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Makalah

Pelanggaran Hak Asasi Manusia


Internasional



Disusun Oleh:
ADIB FADIL
110111090103

FAKULTAS HUKUM
UNIVERSITAS PADJADJARAN BANDUNG
2011
PENDAHULUAN

Masa depan bangsa ada pada kesejahteraan anak-anak saat ini. Begitu kata-kata yang sering
terdengar bila membicarakan anak. Sayangnya tidak seperti realitas yang kita lihat seperti saat
ini. Masih banyak anak-anak yang tidak beruntung dalam pemenuhan haknya seperti
kelangsungan hidup, tumbuh kembang, perlindungan dan partisipasi. Tidak ada orang yang
menginginkan anaknya menjadi anak jalanan, pemuas nafsu si hidung belang.
Di sisi lain seorang anak juga tidak pernah di minta untuk di lahirkan, atau ketika ia di lahirkan
kemudian menjadi pemuas nafsu bejat oleh ayah tiri maupun ayah kandungnya.
Telah menjadi kesepakatan berbagai bangsa, persoalan anak ditata dalam suatu wadah Unicef
(united international children education of fund). Bagi Indonesia sendiri, anak di kelompokan
sebagai kelompok rentan.











Contoh kasus: Human Rights Watch Exposes Human Rights Abuses Against Guatemala
Children
Guatemalan children suffer serious human rights violations, Human Rights Watch
declared in a detailed publication released today. Guatemala's Forgotten Children: Police
Violence and Abuses in Detention, a 144-page report, analyzes human rights abuses that take
place both on the street and in detention centers. Issued as the Guatemalan government prepares
to implement a new Minors' Code, the report strongly criticizes the country's juvenile justice
system, calling it not just ineffective but punitive as well.
"Guatemalan street children have nowhere to turn. Those who attack them enjoy impunity, and
the legal system fails them completely," charged Jos Miguel Vivanco, executive director of
Human Rights Watch/Americas.
Guatemala is a signatory to the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child. However, the
country's justice system, rather than protect minors from abuse, often exacerbates violations, the
study finds. "Even innocent juveniles are treated harshly by the justice system," declared Lois
Whitman, director of the Human Rights Watch Children's Rights Project. "Children can be
rounded up arbitrarily and forced to spend many months being warehoused in this brutal
system."

Among the report's findings:
Children who are arrested may spend many months in pre-adjudication detention, often
because they simply have no family to claim them. When they do receive a hearing, their rights
to due process, including access to representation, are frequently ignored.
Children in protective custody are detained together with juvenile offenders. As a result,
children who may have fled abusive homes are thrown into the same dreary facilities as are drug
addicts, pickpockets, prostitutes, and violent offenders. Young children are frequently mixed
with teenagers.
Detention facilities do not offer any meaningful rehabilitation or education, nor do they provide
psychological treatment or systematic vocational training. Children are crowded together in
unsanitary conditions, vulnerable to mistreatment from staff and from other detainees. All of
these conditions violate international law.
Control over juvenile facilities has been virtually ceded to REMAR (Rehabilitacin de los
Marginados), a Spanish evangelical organization. Boys who had been held in REMAR detention
facilities reported widespread use of beatings and other abuse. Despite numerous such reports, no
Guatemalan authority is supervising the actions of REMAR in any of its facilities.
In a welcome change from the usual impunity enjoyed by security force agents, three cases in
which children were murdered in 1993 and 1995 resulted in recent murder convictions against
private security guards. Most crimes against street children, however, remain unpunished,
particularly when police were responsible for the abuses.
In 1996, the Guatemalan legislature passed the Minors' Code, which is scheduled to take effect in
September 1997 and contains a host of improvements for the treatment of Guatemalan children.
If fully implemented, the abuses documented by Human Rights Watch would largely cease, the
report concludes. Currently, however, Guatemalan officials only take seriously cases of human
rights violations against children if outside pressure has been brought to bear.
Guatemala's Forgotten Children contains detailed recommendations for the Guatemalan
government, the United Nations, the United States, and the European Union. Among them:

