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Types of Rocks

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1.0 Types of Rocks
1.1 Igneous Rocks
Igneous rocks are formed from the solidification of molten rock material. There are two types of
igneous rocks which are intrusive igneous rocks and extrusive igneous rocks. Intrusive igneous
rocks are rocks that solidify below the Earths surface; while extrusive igneous rocks are rocks
that solidify on or above the Earths surface. The examples of intrusive igneous rocks as well as
extrusive igneous rocks are shown in the table below:
Intrusive Igneous
Rocks
Extrusive Igneous
Rocks

Diorite
- Coarse-grained,
intrusive
igneous rocks
that contains a
mixture of
feldspar,
pyroxene,
hornblende and
sometimes
quartz.

Andesite
- A fine grained,
composed mainly
with other
materials such as
hornblende,
pyroxene and
biotite.

Gabbro
- Coarse-grained,
dark colored,
intrusive
igneous rock
that contained
feldspar, augite
and sometimes
olivine.

Basalt
- Fine grained,
dark-colored
extrusive igneous
rock composed
mainly
plagioclase and
pyroxene.

Granite
- Course-grained,
light colored,
intrusive
igneous rock
that contains
mainly quartz
and feldspar
minerals

Obsidian
- Dark-colored
volcanic glass
that forms the
very rapid cooling
of molten
material.
- Cool so rapid that
crystal do not
form.


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Pegmatite
- Light colored,
extremely
coarse-grained
intrusive
igneous rock.
- Formed near the
margins of a
magma
chamber during
the final phases
of magma
chamber
crystallization.
- Contain rare
minerals which
are not found in
other parts of
magma
chamber.

Pumice
- Light colored
vesicular igneous
rock.
- Formed through
very rapid
solidification of a
melt.
- The vesicular
texture is a result
of gas trapped in
the melt at the
time of
solidification.

Rhyolite
- Light colored,
fine grained,
extrusive igneous
that rock that
typically contains
quartz and
feldspar minerals.

Scoria
- Dark colored,
vesicular,
extrusive igneous
rock.
- Those vesicles are
a result of gas
trapped in the
melt at the time of
solidification.
- Often forms as a
frothy crust on
the top of a lava
flow or as
material ejected
from a volcanic
vent and
solidifying while


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airborne.

Reference
Igneous Rocks 2014, Geology.com, viewed on 26 June 2014
<http://geology.com/rocks/metamorphic-rocks.shtml>.

























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1.2 Metamorphic Rocks
Metamorphic rocks is the rocks that have been modified by heat, pressure and chemical process
such as buried under below the Earths surface. The extreme conditions has altered the
mineralogy, texture and chemical composition of the rocks. Metamorphic rocks can be classified
into two types, foliated metamorphic rocks which have a layered or banded appearance that is
produced by exposure to heat and direct pressure as well as non-foliated metamorphic rocks
which has no any layered or banded appearance. The examples of foliated metamorphic and non-
foliated metamorphic examples are shown in the table below.
Foliated Metamorphic
Rocks
Non-Foliated
Metamorphic Rocks


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Phyllite
- Made up mainly
of very fine-
grained mica.
- The surface of
phyllite is
typically
lustrous and
sometimes
wrinkled.
- Intermediate
grade between
slate and schist.

Amphibolite
- Formed through
recrystallization
under conditions of
high viscosity and
direct pressure.
- Composed
primarily of
amphibole and
plagioclase, usually
with very little
quartz.

Gneiss
- Has a banded
appearance.
- Made up of
granular
mineral grains.
- Typically
contains
abundant quartz
or feldspar
minerals.

Quartzite
- Produced by the
metamorphism of
sandstone.
- Composed
primarily of quartz.

Schist
- Well-developed
foliation.
- Often contains
significant
amount of mica
which allow the
rock to split into
thin pieces.
- Intermediate
metamorphic
grade between
phyllite and
geneiss.

Hornfels
- No specific
composition.
- Produced by
contact
metamorphism.
- Was baked while
near a heat source
such as magma
chamber, sill or
dike.







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Reference
Metamorphic Rocks 2014, Geology.com, viewed on 26 June 2014 <
http://geology.com/rocks/igneous-rocks.shtml>.

