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FACTORS AFFECTING SOLUBILITY

Arciaga, Maridel
Ballenas, Louie Jay
Bernardo, Nuelle
Ferreras, Ernest Clarke
Legaspi, Hans Ludwig
Mubarak, Sameer Ali

College of Engineering, Architecture and Technology
De La Salle University- Dasmarias
City of Dasmarias, Cavite Philippines


ABSTRACT
The experiment, factors affecting solubility, was demonstrated by using different solid and liquid
samples. The gram samples of KCl and NaCl was placed in an ignition tube with water. The solution was
shaken to determine the solubility of the samples. The same samples that is placed in the ignition tube
with water, was gently heated to 80C using water bath. Again, the solution was shaken to determine the
solubility of the samples. The solubility of a gram/ml of each sample of potassium nitrate, sodium chloride,
coconut oil, toluene and copper sulfate was test by means of water, isopropyl alcohol, and the 1:1 ratio of
water and isopropyl alcohol as solvent. Also, the effect of the polarity in the samples was noted. Lastly, a
pinch of Iodine crystals was placed in a test tube with water and was shaken to determine its solubility.
Afterwards, potassium iodide was added into the solution and the solubility was determined.

INTRODUCTION
The definition of solute is that it can be dissolved in a given amount of solvent to form a saturated
solution at a specified temperature is called the solubility of the substance. The point on which the solute
dissolves is affected by the nature of solute and solvent, temperature, and pressure.When the molecules
of the solute are similar in structure and electrical properties with the solvent, solubility will be high. For
instance, polar solvents like water can readily dissolve polar and ionic solutes but they cannot dissolve
non-polar solutes. On the other hand, non-polar solvents like carbon tetrachloride have strong dissolving
action on non-polar solutes. The solubility of solids in liquid increases with increasing temperature; some
solutes become less soluble at higher temperature, the temperature effect depends on the heat of
solution of the solute. On the other hand, for gases, solubility decreases as temperature increases. The
solubility of solids and liquids is practically not affected by pressure compared to gases, provided there is
no chemical reaction between the gas and the solvent.






MATERIAL AND METHOIDS
A. Effect of temperature on solubility of a solid in water:
1 g of KCL was added into 10 ml water in an ignition tube at 10C. It was mixed and
the solubility was observed. The solution was then gently heated to 40C. It was
stirred and the solubility was observed. Another gram of KCL was added to the
mixture, it was again stirred and the solubility was observed. The mixture was heated
to 80C in a water bath. It was shook and the solubility was observed. The procedure
was then again repeated using another reagent which is NaCl.
B. Effect of the polarity of the solute and solvent:
The solubility of 1 g or 1 mL of the following solutes namely potassium nitrate,
sodium chloride, coconut oil, toluene, and copper sulfate were determined in 1 mL
water, 1 mL isopropyl alcohol, and 1 mL (1:1 V/V water : isopropyl alcohol mixture).
The results obtained were then noted down on the table.
C. Influence of another substance:
Shake pinch of Iodine crystal was shook in 10 mL water. Then a pinch of potassium
iodide crystals were added; the mixture was shook. The effect of potassium iodide on
the solubility of iodine in water was then observed.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
By exposing Potassium Chloride and Sodium Chloride to different kinds of temperature, which is
was 10Cand 80C, they illustrated how temperature affects the solubility of a substance. The table below
shows the complete data/result of the experiment.
TABLE 1. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON SOLUBILITY OF A SOLID IN WATER
SOLIDS SOLUBILITY IN WATER
At 10C At room temperature At 80C
Potassium Chloride Soluble Soluble Soluble
Sodium Chloride Soluble Soluble Soluble

The Substance dissolves in a solvent which is chemically related in composition of the substance.
In this experiment, the solubility of different kinds of solute was determined in different kinds of solvents.
As the solutes were tried to dissolve in the solvents, they show like dissolves like. The table below
shows the complete date obtained in the experiment.
TABLE 2. EFFECT OF THE POLARITY OF THE SOLUTE AND THE SOLVENT
SOLUTE SOLVENTS
Water Isopropyl Alcohol 1:1 (V/V) water :
isopropyl alcohol
Potassium nitrate Partially Soluble Insoluble Partially Insoluble
Sodium chloride Insoluble Insoluble Soluble
Toluene Immiscible Partially Miscible Partially Immiscible
Coconut oil Immiscible Partially Miscible Partially Immiscible
Copper sulfate Soluble Partially Insoluble Partially Insoluble



Other substances too can affect to the solubility of a substance. In this part of the experiment,
Iodine in

is insoluble but when the KI was added to the mixture the result make it soluble. The table
below shows the complete data/results.
TABLE 3. INFLUENCE OF ANOTHER SUBSTANCE
Solubility
Iodine in H2O Insoluble
Iodine in H2O and KI Soluble


REFERENCES
1. Figueroa, L. V. and Samonte, J. L. 2007. Laboratory Manual for General Chemistry. 3rd Ed.
Manila: C & E Publishing, Inc.
2. Silberberg, Martin S. 2010. Principles of General Chemistry. 2
nd
edition. New York, NY: McGraw-
Hill Higher Education.
3. Laird, Brian B. 2009. University Chemistry. International Student Edition. New York, NY :
McGraw-Hill Higher Education