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CRITICAL APPRAISAL

I. Analisis PICO
a. Population (P) : pejalan kaki anak-anak
b. Intervention (I) : gundukan jalan/polisi tidur
c. Comparison (C) : anpa gundukan jalan/ polisi tidur
d. Outcome (O) : apaka! gundukan jalan e"ekti" untuk mengurangi cedera
pada pejalan kaki anak-anak dibandingkan dengan tidak adan#a
gundukan jalan/polisi tidur$
II. %en#usun &ood Clinical Ans'erable (uestion
Apaka! gundukan jalan/ polisi tidur e"ekti" untuk mengurangi cedera pada
pejalan kaki ank-anak$
III. Penelusuran )vidence
- %elalui mesin pencari google dengan mengetikkan journal of
public health dan diapatkan seperti pada jurnal ini.
Dipilih artikel:
A %atc!ed Case*Control +tud# )valuating t!e )""ectiveness o" +peed ,umps in
-educing C!ild Pedestrian Injuries
. /une %. ester0 %10 %P,0 &eorge 2. -ut!er"ord0 %10 3ac!ar# 2ald0 %CP0 and
%ar# 2. -ut!er"ord0 %1
Background
Pedestrian injuries caused b# automobile collisions are a leading cause o" deat!
among c!ildren aged 4 to 56 #ears.5 !e demograp!ic c!aracteristics o" c!ildren
injured b# automobiles !ave remained t!e same over t!e past 78 #ears0 'it! bo#s0
c!ildren bet'een t!e ages o" 4 and 9 #ears0 and c!ildren living in neig!bor!oods o"
lo' socioeconomic status (+)+) at !ig!est risk.
1istinct "rom speed limit signs or stop signs0 tra""ic calming measures suc! as speed
!umps0 street closures0 median barriers0 and tra""ic circles are success"ul in providing
longterm sa"et# "or pedestrians and motorists because t!e# are p!#sical structures
'it! designst!at are sel"-en"orcing rat!er t!an re:uiring police en"orcement.
Principal Findings
In comparison 'it! c!ildren living more t!an a block "rom a speed !ump0 t!ose living
'it!in a block o" a speed !ump 'ere signi"icantl# less likel# to
be injured as pedestrians 'it!in t!eir neig!bor!ood (56; vs 7<;= O->8.48= 94;
con"idence interval ?CI@>8.7A0 8.B9).
Among t!e 588 case patients0 69 'ere actuall# !it on t!e block in "ront o" t!eir !ome
(indeC street). As a subset0 t!ese c!ildren 'ere even less likel# to !ave a nearb# speed
!ump t!an t!eir controls (57; vs 76;= O->8.<B= 94; CI>8.540 8.98).
2e per"ormed multivariate logistic regression anal#ses using bot! predictor variables
and included race and et!nicit# in t!e model. A"ter control "or race and et!nicit#0
speed !umps 'ere associated 'it! signi"icantl# lo'er odds o" c!ildren being injured
in t!eir neig!bor!ood (adjusted O->8.6A= 94; CI>8.760 8.94) and being struck on
t!e block immediatel# in "ront o" t!eir !ome (adjusted O->8.68= 94; CI>8.540 5.8D).
Conclusions
2e "ound t!at speed !umps 'ere associated 'it! a 4<; to D8; reduction in t!e
odds o" injur# or deat! among c!ildren struck b# an automobile in t!eir
neig!bor!ood. !ese "indings invite additional researc! on t!e protective e""ects o"
tra""ic calming interventions and o""er a "rame'ork "or stud#ing pedestrian injuries in
relation to p!#sical interventions implemented 'it!in a localiEed geograp!ic region.
Furt!er con"irmation o" t!e protective e""ects o" speed !umps 'ould be use"ul and
could be augmented b# additional in"ormation on stop signs or ot!er "actors
t!at 'ould a""ect slo'ing distances on eit!er side o" a speed !ump. Our stud#
provides direct observational evidence t!at speed !umps are associated 'it! a
reduction in t!e odds o" c!ild!ood pedestrian injuries and supports t!e installation o"
speed !umps b# tra""ic engineering departments.
Table S1: Critical appraisal or!
Adapted "rom:
Critical Appraisal +kills Programme (CA+P)0 Public ,ealt! -esource Gnit0 Institute
o" ,ealt! +cience0 OC"ord.
OCman A10 Cook 1/0 &u#att &, (5996). GsersH guides to t!e medical literature. II.
,o' to use an overvie'. /A%A 7A7: 5<DA-5<A5.
-)II)2 FOCG+ Clearl#
(J7)
+ome'!at
(J5)
Ko or
canHt tell
(8)
Kotes
5. 1id t!e revie' address a clearl#
"ocussed issue$
Consider '!et!er t!e aut!ors reported
inclusion criteria according to PICO or
'!et!er t!ere 'as substantial variation
in t!e studies included 'it! regards to:
Participants (end-users and
patients)
+ettings

