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A330

TECHNICAL TRAINING MANUAL


MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3)
(RR Trent 700)
FUEL (Metric Units)
This document must be used for training purposes only
Under no circumstances should this document be used as a reference
It will not be updated.
All rights reserved
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by photostat, microfilm, retrieval system, or any other means,
without the prior written permission of AIRBUS S.A.S.
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Please consider your environmental responsability before printing this document.
FUEL (METRIC UNITS)
Fuel Line Maintenance Briefing (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
TANK, VENTING, SCAVENGE AND INDICATING
Fuel Tank D/O (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Fuel Tank Venting D/O (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Fuel Tank Indicating D/O (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
FUEL FEED
Engine Feed D/O (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
APU Feed D/O (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
FUEL TRANSFERS
Main Transfer D/O (A330-200) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Main Transfer D/O (A330-300) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Trim Transfer D/O (A330-200) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Trim Transfer D/O (A330-300) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
REFUEL/DEFUEL
Automatic Refuel (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Refuel/Defuel D/O (A330-200) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Refuel/Defuel D/O (A330-300) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
JETTISON
Jettison D/O (A330-200) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
MAINTENANCE PRACTICE
Fuel Tank Safety Procedures (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
Fuel System Base Maintenance (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
TABLE OF CONTENTS Sep 02, 2009
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FUEL LINE MAINTENANCE BRIEFING (2)
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
The fuel system has different functions, which are:
- storage, venting and scavenge,
- engine feed,
- APU feed,
- main and trim transfers,
- refuel/defuel,
- jettison as an option,
- and the maintenance/test facilities.
A330-200 OVERVIEW
The fuel is stored in six tanks. In each wing, there is an outer tank,
and an inner tank divided into two parts: the forward inner tank, and
the aft inner tank. There is also a center tank, and a trim tank. Each
inner tank section has one closed area called the collector cell, which
is a reservoir for the booster pumps. A dedicated jet pump is only
used to fill the collector cell of the main booster pumps. A vent surge
tank is installed outboard of each outer tank in the wing and on the
RH side of the trim tank. They vent the fuel tanks and collect fuel
split from the tanks. Each tank has one or more water drain valves
located at low points.
Engine Feed:
An independent fuel feed system supplies each engine. For each
engine, there are two main fuel pumps, and one stand-by pump. In
the normal configuration the main pumps are running and the stand-by
pump is there as a back up when a main pump has a too low output
pressure. A LP valve isolates its related engine from the fuel supply.
The crossfeed system enables any engine to be fed from any tank. It
is used to correct fuel imbalance between tanks or during gravity
feeding of the engines.
APU Feed:
Fuel is supplied to the APU from the LH inner tank collector cell with
the forward APU pump through the trim transfer line. If a low pressure
is detected in the trim transfer line, the aft APU pump stars. The APU
fuel isolation valve controls the fuel flow from the FWD inner tank
to the trim transfer line. If an APU fire is detected, the APU LP valve
closes. The fuel/air separator, installed in the trim tank fuel transfer
line, keeps sufficient fuel for APU operation if air enters the transfer
line.
Main Transfer:
The main transfer system controls the fuel flow from the center tank
and the outer tanks to the two inner tanks for engine feeding. The two
transfers are usually controlled automatically by the Fuel Control &
Monitoring Computers (FCMCs), but they can be manually controlled
if necessary. The trim transfer system controls the A/C center of
gravity by forward and aft transfers. Trim transfers are controlled
automatically by the FCMCs, but a manual forward transfer can be
initiated from the fuel panel if a failure occurs.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL LINE MAINTENANCE BRIEFING (2) Aug 31, 2009
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW - A330-200 OVERVIEW
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL LINE MAINTENANCE BRIEFING (2) Aug 31, 2009
Page 3
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FUEL LINE MAINTENANCE BRIEFING (2)
SYSTEM OVERVIEW (continued)
A330-300 OVERVIEW
The fuel is stored in five tanks. In each wing, there is an outer tank,
and an inner tank divided into two parts: the forward inner tank, and
the aft inner tank. There is also a trim tank. Each inner tank section
has one closed area called the collector cell, which is a reservoir for
the booster pumps. A dedicated jet pump is only used to fill the
collector cell of the main booster pumps. A vent surge tank is installed
outboard of each outer tank in the wing and on the RH side of the trim
tank. They vent the fuel tanks and collect fuel split from the tanks.
Each tank has one or more water drain valves located at low points.
Engine Feed:
An independent fuel feed system supplies each engine. For each
engine, there are two main fuel pumps, and one stand-by pump. In
the normal configuration the main pumps are running and the stand-by
pump is there as a back up when a main pump has a too low output
pressure. A LP valve isolates its related engine from the fuel supply.
The crossfeed system lets any engine be fed from any tank. It is used
to correct fuel imbalance between tanks or during gravity feeding of
the engines.
APU Feed:
Fuel is supplied to the APU from the LH inner tank collector cell with
the forward APU pump through the trim transfer line. If a low pressure
is detected in the trim transfer line, the aft APU pump starts. The APU
fuel isolation valve controls the fuel flow from the FWD inner tank
to the trim transfer line. If an APU fire is detected, the APU LP valve
closes. The fuel/air separator, installed in the trim tank fuel transfer
line, keeps sufficient fuel for APU operation if air enters the transfer
line.
Main Transfer:
The main transfer system controls the fuel flow from the outer tanks
to the two inner tanks for engine feeding. The FCMCs usually control
automatically the transfers, but they can be manually controlled if
necessary. The trim transfer system controls the A/C center of gravity
by forward and aft transfers. The FCMCs automatically control trim
transfers, but a manual forward transfer can be initiated from the fuel
panel if a failure occurs.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL LINE MAINTENANCE BRIEFING (2) Aug 31, 2009
Page 4
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW - A330-300 OVERVIEW
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL LINE MAINTENANCE BRIEFING (2) Aug 31, 2009
Page 5
A330 TECHNICAL TRAINING MANUAL
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FUEL LINE MAINTENANCE BRIEFING (2)
SERVICING
Automatic refueling may be accomplished with normal electrical power
established or with battery power only.
NOTE: On battery power only, the ADIRS does not send attitude
information to the FCMS, so there could be a difference up to
750kg. between the PRESELECTED and ACTUAL fuel
quantity after refueling.
Procedure:
- set parking brake,
- put chocks in position. Make sure that the chocks do not touch the tires.
The additional fuel weight can cause the tires to contact the chocks,
- connect 2 or 4 hoses to the fuel couplings,
- put ADIRU 1, 2, 3 in NAV position on the overhead panel,
- open the Refuel panel access door on the lower fuselage,
- if necessary, set the PoWeR SUPPLY to BATtery,
- do the hi level test - hi-level & overflow lights change condition,
CocKPiT & END lights come on, fuel quantity, preselected & actual
displays show all 8's,
- operate the load switch to INC to set the preselected value to the total
fuel quantity required,
- check refuel valve switches are in norm and guarded position,
- set the mode select switch to REFUEL - make sure that the fuel quantity
and ACTUAL values increase,
- the end light comes on steady when refueling is complete - The actual
and preselected values agree within 200 kg.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL LINE MAINTENANCE BRIEFING (2) Aug 31, 2009
Page 6
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SERVICING
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL LINE MAINTENANCE BRIEFING (2) Aug 31, 2009
Page 7
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FUEL LINE MAINTENANCE BRIEFING (2)
DAILY CHECKS
Years of operational experience have shown that regular draining of the
fuel tank water content will prevent many fuel system problems. The
Maintenance Planning Document (MPD) recommends that operators do
this procedure every 7 days or less.
DRAIN WATER CONTENT
The water drain valves are installed in the center tank, in the wing,
and in trim tanks. All drains should be operated to carry out proper
water removal from the fuel. There are 2 drains in the center tank, 7
in each wing, and 3 in the trim tank.
If possible, the best time to drain the water from the tanks is prior to
the refueling. If that is not possible, wait one hour after refueling for
the fuel to stabilize. The center tank drain valves are found in an access
panel on either side of the fuselage. The wing drain valves are
accessible from the underside of the wing. For gravity purging, the
center and wing tanks need > 10% tank content and the trim tank
needs at least 1,000 kg (2200 lb). The THS should also be moved to
0 trim. To operate the drain valves, use the PURGER tool and push
up on the valve. Make sure to drain at least one liter of fuel for proper
water removal. When draining is complete, remove the PURGER tool
and make sure that there is no leakage at the drain valve. If the drain
valve leaks, set correctly the valve by pushing up and releasing the
drain valve again.
ENVIRONMENTAL PRECAUTIONS
Do not discharge products such as oil, fuel, solvent, lubricant either
in trash bins, soil or into the water network (drains, gutters, rain water,
waste water, etc...).
Sort waste fluids and use specific waste disposal containers.
Each product must be stored in an appropriate and specific cabinet or
room such as a fire-resistant and sealed cupboard.
This is the water drain valve operation video.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL LINE MAINTENANCE BRIEFING (2) Aug 31, 2009
Page 8
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DAILY CHECKS - DRAIN WATER CONTENT & ENVIRONMENTAL PRECAUTIONS
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL LINE MAINTENANCE BRIEFING (2) Aug 31, 2009
Page 9
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FUEL LINE MAINTENANCE BRIEFING (2)
MEL/DEACTIVATION
CROSSFEED VALVE FAILURE
In case of a crossfeed valve failure, and if we are not in Extended
Range operations the aircraft may be dispatched referring to the MEL
with valve inoperative in the CLOSED position. In addition, the inner
and outer tank inlet valves, all fuel quantity indications and both center
tank transfer pumps (A330-200) must be operational. The cross feed
valve is deactivated by removing the actuator and installing a locking
tool.
WARNING: Obey all safety procedures related to flight controls,
landing gear and the fuel system when following this
procedure
Procedure:
- on the ECAM FUEL page, check that the crossfeed valve is in the
green/crossline position (closed),
- open XFEED VaLVe MOTor C/B's,
- do an operational test of the outer and inner tank inlet valves from
the MCDU/FCMC Fuel Valves Test menu,
- (A330-200 only) do an operational test of the center tank transfer
pumps. Transfer fuel from the center tank using each pump
independently,
- at the applicable valve, check the OPEN/CLOSED indicator and
remove the actuator,
- if the valve was open, use an applicable tool to fully close the valve,
- install DUMMY plug and receptacle on the connectors removed
from the actuator,
- align dowel and install the valve locking tool. Secure with the v-band
clamp.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL LINE MAINTENANCE BRIEFING (2) Aug 31, 2009
Page 10
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MEL/DEACTIVATION - CROSSFEED VALVE FAILURE
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL LINE MAINTENANCE BRIEFING (2) Aug 31, 2009
Page 11
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FUEL LINE MAINTENANCE BRIEFING (2)
MEL/DEACTIVATION (continued)
REFUEL ISOLATION VALVE FAILURE
During refueling, the refuel isolation valve solenoid is energized and
fuel pressure from the tanker/pump unit opens the valve. If the solenoid
fails or if the electrical control of the solenoid fails, the valve may be
operated by a manual plunger. To refuel the aircraft, PUSH and HOLD
the plunger on the valve. The fuel pressure from the tanker/pump unit
will open the valve. Be sure to monitor the fuel quantity carefully
using the normal indication system. When the desired quantity is
reached, release the plunger to close the valve.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL LINE MAINTENANCE BRIEFING (2) Aug 31, 2009
Page 12
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MEL/DEACTIVATION - REFUEL ISOLATION VALVE FAILURE
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL LINE MAINTENANCE BRIEFING (2) Aug 31, 2009
Page 13
A330 TECHNICAL TRAINING MANUAL
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FUEL LINE MAINTENANCE BRIEFING (2)
MEL/DEACTIVATION (continued)
FUEL QUANTITY INDICATION FAILURE
The aircraft may be dispatched with unserviceable fuel quantity
indications. One OUTER, one INNER, or the CENTER tank quantity
indication may be inop as per the MEL. The TRIM tank indication
may be inop as long as there is no fuel in the TRIM tank.
NOTE: An indication with dashes on the two last digits is considered
operative. The loss of accuracy must be taken into account
for fuel planning.
The conditions for dispatch with an OUTER quantity inop are:
- after refueling, check fuel quantity in the related tank using the
manual MLIs,
- the FUEL used indication must be operational,
- adjacent INNER tank fuel quantity is operational,
- low Level sensing system test OK (check on MCDU/FCMC menu).
The conditions for dispatch with an INNER quantity inop are:
- after refueling, check fuel quantity in the related tank using the
manual MLIs,
- the FUEL used indication must be operational,
- left and right INTERTANK valves are closed (check on
MCDU/FCMC menu),
- low Level sensing system test OK (check on MCDU/FCMC menu).
The conditions for dispatch with a CENTER quantity inop are:
- after refueling, check fuel quantity in the related tank using the
manual MLIs,
- the FUEL used indication must be operational,
- all INNER and OUTER tank fuel quantities are operational.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL LINE MAINTENANCE BRIEFING (2) Aug 31, 2009
Page 14
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MEL/DEACTIVATION - FUEL QUANTITY INDICATION FAILURE
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL LINE MAINTENANCE BRIEFING (2) Aug 31, 2009
Page 15
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FUEL LINE MAINTENANCE BRIEFING (2)
MEL/DEACTIVATION (continued)
USE OF MAGNETIC LEVEL INDICATORS (MLIs)
Each fuel tank has one or more MLIs. In case of an indication
malfunction, the MLIs may be used to check fuel quantity. There is
one MLI in the CenTeR tank (A330-200 only), 4 in each INNER tank
and 2 in each OUTER tank.
The aircraft attitude will determine which fuel table to use. The Air
Data Inertial Reference Unit (ADIRU) will be used to find the aircraft
attitude. The air data inputs to the ADIRU can be read by using the
alpha call-up function in the Aircraft Condition Monitoring System
(ACMS). With the ADIRU's in the NAV position, select the ACMS
menu in the Central Maintenance System (CMS). From this menu,
select CALL UP PARAM ALPHA. Type ROLL to access roll data
and type PTCH to access pitch data.
To use the MLI, extend the indicator rod and read the UNITS mark
nearest the bottom surface of the wing. Each tank is separately
checked. To determine wing volume, use the most outboard MLI,
which indicates fuel in the tank. To check the total fuel quantity on
the aircraft determine the total in each tank (CTR, INNER, OUTER)
and add them together.
NOTE: A small correction for the COLLECTOR cells may be
applied to the INNER tank volume based on the time since
the boost pumps were shut off.
Using the attitude reference + MLI number + MLI reading, find the
correct fuel table in the AMM and read the fuel volume. The MLI No
identifies the tables. Make sure to identify LEFT or RIGHT MLI on
the table to avoid miscalculations. The final step is to convert the
volume to weight. Multiply the volume by the fuel specific gravity.
NOTE: The fuel specific gravity reading may be from a fuel sample
or from the FCMS INPUT PARAMETERS (MCDU/FCMC
menu)
For example:
RIGHT wing MLI number - 6
Attitude: P= -1,0, R= 0,5
UNITS reading - 10
Volume in liters - 720
Sp. Gravity - 0.81
Fuel weight = 583 Kg.
NOTE: Only even-numbered MLI units are listed in the tables. To
calculate the volume of fuel for odd numbers, interpolate
(divide the difference) between the nearest even numbers
in the table.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL LINE MAINTENANCE BRIEFING (2) Aug 31, 2009
Page 16
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MEL/DEACTIVATION - USE OF MAGNETIC LEVEL INDICATORS (MLIS)
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL LINE MAINTENANCE BRIEFING (2) Aug 31, 2009
Page 17
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MEL/DEACTIVATION - USE OF MAGNETIC LEVEL INDICATORS (MLIS)
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL LINE MAINTENANCE BRIEFING (2) Aug 31, 2009
Page 18
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MEL/DEACTIVATION - USE OF MAGNETIC LEVEL INDICATORS (MLIS)
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL LINE MAINTENANCE BRIEFING (2) Aug 31, 2009
Page 19
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FUEL LINE MAINTENANCE BRIEFING (2)
MAINTENANCE TIPS
During a walk-around inspection, it is important to check the surge tank
burst disc on the wing lower surface. A white cross should be visible on
a black background. If it is not visible, it may indicate a problem with
the tank venting system.
During refueling operations, connect a bonding cable between the fuel
tanker and a grounding point on the aircraft, typically on the nose or main
gear. Connect a grounding cable from a grounding point on the aircraft
to the ground.
In case of refueling process abort, information regarding system status
can be retrieved via the MCDU in the FCMC REFUEL PARAMETERS
menu.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL LINE MAINTENANCE BRIEFING (2) Aug 31, 2009
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MAINTENANCE TIPS
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL LINE MAINTENANCE BRIEFING (2) Aug 31, 2009
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MAINTENANCE TIPS
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL LINE MAINTENANCE BRIEFING (2) Aug 31, 2009
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MAINTENANCE TIPS
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL LINE MAINTENANCE BRIEFING (2) Aug 31, 2009
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FUEL TANK D/O (3)
GENERAL
Each fuel tank is a part of the A/C structure. The inside of each tank is
coated with a paint that contains leachable chromate. This chromate helps
to prevent microbiological contamination of the fuel tanks. All the
materials used to seal the tanks are fully resistant to all fuels and fuel
additives.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
Page 24
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GENERAL
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
Page 25
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FUEL TANK D/O (3)
TANKS
The fuel is stored in six tanks:
- a center tank (only on the A330-200),
- in each wing: an inner tank divided into two parts, (the FWD inner tank,
the aft inner tank) and an outer tank,
- a trim tank.
Vent surge tanks are installed outboard of each outer tank in the wing
and on the RH side of the trim tank.
TANKS
The fuel tanks and surge tanks are located as follows:
- the center tank is between the LH rib 1 and the RH rib 1 (only on
the A330-200),
- the inner tank is between rib 1 and rib 23,
- the LH (RH) outer tank is between rib 23 and rib 33,
- the LH (RH) surge tank is between rib 33 and rib 39.
The trim tank is made from carbon fiber composite material in the
THS main box structure between rib 20 (LH) (19 for the A330-200)
and rib 18 (RH). The THS surge tank is at the RH side of the THS
between rib 18 and rib 20 (RH).
Access to the tanks is gained through manhole panels.
COLLECTOR CELLS
Each inner tank contains a fuel collector cell which is built between
ribs, the center spar and sealed diaphragms FWD of the rear spar. The
bottom of ribs 2 is equipped with three flap-type check valves. They
let fuel flow into each collector cell and prevent it from flowing out.
The top of the collector cell is equipped with openings which let fuel
fall back into the inner tanks.
WATER DRAIN VALVES
Each tank has one or more water drain valves. The drain valves are
used to:
- drain the water which could possibly come out of the fuel in the
tank,
- drain all the remaining fuel out of a tank (for maintenance).
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
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TANKS - TANKS ... WATER DRAIN VALVES
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
Page 27
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FUEL TANK D/O (3)
TANKS (continued)
EMERGENCY ISOLATION VALVES
The valves are installed between the AFT and FWD inner tanks.
During normal operation the emergency isolation valves are open.
The crew has to close the split valves to isolate a fuel leak.