1.3 Sedimentary Rocks
Sedimentary rocks are rocks that formed by the accumulation of sediments. Sedimentary rocks
can be categorized into 3 types, which are clastic sedimentary, chemical sedimentary as well as
organic sedimentary rocks. Clastic sedimentary rocks are formed from mechanical weathering
debris; chemical sedimentary rocks are formed when dissolved materials precipitate from
Slate
- Formed through
the
metamorphism
of shale.
- Low grade
metamorphic
rock that splits
into thin pieces.

Marble
- Produced from the
metamorphism of
limestone.
- Composed
primarily of
calcium carbonate.

Soapstone
- Consist of
primarily of talc
with varying
amounts of
other minerals
such as micas,
chlorite,
amphiboles,
pyroxenes and
carbonates.
- Soft, dense,
heat-resistant
rock that as a
high specific
heat capacity.
- These
properties make
it useful for a
wide variety or
architectural
practical and
artistic uses.



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solution; while organic sedimentary rock are formed from the accumulation of plant or animal
debris. The examples of these three types of rocks are show in the table below.
Clastic Sedimentary
Rocks
Chemical Sedimentary
Rocks

Breccia
Composed of large
(over two
millimeter
diameter) angular
fragments.
Spaces between
the large
fragments can be
filled with a matrix
of smaller particles
or a mineral
cement which bind
the rock together
Limestone
Composed
primarily of
calcium carbonate.
Can formed
organically from
the accumulation of
shell, carol, algal
and fecal debris.
Can also formed
chemically from the
precipitation of
calcium carbonate
from lake or ocean.
Most common
products are:
production of
cement, crushed
stone and acid
neutralization.

Oil Shale
Contained
significant
amounts of
organic material in
the form of
kerogen.
Up to 1/3 of the
rock can be solid
organic material.
Liquid and
gaseous
hydrocarbons can
be extracted from
it yet the rock
must be heated
and/or treated with
solvent.
It is less efficient
than drilling rocks
that will yield oil

Rock Salt
Formed from the
evaporation of
ocean or saline lake
waters.
It is also known by
the mineral name
halite.
It is rarely found at
Earths surface,
except in areas of
very arid climate.
It is often mined for
use in chemical
industry or for use
as a winter highway
treatment.
Some halite is
processed for use as
a seasoning for
food.


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or gas directly into
a well.
The processes
used for
hydrocarbon
extraction also
produce emissions
and waste products
that cause
significant
environmental
concerns.
Sandstone
Made up mainly of
sand-size (1/16 to
2 millimeter
diameter)
weathering debris.
Environments
where large
amounts of sand
can accumulate
include beached,
deserts, flood
plains and deltas.

Dolomite
Also known as
Dolostone and
Dolomite rocks
It is very similar to
limestone.
It is thought to form
when limestone or
lime mud is
modified by
magnesium-rich
groundwater.

Shale
Made up of clay
size (less than
1/256 millimeter
in diameter
weathering debris.
Typically breaks
into thin flat
pieces.

Flint
Hard, tough, breaks
with conchoidal
fracture.
A form of
microcrystalline
quarts that is
typically called
chert by
geologists.
Often formed as
nodules in
sedimentary rocks
such as chalk and
marine limestone.


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Organic Sedimentary Rocks
Coal
Formed mainly from plant debris.
The plant debris usually accumulates
in a swamp environment.
Combustible and often mined for use
as a fuel.



Siltstone
Formed from silt-
size (between
1/256 and 1/16
millimeter
diameter)
weathering debris.

Iron Ore
Formed when iron
and oxygen (and
sometimes other
substances)
combine in solution
and deposit as a
sediment.
Hematite is the
most common
sedimentary iron
ore mineral.

Conglomerate
Contains large
(greater than two
millimeters in
diameter) rounded
particles.
The space between
the pebbles is
generally filled
with smaller
particles and/or a
chemical cement
that bins the rock
together.

Chert
Composed of
silicon dioxide
(SiO
2
).
It occurs as nodules
and concretionary
masses and less
frequently as a
layered deposit.
It breaks with a
conchoidal fracture,
often producing
very sharp edges.
Early people took
advantage of how
chert breaks and
used it into fashion
cutting tools and
weapons.


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Reference
Sedimentary Rocks 2014, Geology.com, viewed on 27 June 2014
<http://geology.com/rocks/sedimentary-rocks.shtml>.