Pada abstrak
dengan tulisan
ber'arna biru
!alaman D6D
menunjunjukan
kriteria no 5
dengan 6 poin
#aitu participants0
setting0 domain
dan comparison
made terpenu!i
dengan baik.
1omain (condition0 activit#0
impact and outcomes
considered)
Comparisons made
7. 1id t!e revie' assess a clearl#
"ocussed tec!nolog#$
Consider '!et!er t!e aut!ors reported
eCplicit inclusion criteria regarding t!e
tec!nical speci"ication o" t!e
intervention and its use or '!et!er t!ere
'as substantial variation in t!e studies
regarding t!e intervention and its use.
I" more t!an one tec!nolog# 'as
assessed0 'ere t!e tec!nologies and
t!eir relations!ip to t!e ot!er
tec!nologies clearl# delineated$

Pada met!od
!alaman D6D
!ingga D6A
penulis
menjelaskan
spesi"ikasi teknis
penelitian.
ermasuk juga
cara
mendapatkan
data lalu lintas
#ang dibutu!kan
untuk menunjang
penelitian
<. 1id t!e aut!ors look "or t!e
appropriate sort o" papers$
Consider '!et!er t!e aut!ors reported
'!at stud# designs 'ere eligible and
t!e reasons "or doing so. Additionall#0
consider '!et!er t!e studies !ad:
Outcomes relevant to revie'
objective
A design and met!ods
appropriate "or addressing t!e
revie' objective

Pada met!od
!alaman D6D dan
D6A penulis
melaporkan
metode penelitian
#ang dilakukan
#aitu case control
dan merupakan
metode #ang
relevan untuk
menunjang objek
penelitian serta
menggunakan
pembatasan
analisis #aitu
!an#a untuk anak
#ang berjarak
806Lm dari
ruma! untuk
mendukung
penelitian.
IAMI1IN OF -)II)2 -)+GM+ Clearl#
(J7)
+ome'!at
(J5)
Ko or
canHt
tell (8)
Kotes
6. 1o #ou t!ink t!e important0 relevant
studies 'ere included$
Pada met!od
!alaman D6A
Mook "or t!e usual on t!e databases
used0 '!et!er unpublis!ed researc!
searc!ed0 i" relevant re"erences
revie'ed0 plus searc!ing:
,ealt! In"ormatics resources
Personal contact 'it! eCperts
Internet
Additionall#0 does t!e searc! string
demonstrate a'areness o" indeCing
issues in ,I$ ,as t!e revie' been
update i" muc! time !as passed since
t!e searc!es and publication$

dijelaskan ba!'a
ada sumber in"o
kese!atan0
kontak dengan
a!li dan juga
internet untuk
mendukung
penelitian. +ala!
satu conto!n#a
adala!
menggunakan
stata so"'are0
data dari
departemen
teknis lalu lintas
dan lain-lain
untuk
melengkapi
kebututu!an data
penelitian.
4. 1id t!e revie'Hs aut!ors do enoug!
to assess t!e :ualit# o" t!e included
studies$
Consider '!et!er t!e# per"ormed
assessment 'it! tool 0 c!aracterised
:ualit# b# assigning level o" evidence
b# stud# t#pe onl#0 or limited inclusion
to rigorous designs etc (unit o" anal#sis
especiall# important0 contamination0
con"ound).

Pada met!od
!alaman D6A
menjelaskan alat
atau cara teknis
#ang digunakan
dalam
mendukung
penelitian
se!ingga dapat
membuktikan
kebenaran data
penelitian
tersebut.
D. 2ere t!e studies accuratel#
described$
Mook "or t!e usual on design0 met!ods
and results and :ualit# plus s#stem
"unctionalit#0 integration0 deplo#ment
strateg#0 user-s#stem interaction0
organisational conteCt0 timing o" stud#0
and an# negative "indings.

Pada !alaman
D6D dan D6A
terdapat suatu
penjelasan
lengkap
mengenai
metode0desain
penelitian dan
!asil serta !asil
#ang mendukung
penelitian.
A. Are t!e results reported in a clear
and meaning"ul 'a#$
,o' are t!e results structured and !o'
are t!e# presented (summarisation0
reproduction or interpretation0 neit!er)

Pada result
!alaman D6A
dijelaskan secara
jelas per!itungan
mengenai rasio
kecelakaan anak-
anak tertinggi
terjadi pada
anak-anak asia
#aitu 40B kali
lebi! tinggi
dibandingkan
dengan anak-
anak berkulit
puti!.
B. I" t!e results o" included !ave been
combined0 'as it reasonable to do so$
Consider i" t!ere 'as substantial
!eterogeneit# amongst studies in terms
o" settings and/or conditions0 :ualit#0
comparisons made0 timing o"0 s#stem-
user interaction0 sop!istication and/or
and deplo#ment strateg#.
For meta-anal#sis consider in addition
t!e c!oice o" e""ects model and
summar# measures0 and t!e results o"
interaction or statistical !eterogeneit#.
Finall# '!et!er t!e reasons "or an#
variations in impact are anal#sed and/or
discussed.