An action on the L or R INR TK SPLIT P/BSWs on the FUEL control
panel enables manual control of the emergency isolation valves. The
fuel is transferred by gravity. When you press one of the INR TK
SPLIT P/BSWs, the valves will close ("ON" legend comes on the
P/B) and when they are confirmed closed, the "SHUT" legend comes
on the P/B.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
Page 28
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TANKS - EMERGENCY ISOLATION VALVES
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
Page 29
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FUEL TANK D/O (3)
TANKS (continued)
TRIM PIPE SHROUD
The trim fuel pipe has an outer shroud. If the trim pipe has a fuel leak,
the shroud contains the fuel leakage. The shroud has a fluid drain at
its lowest point (FR 47). This drain is a small diameter pipe that
connects the shroud to a drain mast. The drain mast is installed on the
lower fuselage at FR 53.4.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
Page 30
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TANKS - TRIM PIPE SHROUD
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
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FUEL TANK VENTING D/O (3)
GENERAL
The tank venting system keeps the air pressure in the fuel tanks near the
external air pressure. This function prevents a large difference between
these pressures, which could cause damage to the fuel tank structure.
This function is particularly necessary during the refuel or defuel
operations and when the A/C climbs or descends. Each vent surge tank
keeps its related fuel tanks open to the ambient air pressure. The operation
of the tank venting system is fully automatic. There are no manual
controls. The tank venting system is divided into two systems. These are:
- the wing and center tanks venting system,
- the trim tank venting system.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK VENTING D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
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GENERAL
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK VENTING D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
Page 33
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FUEL TANK VENTING D/O (3)
VENTING
Let's see in details the venting system.
WING & CENTER TANKS VENTING
For the A330-200 A/C, the center tank vent pipe has an open-end
fitting at each end. The pipe connects the middle of the center tank to
the LH surge tank at rib 33.
The LH (RH) inner tank vent pipe connects the inboard end of the
tank to the surge tank. The pipe has two open-end fittings at its inboard
end. A weir duct is installed between rib 22 and rib 23. The weir duct
makes sure that the fuel does not go to the vent valve during a refuel
operation.
The outer tank vent pipe connects the open-end fitting, inboard of rib
33 to the inner tank vent pipe, between the weir duct and rib 22.
The surge tank has a drain pipe which connects the bottom of the
surge tank, at rib 33, to the inner tank vent pipe, outboard of rib 29.
The bottom of each vent pipe includes a breather assembly at different
locations. If fuel goes into the vent pipe, the breather assembly lets
the fuel drain back into the tank.
The inner and outer tanks each have vent valves which are connected
to the related vent pipe. The vent valves close when the fuel level near
them increases, and open when the fuel level decreases. This function
helps to make sure that fuel does not get into the vent pipes.
Overpressure protectors are installed in the center tank and in the
bottom of the surge tank. They make sure the pressure in the center
tank or in the surge tank, and thus the inner and outer tanks, does not
exceed the design limits. They prevent too high differential pressure.
If the pressure in the center tank increases to a specified value the
overpressure protectors break open to release the pressure into the
inner tank. If the flow of air into or out of the surge tank is blocked,
the overpressure protector breaks open to release the pressure. If fuel
enters the surge tank and causes the overpressure protector to operate,
then this fuel will go overboard.
A NACA intake is mounted on the access panel of each surge tank.
The stack pipe connected to the NACA duct is equipped with a flame
arrestor. If a ground fire occurs, it prevents the ignition of the fuel
vapor in the surge tank. It also lets air flow freely through it in both
directions. If fuel comes out of the overpressure protector, it could go
inboard along the wing. A wing fence makes sure that such fuel falls
off the wing.
TRIM TANK VENTING
The trim tank is composed of a main vent pipe and a secondary vent
pipe. At different locations, a breather assembly is attached to the
bottom of each vent pipe and lets the fuel drain back into the trim
tank.
The vent valve installed on the inboard-face of RH rib 18 and
connected to the main vent pipe makes sure the RH part of the trim
tank is open to the surge tank in level flight and during refuel/defuel
operations.
The two inner vent valves connected to the main vent pipe make sure
the trim tank is open to the surge tank when the A/C climbs.
The LH outer tank vent valve connected to the secondary vent pipe
and attached inboard of LH rib 20 closes when the fuel level near to
the valve increases.
In the trim surge tank, the NACA intake, flame arrestor and
overpressure protector are of the same type as for the wing venting
system. If fuel gets into the trim surge vent tank, a check valve
installed on the inboard face of RH rib 18 lets this fuel flow back into
the trim tank.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK VENTING D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
Page 34
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VENTING - WING & CENTER TANKS VENTING & TRIM TANK VENTING
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK VENTING D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
Page 35
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FUEL TANK INDICATING D/O (3)
GENERAL
The indicating systems are: Fuel Quantity Indicating (FQI), tank level
sensing and temperature measurement.
All this data is sent to the Fuel Control and Monitoring Computers
(FCMCs), which transmit it to the ECAM FUEL page and the
refuel/defuel control panel.
In case of fuel quantity indication failure, the fuel quantity in the outer
tanks, the inner tanks and the center tank can be measured using Manual
Magnetic Indicators (MMIs).
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK INDICATING D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
Page 36
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GENERAL
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK INDICATING D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
Page 37
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FUEL TANK INDICATING D/O (3)
INDICATING
In this topic we shall describe the indicating functions.
FQI PROBES
A set of capacitive probes is installed in each fuel tank. Each probe
has a capacitance value which changes in proportion to the depth of
fuel in the related tank. The FCMCs continuously measure the
capacitance values of all the FQI probes. They then use each set of
probes capacitance values to determine the quantity (volume) of fuel
in the tank.
COMPENSATORS
The fuel compensators are installed near to the lowest point in the
inner tanks with another in the center tank for A330-200 configuration
only. The compensator probes operate only when they are fully
immersed in fuel and have a capacitance, which is in proportion to
the dielectric constant of the fuel. They are used for fuel permittivity
determination.
DENSITOMETERS
One densitometer is installed near the lowest point of each inner tank.
The densitometersare used by the FCMCs to determine the density
of the fuel. After having calculated the volumes of fuel using the FQI
probes, the FCMCs are now able to calculate the weight of fuel in
each tank
TEMPERATURE SENSORS
6 temperature sensors interface with the FCMCs and are arranged as
follows:
- 1 fitted in the LH outer tank,
- 1 fitted in each collector cell,
- 1 fitted in the trim tank.
Each temperature sensor is installed near the lowest part of the tank.
This makes sure that the temperature sensor is kept in the fuel most
of the time. The electrical resistance of the temperature sensors
changes in proportion to the fuel temperature. These sensors are to
give the fuel temperature of the different tanks on the ECAM Fuel
page and also for fuel LO TEMP or HI TEMP warning activation.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK INDICATING D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
Page 38
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INDICATING - FQI PROBES ... TEMPERATURE SENSORS
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK INDICATING D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
Page 39
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FUEL TANK INDICATING D/O (3)
INDICATING (continued)
FUEL LEVEL SENSING
Each FCMC uses fuel level sensing data coming from the following
sensors:
- High level sensors,
- Low level sensors,
- Overflow sensors,
- ETOPS sensors (optional).
For each FCMC applicable level sensing area, one probe is connected
to FCMC 1 and the other to FCMC 2. FCMC 1 or 2 receives the
opposite FCMC level sensing by cross-wired discretes.
Each level sensor is fitted with a thermistor. The FCMC measures the
difference in resistance of the thermistor to determine when the sensor
is in the fuel or out of the fuel.
All high level sensors and overflow sensors have a fail state "WET"
whereas the low level sensors have a fail state "DRY"
The high level sensors are installed by pairs in each tank. Each sensor
of a pair sends signal to a different FCMC. When both high level
sensors of a fuel tank become wet, the FCMC that is in control closes
the related tank inlet valve.
The high level sensors of the center tank (A330-200 only) are installed
at a different height. During refueling, when the lowest sensor becomes
wet, the FCMC closes the center tank inlet restrictor valve. Then when
the highest sensor becomes wet, the FCMC closes the center tank inlet
valve. This permits to get a smooth end of refueling of the center tank.
The low level sensors are fitted in each tank except in the outer tanks.
Two sensors are installed in each inner tank, one sensor in the center
tank (A330-200 only) and one sensor in the trim tank. They are used
to control fuel operations and to trigger low level warnings.
- When any inner tank low level sensor becomes dry, the FCMC stops
the jettison operation, if selected. The inner tank low level quantity
is 1600 kg (3520 lb).
- When the center tank low level sensor is dry, the FCMC stops the
operation of the center tank transfer pumps.
- When the trim tank low level sensor is dry, the FCMC closes the
trim tank isolation valve to make sure the trim tank and the trim pipe
do not drain.
One overflow sensor is installed in each surge tank. The overflow
sensor may become wet during refueling. In such a case the FCMC
closes all inlet valves, the refuel isolation valve and triggers an ECAM
warning.
A wing overflow sensor becomes wet when there are 450 liters in the
surge tank.
Optionally, one ETOPS warning sensor can be fitted in each inner
tank. These sensors are installed at a height corresponding to a fuel
quantity that is sufficient for 180 minutes flying. When one of the
ETOPS warning sensors becomes dry, the FCMC sends a FUEL
ETOPS RESERVE / FOB BELOW 17T warning.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK INDICATING D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
Page 40
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INDICATING - FUEL LEVEL SENSING
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK INDICATING D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
Page 41
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FUEL TANK INDICATING D/O (3)
INDICATING (continued)
FCMC MEASUREMENT
Both FCMCs receive:
- fuel data from the different probes,
- THS position from both Flight Control Data Concentrators (FCDCs),
- aircraft attitude, acceleration and pitch and roll angles from the 3
Air Data and Inertial Reference Units (ADIRUs).
With this data, each FCMC performs all fuel quantity and temperature
measurements and indications.
Each FCMC contains the COMmand, MONitor and integrity checker
processors. Each processor concurrently computes fuel quantity and
temperature measurements using different software and different
information sources to provide reliable data.
COM and MON processors compute usable fuel quantity in the tank
using computed fuel surface attitude derived from FQI probe
capacitance values and the fuel permittivity. They use the fuel volume
calculation together with the density data to find the fuel mass (fuel
quantity), which is more appropriate than volume. The data is then
transmitted to the ECAM FUEL page and to the refuel panel indicator.
The refuel panel indicator is slave to the FCMCs displaying the
ARINC 429 received data.
The level sensing operates independently inside the FCMC. Each
FCMC has an independent level sensing board interfacing with a
maximum of 14 level sensing channels. Each FCMC uses all level
sensing data for command computation and warning activation.
For each FCMC applicable level sensing area, one sensor is connected
to FCMC 1 and the other to FCMC 2. FCMC 1 (or 2) receives the
opposite FCMC level sensing status by cross-wired discretes.
The FUEL QUANTITIES menu enables to access the fuel quantities
of any fuel tanks. The INPUT PARAMETERS menu gives access to
the fuel permittivity, density and temperature data.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK INDICATING D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
Page 42
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INDICATING - FCMC MEASUREMENT
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK INDICATING D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
Page 43
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INDICATING - FCMC MEASUREMENT
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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FUEL TANK INDICATING D/O (3)
INDICATING (continued)
REFUEL/DEFUEL PANEL INDICATIONS
The fuel quantity indicator of the Refuel/Defuel panel displays the
quantity of fuel in each tank, the actual total fuel quantity in the
aircraft, and the preselected fuel quantity used for automatic refueling.
The high level lights come on blue when the related fuel tank high
level sensors are wet. An amber overflow light comes on if the
associated surge tank sensor becomes wet. Each light has a filament
press-to-test facility that permits to check the integrity of the lamp.
The HI-LEVEL TEST P/BSW is used to test the high level and
overflow sensors and their associated circuits. When this P/BSW is
pressed, the status of all high level lights and overflow lights is
inverted. In addition, the fuel quantity indicator shows "8s", the CKPT
and END lights come on.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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INDICATING - REFUEL/DEFUEL PANEL INDICATIONS
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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FUEL TANK INDICATING D/O (3)
INDICATING (continued)
FUEL QUANTITY INDICATION
DEGRADATION/FAILURE
A degraded fuel quantity indication is identified by amber dashes on
the last two digits of tank quantity and total fuel quantity indications
on ECAM and on the Refuel panel. It is detected by the FCMC when
the fuel quantity in any tank cannot be determined with the nominal
accuracy, but remains within an acceptable accuracy level. A degraded
fuel quantity indication does not impact the aircraft dispatch
conditions.
A failed fuel quantity indication is identified by amber XX in place
of the failed tank quantity and total fuel quantity indications on ECAM
and on the Refuel panel. It is detected by the FCMC when the fuel
quantity in any tank cannot be determined within an acceptable
accuracy level. A dedicated MEL item gives the corresponding aircraft
dispatch conditions, including a manual calculation of tank quantity
after refueling using the Magnetic Level Indicators (MLI), except for
the trim tank.
A failed or mis-reading probe can be identified via the FCMC INPUT
PARAMETERS menu on the MCDU. Any degraded or failed quantity
indication is respectively signaled by "?" or "---.-" indications in place
of the corresponding probe capacitance value. The identification and
Functional Item Number (FIN) of the affected probe can be retrieved
using dedicated tables in AMM 28-51-00 chapter.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
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INDICATING - FUEL QUANTITY INDICATION DEGRADATION/FAILURE
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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INDICATING - FUEL QUANTITY INDICATION DEGRADATION/FAILURE
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INDICATING - FUEL QUANTITY INDICATION DEGRADATION/FAILURE
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700)
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INDICATING - FUEL QUANTITY INDICATION DEGRADATION/FAILURE
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
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FUEL TANK INDICATING D/O (3)
INDICATING (continued)
MANUAL MAGNETIC INDICATORS
All the wing Manual Magnetic Indicators (MMIs) are installed in the
bottom surface of the fuel tanks. Access to the Magnetic Level
Indicators (MLIs) is from below the wing. The MMIs are installed as
follows:
- 4 in each inner tank,
- 1 in the center tank,
- 2 in each outer tank.
Each MMI has an MLI contained in its related Magnetic Level
Indicator Housing (MLIH).
The center tank has two MLIHs. The upper housing is installed in the
bottom skin of the center tank. The lower housing is installed in the
belly fairing immediately below the upper housing. The center tank
MMI extends from the fuel tank bottom to the A/C bottom skin. When
an MLI is extended from its related housing, the fuel level in that area
of the fuel tank can be measured. To measure the quantity of fuel in
the wing tanks it is necessary to:
- extend and read the MLIs,
- use the ADIRS to read the attitude of the A/C (in pitch and roll),
- measure the specific gravity of the fuel.
A set of mathematical tables is then used to make the fuel quantity
calculation.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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INDICATING - MANUAL MAGNETIC INDICATORS
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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ENGINE FEED D/O (3)
GENERAL
The engine fuel pump system supplies the fuel from the inner tank
collector cells to the engines. Each LP valve isolates the engine fuel feed
supply at any shutdown or in case of emergency. The crossfeed system
divides the engine feed system into two independent feed systems.
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GENERAL
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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ENGINE FEED D/O (3)
DESCRIPTION
This topic describes the main components of the engine feed.
FUEL PUMPS
Installed in each collector cell are:
- a fuel pump canister and its related fuel pump element which together
make the two main pumps,
- a fuel pump canister and its related fuel pump element which together
make the standby pump,
The canister, attached to the wing bottom skin, makes the replacement
of the fuel pump element possible when there is fuel in the collector
cell.
Pumps and canisters are all assembled in the same way and are
interchangeable. The centrifugal-type pump is driven by a 3-phase
115 VAC motor. The pumps get their fuel supply from the lowest part
of the collector cell. When they are in operation, each pump has two
outlets, one outlet for the engine feed pipe, and the other for jet pump.
CHECK VALVES
A check valve is installed in each pump canister outlet. When the fuel
pumps are not in operation, the two check valves prevent a reverse
flow either from the engine feed line or the jet pumps.
MAIN JET PUMPS
Also installed in each collector cell is a jet pump to keep the collector
cell full of fuel.
The fuel supply from the pump through the jet pump nozzle causes
suction. This suction causes fuel to be moved from the inner cell to
the collector cell. The rate of flow makes sure that the collector cell
is kept full of lightly pressurized fuel to prevent fuel pump cavitations
during negative 'G' load conditions.
STANDBY JET PUMP
A Water Scavenge Jet Pump is installed in rib 3 area of the wing in
the vicinity of the standby fuel pump. This Jet Pump has an induced
flow line to the rib bay 3-4 tank sump and receives motive flow from
the Standby Pump. Water accumulated in rib bay 3-4 will then be
scavenged as long as the Standby Pump operates.
PRESSURE SWITCHES
Each fuel pump has an output monitoring LP switch installed on the
rear face of the wing spar. It operates between 6 and 8 psi depending
on pressure increase or decrease.
THERMAL RELIEF VALVES
To prevent excessive pressure a thermal relief valve is installed on
each engine feed line and installed near the main pump of engine feed
outlet in the collector cell. In case of fuel temperature increase and
engine not running, this thermal relief valve will prevent fuel pipe
damage due to fuel expansion between closed LP and crossfeed valve.
This valve is of the ball and spring type.
AIR RELEASE VALVES
Air release valves release air caught in the engine fuel feed line and
crossfeed line. There is one air release valve located near each LP
valve; another one is installed on the crossfeed line in the center tank.
They are used to decrease the quantity of air which could go to an
engine during engine feed or crossfeed operation. They are of the float
type.
LP VALVES AND ACTUATORS
Each LP valve and associated actuator isolates its related engine from
the engine fuel feed-line. The LP valve is installed on the inner tank
wing front spar in the engine feed line. The interface between the
actuator and the LP valve is a valve spindle that goes through the front
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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spar. When the actuator is energized, it moves the LP valve to the
open or closed position. The LP valves are of the ball type. The
actuators include 2 electrical motors and a visual position indicator.
CROSSFEED VALVE AND ACTUATORS
The crossfeed valves, of the ball-valve type, make the interconnection
of engine feed systems. The crossfeed valve is operated with a twin
motor actuator. It is installed in the center fuselage area or in the center
tank for the A330-200 system. The actuator is mounted on the rear
spar and has a visual indicator.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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DESCRIPTION - FUEL PUMPS ... CROSSFEED VALVE AND ACTUATORS
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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ENGINE FEED D/O (3)
OPERATION
This topic describes the main operation of the engine feed. As the engine
feed systems are almost the same for each engine, only the operation of
the left engine feed system is given here.
ENGINE FEED OPERATION
The main fuel pump system is manually controlled from the fuel panel
through A/C relay logic. For the system to operate it is necessary to:
- energize the 115 VAC bus and the 28 VDC bus,
- close the main and standby fuel pump C/Bs.
Main and standby power supplies are from different sources.
The main and standby pumps P/BSWs are usually set to ON together.
The main pumps then operate continuously. The standby pump only
operates when the main pumps become defective or are set to OFF.
When the two main pumps are in operation, their pressure switches
provide a ground for the STBY FUEL PUMP AUTO CTL 1. Then
the contactor connects a 115 VAC supply to energize the main fuel
pumps. If a main fuel pump fails or is set to OFF, the pressure from
the pump decreases. When the pressure is less than 0.41 bar (6 psi)
its pressure switch removes the ground to the STBY FUEL PUMP
AUTO CTL 1 and supply the standby fuel pump contactor. Then the
standby fuel pump supply the engine.
