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Virgen Milagrosa University Fondation

San Carlos City,Pangasinan

Roann Mae S. Sanchez Mr.Jovito M. Austria

The Birth Process
Birth- is a universal human experience.It is both a beginning and an end. It begins from the
moment of fertilization and ends at the time of birth. It is hard work for both mother and baby but work
that a rich reward.
The time of birth is considered as the most rapid and sudden change in the entire life span. The
fetus who is no longer insulated from the harsh condition of the outside world, no longer guaranteed
the nourishment and oxygen that have been provided through the umbilical cord, is thrust into a new
environment where needs and desires will only sometimes be satisfied. The fetus thus becomes a
newborn, a separate human being, who begins his/her wordly existence almost entirely depending on
Birth is also a transforming experience for parents and other family members. It brings a new
sense of responsibilities, worries, sorrows, and joy that go with being parent.
The uterine constractions that expel the fetus begin typically 266 days after conception as mild
tightening of the uterus.
Fetal Presentation/Position
Fetal presentation or orientation refers to the body part of the fetus that is closest to the
mother cervix.
There are different kinds of fetal presentation:
Cephalic presentation-the most common and the most desirable one.Medically, the head is
pointing downward.
Breech presentation-feet and rump first.
Transverse presentation-shoulder first.
The Breech and Transverse presentations may affect an infants survival but modern obstetrician
techniques have greatly reduce the risk.
Vaginal childbirth or labor ,takes place in four overlapping stages.
The First stage
The longest typically lasts 12 hours or more for a woman having her first child.
In later births, the first stage tends to be shorter.
During this stage, regular and increasingly frequent uterine contractions cause the
cervix to dilate or widen.
The Second stage
Typically lasts about 1 hours or less.
Begins when the babys head begins to move through the cervixinto the vaginal
canal,and it ends when the baby emerges completely from the mothers body.
If this stage lasts longer than two hours signalling,that the baby needs more help, a
doctor may grasp the babys head with forceps,or more often use vacuum extraction
with a sunction cup to pull it out of the mothers body.
At the end of this stage, the baby is born, but still attached to the placenta in the
mothers body by the umbilical cord, which must be cut and clamped.
The Third stage
Lasts about 5 to 30 minutes.
Placenta and the remainder of the umbilical cord are expelled from the mother.
The Fourth stage
Couple of hours after the delivery.
Mothers rests in bed while her recovery is monitored.

The Newborn
This is what happens to the new born after birth.
The newborns first minutes are assessed by a measure called the Apgar.
The scalene assigns score 0,1, or 2 to the babys heart rate,breathing,muscle tone, color and
reflexes at precisely one minute after birth and again at 5 minutes.
If the 5 minutes, score is 7 or better, the new born is not in danger.If the score is below 7, the
infant needs help establishing normal breathing.
If the score is below 4,the baby is in critical condition and needs immediate medical attention to
prevent respiratory distress and death.
Next,the infant is carefully examined for any structural problems,such as cleft palate, a spinal
defect or a hip dislocation.
Then the newborn who is typically alert and wide-eyed is usually given to the mother to hold
and perhaps breast-feed.
Father can also hold the baby in these first minutes taking care to kept the infant warm.
The New Born Appearance
At birth the newborn,especially a full term (after 38 weeks in the womb):
Weighs around 7 pounds but it can weigh a little as five pounds or as much as 10
pounds and still be physically normal.
Measures about 20 inches or so,almost one third of its final height as an adult.
Head especially the upper portion seems disproportionately large relative to his/her trunk and
short sometimes skinny limbs.
Head is Elongated and sometimes pointy,because the bones of the skull overlap during birth as
the head squeezes through the birth canal.
The overlapping causes no lasting damage, since the bones of a babys skull do not fuse together
until the Fontanelles(soft spots) on the head close ,several months after birth.
Sometimes a newborn has hair on his/her face and body as well as on his/her head.
Skin may be covered with a waxy substance called Vernix.
Sometimes the skin is red ,splotchy and wrinkled.
Possible Physical and Pyschological and Consequences of Birth.
Variation of the birth process that can cause difficulties fall into two main categories: birth
that,occurs too early and birth occurs too late and causes too much stress for the fetus.
Birth that occurs too early
An infant born three or more weeks before the due date is called preterm(a more accurate
designation than premature)
Usually has low birth weight(defined internationally as less than 2,500 grams or 5 pounds)
Challenge facing low birth weight of preterm infants is survival because several vital functions
are not yet developed enough for life outside the womb.Most important ,they may be unable to
breathe in sufficient oxygen because of the immaturity o the lungs(called respiratory distress
Birth that occurs too late
Postmature babies are too late to be born and too large at birth.Postmature babies are those
who are still unborn two weeks after the mothers due date.
Consequences for the delay will be:
The blood supply from the placenta may be become insufficient to nourish the still growing
fetus adequately.
The blood supply to the brain may be decreased leading to the brain damage.
Low birth weight
This does not mean that most preterm babies die.It developed countries there are medical
intervention after birth such as isolettes intravavenous feeding,respirators and so on-now they allow
low birth weight infants to live.
Causes of low birth weight
It puts the infant at risk especially if the birth was more than six weeks early and if the birth
weight was less than 1,500 grams.
Some at low birth weight experience brain damage as result of anoxia(a temporary lacl of
oxygen in the brain)or of cerebral haemorrhaging.
Certain kinds of stimulation such as the regular breathing and bathing a newborn.
As time goes by,short and long term difficulties in cognitive development may also emerge-like
being more distractible and slower talk.
Birth as a Family Event
Birth as a family event may be one of joy or sadness. Joy especially if the infant is the first-born
and is very much welcomed. Sadness, if the newborn is from a family whose resourses are scarce.
While biological factors are the primary determinations of birth complications and the length of
labor ,factors in the social context play a large role in the parents overall experience of birth. Women
who are prepared for birth-knowing what to expect and how to make easier and who have the import of
their husband and/or other sensitive birth attendants-are most likely to find the experience satisfying.
The father participation in the birth process generally has several positive effects. Women whos
husband or partners are present throughout delivery often experience emotional support and are
provided with vulnerable assistance. Fathers turn is often thrilled at being involved in the birth of their