General Recommendations to the Guatemalan Government:
The government should take every step necessary to ensure that the new Minors' Code is
fully implemented without delay.
Current abusive practices should be halted immediately to conform to the requirements of
international and Guatemalan law. Particular attention should be paid to the practices of the
National Police, private security guards (for which the Interior Ministry holds regulatory
responsibility), the Minors' Courts, all state-run juvenile detention facilities, and all privately
operated custodial facilities that accept children sent by court order.
In order to ascertain compliance with international and Guatemalan law, independent
nongovernmental organizations, including international human rights monitors, should be
allowed periodically to investigate the juvenile justice system in its entirety or in part, including
juvenile detention facilities.
These monitors should be permitted to conduct confidential interviews with detained children of
their choosing, with the consent of the children involved. The government should itself
periodically initiate and/or undertake evaluations of the Guatemalan juvenile justice system,
including juvenile detention facilities.
The Public Ministry and the National Police should thoroughly and impartially investigate all
allegations of crimes committed against street children. Complaints regarding police
mistreatment of children should be investigated promptly and thoroughly. Where appropriate,
disciplinary measures and criminal proceedings should be ordered. The current practice of
investigating only those cases on which outside pressure is brought to bear must end
immediately.
All police officers should receive rigorous and periodic training in human rights, children's
rights, and relations with street children. What constitutes abusive police behavior should be
defined explicitly for all officers. Examples of abusive and prohibited behavior--including
stealing, soliciting bribes, soliciting sex, sexual assault, physical beatings, and illegal detention--
should be clearly explained.
Female police officers should be recruited. When possible, police teams working the
downtown Guatemala City area should be composed of at least one female, with the goal of
reducing sexual violence by police officers against street girls.
Immediate and concrete steps should be taken to increase the effectiveness of the Office of
Professional Responsibility of the National Police, and in particular the responsiveness of that
office to complaints alleging police misconduct against children. Procedures should be
implemented that will allow complainants and witnesses to protect their identities should they
reasonably fear reprisals.

Recommendations to the United Nations:
The U.N. Special Rapporteur on Torture and the U.N. Committee on the Rights of the
Child should investigate police violence against Guatemalan street children. They should also
evaluate the government's response to this violence, including efforts at prevention and sanctions
against offending officers. The findings of these studies should be the basis for detailed and
public recommendations to the government of Guatemala.
The U.N. Working Group on Arbitrary Detention, the U.N. Special Rapporteur on Torture,
and the U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child should investigate conditions of detention for
children in Guatemala, including, but not limited to, the use of corporal punishment and
isolation. They should evaluate the government's response to illegal conditions and practices in
juvenile detention facilities. Based on their findings, they should make detailed and public
recommendations to the Guatemalan government.
The U.N. Working Group on Arbitrary Detention and the U.N. Committee on the Rights of the
Child should investigate the extent to which due process protections are observed by the
Guatemalan government in depriving children of their liberty. They should make detailed and
public recommendations to the Guatemalan government, aimed at full and rapid observance of
due process rights in the detention and confinement of children.
The U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child should devote a theme day to the topic of
police violence against street children.
1




1
http://www.hrw.org/en/world-report-2011/schools-battlegrounds

ANALISIS DAN IDENTIFIKASI MASALAH
Berbagai pelanggaran terhadap hak-hak anak yang masih terjadi, tercermin dari masih adanya
anak-anak yang mengalami abuse, kekerasan, ekploitasi dan diskriminasi. Seperti yang terjadi di
Guatemala Anak-anak Guatemala mengalami pelanggaran berat hak asasi manusia, (Human
Rights Watch). Anak-anak Guatemala yang Terlupakan: Kekerasan Polisi dan Pelanggaran HAM
di Tahanan, sebuah laporan 144-halaman, analisis pelanggaran hak asasi manusia yang terjadi
baik di jalan dan di pusat-pusat penahanan. Diterbitkan sebagai pemerintah Guatemala bersiap
untuk mengimplementasikan Kode suatu Minor baru ', laporan tersebut sangat mengkritik
sistem negara remaja keadilan, menyebutnya bukan hanya efektif tetapi hukuman juga.

"Guatemala anak jalanan punya tempat untuk berpaling. Mereka yang menyerang mereka
menikmati kekebalan hukum, dan sistem hukum mereka gagal sepenuhnya," dibebankan Jos
Miguel Vivanco, direktur eksekutif Human Rights Watch atau dan Amerika.
Guatemala adalah penandatangan Konvensi PBB tentang Hak Anak. Namun, sistem peradilan
negara yang melindungi anak-anak dari pelecehan, sering memperburuk pelanggaran.