An improved water scavenge function in the rib bay 3-4 area (Standby
Pump location) is ensured by the Standby Fuel Jet Pump fed by the
Standby Pump operation.
This function is controlled automatically by the FCMC (via relay
control logic not shown on the slide) by operating automatically the
Standby Pump when :
- aircraft is on the ground (LGCIU signal),
- both main fuel pumps have been selected on the corresponding wing
- engines are confirmed in IDLE thrust after engine start procedure
(EIVMU signal).
Water accumulated in rib bay 3-4 will then be scavenged and the
FCMC will stop automatically the Standby Pump after Take Off
(aircraft in FLT). This water scavenge function will not be re-engaged
by the FCMC during the rest of the flight and it will not interfere the
normal pump control system.
The Flight Control and Monitoring Computers (FCMCs) receive
discretes from the P/BSWs, from the pressure switches and from the
fuel pump contactors. This data is used for system status monitoring,
fault reporting and indication through the ECAM system.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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OPERATION - ENGINE FEED OPERATION
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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OPERATION - ENGINE FEED OPERATION
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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ENGINE FEED D/O (3)
OPERATION (continued)
ENGINE FEED ABNORMAL OPERATION
If a main pump becomes defective or is set to OFF, the fuel pressure
from the pump decreases. When the pressure is 0.41 bar (6 psi) the
fuel pump pressure switch removes the ground to the standby fuel
pump automatic-control 1 relay. The relay connects a 28 VDC supply
to the standby fuel pump control contactor which connects a 115 VAC
supply to energize the standby pump. Following the failure detection,
an ECAM message is triggered and the FUEL SD page is displayed.
If the main and standby pumps do not operate, engine gravity feed is
still available through the pumps. The engine causes a suction that
pulls fuel through the fuel pump inlet, through the outlet check valve
and into the engine feed line.
In case of emergency electrical configuration, only the left main pump
2 is electrically supplied from the Constant Speed Motor/Generator
(CSM/G), in order to restart or supply fuel to any of the two engines.
If the left main pump 2 is set to OFF or FAULT, the right main pump
2 will operate. If the LAND RECOVERY P/BSW is pushed, the
running pump stops automatically and the two engines are then gravity
fed.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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OPERATION - ENGINE FEED ABNORMAL OPERATION
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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ENGINE FEED D/O (3)
OPERATION (continued)
LP VALVE OPERATION
There is one LP valve for each engine, and each engine has an
equivalent circuit. Thus as each LP valve circuit is the same, only the
operation of the No. 1 engine circuit is described here. Each actuator
has two motors, which get their power supply from different sources:
- the 28 VDC ESS bus supplies motor 1,
- the 28 VDC bus 2 supplies motor 2.
The engine LP fuel shut-off system is controlled manually.
When the ENG 1 FIRE P/BSW is in and guarded, the ENG 1
MASTER switch selection to ON disconnect the 28VDC supply from
the master switch slave ENG 1 relay. The relay de-energizes and
connects a 28 VDC supply (through the ENG 1 FIRE P/BSW) to the
LP valve actuator. The actuator then opens the LP valve.
When the No. 1 ENG MASTER switch is set to OFF, it connects a
28 VDC supply to the relay. The relay energizes and connects a 28
VDC supply through the ENG 1 FIRE P/BSW to the LP valve actuator.
The actuator then closes the LP valve.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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OPERATION - LP VALVE OPERATION
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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OPERATION - LP VALVE OPERATION
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28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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ENGINE FEED D/O (3)
OPERATION (continued)
LP VALVE OPERATION IN CASE OF ENGINE FIRE
If the ENG 1 FIRE P/BSW is released when the master switch is on:
- it disconnects the 28 VDC supply from the 'open' side of the actuator,
- it connects a 28 VDC supply to the 'close' side of the actuator, the
LP valve moves to the closed position.
Operation of the ENG 1 FIRE P/BSW always overrides an ON
selection and closes the valve.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
ENGINE FEED D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
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OPERATION - LP VALVE OPERATION IN CASE OF ENGINE FIRE
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
ENGINE FEED D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
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ENGINE FEED D/O (3)
OPERATION (continued)
MANUAL CROSSFEED OPERATION
Following an ECAM warning, related to an engine pump system
failure, manual crossfeed valve operation is requested by the
procedure. The crossfeed valve has a dual motor actuator:
- motor 1 is supplied from 28 VDC ESS bus,
- motor 2 is supplied from 28 VDC NORM bus.
When the X FEED P/BSW is pushed in:
- the ON white light comes on in the P/B,
- the 28 VDC supply energizes the two electrical motors of the
actuator,
- the crossfeed valve turns to the open position,
- the green OPEN light comes on, on the P/B,
- the crossfeed valve signal is shown open on the ECAM FUEL page.
When the same P/BSW is released out:
- on the P/B the ON and OPEN lights go off,
- the 28 VDC supply energizes the two electrical motors of the
actuator,
- the crossfeed valve turns to the closed position,
- the crossfeed valve is shown closed on the ECAM FUEL.
The crossfeed valve P/B, X FEED CTL relay and actuator feedback
discretes are sent to the FCMCs for indication, system status and fault
reporting purposes.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
ENGINE FEED D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
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OPERATION - MANUAL CROSSFEED OPERATION
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
ENGINE FEED D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
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ENGINE FEED D/O (3)
OPERATION (continued)
AUTOMATIC CROSSFEED OPERATION IN CASE OF
EMERGENCY ELECTRICAL CONFIGURATION
The crossfeed valve opens automatically by relay logic control when
the A/C is in an emergency electrical configuration, in order to supply
any engine. The crossfeed valve can be also opened automatically
while operating the jettison system (if installed).
In an emergency electrical configuration, only LH MAIN PUMP 2
(inboard pump) remains powered ON. RH MAIN PUMP 2 (inboard
pump) remains in hot standby. It will be energized by relay logic if
LH MAIN PUMP 2 is in LOW PRESS or if LH MAIN PUMP 2
PB/SW is selected OFF.
All the others pumps will be de-energized to save electrical power
onboard.
During final approach in an emergency electrical configuration, flight
crew will have to select the LAND RECOVERY PB/SW. This action
will leave the crossfeed valve opened and de-energize all fuel pumps
onboard (engine gravity feeding) until landing.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
ENGINE FEED D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
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OPERATION - AUTOMATIC CROSSFEED OPERATION IN CASE OF EMERGENCY ELECTRICAL CONFIGURATION
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
ENGINE FEED D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
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APU FEED D/O (3)
GENERAL
The APU fuel pump system supplies the necessary fuel to operate the
APU in all operating conditions. The fuel is supplied to the APU from
the LH inner tank through the trim tank transfer line with the FWD APU
pump when the trim tank fuel transfer system does not operate. The aft
APU pump runs when the trim tank fuel transfer system operates. A fuel
isolation valve and an LP fuel shut-off valve control the fuel flow to the
APU.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
APU FEED D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
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GENERAL
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
APU FEED D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
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APU FEED D/O (3)
DESCRIPTION
Here is a detailed description of the APU feed system.
FUEL FEED LINE
A double shrouded tube system extends along the trim transfer line
and the APU fuel line. A venting outlet connected to the fuselage skin
next to frame 95, allows any leaking fuel to drain at the lowest end
through the drain mast. There is also the APU fuel line vent and drain
valve, between APU and aft APU pump.
APU FUEL FEED PUMPS
The FWD APU fuel feed pump is installed on the rear spar of the
wing center section. The pump is of the centrifugal type and is driven
by a 115V AC single-phase motor, supplied from the NORM BUS.
The pump can supply 288 kg/h (635 lbs/h) at a pressure increase of
1.2 bar (17.4 PSI). The operation of the pump is fully automatic.
The aft APU fuel feed pump is installed in the THS compartment. It
is a vane type pump with a single-phase 115V AC motor, supplied
from the STATIC INV BUS A. The pump is self-priming with
sufficient capacity to cope with released air.
FUEL/AIR SEPARATOR
The fuel/air separator is installed in the THS compartment, at the
junction between the APU fuel feed line and the trim tank. It keeps
sufficient fuel for APU operation if air enters the transfer line.
PRESSURE SWITCH
The fuel pressure switch is installed on the fuel/air separator. It closes
when the absolute pressure in the fuel/air separator is less than 22 PSI.
Consequently the aft APU pump is energized through a relay logic.
VENT P/BSW
At the FWD firewall of the APU compartment is a vent P/BSW. It is
used for the line maintenance to examine or to refuel the APU fuel
system.
APU FUEL ISOLATION VALVE AND ACTUATOR
The fuel isolation valve is installed in the wing center section rear
spar and controls fuel flow from the LH inner tank to the trim tank
fuel transfer line. The valve position is monitored by the FCMCs.
APU LP SHUT-OFF VALVE
The APU LP shut-off valve is installed in the APU fuel line between
the fuel/air separator and the aft fuel feed pump. The valve position
is monitored by the FCMCs.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
APU FEED D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
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DESCRIPTION - FUEL FEED LINE ... APU LP SHUT-OFF VALVE
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
APU FEED D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
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APU FEED D/O (3)
OPERATION
The following information is a detailed description of the APU feed
normal operation, shutdown operation, emergency shut-off operation,
and the fuel line purging.
APU FEED NORMAL OPERATION
When the APU operates, the Electronic Control Box (ECB) opens the
LP fuel shut-off valve and the isolation valve. It energizes the forward
APU pump, which supplies the fuel to the APU fuel system. To check
the operation of the aft APU pump during APU start sequence, a
2-minutes time delay relay prevents the operation of the forward APU
pump, resulting in a low pressure condition in the line and the
automatic switching to the aft APU pump through a relay logic.
If the pressure switch detects a low-pressure condition, it starts the
aft pump which then supplies the fuel from the fuel/air separator to
the APU.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
APU FEED D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
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OPERATION - APU FEED NORMAL OPERATION
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
APU FEED D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
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OPERATION - APU FEED NORMAL OPERATION
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
APU FEED D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
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OPERATION - APU FEED NORMAL OPERATION
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
APU FEED D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
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APU FEED D/O (3)
OPERATION (continued)
APU SHUTDOWN OPERATION
When the APU shuts down, the ECB closes the APU fuel isolation
valve and APU LP fuel shut-off valve and de-energizes the FWD and
aft APU fuel pumps.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
APU FEED D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
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OPERATION - APU SHUTDOWN OPERATION
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
APU FEED D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
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APU FEED D/O (3)
OPERATION (continued)
APU EMERGENCY SHUT-OFF OPERATION
A manual emergency APU fuel supply isolation will be done if:
- the APU FIRE P/B is released following an APU fire procedure,
- the APU EMERGENCY SHUT-DOWN P/B is pressed on the
refuel/defuel panel on ground,
- the APU SHUT-OFF P/B is pressed on the external power panel on
ground.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
APU FEED D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
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OPERATION - APU EMERGENCY SHUT-OFF OPERATION
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
APU FEED D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
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APU FEED D/O (3)
OPERATION (continued)
APU FUEL LINE PURGING
By pressing and holding the APU fuel line vent P/B in the APU
compartment, the APU fuel feed system will be controlled in the same
way as the APU MASTER SWitch selection does. This function is
used by line maintenance to drain or bleed the APU fuel line. For this
procedure we have to use a special vent adapter.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
APU FEED D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
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OPERATION - APU FUEL LINE PURGING
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
APU FEED D/O (3) Aug 31, 2009
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MAIN TRANSFER D/O (A330-200)
GENERAL
The main transfer is automatically controlled by the Fuel Control and
Monitoring Computers (FCMCs) but if necessary, the crew can manually
override it from the cockpit FUEL panel. It controls the fuel flow from
the center and the outer tanks to the two inner tanks. A fuel transfer system
involves two steps:
- step 1: center tank to inner tanks, provided there is fuel in the center
tank,
- step 2: outer tanks to inner tanks, when the related inner fuel content
decreases to a specified level.
The operations are displayed on the ECAM FUEL page.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
MAIN TRANSFER D/O (A330-200) Aug 31, 2009
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GENERAL
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
MAIN TRANSFER D/O (A330-200) Aug 31, 2009
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MAIN TRANSFER D/O (A330-200)
DESCRIPTION
This topic describes the components of the main transfer.
FUEL TRANSFER PUMP AND CANISTER
Two centrifugal type fuel transfer pumps are installed in the bottom
of the center tank, so that almost all of the fuel can be transferred
when necessary. Each pump is driven by a 3-phase 115 VAC motor
and is enclosed in a canister that makes it possible to replace the fuel
pump element when there is fuel in the center tank. Pumps and
canisters are all assembled in the same way and are interchangeable.
TRANSFER CHECK VALVES
The outlet pipe from each fuel transfer pump contains a check valve.
This prevents an opposite fuel flow through the pump when it is not
in operation.
PRESSURE SWITCHES
Each center tank transfer fuel pump has an output monitoring LP
switch attached to the rear spar of the center box. It operates at 6 psi
depending on pressure decrease.
INNER TANK INLET VALVES AND ACTUATORS
The inner tank inlet valves, of the ball-valve type, are installed in the
fuel supply line of each inner tank. They independently control the
flow of fuel from the refuel gallery to the inner tanks. The valves are
installed in the center tank and have a spindle which goes through the
rear spar to engage with the actuator. The actuator is a single electrical
motor and is equipped with a visual position indicator.
INTER-TANK TRANSFER VALVES AND ACTUATORS
Inter-tank transfer valves, of the ball-valve type, are installed in the
inner tanks and supply the fuel from the outer tanks to the inner tanks.
They are operated by a single electrical motor actuator attached to the
wing front spar and equipped with a visual position indicator.
OUTER TANK INLET VALVES AND ACTUATORS
Each outer tank inlet valve is an interface between the refuel gallery
and the outer tank. Its primary function is to control the flow of fuel
into the outer tank. However, during suction defuel or transfer it
controls the fuel flow out of the outer tank.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
MAIN TRANSFER D/O (A330-200) Aug 31, 2009
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DESCRIPTION - FUEL TRANSFER PUMP AND CANISTER ... OUTER TANK INLET VALVES AND ACTUATORS
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
MAIN TRANSFER D/O (A330-200) Aug 31, 2009
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MAIN TRANSFER D/O (A330-200)
OPERATION
This topic describes how the main transfer operates.
AUTOMATIC TRANSFER: CENTER TANK TO INNER
TANKS
The system uses fuel pump pressure to move fuel from the center tank
to the inner tanks.
When the L and R CTR TANK XFR P/Bs are on, the center tank
transfer pumps are controlled by the master FCMC to run, provided
the center tank contains fuel and the CTR TANK XFR P/Bs are not
in the MANual position. The two transfer pumps then operate
continuously until the center tank is empty.
Depending on the center tank and inner tank quantities, the FCMC
will start center tank to inner tank transfers by controlling the related
inner tank inlet valves. One center tank transfer pump selected and
operative is sufficient to do a center tank to inner tank transfer.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
MAIN TRANSFER D/O (A330-200) Aug 31, 2009
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OPERATION - AUTOMATIC TRANSFER: CENTER TANK TO INNER TANKS
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
MAIN TRANSFER D/O (A330-200) Aug 31, 2009
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MAIN TRANSFER D/O (A330-200)
OPERATION (continued)
CENTER TANK TO INNER TANKS TRANSFER LOGIC
When the fuel content of the inner tanks decreases to underfull
(approximately 2000 kg below the hi-level), the Fuel Quantity
Indicating (FQI) sends a signal to the FCMC which opens the inner
tank inlet valves and starts the center tank to inner tank transfer. When
the hi-level in the inner tanks becomes wet, the transfer stops. When
the fuel content of the inner tanks decreases to underfull, the center
tank to inner tank transfer restarts. This start-and-stop cycle continues
until the center tank is empty, the low level is dry and the pumps are
at Low Pressure (LP). The FCMC then:
- de-energizes both transfer pumps,
- closes both inner tank inlet valves.
The following process determines whether the center tank is empty:
- when the center tank quantity is low and Low Pressure (LP) is
detected in both center tank transfer pumps for more than 5 minutes,
the FCMC stops the pumps and closes the inner tank inlet valves.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
MAIN TRANSFER D/O (A330-200) Aug 31, 2009
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OPERATION - CENTER TANK TO INNER TANKS TRANSFER LOGIC
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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MAIN TRANSFER D/O (A330-200)
OPERATION (continued)
MANUAL TRANSFER: CENTER TANK TO INNER
TANKS
The CTR TANK XFR P/B on the FUEL control panel gives manual
control of the center tank to inner tank transfer. The switch controls
the operation of:
- the transfer pumps,
- the inner tank inlet valves.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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MAIN TRANSFER D/O (A330-200)
OPERATION (continued)
AUTOMATIC TRANSFER: OUTER TANKS TO INNER
TANKS
Gravity is used to move fuel from the outer tanks to the inner tanks
under the automatic control of the master FCMC when the OUTR TK
XFR P/B is not in the MANual position.
Outer tank to inner tank transfer is activated by the FCMC via 2
inter-tank transfer valves, opening and closing at the same time,
depending on the fuel level of the inner tanks.
The operation is displayed on the ECAM FUEL page.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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OPERATION - AUTOMATIC TRANSFER: OUTER TANKS TO INNER TANKS
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
MAIN TRANSFER D/O (A330-200) Aug 31, 2009
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MAIN TRANSFER D/O (A330-200)
OPERATION (continued)
OUTER TANKS TO INNER TANKS TRANSFER LOGIC
As the fuel is burned, the fuel content of one of the two inner tanks
decreases to low level, which is 3500 kg, on the FQI indication. When
this occurs, the two inter-tank transfer valves open and gravity causes
the fuel to flow from the outer tanks to the inner tanks. The fuel
transfer continues until the fuel content of the inner tanks increases
to 4000 kg, and the inter-tank transfer valves close. They open together
again when the fuel level in one of the two inner tanks decreases again
to 3500 kg.
This transfer cycle continues until the two outer tanks are empty. An
outer tank empty condition is met when the outer tank fuel quantity
is less than 10 kg for 5 minutes.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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OPERATION - OUTER TANKS TO INNER TANKS TRANSFER LOGIC
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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OPERATION - OUTER TANKS TO INNER TANKS TRANSFER LOGIC
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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MAIN TRANSFER D/O (A330-200)
OPERATION (continued)
MANUAL TRANSFER: OUTER TANKS TO INNER
TANKS
If any failure is detected during automatic transfer from outer tanks
to inner tanks, the FCMCs trigger a FAULT light on the OUTR TK
XFR P/B, and a message on the ECAM requesting outer tank to inner
tank selection.
When the OUTR TK XFR P/B is set to, the inter-tank transfer valves,
the outer tank inlet valves and the inner tank inlet valves will be
controlled to open.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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MAIN TRANSFER D/O (A330-300)
GENERAL
The main transfer is automatically controlled by the Fuel Control and
Monitoring Computers (FCMCs) but if necessary, the crew can manually
override it from the cockpit FUEL panel. It controls the fuel flow from
the outer tanks to the two inner tanks. This transfer occurs when the
related inner fuel content decreases to a specified level. The operations
are displayed on the ECAM FUEL page.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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GENERAL
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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MAIN TRANSFER D/O (A330-300)
DESCRIPTION
This topic describes the components of the main transfer.