Pada met!od dan


result !alaman
D6A disebutkan
adan#a
!eterogenitas
substansial studi
dalam penelitian
#aitu ras dari
anak-anak objek
penelitian0 jarak
ruma! 0'aktu
penelitian #ang
berbeda-beda0
gender0status
asuransi dan
pendapatan rata-
rata.
9. 1id t!e revie' demonstrate
a'areness o" its o'n limitations$
Consider '!et!er t!e revie' noted
Mimitations o" included studies
Mimitations o" t!e revie' itsel"
Findings in lig!t o" researc!

Pada !alaman
6D9 dijelaskan
ba!'a
kekurangan pada
penelitian ini
adala!
kekurangan
untuk mengukur
seberapa besar
gundukan tana!/
polisi tidur di
jalan
ra#a0kemudian
peneliti
mengalami
kekurangan
dalam !al
pemili!an sampel
dan terka!ir
dalam penilitian
ini belum
mengantisipasi
masala! "aktor
perancun#a.
-)+GM+ Clearl#
(J7)
+ome'!at
(J5)
Ko or
canHt
tell (8)
Kotes
58. 1oes t!e revie' present an overall
result$
Consider
I" #ou are clear about t!e
revie's Obottom lineH results
2!at t!ese are (numericall# or
narrativel#)
,o' 'ere t!e results eCpressed
(conclusiveness/doubt)

Pada abstrak
!alaman D6A
menjelaskan
cukup baik
mengenai
gambaran
penelitian.
ermasuk !asil
dari penelitian
#ang dilakukan
#aitu per!itungan
O- pada anak-
anak #ang
mengalami
kecelakan lalu
lintas di jalan
ra#a. 1an !asil
tersebut disajikan
dalam bentuk
tabel.
55. ,o' precise are t!e results$
Are t!e results presented 'it!
con"idence intervals i" eCpressed
numericall#$ Karrative structure "or
assigning levels o" evidence$

Pada !alaman
D6A dijelaskan
ba!'a CI pada
penelitian ini
sebesar 8054 =
508D pada tabel
multivariat.
APPMICAPIMN Clearl#
(J7)
+ome'!at
(J5)
Ko or
canHt tell
(8)
Kotes
57. KeCt steps or implications "or
considering implementation o" suc!
Pada conclusions
!alaman D69
tec!nologies$ Appropriate based on
"indings and ot!er pertinent "actors$
Furt!er researc! indicated$

dijelaskan ba!'a
temuan ini
mengundang
untuk
dilakukann#a
penelitian lain
#ang berkaitan.
1an penelitian ini
juga menunjukan
e"ekti"itas
penggunaan
polisi tidur untuk
mengurangi
morbiditas cedera
pada pejalan kaki
anak-anak.
5<. Are t!e results generalisable
be#ond t!e con"ines o" t!e setting in
'!ic! t!e 'ork 'as originall#
conducted$
Consider '!et!er t!e aut!ors noted
t!e generalisabilit# o" t!eir results and
an# !eterogeneit#. Additionall#0
consider '!et!er enoug! detail 'as
presented on s#stem "unctionalit#0
integration0 deplo#ment strateg#0 user-
s#stem interaction0 organisational
conteCt0 timing o" stud#0 and an#
negative "indings. Importantl#0 t!e
proportion o" studies "rom benc!mark
leaders and academic institutions
s!ould also be considered.

Pada conclusions
!alaman D69
dikatakan ba!'a
penelitian ini
dapat
digeneralisasikan
dan tidak
melampaui dari
tempat penelitian
#ang suda!
direncanakan.
56. 2ere all relevant outcomes
considered$
1epending on t!e revie' objective0
'ere all outcomes relevant to
ans'ering t!at :uestion considered$

Conclusion
!alaman D69
membuktikan
relevansi
penelitian.
1imana terdapat
gambaran
e"ekti"itas
perlindungan dari
polisi tidur
ter!adap pejalan
kaki anak-anak
dan menurunkan
angka cedera bagi
pejalan kaki
anak-anak
sebesar 4<;
sampai D8;.
54. Are #ou able to assess t!e bene"it
versus risk and costs$
)ven i" t!is is not addressed b# t!e
revie'0 '!at do #ou t!ink$ 2as t!ere
an# discussion o" negatives suc! as
costs or risks$

1alam penelitian
ini tidak
disebutkan
mengenai
penilaian risiko
dan pembia#aan.
Penugasan Critical Appraisal
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