'ement. A!!arently, athletes as young as "(3 can still
!hysically benefit from a drill using relati'ely lower heights.
/aximal efforts should be utili4ed once the youngster has mastered the execution of the drill. 2nce the learning !hase has
been accom!lished the athlete is much more likely to direct their efforts at force de'elo!ment along a!!ro!riate lines. The
result will be a mo'ement that has the sub*ecti'e uality of 0ease of execution0, 0flowing mo'ement0 andAor 0!owerful
effort0.
Fre"uency of Plyometric Training for Youth
Traditional thinking on !lyometric training discusses the need to !erform maximal effort days twice within a training week.
This tends to allow for a reco'ery !eriod of @3(%= hours of reco'ery between training days. )hen working with *uniors, it is
inad'isable that truly maximal days of training occur until they ha'e accom!lished all the learning, execution and
ada!tation necessary to !erform maximal effort exercise.
)ith this in mind, it is acce!table to ha'e a higher freuency !attern for !lyometric training days. Three days a week are
!erfectly acce!table for *uniors, gi'en that there are not com!etition days at the end of each weekly cycle of training. ,f
there are com!etition days included within the week or on the weekend, then the freuency of !lyometric training should
be reduced to twice a week.
,f an acti'e, formal warm(u! is being conducted as !art of each workout it is also acce!table to include @(? !lyometric
exercises within the context of the warm(u! routine, rather than ha'ing a formal workout for a !articular day. This gi'es
the coach the o!!ortunity to ex!ose all of the athletes in a grou! to the same drills. ,t is also an o!!ortunity to !rescribe
the number of re!etitions, or time allotted to the !erformance of each drill. This sort of !lanning hel!s in the administration
of !lyometric training !rograms.
#ecovery in Plyometric Training of Youth
The effects of fatigue on !lyometric training ha'e been !re'iously mentioned. -atigue is most likely to occur when the
*unior athlete is asked to !erform exercises that do allow for full reco'ery between execution of re!etitions. )ithout full
reco'ery, the muscular and ner'ous system does not ha'e the o!!ortunity to rid the systems of the effects of fatigue
metabolites and will result in a decrement in !erformance. This decrement will ser'e to frustrate the athlete and the coach
because of an inability to achie'e desired efforts as measured by s!eed, distances, or heights. 8earning new skills will be
im!eded for the same reasons.
The le'el of metabolism that should be utili4ed when !erforming these ty!es of workouts is the ATP(PC and Anaerobic
glycolytic systems. These metabolic systems reuire brief, intense work !eriods, followed by long 9?(>#BAwork; acti'e
reco'ery !eriods. 6ogging, walking, mo'ing about are all acce!table forms of acti'e reco'ery between re!etitions of effort.
,t is well documented that acti'e reco'ery is a more effecti'e method of clearing the systems in !re!aration for the next
work bout.
Progression in Plyometric Training of Youth
Progression in learning of !lyometric exercises includes, but is not limited to, drills that are increasingly more com!lex. As
an exam!le, straight de!th *um!s as com!ared to de!th *um!s with <3# degrees of body rotation. ,t is im!erati'e that the
coach be able to biomechanically determine the reuired traits of their !articular s!ort. An exam!le would be the net ball
coach who decides that 'ertical *um! is a !riority and that the best way to im!ro'e that skill is to train using exercises that
are s!ecific to the !articular tasks of shooting and rebounding.
Progression can take the form of increasing the range of motion that a !articular task reuires. -or exam!le, the a'erage
angle at the knee used during the take(off in many e'ents is a!!roximately <@# degrees. This is what is termed a 0short(
am!litude0 *um!, a !rogression might be to ad'ance to using 0long(am!litude0 *um!s where there is a C# degree angle at
the knee achie'ed. &ach has a !articular !ur!ose, and !laces a different demand on the athletes$ body. 8ong am!litude
*um!ing acti'ities are most 'aluable for those athletes in'ol'ed in 2lym!ic weight lifting, -ree(style and :reco(Doman
wrestling, and Dugby.
Another form of !rogression includes increases in intensity of exercise for a s!ecific exercise. .sing hurdles of different
heights ser'es to challenge the limits of each athlete. These changes in the height of hurdles or the distances co'ered
re!resent ad'ancement in the effort and com!lexity of task. The coach must be able to recogni4e the indi'idual needs of
the athlete and to design a!!ro!riate challenges that teach the athlete to res!ond uickly to the ground and reduce the
amorti4ation !hase. This should be done without making the task so difficult that the athlete cannot react uickly to
ground contact.
$ummary
The use of !lyometric training in younger athletes has !ro'en itself to be successful in im!ro'ing their 'ertical and linear
*um! ca!abilities. Younger athletes are ca!able of !erforming !lyometrics safely and effecti'ely.
!"efore #eginning any e$ercise program consult %ith your physician&
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