OUTER TANK INLET VALVES AND ACTUATORS
Each outer tank inlet valve is an interface between the refuel gallery
and outer tank. Its primary function is to control the flow of fuel into
the outer tank. But during suction defuel or transfer, it controls the
fuel flow out of the outer tank.
INNER TANK INLET VALVES AND ACTUATORS
The inner tank inlet valves, of the ball-valve type, are installed in the
fuel supply line of each inner tank. They independently control the
flow of fuel from the refuel gallery to the inner tanks. The valves are
installed in the center tank and have a spindle which goes through the
rear spar to engage with the actuator. The actuator is a single electrical
motor and has a visual position indicator.
INTERTANK TRANSFER VALVES AND ACTUATORS
Intertank transfer valves, of the ball-valve type, are installed in the
inner tanks and supply the fuel from the outer tanks to the inner tanks.
A single electrical motor actuator attached to the wing front spar with
a visual position indicator operates them.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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DESCRIPTION - OUTER TANK INLET VALVES AND ACTUATORS ... INTERTANK TRANSFER VALVES AND ACTUATORS
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
MAIN TRANSFER D/O (A330-300) Aug 31, 2009
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MAIN TRANSFER D/O (A330-300)
OPERATION
This topic describes the operation of the main transfer.
OUTER TANKS TO INNER TANKS AUTOMATIC
TRANSFER
Gravity is used to move fuel from the outer tanks to the inner tanks
under automatic control of the master FCMC when the OUTR TK
XFR P/B is not in MANual position.
Outer tanks to inner tanks transfer is activated by the FCMC via 2
intertank transfer valves, opening and closing at the same time,
depending on inner tanks fuel level.
The operation is displayed on the ECAM FUEL page.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
MAIN TRANSFER D/O (A330-300) Aug 31, 2009
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OPERATION - OUTER TANKS TO INNER TANKS AUTOMATIC TRANSFER
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
MAIN TRANSFER D/O (A330-300) Aug 31, 2009
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MAIN TRANSFER D/O (A330-300)
OPERATION (continued)
OUTER TANKS TO INNER TANKS TRANSFER LOGIC
As the fuel is burned, the fuel contents of one of the two inner tanks
decreases to low level which is 3500 kg, on the Fuel Quantity
Indicating (FQI) indication. When this occurs, the two intertank
transfer valves open and gravity causes the fuel to flow from the outer
tanks to the inner tanks. The fuel transfer goes on until the fuel
contents of the inner tanks increase to 4000 kg, and the intertank
transfer valves close. They open together again when the fuel level
in one of the two inner tanks decreases again to 3500 kg.
This transfer cycle continues until the two outer tanks are empty. An
outer tank empty condition is met when the outer tank fuel quantity
is less than 10 kg for 5 minutes.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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OPERATION - OUTER TANKS TO INNER TANKS TRANSFER LOGIC
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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OPERATION - OUTER TANKS TO INNER TANKS TRANSFER LOGIC
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
MAIN TRANSFER D/O (A330-300) Aug 31, 2009
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28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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MAIN TRANSFER D/O (A330-300)
OPERATION (continued)
OUTER TANKS TO INNER TANKS MANUAL
TRANSFER
If any failure is detected during outer tanks to inner tanks automatic
transfer, the FCMCs trigger a FAULT light on the OUTR TK XFR
P/B, and a message on the ECAM requesting outer tanks to inner
tanks MANual selection.
When the OUTR TK XFR P/B is set to MANual, the intertank transfer
valves, the outer tank inlet valves and the inner tank inlet valves will
be controlled open.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
MAIN TRANSFER D/O (A330-300) Aug 31, 2009
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OPERATION - OUTER TANKS TO INNER TANKS MANUAL TRANSFER
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
MAIN TRANSFER D/O (A330-300) Aug 31, 2009
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TRIM TRANSFER D/O (A330-200)
GENERAL
The trim transfer system controls the Center of Gravity (CG) of the A/C
during flight in order to reduce the THS aerodynamic drag and
consequently to minimize the fuel consumption. When the aircraft is in
cruise, the trim transfer system optimizes the CG position to increase
fuel economy by reducing drag. Normally, only one AFT fuel transfer
occurs per flight. However, if the CG in cruise is ahead of the target by
more than 2%, and the trim quantity is below 3000kg (6620 lbs), an
additional aft transfer will occur. An aft transfer stops, when the computed
Cg equals target CG - 0,5%.
The Fuel Control and Monitoring Computers (FCMCs) calculate the CG
of the A/C and compare the result to a memorized target value. If
necessary, the FCMCs then make a decision to move fuel aft or FWD to
control the CG. Usually only one aft transfer is made during each flight.
But, as the fuel burns, many small FWD transfers are made.
The ECAM gives trim transfer system information to the crew.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
TRIM TRANSFER D/O (A330-200) Aug 31, 2009
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MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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GENERAL
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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TRIM TRANSFER D/O (A330-200)
DESCRIPTION
TRIM PIPE ISOLATION VALVE, AUXILIARY
FORWARD TRANSFER VALVE AND ACTUATORS
A trim pipe isolation valve and an auxiliary FWD transfer valve, both
of the ball valve type, are installed in the center tank and attached to
the FWD face of the rear spar in the center tank. The trim pipe isolation
valve is installed at the FWD end of the fuel supply pipe to the trim
tank to control all the aft transfers and the FWD transfers to the wings.
The auxiliary FWD transfer valve is installed in the trim pipe, in the
center tank, to control the fuel flow from the trim tank to the center
tank.
Each one is operated with a single electrical motor actuator attached
to the rear face of the center tank rear spar and equipped with a visual
position indicator.
TRIM TANK ISOLATION VALVE AND ACTUATOR
A trim tank isolation valve, of the ball valve type, is installed in the
fuel line from the trim tank to the trim pipe in order to control the
FWD transfer of fuel from the trim tank to the trim pipe. It is installed
at the bottom of the trim tank. It is operated with an electrical motor
actuator attached to the bottom skin of the trim tank and equipped
with a visual position indicator.
TRIM TANK INLET VALVE AND ACTUATOR
A trim tank inlet valve, of the ball valve type, is installed in the fuel
supply pipe to the trim tank in order to control the flow of fuel into
the trim tank. The valve is in the trim tank and is attached to the bottom
skin of the trim tank. It is operated with an electrical motor actuator
attached to the bottom skin of the trim tank and equipped with a visual
position indicator.
AFT TRANSFER PUMPS AND CANISTERS
The aft transfer pumps are installed in the center tank and inner tanks
1, 2. When in operation, each pump supplies fuel from its related fuel
tank to the trim transfer system and the jettison system. Each pump
is driven by a 3-phase 115 VAC motor and is enclosed in a canister
attached to the tank bottom skin. Pumps and canisters are all assembled
in the same way and are interchangeable.
TRIM TRANSFER PUMP, PRESSURE SWITCH AND
JET PUMPS
The fuel trim transfer pump is installed horizontally and attached to
the FWD and right side face of the trim tank. The pump unit is
enclosed in a removable sealing case externally bolted onto the trim
tank FWD face. The impeller type pump element is driven by a 3-phase
115 VAC motor and installed in the pump housing. A 6 to 8 psi pump
pressure switch is also installed on the pump housing. Inside the tank,
the 2 outlets on the pump housing are connected to the trim pipe.
TRANSFER PUMPS CHECK VALVES
The outlet pipe from fuel transfer pump contains a check valve. It
prevents an opposite fuel flow through the pump when it is not in
operation.
TRIM TRANSFER PUMP PRESSURE SWITCH
The trim transfer pump has an output monitoring LP switch which
operates between 6 and 8 psi depending on pressure increase or
decrease.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
TRIM TRANSFER D/O (A330-200) Aug 31, 2009
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DESCRIPTION - TRIM PIPE ISOLATION VALVE, AUXILIARY FORWARD TRANSFER VALVE AND ACTUATORS ... TRIM TRANSFER
PUMP PRESSURE SWITCH
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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TRIM TRANSFER D/O (A330-200)
TRIM TRANSFER CONTROL
Before each flight, the crew inputs the A/C Zero Fuel Center of Gravity
(ZFCG) and Zero Fuel Weight (ZFW) data into the Flight Management
Guidance and Envelope Computers (FMGECs) via the MCDU. The two
FMGECs independently transmit this data to the FCMCs.
Each FCMC uses the ZFW from the FMGECs and the tanks fuel weight
to calculate the A/C Gross Weight (GW). This GW is output to the ECAM
FUEL page, and is used, in the FCMCs, to obtain the target CG from the
memorized CG versus percentage of Mean Aerodynamic Chord (MAC)
CG table.
In the same time, the FCMCs calculate the fuel weight CG using the FQI,
the pitch, roll and acceleration data from the Air Data Inertial Reference
Units (ADIRUs) 1 and 2, and the THS position from the Flight Control
Data Concentrators (FCDCs). Then, with the ZFWCG transmitted by the
FMGECs and the fuel weight CG, the FCMCs calculate the Gross Weight
Center of Gravity (GWCG). This GWCG is output to the ECAM FUEL
page. The FCMCs, in their transfer logic part, compare the GWCG with
the target CG to determine if a FWD transfer or an aft transfer is needed.
CG control during automatic operation:
The FMGEC independently monitors the CG of the A/C. If it detects that
the A/C CG is too far aft, it sends a signal ''CG target FWD'' to the
FCMCs. The master FCMC moves the target CG forward 2.0% MAC.
This is latched until the end of the flight. If the FMGEC detects that the
CG is still aft of the new target CG, it sends a signal to the FCMCs. The
FCMCs then move the target CG forward 0.5% MAC for 10 minutes.
After 10 minutes the system goes back to normal operation.
This procedure can occur twice more until the target CG is first 4.0%
then 6.0% MAC forward of the initial position. If the error is detected
again, the FCMC stops the CG control and shows an ECAM warning to
the crew. The crew then manually sets a forward transfer.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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TRIM TRANSFER D/O (A330-200)
AFT TRANSFER AUTOMATIC OPERATION
The master FCMC has full control of the A/C CG when the A/C is above
FL255, until the A/C descends below FL245. An aft transfer can only
start when all of these conditions occur at the same time:
- the calculated CG is less than the target CG minus 1.0% MAC for more
than 60 seconds,
- the L/G is retracted,
- the slats are retracted,
- the trim tank is not full,
- an aft transfer is not prevented,
- the inner tanks fuel contents are more than 6250 kg.
The aft transfer stops if one of these conditions occurs:
- the trim tank becomes full,
- the calculated CG is greater than the target CG by 0.5% MAC,
- the fuel quantity in the inner tank decreases to less than 6250 kg,
- the T TK FEED switch is not on AUTO,
- the crew sets the T TANK MODE P/BSW to FWD,
- the jettison system is set to ON,
- the CTR TANK XFR P/BSW is set to MAN,
- the OUTER TK XFR P/BSW is set to MAN,
- the A/C descends below 7468 m,
- the time-to-destination is less than 35 minutes.
- the FQI system shows fuel in the trim surge tank,
- the FQI system shows fuel in the wing surge tank,
Usually only one aft transfer is made during each flight. This transfer
stops when the aft CG target is reached or the trim tank is full.
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MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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TRIM TRANSFER D/O (A330-200)
AFT TRANSFER AUTOMATIC OPERATION (continued)
CENTER TANK TO TRIM TANK FUEL TRANSFER
The center tank to trim tank fuel transfer uses the fuel pressure of the
2 center left and right aft transfer pumps, the trim pipe isolation valve
and the trim tank inlet valve.
When the L or R CENTER TANK XFR P/BSW is set to on, the related
transfer pump is able to operate. The selection of one of the two
switches also gives the FCMCs control of the center tank to trim tank
fuel transfer. Usually the two P/BSWs are set to on at the same time
and, when the FCMCs start an aft transfer, they have control of the
trim pipe isolation valve and the trim tank inlet valve. The transfer
indication is shown on the FUEL ECAM page.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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AFT TRANSFER AUTOMATIC OPERATION - CENTER TANK TO TRIM TANK FUEL TRANSFER
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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TRIM TRANSFER D/O (A330-200)
AFT TRANSFER AUTOMATIC OPERATION (continued)
CENTER TO TRIM TRANSFER LOGIC
The aft transfer to the trim tank is done from the center tank if not
empty.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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AFT TRANSFER AUTOMATIC OPERATION - CENTER TO TRIM TRANSFER LOGIC
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TRIM TRANSFER D/O (A330-200)
AFT TRANSFER AUTOMATIC OPERATION (continued)
INNER TANKS TO TRIM TANK TRANSFER
The inner tanks to trim tank transfer uses the fuel pressure of the main
pumps, the trim pipe isolation valve and the trim tank inlet valve.
When the related inner L1 P/BSW is set to on, the related pump is
able to operate. The selection of one of the four fuel pumps switches
also gives the FCMCs control of the inner tanks to trim tank fuel
transfer. Usually the four P/BSWs are set to on at the same time and,
when the FCMCs start an aft transfer, the computers have control of
the trim pipe isolation valve and the trim tank inlet valve.
The transfer indication is displayed on the FUEL ECAM page.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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AFT TRANSFER AUTOMATIC OPERATION - INNER TANKS TO TRIM TANK TRANSFER
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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TRIM TRANSFER D/O (A330-200)
AFT TRANSFER AUTOMATIC OPERATION (continued)
INNER TANKS TO TRIM TANK TRANSFER LOGIC
When the center tank is empty and the difference between the inner
tanks 1 & 2 is more than 500 kg, the AFT transfer will stop on the
lightest side, and the related AFT transfer valve will automatically
close until fuel balance is restored.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
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AFT TRANSFER AUTOMATIC OPERATION - INNER TANKS TO TRIM TANK TRANSFER LOGIC
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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TRIM TRANSFER D/O (A330-200)
FWD TRANSFER AUTOMATIC OPERATION
The master FCMC sends a FWD transfer signal if one of these conditions
occurs:
- the calculated CG is greater than the target CG (the FWD transfer
continues until the calculated CG is less than the target CG minus 0.5%
MAC),
- the fuel contents of one of the two inner tanks decrease to 4000 kg,
- the FCMCs receive a 35 minutes to destination signal,
- the jettison system is set to ON,
- the A/C descends below FL 245.
The FWD transfer stops if one of these conditions occurs:
- one of the inner tanks fuel contents increases to 4000 kg,
- when the L/G lever is selected down,
- when the trim tank is empty.
Trim tank empty determination is made following this process:
- when trim tank low level sensors have been detected dry for more than
60 seconds, the FCMC stops the trim tank pump.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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FWD TRANSFER AUTOMATIC OPERATION
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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TRIM TRANSFER D/O (A330-200)
FWD TRANSFER AUTOMATIC OPERATION (continued)
TRIM TANK TO CENTER TANK TRANSFER
If the center tank is not empty, the FWD transfer is from the trim tank
to the center tank.
The trim tank to the center tank fuel transfer uses the fuel pressure of
the trim transfer pump, the trim tank isolation valve and the auxiliary
FWD transfer valve.
When the MODE T TK P/BSW is set to on, the related transfer pump
is controlled to operate by the FCMCs for water scavenging purposes,
provided the trim tank is not empty. When the FCMCs start a FWD
transfer, the computers have control of the trim tank isolation valve
and the auxiliary FWD transfer valve.
The transfer indication and pumps status are shown on the FUEL
ECAM page.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
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FWD TRANSFER AUTOMATIC OPERATION - TRIM TANK TO CENTER TANK TRANSFER
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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FWD TRANSFER AUTOMATIC OPERATION (continued)
TRIM TANK TO CENTER TANK FWD TRANSFER
LOGIC
When the center tank is not empty, the FWD transfer is done towards
the center tank.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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FWD TRANSFER AUTOMATIC OPERATION - TRIM TANK TO CENTER TANK FWD TRANSFER LOGIC
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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FWD TRANSFER AUTOMATIC OPERATION (continued)
TRIM TANK TO INNER TANKS TRANSFER
If the center tank is empty, the FWD transfer is from the trim tank to
the inner tanks.
It uses the fuel pressure of the trim transfer pump, the trim tank
isolation valve, the trim pipe isolation valve, the inner tank transfer
valve.
When the T TK MODE P/BSW is set to AUTO, the related trim
transfer pump is controlled to operate by the FCMCs for water
scavenging purposes, provided the trim tank is not empty. Usually,
when the FCMCs start a FWD transfer, the computers have control
of the trim tank isolation valve, the trim pipe isolation valve, the
auxiliary refuel valve and the inner transfer valves.
The transfer indication and pumps status are shown on the FUEL
ECAM page.
The trim transfer pump stops when one of these conditions occurs:
- the aircraft is in flight and the landing gear is extended,
- there is less than 200 kg of fuel in trim tank and the trim tank lo-level
sensor id dry for more than 60 seconds,
- the trim transfer pump pressure-switch has low pressure for more
than 10 minutes.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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FWD TRANSFER AUTOMATIC OPERATION - TRIM TANK TO INNER TANKS TRANSFER
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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FWD TRANSFER AUTOMATIC OPERATION (continued)
TRIM TANK TO INNER TANKS FWD TRANSFER
LOGIC
When the center tank is empty, the FWD transfer is done towards the
inner tanks.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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FWD TRANSFER AUTOMATIC OPERATION - TRIM TANK TO INNER TANKS FWD TRANSFER LOGIC
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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TRIM TRANSFER D/O (A330-200)
MANUAL OPERATION
MODE ''FWD'' P/B SELECTION
When a failure is detected during the automatic CG control the FCMC
triggers the FAULT light lighting on the MODE T TK P/BSW.
When the MODE T TK P/BSW is set to FWD, the FWD light comes
on white, the automatic FCMC CG control stops and a manual FWD
transfer into the center tank starts. The FWD transfer has to be
monitored to make sure that the center tank is not overfilled, since
the center tank high level protection is not active.
The following components are controlled by wiring:
- the trim transfer pumps to run,
- the trim pipe isolation valve to close,
- the auxiliary FWD transfer and trim tank isolation valves to open.
When the trim tank becomes empty, the trim pumps have to be
switched off from the related P/BSWs since automatic shut-off is not
active.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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MANUAL OPERATION - MODE ''FWD'' P/B SELECTION
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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TRIM TRANSFER D/O (A330-200)
MANUAL OPERATION (continued)
TRIM TANK FEED SWITCH SELECTIONS
The T TANK FEED switch has three positions AUTO, ISOL and
OPEN.
AUTO is the usual position of the switch, which gives the FCMCs
full control of the trim transfer system, provided that the ''FWD'' mode
switch is in the OFF position.
In an abnormal situation, following an ECAM warning, trim transfer
system isolation can be requested by selecting the T TK FEED switch
to ISOL. In this position, the switch overrides the FCMC trim transfer
control and the manual FWD transfer P/BSW.
By the wiring, the following valves are controlled to close:
- the trim tank inlet,
- the trim tank isolation,
- the auxiliary FWD transfer,
- the trim pipe isolation,
causing the trim pipe to be isolated at both ends.