Diantara laporan temuan:

Anak-anak yang ditangkap dapat menghabiskan berbulan-bulan dalam penahanan pra-
ajudikasi, sering kali karena mereka hanya punya keluarga untuk mengklaim mereka. Ketika
mereka tidak menerima sidang, hak mereka untuk proses karena, termasuk akses ke
representasi, sering diabaikan.
Anak-anak dalam tahanan pelindung ditahan bersama-sama dengan pelaku remaja. Akibatnya,
anak-anak yang mungkin telah meninggalkan rumah kasar yang dilemparkan ke fasilitas yang
suram sama seperti yang pecandu narkoba, pencopet, pelacur, dan pelaku kekerasan. Anak-
anak sering dicampur dengan remaja.

Fasilitas penahanan tidak menawarkan rehabilitasi atau pendidikan yang bermakna, juga tidak
memberikan pengobatan psikologis atau pelatihan kejuruan sistematis. Anak-anak berdesakan
dalam kondisi tidak sehat, rentan terhadap penganiayaan dari staf dan dari tahanan lainnya.
Semua kondisi ini melanggar hukum internasional.
Kontrol atas fasilitas remaja telah hampir diserahkan ke REMAR (Rehabilitacin de los
Marginados), sebuah organisasi evangelikal Spanyol. Anak laki-laki yang telah ditahan di fasilitas
penahanan REMAR melaporkan penggunaan luas pemukulan dan penganiayaan lainnya.
Meskipun banyak laporan tersebut, tidak ada otoritas Guatemala adalah mengawasi tindakan
REMAR dalam setiap fasilitas.
Dalam menyambut perubahan dari impunitas yang biasa dinikmati oleh agen pasukan
keamanan, tiga kasus di mana anak-anak dibunuh pada tahun 1993 dan 1995 mengakibatkan
dijatuhkannya hukuman pembunuhan terakhir terhadap penjaga keamanan swasta.
Kebanyakan kejahatan terhadap anak-anak jalanan, bagaimanapun, tetap dihukum, terutama
ketika polisi bertanggung jawab atas pelanggaran.

Pada tahun 1996, legislatif Guatemala melewati Kode Minor ', yang dijadwalkan berlaku pada
bulan September 1997 dan berisi sejumlah perbaikan untuk pengobatan anak-anak Guatemala.
Jika sepenuhnya dilaksanakan, pelanggaran didokumentasikan oleh Human Rights Watch
sebagian besar akan berhenti, laporan itu menyimpulkan. Saat ini, bagaimanapun, para pejabat
Guatemala hanya mengambil serius kasus-kasus pelanggaran hak asasi manusia terhadap anak-
anak jika tekanan luar telah dibawa untuk menanggung.

"Bahkan remaja yang tidak bersalah diperlakukan kasar oleh sistem peradilan," kata Lois
Whitman, direktur Human Rights Watch Proyek Hak Anak. "Anak ditangkap secara sewenang-
wenang dan dipaksa untuk menghabiskan berbulan-bulan yang warehoused dalam sistem yang
brutal."





2
KESIMPULAN
Semua anak-anak menghadapi kemungkinan perampasan kebebasannya harus disediakan pengacara.
Praktek panjang pra-ajudikasi penahanan harus diakhiri segera. Penahanan sidang tertunda harus
digunakan hanya sebagai upaya jalan lain terakhir dan untuk jangka waktu sesingkat mungkin, sesuai
dengan hukum internasional. Dalam situasi harus anak diadakan ajudikasi tertunda selama lebih dari
tiga puluh hari kerja diizinkan menurut hukum Guatemala, dan penahanan panjang ini harus
dimandatkan hanya dalam kasus luar biasa.
Tidak ada anak-anak harus ditahan hanya karena mereka tidak memiliki orangtua yang bertanggung
jawab atau wali yang bersedia dan / atau mampu membawa mereka pulang. Sebaliknya, anak asuh atau
non-hukuman pengaturan tahanan harus disediakan.
Sampai dikelola secara pribadi REMAR pusat akan diselidiki secara menyeluruh, dipantau, diawasi, dan
disetujui oleh otoritas Guatemala bertanggung jawab, tidak ada anak yang harus dikirim oleh hakim
untuk seperti pusat. Bahkan setelah pusat-pusat tersebut disetujui dan pengawasan didirikan, tidak ada
anak yang harus dikirim oleh hakim ke fasilitas REMAR kecuali anak, dalam konsultasi dengan nya atau
pengacara, jadi setuju. Sementara itu, alternatif swasta atau negara-lari ke pusat-pusat REMAR harus
ditetapkan sesegera mungkin, dan juga harus tunduk pada proses persetujuan dan pemantauan ketat.


Prof.Dr. H. Muladi, SH. Telah menjadi kesepakatan berbagai bangsa, persoalan anak ditata dalam
suatu wadah Unicef (united international children education of fun