NOTE: Note : If T TK FEED switch is set to ISOL, it is still possible
to use the APU.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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MANUAL OPERATION - TRIM TANK FEED SWITCH SELECTIONS
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MANUAL OPERATION - TRIM TANK FEED SWITCH SELECTIONS
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TRIM TRANSFER D/O (A330-300)
GENERAL
The trim transfer system controls the Center of Gravity (CG) of the A/C
during flight in order to reduce the THS aerodynamic drag and
consequently to minimize the fuel consumption.
The Fuel Control and Monitoring Computers (FCMCs) calculate the CG
of the A/C and compare the result to a memorized target value. If
necessary, the FCMCs then make a decision to move fuel aft or FWD to
control the CG. Usually only one aft transfer is made during each flight.
But, as the fuel burns, many small FWD transfers are made.
The ECAM gives trim transfer system information to the crew.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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GENERAL
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GENERAL
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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TRIM TRANSFER D/O (A330-300)
DESCRIPTION
TRIM PIPE ISOLATION VALVE, AUXILIARY
FORWARD TRANSFER VALVE AND ACTUATORS
A trim pipe isolation valve and an auxiliary FWD transfer valve, both
of the ball valve type, are installed in the center tank area and attached
to the FWD face of the rear spar in the center tank area. The trim pipe
isolation valve is installed at the FWD end of the fuel supply pipe to
the trim tank to control all the aft transfers and the FWD transfers to
the wings. The auxiliary FWD transfer valve is installed in the trim
pipe, in the center fuselage area, to control the fuel flow from the trim
tank to the inner tank.
Each one is operated with a single electrical motor actuator attached
to the rear face of the center tank rear spar and equipped with a visual
position indicator.
TRIM TANK ISOLATION VALVE AND ACTUATOR
A trim tank isolation valve, of the ball valve type, is installed in the
fuel line from the trim tank to the trim pipe in order to control the
FWD transfer of fuel from the trim tank to the trim pipe. It is installed
at the bottom of the trim tank. It is operated with an electrical motor
actuator attached to the bottom skin of the trim tank and equipped
with a visual position indicator.
TRIM TANK INLET VALVE AND ACTUATOR
A trim tank inlet valve, of the ball valve type, is installed in the fuel
supply pipe to the trim tank in order to control the flow of fuel into
the trim tank. The valve is in the trim tank and is attached to the bottom
skin of the trim tank. It is operated with an electrical motor actuator
attached to the bottom skin of the trim tank and equipped with a visual
position indicator.
AFT TRANSFER PUMPS AND CANISTERS
The inner tanks pumps supply fuel to the engines, the trim transfer
and the jettison system. Each pump is driven by a 3-phase 115 VAC
motor and is enclosed in a canister attached to the tank bottom skin.
Pumps and canisters are all assembled in the same way and are
interchangeable.
TRIM TRANSFER PUMP, PRESSURE SWITCH AND
JET PUMPS
The fuel trim transfer pump is installed horizontally and attached to
the FWD Right side face of the trim tank. The pump unit is enclosed
in a removable sealing case externally bolted onto the trim tank FWD
face. The impeller type pump element is driven by a 3-phase 115 VAC
motor and installed in the pump housing.
A 6 to 8 psi pump low pressure switch is also installed on the pump
housing. Inside the tank, there are 2 outlets on the pump housing which
connect the pump to the trim tank and to the trim pipe.
TRANSFER PUMPS CHECK VALVES
The outlet pipe from the fuel transfer pump contains a check valve.
It prevents an opposite fuel flow through the pump when it is not in
operation.
TRIM TRANSFER PUMP PRESSURE SWITCH
The trim transfer pump has an output monitoring LP switch which
operates between 6 and 8 psi depending on pressure increase or
decrease.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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DESCRIPTION - TRIM PIPE ISOLATION VALVE, AUXILIARY FORWARD TRANSFER VALVE AND ACTUATORS ... TRIM TRANSFER
PUMP PRESSURE SWITCH
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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TRIM TRANSFER D/O (A330-300)
TRIM TRANSFER CONTROL
Before each flight, the crew inputs the A/C Zero Fuel Center of Gravity
(ZFCG) and Zero Fuel Weight (ZFW) data into the Flight Management
Guidance and Envelope Computers (FMGECs) via the MCDU. The two
FMGECs independently transmit this data to the FCMCs.
Each FCMC uses the ZFW from the FMGECs and the tanks fuel weight
to calculate the A/C Gross Weight (GW). This GW is output to the ECAM
FUEL page, and is used, in the FCMCs, to obtain the target CG from the
memorized CG versus percentage of Mean Aerodynamic Chord (MAC)
CG table.
In the same time, the FCMCs calculate the fuel weight CG using the FQI,
the pitch, roll and acceleration data from the Air Data Inertial Reference
Units (ADIRUs) 1 and 2, and the THS position from the Flight Control
Data Concentrators (FCDCs). Then, with the ZFWCG transmitted by the
FMGECs and the fuel weight CG, the FCMCs calculate the Gross Weight
Center of Gravity (GWCG). This GWCG is output to the ECAM FUEL
page. The FCMCs, in their transfer logic part, compare the GWCG with
the target CG to determine if a FWD transfer or an aft transfer is needed.
CG control during automatic operation:
The FMGEC independently monitors the CG of the A/C. If it detects that
the A/C CG is too far aft, it sends a signal ''CG target FWD'' to the
FCMCs. The master FCMC moves the target CG forward 2.0% MAC.
This is latched until the end of the flight. If the FMGEC detects that the
CG is still aft of the new target CG, it sends a signal to the FCMCs. The
FCMCs then move the target CG forward 0.5% MAC for 10 minutes.
After 10 minutes the system goes back to normal operation.
This procedure can occur twice more until the target CG is first 4.0%
then 6.0% MAC forward of the initial position.
If the error is detected again, the FCMC stops the CG control and shows
an ECAM warning to the crew. The crew then manually sets a forward
transfer.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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TRIM TRANSFER CONTROL
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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TRIM TRANSFER CONTROL
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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TRIM TRANSFER D/O (A330-300)
AFT TRANSFER AUTOMATIC OPERATION
The master FCMC has full control of the A/C CG when the A/C is above
FL255, until the A/C descends below FL245. An aft transfer can only
start when all of these conditions occur at the same time:
- the calculated CG is less than the target CG minus a constant moment,
- the L/G is retracted,
- the slats are retracted,
- the trim tank is not full,
- an aft transfer is not prevented,
- the inner tanks fuel contents are more than 6250 kg.
The aft transfer stops if one of these conditions occur:
- the trim tank becomes full,
- the calculated CG is greater than the target CG by 0.5% MAC,
- the fuel quantity in the inner tank decreases to less than 6250 kg,
- the T TK FEED switch is not on AUTO,
- the crew sets the T TANK MODE P/BSW to FWD,
- the jettison system is set to ON,
- the CTR TANK XFR P/BSW is set to MAN,
- the OUTER TK XFR P/BSW is set to MAN,
- the A/C descends below FL245,
- the time-to-destination is less than 35 minutes.
- the FQI system shows fuel in the trim surge tank,
- the FQI system shows fuel in the wing surge tank,
Usually only one aft transfer is made during each flight. This transfer
stops when the aft CG target is reached or the trim tank is full.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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AFT TRANSFER AUTOMATIC OPERATION
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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TRIM TRANSFER D/O (A330-300)
AFT TRANSFER AUTOMATIC OPERATION (continued)
INNER TANKS TO TRIM TANK TRANSFER
The inner tanks to trim tank transfer uses the fuel pressure of the main
pumps, the trim pipe isolation valve and the trim tank inlet valve.
When the related inner L1 P/BSW is set to on, the related transfer
pump is able to operate. The selection of one of the four main fuel
pump P/B switches also gives the FCMCs control of the inner tanks
to trim tank fuel transfer. Usually the four P/BSWs are set to on at
the same time and, when the FCMCs start an aft transfer, the
computers have control of the trim pipe isolation valve and the trim
tank inlet valve.
The transfer indication is shown on the FUEL ECAM page.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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AFT TRANSFER AUTOMATIC OPERATION - INNER TANKS TO TRIM TANK TRANSFER
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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TRIM TRANSFER D/O (A330-300)
AFT TRANSFER AUTOMATIC OPERATION (continued)
INNER TANKS TO TRIM TANK TRANSFER LOGIC
When the difference between the inner tanks 1 & 2 is more than 500
kg, the AFT transfer will stop on the lightest side, and the related AFT
transfer valve will automatically close until fuel balance is restored.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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AFT TRANSFER AUTOMATIC OPERATION - INNER TANKS TO TRIM TANK TRANSFER LOGIC
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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TRIM TRANSFER D/O (A330-300)
FWD TRANSFER AUTOMATIC OPERATION
The master FCMC sends a FWD transfer signal if one of these conditions
occurs:
- the calculated CG is greater than the target CG (the FWD transfer
continues until the calculated CG is less than the target CG minus 0.5%
MAC),
- the fuel contents of one of the two inner tanks decrease to 4000 kg,
- the FCMCs receive a 35 minutes to destination signal,
- the A/C descends below FL 245.
The FWD transfer stops if one of these conditions occurs:
- one of the inner tanks fuel contents increases to 4000 kg,
- when the L/G lever is selected down,
- when the trim tank is empty.
Trim tank empty determination is made following this process:
- when the low level sensor in the trim tank becomes dry, the FCMC
stops the trim tank pump.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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FWD TRANSFER AUTOMATIC OPERATION
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
TRIM TRANSFER D/O (A330-300) Aug 31, 2009
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TRIM TRANSFER D/O (A330-300)
FWD TRANSFER AUTOMATIC OPERATION (continued)
TRIM TANK TO INNER TANKS TRANSFER
The FWD transfer is from the trim tank to the inner tanks.
It uses the fuel pressure of the trim transfer pump, the trim tank
isolation valve, the trim pipe isolation valve, the inner tank transfer
valve.
When the T TK MODE P/BSW is set to AUTO, the related trim
transfer pump is controlled to operate by the FCMCs for water
scavenging purposes, provided the trim tank is not empty. Usually,
when the FCMCs start a FWD transfer, the computers have control
of the trim tank isolation valve, the trim pipe isolation valve and the
inner tanks inlet valves.
The transfer indication and pumps status are shown on the FUEL
ECAM page.
The trim transfer pump stops when one of these conditions occurs:
- the aircraft is in flight and the landing gear is extended,
- there is less than 200 kg of fuel in trim tank and the trim tank lo-level
sensor id dry for more than 60 seconds,
- the trim transfer pump pressure-switch has low pressure for more
than 10 minutes.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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FWD TRANSFER AUTOMATIC OPERATION - TRIM TANK TO INNER TANKS TRANSFER
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
TRIM TRANSFER D/O (A330-300) Aug 31, 2009
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TRIM TRANSFER D/O (A330-300)
FWD TRANSFER AUTOMATIC OPERATION (continued)
TRIM TANK TO INNER TANKS FWD TRANSFER
LOGIC
When the inner tanks are not empty, the FWD transfer is done towards
the inner tanks.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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FWD TRANSFER AUTOMATIC OPERATION - TRIM TANK TO INNER TANKS FWD TRANSFER LOGIC
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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TRIM TRANSFER D/O (A330-300)
MANUAL OPERATION
MODE ''FWD'' P/B SELECTION
When a failure is detected during the automatic CG control the FCMC
triggers the FAULT light illumination on the MODE T TK P/BSW.
When the MODE T TK P/BSW is set to FWD, the FWD light comes
on white, the automatic FCMC CG control stops and a manual FWD
transfer into the inner tanks starts. The FWD transfer has to be
monitored to make sure that the inner tanks are not overfilled, since
the inner tanks high level protection is not active.
The following components are controlled by wiring:
- the trim transfer pumps to run,
- the trim pipe isolation valve to close,
- the auxiliary FWD transfer and trim tank isolation valves to open.
When the trim tank becomes empty, the trim pump has to be switched
off from the related P/BSWs since automatic shut-off is not active.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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TRIM TRANSFER D/O (A330-300) Aug 31, 2009
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MANUAL OPERATION - MODE ''FWD'' P/B SELECTION
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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TRIM TRANSFER D/O (A330-300)
MANUAL OPERATION (continued)
TRIM TANK FEED SWITCH SELECTIONS
The T TANK FEED switch has three positions AUTO, ISOL and
OPEN.
AUTO is the usual position of the switch, which gives the FCMCs
full control of the trim transfer system, provided that the ''FWD'' mode
switch is in the OFF position (the T TK MODE P/BSW is in AUTO
position).
In an abnormal situation, following an ECAM warning, trim transfer
system isolation can be requested by selecting the T TK FEED switch
to ISOL. In this position, the switch overrides the FCMC trim transfer
control and the manual FWD transfer P/BSW.
By the wiring, the following valves are controlled to close:
- the trim tank inlet,
- the trim tank isolation,
- the auxiliary FWD transfer,
- the trim pipe isolation,
causing the trim pipe to be isolated at both ends.
NOTE: Note: If T TK FEED switch is set to ISOL (trim tank
isolated), it is still possible to use the APU.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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MANUAL OPERATION - TRIM TANK FEED SWITCH SELECTIONS
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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MANUAL OPERATION - TRIM TANK FEED SWITCH SELECTIONS
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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AUTOMATIC REFUEL (2)
AUTOMATIC REFUEL OPERATION
Before starting the refuel/defuel procedure, some safety precautions have
to be taken, such as safety barriers and "no smoking" warning notices.
Especially, if a fuel tanker is used. Make sure that the fire-fighting
equipment is available. The landing gear chocks should not touch their
tires. But the parking brake must be on. The weight of the fuel can
suddenly compress the landing gear and lower the aircraft : make sure
there is no equipment below the aircraft which can cause damage. All
electrical equipment you use must not cause sparks and a water
contamination check on a fuel sample must be performed.
For refuelling at the terminal, a ground pumping unit is used. The ground
pumping unit is positioned under the wing, below the refuel/defuel
coupling access panel. The ground cable is connected to the aircraft on
the landing gear. The platform is lifted up to the refuel/defuel station.
One, two, three or four refuel hoses can be connected to perform an
automatic pressure refuel. We are going to use two on the LH wing. The
panel is opened. The two refuel/defuel coupling caps removed. The two
fuel supply hoses are connected. The caution placard indicates : do not
let the refuel pressure get to more than 50 psi or 3.5 bars. As we are at
the terminal, the refuelling pump unit is connected to the ground
installation. Under the fuselage fairing, open the door of the refuel/defuel
control panel 990 VU. If external electrical power or APU electrical
power is not available, it is also possible to use the aircraft batteries. First
of all, a test is to be performed. Lift the guard, then push and hold the
high level test switch.
Check that:
- the high level and overflow lights change state,
- cockpit and end lights come on, on the F.Q.I. indicator,
- the fuel quantity, preselected and actual displays show all eights.
When the test switch is released, after a few seconds, all lights and
quantity displays return to their initial condition. With the load switch,
increase the preselected quantity up to the necessary fuel load. Adjust it.
74 tonnes are selected. Make certain that all refuel/defuel valves switches
are in the norm position and guarded. Set the mode selector switch to the
refuel position. The pump on the ground pumping unit can be started.
Monitor that the fuel quantity indication increases. All tanks that are to
receive fuel are filled simultaneously. The actual indication increases
together with the tank quantities.
Note as the refuelling is performed only from the left hand side couplings,
the left hand fuel tanks will be filled before the right hand ones.
When a tank is full, its high level light comes on. Here, the left outer
tank. Its inlet valve closes. The right outer tank is also full. As the
preselected quantity is 74 tonnes, no fuel is sent to the center tank, but
there is some fuel in the trim tank. The inner tanks continue to fill.
The Fuel Control and Monitoring Computer (F.C.M.C.) controls the
distribution of the fuel in the different tanks. The left inner tank is full.
(The left inner tank blue high level light is on. Now, both wing tanks are
full.
The refuelling automatically stops as the end light comes on, steady ;
"actual" and "preselected" displays agree and are stable with a 200 kg
tolerance. Stop the pump on the ground pumping unit. On the refuel/defuel
control panel, set the mode selector switch to off. All switches being in
the normal and guarded position, the panel door is closed.
Disconnect the fuel supply hoses from the aircraft refuel/defuel couplings,
and re-install the coupling caps. Close the access panel. Remove the
platform. Disconnect the ground/bonding cables. If not needed,
de-energize the aircraft electrical circuits. Put the chocks back in their
original position. The automatic refuel operation is finished, verify that
the area is clean and clear of any equipment. When servicing and
passenger loading is completed, the A340 is ready for departure.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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AUTOMATIC REFUEL OPERATION
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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REFUEL/DEFUEL D/O (A330-200)
GENERAL
There are three different procedures to refuel the A/C - the pressure refuel
in automatic or manual mode, and the overwing refuel. The A/C is fitted
with two refuel couplings (optional on left wing) and there are refuel
hose adaptors on each coupling. The A/C can be refueled through one or
more of the refuel hose adaptors. When four refuel hoses are in use, the
minimum time to pressure refuel the A/C, from empty tanks to maximum
fuel capacity, is approximately 35 minutes. The refuel pressure at the
refuel hoses must not exceed 50 psi. There are two procedures to defuel
the A/C - the pressure defuel using the A/C fuel pumps and the suction
defuel using an external suction device (11 psi max.). The A/C can be
defueled through one or more of the refuel hose adaptors. But when only
one adaptor on a refuel/defuel coupling is used, it must be the one
identified by the "USE THIS ADAPTOR TO DEFUEL" marking. These
two procedures can be used at the same time to increase the defuel rate.
Refuel/defuel operations are started from the refuel/defuel control panel
or optionally from the cockpit REFUEL panel, for automatic refuel only.
The refuel/defuel control panel is located in the RH side of the belly
fairing. A similar control panel can be installed as an option, next to the
refuel/defuel couplings, at the bottom of the wing leading edge (on one
wing or both wings).
Ground transfers from tank to tank - except to the trim tank - can be
started from the refuel/defuel control panel.
The Fuel Control and Monitoring Computer (FCMC) gives overflow
protection by closing the refuel/defuel isolation valves and stopping any
type of refuel/defuel or ground transfer operation if any of the overflow
sensors (fitted in surge tanks) become wet. The FCMC distributes the set
quantity of fuel in the different tanks so that no hazardous overbalance
condition occurs in all modes of fuel operation.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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GENERAL
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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REFUEL/DEFUEL D/O (A330-200)
DESCRIPTION
Here is a description of the refuel/defuel system in different conditions.
REFUEL/DEFUEL CONTROL PANEL
The primary components of the refuel/defuel control panel are:
- the PoWeR SUPPLY (NORM/BAT) switch, for refuel/defuel on
batteries HOT BUS power supply if there is no normal supply,
- the HI LEVEL TEST switch,
- the APU EMERGency SHUTDOWN switch,
- the preselect (LOAD select) switch, used for automatic refuel only,
- the MODE SELECT switch, guarded in OFF position
- the REFUEL/DEFUEL VALVES switches, guarded in NORM
position
- the refuel indicator panel.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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DESCRIPTION - REFUEL/DEFUEL CONTROL PANEL
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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REFUEL/DEFUEL D/O (A330-200)
DESCRIPTION (continued)
REFUEL/DEFUEL COUPLINGs
One refuel/defuel coupling is installed on the RH wing. One additional
coupling is installed as an option on the LH wing. Each coupling is
attached to the front face of the wing front spar. Each refuel/defuel
coupling has a Y-shaped hollow body, with a circular housing in the
center to receive the refuel isolation valve. Each refuel/defuel coupling
is equipped with two refuel adaptors. Each refuel adaptor is protected
by a removable cap.
REFUEL ISOLATION VALVES
The refuel isolation valve is electrically controlled via a solenoid and
hydraulically operated. When the valve is energized and a fuel pressure
is supplied, the isolation valve opens. The isolation valve has a manual
override button that can be used to open the valve if there is electrical
or solenoid failure. The refuel isolation valve is installed in the center
of each refuel/defuel coupling.
OUTER, INNER, CENTER TANKS TRIM INLET VALVES
AND ACTUATORS
All inlet valves are of the ball valve type and are operated by a single
DC motor actuator fitted with a visual open/close indicator. They are
connected to the refuel/defuel gallery and allow fuel distribution to
the various tanks through dedicated supply lines.
Two outer tank inlet valves, one for each outer tank, are installed in
the inner tanks and attached to the front face of the wing rear spar.
Their electrical actuators are fitted on the rear face of this spar.
The inner tank inlet valves are installed in the fuel supply line to both
inner tanks. These valves are fitted in the center tank and attached to
the forward face of the center fuselage rear spar. Their actuators are
attached to the rear face of this spar.
A center tank inlet valve is installed in the center tank and is attached
to the front face of the rear spar. Its actuator is fitted on the rear face
of the rear spar.
A trim tank inlet valve is installed in the trim tank and its actuator is
attached under the bottom skin.
CENTER TANK INLET RESTRICTOR VALVE
The center tank inlet restrictor valve is located immediately
downstream of the center tank inlet valve. Its function is to prevent
overpressure of the center tank structure. During defueling, the valve
is in the restricted position. The valve is installed in the center tank
and attached to the front face of the rear spar. It is operated with a
single electrical motor actuator attached to the rear face of the rear
spar and equipped with a visual position indicator.
EMERGENCY ISOLATION VALVES
The emergency isolation valves are of the ball valve type, each one
operated by two DC motor actuators. One valve is installed in each
inner tank and its actuator is attached to the wing rear spar. During
normal operation, both emergency isolation valves are open to do fuel
quantity balancing between the forward and aft sections of each inner
tank.
CHECK VALVES
Two check valves prevent fuel flow from the refuel gallery to the
engine feed gallery in case any aft transfer valve is stuck in the open
position.
REFUEL DIFFUSERS
The fuel is delivered into the fuel tanks through diffusers.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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SURGE-PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE
During refueling, two surge-pressure relief valves prevent a pressure
surge into the refuel gallery. If the fuel pressure is more than 65 psi
the valve opens to decrease the pressure in the gallery.
DEPRESSURIZING VALVE
A depressurizing valve is fitted on the refuel gallery in the right inner
tank only. After the refuel operation has been completed, the
depressurizing valve releases the remaining pressure in the refuel
gallery into the right inner tank. The valve operates between 2 and 3
psi.
RESTRICTOR VALVE
A one-way restrictor valve is installed on the refuel gallery upstream
of the trim pipe isolation valve. It decreases the fuel flow directed to
the trim tank and lets the fuel flow freely in the opposite direction.
REFUEL GALLERY LOW-PRESSURE SWITCH
A LP switch, attached to the center fuselage rear spar, detects any LP
condition (below 6 psi) in the refuel gallery. If a LP condition is
detected during refueling of the trim tank with the APU operating (fed
by the AFT APU pump), the trim transfer line is isolated. Refueling
of the trim tank is temporarily stopped and the APU is fed by the FWD
APU pump, until the LP condition disappears.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
REFUEL/DEFUEL D/O (A330-200) Aug 31, 2009
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DESCRIPTION - REFUEL/DEFUEL COUPLINGS ... REFUEL GALLERY LOW-PRESSURE SWITCH
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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REFUEL/DEFUEL D/O (A330-200)
OPERATION
When the quick-release door of the refuel/defuel control panel is open,
a door-operated microswitch sends a signal to the FCMCs to supply the
refuel/defuel electrical circuits. Once the refuel/defuel panel is powered,
any refuel, defuel or ground transfer can be started.
The Air Data Inertial Reference Systems (ADIRS) are set to NAV so that
the FCMCs receive the A/C attitude information required for maximum
accuracy as regards tank fuel quantity calculation.
NOTE: Note: If external electrical power or APU electrical power is
not available, it is possible to use A/C batteries to do a refuel.
But on batteries, the ADIRS do not send A/C attitude
information to the FCMCs. Therefore, after a refuel on batteries,
there could be a difference of up to 750 kg between the set fuel
quantity and the actual fuel quantity.
HI-LEVEL TEST
When the guarded HI LEVEL TEST P/BSW is pushed in and held,
it sends a signal to the FCMCs, which do a continuity test of the
high-level and overflow sensors and their circuits. If these are
serviceable, the FCMCs change the HIGH LEVEL blue lights and
the OVERFLOW amber lights to their opposite condition. In addition,
the CKPT and END lights come on and the fuel quantity,
PRESELECTED for Preselected Fuel Quantity (PFQ) and ACTUAL
for Fuel On Board (FOB) all display 8s. At the same time, the FCMC
tests the operation of the inlet valves and checks the continuity of the
refuel isolation valve circuit.
When the HI LEVEL TEST P/BSW is released out, the following has
to be checked:
- the HIGH LEVEL and OVERFLOW lights go back to their initial
condition,
- the fuel quantity, PRESELECTED (PFQ) and ACTUAL (FOB)
displays go back to their initial values,
- the CKPT and END lights go off.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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OPERATION - HI-LEVEL TEST
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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OPERATION - HI-LEVEL TEST
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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REFUEL/DEFUEL D/O (A330-200)
OPERATION (continued)
AUTOMATIC PRESSURE REFUEL
During an automatic refuel and after the high level test, the
PRESELECTED switch is used to preselect the fuel quantity on the
PRESELECTED display. To start a refuel, this quantity must be set
to a value, which is more than 200 kg greater than the ACTUAL
indication.
The FCMCs receive this preselection and refer to the memorized
post-refuel distribution chart to select the tanks to be refueled and to
calculate their respective fuel quantity targets.
When the MODE SELECT switch is set to REFUEL, the FCMC
supplies 28 VDC to the refuel/defuel isolation valve solenoids. When
a refuel pressure is supplied, the isolation valves open hydraulically
and let the fuel go into the refuel/defuel gallery. The FCMC then
controls all the tank inlet valve relays involved in the refueling from
the distribution chart. The tanks involved are refueled simultaneously.
As the individual tank fuel quantity increases, the FCMC closes the
related inlet valve when the fuel tank quantity target is reached or the
high-level sensors become wet.
At the end of the refuel, the END light comes on steadily to indicate
a complete successful refueling. The MODE SELECT switch is set
to OFF and the refuel isolation valve closes.
An automatic refuel may not start or be aborted by the FCMC if any
of the following conditions occur:
- "BLOCK" fuel value entered in MCDU "INIT" page,
- OUTR TK XFR or T TANK MODE P/BSW not in AUTO mode,
- any REFUEL/DEFUEL VALVES switch not in NORM position,
- any inlet valve position disagrees with FCMC command,
- any surge tank overflow fuel sensor becomes wet,
- the center tank high level sensor becomes wet,
- any jettison valve is detected open (if installed),
- any high level sensor failure,
- any tank fuel quantity indication function inoperative.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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OPERATION - AUTOMATIC PRESSURE REFUEL
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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OPERATION - AUTOMATIC PRESSURE REFUEL
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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REFUEL/DEFUEL D/O (A330-200)
OPERATION (continued)
REFUEL ABORT
The refuel process is aborted in case of:
- MAN XFR selection, or
- Inlet valve failure or high level test failure, or
- Overflow detection with an amber light on the refuel/defuel panel.
In this case, the FCMCs abort the refuel, the MCDU displays the
refuel aprameters and the END LIGHT on the refuel/defuel panel
flashes.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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REFUEL/DEFUEL D/O (A330-200)
OPERATION (continued)
MANUAL PRESSURE REFUEL
A manual refuel procedure is only required when an automatic refuel
aborts due to a system failure. On the refuel/defuel panel, the
PRESELECTED quantity must be set to zero or 500 kg below the
ACTUAL quantity. The REFUEL/DEFUEL VALVE switches of the
tanks to be refueled are set to OPEN and the REFUEL/DEFUEL
VALVE switches of the tanks not to be refueled are set to SHUT. The
MODE SELECT switch is then set to the REFUEL position to send
a signal to the FCMC, which connects a 28 VDC supply to the solenoid
of the refuel isolation valves. If refuel pressure is available, the refuel
isolation valves open. The tanks involved are refueled simultaneously.
NOTE: Note: The refueling distribution chart, shown in the
automatic refuel subtopic, can be referred to (through the
AMM) to ensure optimization of fuel distribution during
manual refueling.
Each inlet valve can be closed manually, by moving the related
REFUEL/DEFUEL VALVE switch to SHUT or NORM, but the
FCMC automatically closes the inlet valve when the related hi-level
sensors become wet. All the selected fuel tanks are normally refueled
at the same time, except when the FCMC applies the overbalance
protection.
To keep a safe longitudinal balance, the trim tank inlet valve does not
open unless one of these conditions occurs:
- the fuel quantities of the two inner tanks are above 14,000 kg,
- one inner tank fuel quantity is above 14,000 kg and the other inner
tank inlet valve is open,
- the center tank inlet valve is open,
- the two inner tank inlet valves are open.
At the end of the refuel, the MODE SELECT switch is set to OFF
and the refuel isolation valves close.
A manual refuel may not start or be aborted by the FCMC if any of
the following conditions occurs:
- OUTR TK XFR or T TANK MODE P/BSW not in AUTO mode,
- any surge tank overflow fuel sensor becomes wet,
- the center tank high level sensor becomes wet,
- any jettison valve is detected open,
- any high level sensor failure.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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REFUEL/DEFUEL D/O (A330-200)
OPERATION (continued)
COCKPIT AUTOMATIC REFUEL
Optionally, it is possible to do an automatic refuel from the cockpit.
The required total fuel quantity must be entered via the MCDU as a
BLOCK fuel on the INIT page 2. The quantity must be at least 200
kg more than the FOB quantity shown on the ECAM FUEL page.
On the cockpit REFUEL panel, when the REFUEL P/BSW is pressed
in, the white ON light comes on and the master FCMC does an
automatic high level test. If the test is OK, the FCMC starts the
automatic refuel. If the high level test fails, the green END light flashes
in the REFUEL P/BSW.
When the refuel is complete and correct, the green END light comes
on steadily in the REFUEL P/BSW.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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OPERATION - COCKPIT AUTOMATIC REFUEL
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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REFUEL/DEFUEL D/O (A330-200)
OPERATION (continued)
PRESSURE DEFUEL OPERATION
This procedure describes the defueling by pressure of the wing tanks
only. However it is possible to pressure defuel all fuel tanks.
If a surge tank overflow sensor is "wet", it is not possible to start a
pressure defuel. In that case, a suction defuel is required.
NOTE: Note: One or two defuel hoses can be used to do a pressure
defuel. But if only one coupling is used, it must be the one
identified by the "USE THIS ADAPTOR TO DEFUEL"
marking.
To do a pressure defuel, on the refuel/defuel control panel the MODE
SELECT switch is set to DEFUEL and the TRANSF.VALVE switch
is set to OPEN.
NOTE: Note: When the MODE SELECT switch is set to DEFUEL,
the high level protection of the FCMC is inhibited.
On the cockpit overhead FUEL panel:
- the X FEED valve P/BSW is set to ON,
- the STBY or MAIN engine fuel pumps are set to on,
- once the engine fuel pumps operate, the FCMC opens the aft transfer
valves,
- the FCMC prevents any overbalance condition during defueling.
NOTE: Note: The FCMC prevents movement of fuel from the wing
tanks (the aft transfer valves stay closed) until the trim tank
is empty in order to prevent any overbalance condition.
Pushed by the pumps, the fuel flows to the couplings through the
refuel/defuel gallery. When the fuel quantity in one inner tank
decreases to 3500 kg, the inter-tank transfer valves open automatically.
The fuel in the outer tanks is transferred by gravity to the inner tanks,
and then pushed in the refuel/defuel gallery by the engine fuel pumps.
The defueling process can be monitored on the ECAM FUEL page.
NOTE: Note: If the outer tanks are not to be defueled, both inter-tank
transfer valve C/Bs (6QL1 & 6QL2) must be pulled.
At the end of the pressure defuel, the STBY and/or MAIN engine fuel
pumps are set to OFF and the X FEED valve is closed. The FCMC
closes both aft transfer valves. On the refuel/defuel panel, the
TRANSF. VALVE switch is set to CLOSED and the MODE SELECT
switch is set to OFF.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
REFUEL/DEFUEL D/O (A330-200) Aug 31, 2009
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OPERATION - PRESSURE DEFUEL OPERATION
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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OPERATION - PRESSURE DEFUEL OPERATION
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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REFUEL/DEFUEL D/O (A330-200)
OPERATION (continued)
SUCTION DEFUEL OPERATION
This procedure describes defueling by suction of the wing tanks only.
However, it is possible to suction defuel all fuel tanks.
NOTE: Note: The wing tanks cannot be defueled until the trim tank
is empty.
On the refuel/defuel panel the MODE SELECT switch is set to
DEFUEL, and the required fuel tank inlet valves are set to OPEN.
NOTE: Note: One or two defuel hoses can be used to do a pressure
defuel. But if only one coupling is used, it must be the one
identified by the "USE THIS ADAPTOR TO DEFUEL"
marking.
The FCMC controls the refuel/defuel isolation valve solenoids. As
soon as the suction motor of the fuel tanker is operating, the
refuel/defuel isolation valve open by fuel suction. Each inlet valve
selected OPEN on the refuel/defuel panel is controlled to open by the
FCMC.
The suction defuel operation is monitored on the refuel/defuel panel.
When completed, the REFUEL/DEFUEL VALVE switches are set
back to NORM, and the MODE SELECT switch is set back to OFF.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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OPERATION - SUCTION DEFUEL OPERATION
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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REFUEL/DEFUEL D/O (A330-200)
OPERATION (continued)
INNER TANKS GROUND TRANSFERS
Ground transfer from tank to tank can be started from the refuel/defuel
panel, except for a transfer to the trim tank. In this mode, the FCMC
does not energize the refuel/defuel isolation valves and keeps the trim
tank inlet valve closed. The FCMC hi-level protection is active. To
start a ground transfer, actions from the cockpit and refuel/defuel
panels are necessary. The following procedure describes a ground
transfer between both wing inner tanks.
On the refuel/defuel panel:
- the REFUEL/DEFUEL VALVES switch for the tank to receive fuel
is selected OPEN,
- the TRANSF. VALVE switch is set to OPEN,
- the MODE SELECT switch is set to REFUEL.
On the cockpit overhead FUEL panel:
- the X FEED valve P/BSW is set to ON,
- the STBY engine pump of the "supplier" inner tank is set to ON,
- once the engine pump runs, the FCMC opens the aft transfer valves,
- the fuel is thus pushed from the "supplier" inner tank through the
crossfeed valve, both aft transfer valves and finally through the inlet
valve of the "receiver" inner tank.
The inner tanks ground transfer is monitored from the ECAM FUEL
page. When the inner tanks fuel quantity is at the required value, the
engine STBY pump of the "supplier" tank is selected OFF and the X
FEED valve P/BSW is selected OFF. On the refuel/defuel panel, the
MODE SELECT switch is set to OFF, the REFUEL/DEFUEL
VALVES switch of the "receiver" tank is set to NORM and the
TRANSF. VALVE switch is set to CLOSED.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
REFUEL/DEFUEL D/O (A330-200) Aug 31, 2009
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OPERATION - INNER TANKS GROUND TRANSFERS
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
REFUEL/DEFUEL D/O (A330-200) Aug 31, 2009
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REFUEL/DEFUEL D/O (A330-200)
OPERATION (continued)
CENTER TANKS GROUND TRANSFERS
A ground transfer from the center tank to inner tanks can also be done
from the refuel/defuel panel. In this case, all the main and standby
pumps must be selected OFF. On the refuel/defuel panel:
- the inner tanks REFUEL/DEFUEL VALVE switches are set to
OPEN,
- the MODE SELECT switch is set to REFUEL,
The FCMC opens the inner tank inlet valves.
On the cockpit overhead FUEL panel, the LH and RH CTR TANK
P/BSWs are pressed in. The FCMC controls both center tank transfer
pumps to operate. The fuel is thus pushed from the center tank to the
inner tanks. The ground transfer is monitored from the ECAM FUEL
page. When the fuel quantities in the inner and center tanks are at the
required value, both center transfer pumps are selected OFF. On the
refuel /defuel panel, the MODE SELECT switch is set to OFF and
the inner tank REFUEL/DEFUEL VALVE switches are set to NORM.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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REFUEL/DEFUEL D/O (A330-300)
GENERAL
There are three different procedures to refuel the A/C, the pressure refuel
in automatic or in manual mode, and the overwing refuel. The A/C has
two refuel couplings (optional on the left wing), with two refuel hose
adaptors on each coupling. The A/C can be refueled through one or more
of the refuel hose adaptors. When four refuel hoses are in use, the
minimum time to pressure refuel the A/C, from empty tanks to maximum
fuel capacity, is approximately 35 minutes. The refuel pressure at the
refuel hoses must not exceed 50 psi. There are two procedures to defuel
the A/C, the pressure defuel using the A/C fuel pumps and the suction
defuel using an external suction device (11 psi max.). The A/C can be
defueled through one or more of the refuel hose adaptors. But when only
one adaptor on a refuel/defuel coupling is used, it must be the one
identified by the "USE THIS ADAPTOR TO DEFUEL" marking. These
two procedures can be used at the same time to increase the defuel rate.
Refuel/defuel operations are initiated from the refuel/defuel control panel
or optionally from the cockpit REFUEL panel, for automatic refuel only.
The refuel/defuel control panel is located in the RH side of the belly
fairing. A similar control panel may be installed as an option, next to the
refuel/defuel couplings, at the bottom of the wing leading edge (either
or both wings).
Ground transfers from tank to tank except to trim tank, can be initiated
from the refuel/defuel control panel.
The Fuel Control and Monitoring Computer (FCMC) gives an overflow
protection by closing the refuel/defuel isolation valves and stopping any
type of refuel/defuel or ground transfer operation in case any of the
overflow sensors (installed in surge tanks) becomes wet. The FCMC
supplies the set quantity of fuel in the different tanks so that no hazardous
overbalance condition occurs in all modes of fuel operation.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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GENERAL
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
REFUEL/DEFUEL D/O (A330-300) Aug 31, 2009
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REFUEL/DEFUEL D/O (A330-300)
DESCRIPTION
Here is a description of the refuel/defuel system in different conditions.
REFUEL/DEFUEL CONTROL PANEL
The primary components of the refuel/defuel control panel are:
- the PoWeR SUPPLY (NORM/BAT) switch, allowing refuel/defuel
on batteries HOT BUS power supply if there is no normal supply,
- the HI LEVEL TEST switch,
- the APU EMERGency SHUTDOWN switch,
- the preselect (LOAD select) switch, used for automatic refuel only,
- the MODE SELECT switch secured in OFF position
- the REFUEL/DEFUEL VALVES switches secured in NORM
position,
- the refuel indicator panel.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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DESCRIPTION - REFUEL/DEFUEL CONTROL PANEL
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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REFUEL/DEFUEL D/O (A330-300)
DESCRIPTION (continued)
REFUEL/DEFUEL COUPLINGS
One refuel/defuel coupling is installed on the RH wing. One additional
coupling is installed as an option on the LH wing. Each coupling is
attached to the front face of the wing front spar. Each refuel/defuel
coupling has a Y-shaped hollow body, with a circular housing in the
center receiving the refuel isolation valve. Each refuel/defuel coupling
is equipped with two refuel adaptors. Each refuel adaptor is protected
by a removable cap.
REFUEL ISOLATION VALVES
The refuel isolation valve is electrically controlled via a solenoid and
is hydraulically operated. When the valve is energized and a fuel
pressure is supplied, the isolation valve opens. The isolation valve
has a manual override button that can be used to open the valve in
case of electrical or solenoid failure. The refuel isolation valve is
installed in the center of each refuel/defuel coupling.
OUTER, INNER, TRIM INLET VALVES AND
ACTUATORS
All inlet valves are of the ball valve type and are operated by a single
DC motor actuator installed with a visual open/close indicator. They
are connected to the refuel/defuel gallery and let fuel distribution to
the various tanks by dedicated supply lines.
Two outer tank inlet valves, one for each outer tank, are installed in
the inner tanks and attached to the front face of the wing rear spar.
Their electrical actuators are installed on the rear face of this spar.
Inner tank inlet valves are installed in the fuel supply line to both inner
tanks. These valves are installed in the center fuselage area and
attached to the front face of the center fuselage rear spar. Their
actuators are attached to the rear face of this spar.
A trim tank inlet valve is installed into the trim tank and its actuator
is attached under the bottom skin.
EMERGENCY ISOLATION VALVES
The emergency isolation valves are of the ball valve type, each one
operated by two DC motor actuators. One valve is installed in each
inner tank and its actuator is attached to the wing rear spar. During
normal operation, both emergency isolation valves are open to let fuel
quantity balancing between the FWD section and the AFT section of
each inner tank.
CHECK VALVES
Two check valves prevent fuel flow from the refuel gallery to the
engine feed gallery in case any aft transfer valve is stuck in the open
position.
REFUEL DIFFUSERS
The fuel is delivered into the fuel tanks through diffusers.
SURGE-PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE
During refueling, two surge-pressure relief valves prevent pressure
surge into the refuel gallery. If the fuel pressure is more than 65 psi
the valve opens to decrease the pressure in the gallery.
DEPRESSURIZING VALVE
A depressurizing valve isinstalled on the refuel gallery in the right
inner tank only. After refuel operation is completed, the depressurizing
valve releases the remaining pressure in the refuel gallery into the
right inner tank. The valve operates between 2 and 3 psi.
RESTRICTOR VALVE
A one-way restrictor valve is installed on the refuel gallery upstream
of the trim pipe isolation valve. It decreases the fuel flow directed to
the trim tank and lets the fuel flow freely in the opposite direction.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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REFUEL GALLERY LOW-PRESSURE SWITCH
A LP switch, attached to the center fuselage rear spar, detects any LP
condition (below 6 psi) in the refuel gallery. If a low pressure condition
is detected during refueling of trim tank with the APU running (fed
by the AFT APU pump), the trim transfer line is isolated. The refueling
of the trim tank is temporarily stopped and the APU is fed by the FWD
APU pump, until the LP condition disappears.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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DESCRIPTION - REFUEL/DEFUEL COUPLINGS ... REFUEL GALLERY LOW-PRESSURE SWITCH
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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REFUEL/DEFUEL D/O (A330-300)
OPERATION
When the quick-release door of the refuel/defuel control panel is open,
a door operated microswitch sends a signal to the FCMCs to supply the
refuel/defuel electrical circuits. Once the refuel/defuel panel is powered,
any refuel, defuel or ground transfer can be initiated.
The Air Data Inertial Reference Systems (ADIRS) are set to NAV so that
the FCMCs receive the A/C attitude information required for an
optimization of the tanks fuel quantity calculation accuracy.
NOTE: Note: If external electrical power or APU electrical power is
not available, it is possible to use A/C batteries to do a refueling.
But on batteries, the ADIRS do not send A/C attitude
information to the FCMCs. Therefore after a refuel on batteries,
there could be a difference of up to 750 kg between the set fuel
quantity and the actual fuel quantity.
HI-LEVEL TEST
When the HI LEVEL TEST P/BSW guard is pushed in and held, it
sends a signal to the FCMCs which do a continuity test of the
high-level and overflow sensors and their circuits. If these are
serviceable the FCMCs change the HIGH LEVEL blue lights and the
OVERFLOW amber lights to their opposite condition. In addition the
CKPT and END lights come on and the fuel quantity, PRESELECTED
for Preselected Fuel Quantity (PFQ) and ACTUAL for Fuel On Board
(FOB) show all 8's. At the same time, the FCMC tests the inlet valves
operation and checks the continuity of the refuel isolation valves
circuit.
When the HI LEVEL TEST P/BSW is released out, the following
lights has to be checked:
- the HIGH LEVEL and OVERFLOW lights go back to their initial
condition,
- the fuel quantity, PRESELECTED (PFQ) and ACTUAL (FOB)
displays go back to their initial values,
- the CKPT and END lights go off.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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OPERATION - HI-LEVEL TEST
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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OPERATION - HI-LEVEL TEST
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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REFUEL/DEFUEL D/O (A330-300)
OPERATION (continued)
AUTOMATIC PRESSURE REFUEL
During an automatic refuel and after the high level test, the
PRESELECTED switch is used to preselect the fuel quantity on the
PRESELECTED display. To initiate a refuel, this quantity must be
set to a greater value than the ACTUAL indication by more than 200
kg.
The FCMCs receive this preselection and refer to the memorized
post-refuel distribution chart to select the tanks to be refueled and to
calculate their respective fuel quantity target.
When the MODE SELECT switch is set to REFUEL, the FCMC
supplies 28 VDC to the refuel/defuel isolation valve solenoids. When
a refuel pressure is supplied, the isolation valves hydraulically open
and let the fuel go into the refuel/defuel gallery. Then, the FCMC
controls all the tank inlet valve relays involved in the refueling from
the distribution chart. The involved tanks are refueled simultaneously.
As the individual tank fuel quantity increases, the FCMC will close
the related inlet valve when the fuel tank quantity target is reached or
the high-level sensors become wet.
At the end of the refuel, the END light comes on steady to indicate a
complete successful refueling. The MODE SELECT switch is set to
OFF and the refuel isolation valve closes.
An automatic refuel may not start or may be aborted by the FCMC if
any of the following conditions is met:
- "BLOCK" fuel value entered in MCDU "INIT" page,
- OUTR TK XFR or T TANK MODE P/BSW not in AUTO mode,
- any REFUEL/DEFUEL VALVES switch not in NORM position,
- any inlet valve position disagree with FCMC command,
- any surge tank overflow fuel sensor becomes wet,
- any jettison valve is detected open (if installed),
- any high level sensor failure,
- any tank fuel quantity indication function inoperative.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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OPERATION - AUTOMATIC PRESSURE REFUEL
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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OPERATION - AUTOMATIC PRESSURE REFUEL
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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OPERATION - AUTOMATIC PRESSURE REFUEL
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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REFUEL/DEFUEL D/O (A330-300)
OPERATION (continued)
REFUEL ABORT
The refuel process is aborted in case of:
- MAN XFR selection, or
- Inlet valve failure or high level test failure, or
- Overflow detection with an amber light on the refuel/defuel panel.
In this case, the FCMCs abort the refuel, the MCDU displays the
refuel parameters and the END LIGHT on the refuel/defuel panel
flashes.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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OPERATION - REFUEL ABORT
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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REFUEL/DEFUEL D/O (A330-300)
OPERATION (continued)
MANUAL PRESSURE REFUEL
A manual refuel procedure is only required when an automatic refuel
aborts due to a system failure. On the refuel/defuel panel, the
PRESELECTED quantity must be set to zero or 500 kg below the
ACTUAL quantity. The REFUEL/DEFUEL VALVES switches of
the tanks to be refueled are set to OPEN and the REFUEL/DEFUEL
VALVES switches of the tanks not to be refueled are set to SHUT.
The MODE SELECT switch is then set to REFUEL position to send
a signal to the FCMC, which connects a 28 VDC supply to the solenoid
of the refuel isolation valves. If refuel pressure is available, the refuel
isolation valves open. The involved tanks are refueled simultaneously.
NOTE: Note: The refueling distribution chart, shown in the
automatic refuel subtopic, can be referred to (through the
AMM) to ensure optimization of fuel distribution during
manual refueling.
Each inlet valve can be closed manually, by moving the related
REFUEL/DEFUEL VALVES switch to SHUT or NORM, but the
FCMC automatically closes the inlet valve when the related hi-level
sensors become wet. All the selected fuel tanks are normally refueled
at the same time, except when the FCMC applies the overbalance
protection.
To keep a safe longitudinal balance, the trim tank inlet valve will not
open unless one of these conditions is met:
- the two inner tanks fuel quantities are above 14000 kg,
- one inner tank fuel quantity is above 14000 kg and the other inner
tank inlet valve is open,
- the two inner tank inlet valves are open.
At the end of the refuel, the MODE SELECT switch is set to OFF,
the refuel isolation valves close.
A manual refuel may not start or may be aborted by the FCMC if any
of the following conditions is met:
- OUTR TK XFR or T TANK MODE P/BSW not in AUTO mode,
- any surge tank overflow fuel sensor becomes wet,
- any jettison valve is detected open,
- any high level sensor failure.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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OPERATION - MANUAL PRESSURE REFUEL
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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OPERATION - MANUAL PRESSURE REFUEL
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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REFUEL/DEFUEL D/O (A330-300)
OPERATION (continued)
COCKPIT AUTOMATIC REFUEL
Optionally, it is possible to do an automatic refuel from the cockpit.
The necessary total fuel quantity must be entered via the MCDU as
a BLOCK fuel on the INIT page 2. The quantity must be a minimum
of 200 kg more than the FOB quantity shown on the ECAM FUEL
page.
On the cockpit REFUEL panel, when the REFUEL P/BSW is pressed
in, the ON white light comes on and the master FCMC does an
automatic high level test. Then, if the test is OK, the FCMC starts the
automatic refuel. If the high level test fails, the green END light will
flash in the REFUEL P/BSW.
When the refuel is complete and correct, the green END light comes
on steady in the REFUEL P/BSW.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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OPERATION - COCKPIT AUTOMATIC REFUEL
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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REFUEL/DEFUEL D/O (A330-300)
OPERATION (continued)
PRESSURE DEFUEL OPERATION
This procedure describes the defueling by pressure of the wing tanks
only. However it is possible to pressure defuel all fuel tanks.
If a surge tank overflow sensor is "wet", it is not possible to initiate
a pressure defuel. In that case, a suction defuel is required.
NOTE: Note: One or two defuel hoses can be used to do a pressure
defuel. But if only one coupling is used, it must be the one
identified by the "USE THIS ADAPTOR TO DEFUEL"
marking.
To do a pressure defuel, on the refuel/defuel control panel the MODE
SELECT switch is set to DEFUEL and the TRANSF.VALVE switch
is set to OPEN.
NOTE: Note: When the MODE SELECT switch is set to DEFUEL,
the high level protection of the FCMC is inhibited.
On the cockpit overhead FUEL panel:
- the X FEED valve P/BSW is set to ON,
- the STBY or MAIN engine fuel pumps are set to on,
- once the engine fuel pumps run, the FCMC opens the aft transfer
valves,
- the FCMC will prevent any overbalance condition during the
defueling.
NOTE: Note: The FCMC will prevent movement of fuel from the
wing tanks (the aft transfer valve stay closed) until the trim
tank is empty in order to prevent any overbalance condition.
Pushed by the pumps, the fuel will flow to the couplings through the
refuel/defuel gallery. When the fuel quantity in one inner tank
decreases to 3500 kg, the intertank transfer valves automatically open.
The fuel in the outer tanks will be transferred by gravity to the inner
tanks, and then pushed in the refuel/defuel gallery by the engine fuel
pumps. The defueling process can be monitored on the ECAM FUEL
page.
NOTE: Note: If the outer tanks are not to be defueled, both intertank
transfer valves C/Bs (6QL1 & 6QL2) must be pulled.
At the end of the pressure defuel, the STBY and/or MAIN engine fuel
pumps are set to OFF, the X FEED valve is closed. The FCMC closes
both aft transfer valves. On the refuel/defuel panel, the TRANSF.
VALVE switch is set to CLOSED and the MODE SELECT switch
is set to OFF.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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OPERATION - PRESSURE DEFUEL OPERATION
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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OPERATION - PRESSURE DEFUEL OPERATION
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
REFUEL/DEFUEL D/O (A330-300) Aug 31, 2009
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REFUEL/DEFUEL D/O (A330-300)
OPERATION (continued)
SUCTION DEFUEL OPERATION
This procedure describes the defueling by suction of the wing tanks
only. However it is possible to suction defuel all fuel tanks.
NOTE: Note: The wing tanks cannot be defueled until the trim tank
is empty.
On the refuel/defuel panel the MODE SELECT switch is set to
DEFUEL, and the necessary fuel tank inlet valves are set to OPEN.
NOTE: Note: One or two defuel hoses can be used to do a pressure
defuel. But if only one coupling is used, it must be the one
identified by the "USE THIS ADAPTOR TO DEFUEL"
marking.
The FCMC controls the refuel/defuel isolation valve solenoids. As
soon as the suction motor of the fuel tanker is running, the refuel/defuel
isolation valve is open by the fuel suction. Each inlet valve selected
OPEN on the refuel/defuel panel is controlled open by the FCMC.
The suction defuel operation is monitored on the refuel/defuel panel.
When completed, the REFUEL/DEFUEL VALVES switches are set
back to NORM, and the MODE SELECT switch is set back to OFF.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
REFUEL/DEFUEL D/O (A330-300) Aug 31, 2009
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OPERATION - SUCTION DEFUEL OPERATION
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
REFUEL/DEFUEL D/O (A330-300) Aug 31, 2009
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OPERATION - SUCTION DEFUEL OPERATION
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
REFUEL/DEFUEL D/O (A330-300) Aug 31, 2009
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MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
REFUEL/DEFUEL D/O (A330-300) Aug 31, 2009
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REFUEL/DEFUEL D/O (A330-300)
OPERATION (continued)
INNER TANKS GROUND TRANSFERS
The ground transfer from tank to tank can be initiated from the
refuel/defuel panel except for a transfer to the trim tank. In this mode,
the FCMC does not energize the refuel/defuel isolation valves and
keeps the trim tank inlet valve closed. The FCMC hi-level protection
is active. To initiate a ground transfer, actions from the cockpit and
refuel/defuel panels are necessary. The following procedure describes
a ground transfer between both wing inner tanks.
On the refuel/defuel panel:
- the REFUEL/DEFUEL VALVES switch for the tank to receive fuel
is selected OPEN,
- the TRANSF. VALVE switch is set to OPEN,
- the MODE SELECT switch is set to REFUEL.
On the cockpit overhead FUEL panel:
- the X FEED valve P/BSW is set to ON,
- the STBY engine pump of the "supplier" inner tank is set to on,
- once the engine pump runs, the FCMC opens the aft transfer valves,
- the fuel is thus pushed from the "supplier" inner tank through the
crossfeed valve, both aft transfer valves and finally through the inlet
valve of the "receiver" inner tank.
The inner tanks ground transfer is monitored from the ECAM FUEL
page. When the inner tanks fuel quantity is at the required value, the
engine STBY pump of the "supplier" tank is selected OFF and the X
FEED valve P/BSW is selected OFF. On the refuel/defuel panel, the
MODE SELECT switch is set to OFF, the REFUEL/DEFUEL
VALVES switch of the "receiver" tank is set to NORM and the
TRANSF. VALVE switch is set to CLOSED.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
REFUEL/DEFUEL D/O (A330-300) Aug 31, 2009
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OPERATION - INNER TANKS GROUND TRANSFERS
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
REFUEL/DEFUEL D/O (A330-300) Aug 31, 2009
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JETTISON D/O (A330-200)
GENERAL
The jettison system makes it possible to dump some of the A/C fuel in
flight. The output rate is approximately 1080 kg (2382 lb) per minute.
The system is activated from the JETTISON panel on the cockpit
overhead panel. It can be manually stopped by the crew or automatically
by the Fuel Control and Monitoring Computers (FCMCs).
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
JETTISON D/O (A330-200) Aug 31, 2009
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GENERAL
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
JETTISON D/O (A330-200) Aug 31, 2009
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JETTISON D/O (A330-200)
DESCRIPTION
Here is a detailed description of the jettison system.
JETTISON VALVE AND ACTUATOR
In each inner tank, a jettison valve is installed in a fuel line from the
refuel gallery, and is attached to the bottom skin between rib 17 and
rib 18.
The valve is of the ball type and controls the flow of fuel from the
refuel gallery to the jettison pipe. It is driven by a dual electrical motor
actuator powered by the 28 VDC BUS. The actuator has a visual
indicator.
JETTISON PIPE AND OUTLET
The jettison pipe goes from the jettison valve, through the No. 4 flap
track fairing, to a position behind the flap track fairing. The jettison
pipe outlet is installed outboard of the engine, so that fuel is ejected
clear of A/C fuselage and the tail plane. An anti-corona discharge
assembly is installed at the outlet of the jettison pipe. This assembly
is made from a material that has no metal in it. Thus all electrical
discharge effects occur in the metal part of the pipe. But the fuel comes
out safely downstream through the composite part of the pipe.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
JETTISON D/O (A330-200) Aug 31, 2009
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DESCRIPTION - JETTISON VALVE AND ACTUATOR & JETTISON PIPE AND OUTLET
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
JETTISON D/O (A330-200) Aug 31, 2009
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JETTISON D/O (A330-200)
OPERATION
Let's see the normal and abnormal operations of the jettison system in
detail.
NORMAL OPERATION
On the FUEL control panel, when the two jettison P/Bs are set to ON:
- the white ON lights come on on the P/Bs,
- the FCMCs connect a 28 VDC supply to the actuators which operate,
and the jettison valves open,
- if there is fuel in the center tank, the two transfer pumps supply the
fuel from the center tank,
- the trim pipe isolation valve and all the fuel tank inlet valves (except
for the trim tank) close,
- the two aft transfer valves open,
- all the main and stand-by pumps supply fuel from the inner tanks,
- the crossfeed valve opens,
- if there is fuel in the trim tank, a FWD transfer starts into the center
tank. The fuel, from the inner, center and trim tanks then flows through
the jettison valves and from the jettison pipe in the No 4 flap track
fairing overboard.
The operation of the jettison system goes on until one of these
conditions occurs:
- the crew manually stops the operation by releasing out either any of
the JETTISON ARM or JETTISON ACTIVE P/B,
- the A/C gross weight decreases to a pre-set jettison final gross weight
entered by the crew on the MCDU in the FUEL PREDiction page,
- the total fuel quantity in the inner tanks is less than 10000 kg (22000
lb),
- both inner tanks ETOPS warning sensors are dry.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
JETTISON D/O (A330-200) Aug 31, 2009
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OPERATION - NORMAL OPERATION
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
JETTISON D/O (A330-200) Aug 31, 2009
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JETTISON D/O (A330-200)
OPERATION (continued)
ABNORMAL OPERATION
When jettison operation is selected and one of the jettison valves is
not open, a JETTISON FAULT warning is triggered on the ECAM.
When the system is not ON and one of the jettison valves is not closed,
a JETTISON NOT CLOSED warning is triggered on the ECAM.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
JETTISON D/O (A330-200) Aug 31, 2009
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OPERATION - ABNORMAL OPERATION
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
JETTISON D/O (A330-200) Aug 31, 2009
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FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2)
General
Following three fuel tank explosions over the past 14 years which resulted
in 346 fatalities, the U.S Department of Transportation's Federal Aviation
Administration (FAA), have introduced new regulations to improve fuel
tank safety.
These regulations relate to the prevention of ignition sources within fuel
tanks of current type certificated aircraft. They require carrying out a
one-time fuel system safety and design review.
Critical Design Configuration Control Limitations (CDCCL)
The FAA issued Special Federal Aviation Regulation (SFAR) 88
which gives a detailed description of the CDCCL concept.
The DGAC requested the SFAR 88 to be added to PART 145, PART
M and PART 147 to reinforce the application of these regulations.
This includes:
- a conception part intended to aircraft design features,
- a maintenance part.
A CDCCL is a limitation requirement to preserve a critical ignition
source prevention feature of the fuel system design that is necessary
to prevent the occurrence of an unsafe condition.
The function of the CDCCL is to give instructions to retain the critical
ignition source prevention feature during configuration change that
may be caused by alterations, repairs or maintenance actions.
The aircraft manufacturers have to emit a document to their customers
giving the list of all the maintenance tasks impacted by the CDCCL.
For AIRBUS this document is called the Fuel Airworthiness
Limitations and it is added to the Airworthiness Limitation Section
part 5.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2) Aug 31, 2009
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GENERAL - CRITICAL DESIGN CONFIGURATION CONTROL LIMITATIONS (CDCCL)
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2) Aug 31, 2009
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FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2)
General (continued)
Fuel Information and Combustion Triangle
A fuel tank can be viewed as a confined space where under specific
conditions of pressure and temperature the ullage (vacant tank space)
can be made of an evaporated fuel/air mixture known as fuel vapor.
The liquid fuel does not blow up on its own; explosive conditions are
created when specific proportions of evaporated fuel, oxygen, pressure
and temperature are present in the tank ullage; the fuel vapor is then
defined as flammable. Even if the ullage is flammable, an explosion
will not occur unless an ignition source of sufficient energy exists.
The combustion triangle:
An Explosion in a "Fuel" environment such as aircraft wing tanks can
only occur if the 3 following sources are reached:
- fuel vapors,
- air (Oxygen O2),
- ignition (Electrical short cut, cigarette, etc.).
The aircraft fuel system has, by design, a number of features that are
intended to protect the system from inadvertent ignition.
The potential sources of ignition considered are:
- spark generation inside a fuel tank by electrical current originated
from external sources such as a lightning strike on the aircraft, by
wiring or equipment electrical faults,
- spark/heat generation inside a fuel tank caused by friction of moving
parts,
- fuel leakage outside of a fuel tank coming into contact with an
ignition source.
A chart shows the fuel grades used.
The flash point is the lowest temperature at which the liquid supplies
enough vapors mixed with ambient air, to make a gas that will ignite
with the contact of a thermal source, also called flame.
At this temperature the combustion will not be self sufficient, because
you need to reach the ignition point.
If the ignition does not need a flame, we talk about auto-ignition.
The Auto-Ignition point is the temperature at which a gas or a vapor
ignites spontaneously in the absence of a thermal source.
Do not confuse this term with the ignition point (temperature at which
the combustion is started and can continue).
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2) Aug 31, 2009
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GENERAL - FUEL INFORMATION AND COMBUSTION TRIANGLE
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2) Aug 31, 2009
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FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2)
Fuel System Design Configuration
The Airbus aircraft fuel systems have, by design, a number of features
that are intended to protect the system from inadvertent ignition.
- Wing / Trim Tank Structure:
In all the fuel tanks, the material and the large number of fasteners on
the attachment of the metallic structure used make sure that the fuel tank
structures are electrically bonded.
Composite ribs are bonded by means of metallic strips attached to the
non-metallic structure.
All aluminum structural items in the wing, trim and centre boxes have a
finishing for protection against electrical harnesses short-circuit with the
structure.
The combination of the construction and thickness of the tank boundary
skins give protection against a lightning strike causing ignition (heat).
- Fuel Quantity Indicating (FQI) Equipment:
Probes and sensors installed in tanks have low power supply. Electrical
connection is done through a terminal block. The protective gap between
the probes and the tank structure is maintained. They are electrically
isolated from the structure.
- Fuel pump:
Fuel pumps have safety features to prevent pumps from working in an
empty fuel tank. The pumps are tested to show that even after a long
working condition in an "empty fuel tank" the rotating surfaces remain
lubricated and thus limit the risk of mechanical ignition.
Each of the pumps is contained within an explosion-proof canister. It
comprises a pump element contained within and electrically bonded to
the canister and driven by an electric motor. Electrical connections to all
pumps are made outside the tank.
The moving parts inside the pump are normally submerged in fuel so
they cannot generate a spark during faulty conditions.
- Lightning Protection:
All equipment installed within any fuel tank is bonded to the structure
- Fuel System Wiring:
Only when absolutely necessary, wiring is routed inside fuel tanks. This
wiring is limited to sensing and monitoring systems, with very low energy
carrying requirements, to protect against the occurrence of an ignition
source as a result of high energy entering the fuel tank via the wiring.
External electrical wiring support clamps make sure, that a cut cable
cannot come into contact with the fuel tank boundary or structure in a
fuel vapor area.
There is a complete segregation between in-tank wiring equipment and
fuel calculators from other aircraft system wirings.
- Valves:
All motor operated valves within the fuel tanks have the actuator located
outside the tank wall. The valve mechanisms inside the tank are dual
bonded and do not have an ignition hazard.
- Pressure Switches:
Pump pressure switches are mounted on the tank boundaries. They are
separated from the fuel by a diaphragm. The electrical connections are
fully sealed and explosion proof.
- Fuel Leaks:
It is possible for fuel or fuel vapor to leak from a fuel tank into an adjacent
area and the accumulated fuel can become hazardous causing ignition.
Fuel leaks from the wing and trim tanks go either to the leading or trailing
edge cavities or to the outside. Any fuel overflowing from the NACA
intake is directed downwards and away from the engines (heat source)
via a fuel leak drip strip (angle section) located inboard of the NACA
intake. In the leading and trailing edges the equipment is explosion
proofed and insulated from the leakage. The APU fuel feed and Trim
Tank transfer pipes at the rear fuselage are shrouded so any fuel leakage
is drained overboard via the drain mast.
- Heat Sources:
Wing leading edges contain hot air ducting from the engines to the bleed
air and anti icing systems. These pipes are insulated and separated from
the tank boundary.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2) Aug 31, 2009
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FUEL SYSTEM DESIGN CONFIGURATION
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2) Aug 31, 2009
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FUEL SYSTEM DESIGN CONFIGURATION
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2) Aug 31, 2009
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MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2) Aug 31, 2009
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FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2)
Maintenance Application of CDCCL
CDCCL items are listed in Airworthiness Limitation Form.
CDCCL section 2 of Airworthiness Limitation Form.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2) Aug 31, 2009
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MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
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FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2)
Maintenance Application of CDCCL (continued)
AMM Application
A WARNING in the procedures identifies CDCCL items. When a
procedure identifies a CDCCL item, it is mandatory and necessary
that you follow the instructions correctly and accurately.
Air gap between fuel quantity indicating probes and the aircraft
structure.
WARNING: THIS PROCEDURE USES A FUEL SYSTEM ITEM
THAT IS IN A CATEGORY KNOWN AS A CRITICAL
DESIGN CONFIGURATION CONTROL LIMITATION
(CDCCL). CDCCL IDENTIFIES AN ITEM THAT CAN
BE THE SOURCE OF A POSSIBLE FUEL TANK
IGNITION. YOU MUST KEEP ALL CDCCL ITEMS
IN THE APPROVED CONFIGURATION. DAMAGE,
WEAR OR CHANGES TO A CDCCL ITEM CAN
CAUSE A POSSIBLE FUEL TANK EXPLOSION.
WARNING: THIS INSTRUCTION IS APPLICABLE TO A
CRITICAL DESIGN CONFIGURATION CONTROL
LIMITATION (CDCCL). CAREFULLY OBEY ALL
GIVEN INSTRUCTIONS WHEN YOU DO THIS STEP.
IF YOU DO NOT OBEY THESE INSTRUCTIONS, A
DANGEROUS CONDITION CAN OCCUR THAT
CAN CAUSE A POSSIBLE FUEL TANK
EXPLOSION.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2)
Maintenance Application of CDCCL (continued)
ESPM Application
Separation of fuel quantity and level indicating system wiring from
other wiring.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2)
Maintenance Application of CDCCL (continued)
AMM Application
Direct bonding on items of an equipment inside a fuel tank.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2)
Maintenance Application of CDCCL (continued)
CMM Application
Safety critical features of fuel pumps: these features must be
maintained throughout the full life of the fuel pump to avoid a possible
ignition source by overheating or sparks caused by arcing, or friction
etc...
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2)
Maintenance Application of CDCCL (continued)
MPD Application
Application in Maintenance Planning Document.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2) Aug 31, 2009
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FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2)
Maintenance Application of CDCCL (continued)
SB Application
Service bulletin applicable on single aisle family aircraft.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2) Aug 31, 2009
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FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2)
Maintenance Application of CDCCL (continued)
AD Application
Extract of the Airworthiness Directive.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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MAINTENANCE APPLICATION OF CDCCL - AD APPLICATION
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2) Aug 31, 2009
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FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2)
Safety Precautions
Make sure that you have the correct fire fighting equipment available.
When you have to work on a fuel system wiring, you must use test
equipment that is approved (otherwise, unapproved equipment could
cause fire or an explosion).
Make sure that the lighting in the work area is sufficient to work safely.
Wear protective goggles or face mask, clothes and gloves and avoid
wearing metallic clothing (e.g. footwear or a belt with a metal buckle)
which can cause sparks.
In the work area you must not:
- smoke,
- use flames which do not have protection,
- operate electrical equipment which is not necessary for the task,
- pull or move metal objects along the ground,
- use hearing-aids or battery-operated equipment which will cause sparks.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
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FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2)
Safety Areas And Accessibility
Put the safety barriers in position and put the warning notices, to tell
persons not to operate the fuel system, not to refuel the aircraft and not
to operate the flaps.
Defuel the applicable wing tank or do a ground fuel transfer. Use the
ECAM to make sure that the applicable fuel tank valves are closed and
drain the remaining fuel
Open and safety tag circuit breakers for refuel system, refuel panel,
applicable fuel valves and SFCC (Slat Flap Control Computers).
Open the related fuel tanks access panels.
NOTE: Note: Some of these precautions are the minimum safety
standard for work in a fuel tank. Local regulations can make
other safety precautions necessary.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2) Aug 31, 2009
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SAFETY AREAS AND ACCESSIBILITY
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2) Aug 31, 2009
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FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2)
Tanks Ventilation
Vent the tanks with a proper venting system (fitted with minimum 1 air
inlet & 1 air outlet).
Check with a combustible gas indicator (after minimum 6 hours of
ventilation) the tanks fuel gas concentration.
The fuel gas concentration must be < 10% of the Lower Explosive Limit
(LEL) before entering into the tanks.
WARNING: You must use a respirator if the fuel-gas concentration in
the fuel tanks is more than 5% of the Lower Explosive Limit
(LEL).
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2) Aug 31, 2009
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TANKS VENTILATION
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2) Aug 31, 2009
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FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2)
Entry Check-List
You must complete the Pre-Entry Checklist before you do work in a fuel
tank.
Finally, get access to the applicable work area.
WARNING: S:
- do not touch or push against the magnetic level indicators
when you are in the fuel tank. This will prevent damage to
them.
- do not touch or push against the FQI probes when you are
in the fuel tank. This will prevent damage to them and their
installation.
- do not cause damage to the internal structure, sealant,
electrical cables, or conduits during maintenance.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2) Aug 31, 2009
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ENTRY CHECK-LIST
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2) Aug 31, 2009
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FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2)
Working Environment
NOTE: Note: You may have to remove parts of the structure (and
equipment) to get access to parts of the tank.
Use protective mats on the floor of the fuel tank to prevent:
- damage to the fuel tank structure,
- injury to persons,
- safety all components before you place them inside the fuel
tank,
- all wire locking must be installed/adjusted outside the fuel
tank.
Use only RED tie wraps in the fuel tanks.
Use only approved cleaning materials.
Make sure that all signs of solvents and cleaning agents are
removed from the equipment/components before they are
installed.
Put blanking caps on all disconnected pipes and openings in
components and tanks.
Do not connect electrical equipment to a power source less than
30 meters away, unless the power source has spark-proof
connectors.
You must obey the fuel safety procedures when you do work
in a fuel tank. When differences occur, you must use the
approved precautions of this procedure.
WARNING: Do not use metallic wire wool in fuel tanks.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2) Aug 31, 2009
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WORKING ENVIRONMENT
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2) Aug 31, 2009
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FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2)
Close-Up
After completion of a work in a fuel tank, personnel must make sure that:
- the work area is clear of tools,
- the work area is clean,
- no electrical equipment has been damaged and disconnected,
- all the fuel system components have a correct electrical bonding,
- all access panels are back in their original position (e.g. rib access
panels).
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2) Aug 31, 2009
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CLOSE-UP
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL TANK SAFETY PROCEDURES (2) Aug 31, 2009
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FUEL SYSTEM BASE MAINTENANCE (3)
GENERAL REFUEL/DEFUEL SAFETY PROCEDURES
WARNING: ALWAYS CONNECT THE GROUND CABLE TO THE
PARKING GROUND POINT BEFORE YOU CONNECT
IT TO THE A/C. DO NOT ATTACH THE CABLE TO
THE A/C FIRST (THERE IS A RISK OF ELECTRIC
SHOCK).
Make sure that all fuel system electrical circuits are complete. Do not
spill fuel on the engines or brakes. Ground and bond the A/C.
Make sure that the refuel safety area is clear and respect the safety
distances:
- 60 meters: stop and do not operate fuel tanker 60 m from the A/C nose
during weather radar operation,
- 30 meters: do not refuel within 30 m while testing radar or HF radio
equipment.
15 meters:
- NO SMOKING notices should be placed at least 15 m around the
refuel/defuel area,
- no electrical equipment within 15 m, refuel/defuel equipment,
- fuel tank vents should not be within 15 m of any building.
6 meters:
- Ground Power Units (GPUs) must be at least 6 m from the A/C fueling
and venting points,
- flash bulbs/flash equipment must not be used within 6 m of the A/C
fueling and venting points,
- the refuel/defuel safety zone extends at least 6 m from the A/C fueling
and venting points,
- inside the 6 m safety zone - no matches, radios, cell phones, mobile
phones, pagers, etc.
Check the PARKing BRake is ON and check the blue accumulator
pressure.
The increased weight of the fuel may cause chocks to get stuck under the
tires:
- move the aft NLG chocks away from the tires,
- reposition the MLG chocks away from the tires.
Make sure that there is fire-fighting equipment/personnel available and
do not run engines during refuel/defuel procedures. APU starts or
shutdowns are permitted during refuel/defuel procedures, but:
- starting is not permitted if the APU has failed to start or an automatic
shutdown has occurred,
- a normal APU shutdown must be completed if a fuel spill has occurred.
Make sure that any electrical equipment used will not cause sparks. Do
not refuel/defuel in bad weather conditions, lightning can be dangerous.
During the refuel/defuel procedure:
- do not operate A/C external lighting,
- do not fill the oxygen system,
- do not use the microphone for HF transmissions,
- do only essential maintenance and servicing that will not cause sparks.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL SYSTEM BASE MAINTENANCE (3) Aug 31, 2009
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GENERAL REFUEL/DEFUEL SAFETY PROCEDURES
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL SYSTEM BASE MAINTENANCE (3) Aug 31, 2009
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FUEL SYSTEM BASE MAINTENANCE (3)
BLEEDING OF THE APU FUEL LINE
This topic describes the bleeding of the APU fuel line.
Put the warning notices in position:
- on the FUEL panel, to tell people not to operate the fuel system,
- on the refuel/defuel panel, to tell people not to refuel the A/C.
Install the mechanical input/rigging in the mechanical input of the THS
actuator.
Open the APU access doors and safety them in the open position.
Put a 10 l container in position below the vent and drain valve.
To bleed the APU fuel line:
- remove the cap from the vent and drain valve,
- install the ADAPTER - VENT AND DRAIN VALVE, APU on the
vent and drain valve,
- on the firewall, inside of the APU compartment (FR94), push the FUEL
VENT line P/BSW,
- when the fuel flows out of the drain hose without air, release the FUEL
VENT line P/BSW,
- remove the ADAPTER - VENT AND DRAIN VALVE, APU from the
vent and drain valve,
- install the cap at the vent and drain valve and tighten it with your hand.
Remove all the fixtures, tools, test and support equipment used during
this procedure. The task is now completed.
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL SYSTEM BASE MAINTENANCE (3) Aug 31, 2009
Page 314
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BLEEDING OF THE APU FUEL LINE
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL SYSTEM BASE MAINTENANCE (3) Aug 31, 2009
Page 315
A330 TECHNICAL TRAINING MANUAL
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BLEEDING OF THE APU FUEL LINE
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL SYSTEM BASE MAINTENANCE (3) Aug 31, 2009
Page 316
A330 TECHNICAL TRAINING MANUAL
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BLEEDING OF THE APU FUEL LINE
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL SYSTEM BASE MAINTENANCE (3) Aug 31, 2009
Page 317
A330 TECHNICAL TRAINING MANUAL
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BLEEDING OF THE APU FUEL LINE
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL SYSTEM BASE MAINTENANCE (3) Aug 31, 2009
Page 318
A330 TECHNICAL TRAINING MANUAL
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BLEEDING OF THE APU FUEL LINE
MECHANICAL & AVIONICS COURSE - T1+T2 (LVL 2&3) (RR Trent
700)
28 - FUEL (Metric Units)
FUEL SYSTEM BASE MAINTENANCE (3) Aug 31, 2009
Page 319
A330 TECHNICAL TRAINING MANUAL
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AIRBUS S.A.S.
31707 BLAGNAC cedex, FRANCE
STM
REFERENCE G9409341
SEPTEMBER 2009
PRINTED IN FRANCE
AIRBUS S.A.S. 2009
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
AN EADS COMPANY