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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY 1
Adaptive Working Schedule for Duty-Cycle
Opportunistic Mobile Networks
Huan Zhou, Student Member, IEEE, Hongyang Zhao, Jiming Chen, Senior Member, IEEE,
Chi Harold Liu, Member, IEEE, and Jialu Fan
AbstractIn Opportunistic Mobile Networks (OppNets), a
large amount of energy is consumed by idle listening, instead
of infrequent data exchange. This makes energy saving a chal-
lenging and fundamental problem in OppNets, since nodes are
typically battery-powered. Asynchronous duty-cycle operation is
a promising approach for energy saving in OppNets, however,
if its working schedule is not effectively designed, it may also
cause signicant network performance degradation. Therefore,
it is pressing to design an energy-efcient working schedule for
duty-cycle OppNets. In this paper, we rst analyze the contact
process in duty-cycle OppNets, then propose an adaptive working
schedule for duty-cycle OppNets. The proposed adaptive working
schedule uses the past recorded contact histories to predict
the future contact information, so as to adaptively congure
the working schedule of each node in the network. Finally,
extensive real trace-driven simulations are conducted to evaluate
the performance of our proposed adaptive working schedule.
Extensive real trace-driven simulation results demonstrate that
our proposed adaptive working schedule is superior to the
random working schedule and the periodical working schedule
algorithms in terms of the number of effect contacts, delivery
ratio and delivery delay.
Index TermsOpportunistic Mobile Networks, Energy saving,
Duty-cycle operation, working schedule.
I. INTRODUCTION
W
ITH the rapid proliferation of portable devices (e.g.,
i-pad, PDAs, smart-phones), a new peer-to-peer ap-
plication Opportunistic Mobile Networks (OppNets) just
started to emerge [1], [2], [3], [4], [5]. The typical scenario
in OppNets is that two nodes in the network carrying portable
devices with wireless network interfaces (e.g., Bluetooth, Wi-
Fi) walking past each other and exchanging data (e.g., road
information, weather reports) during a short period of time
when they are within the communication range of each other.
Since it is very challenging to guarantee a stable end-to-end
Manuscript received September 7, 2013; revised November 16, 2013;
accepted March 9, 2014.
Copyright (c) 2013 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted.
However, permission to use this material for any other purposes must be
obtained from the IEEE by sending a request to pubs-permissions@ieee.org.
H. Zhou, H. Zhao, and J. Chen are with the State Key Laboratory of
Industrial Control Technology, Dept. of control, and also afliated with Cyber
Innovation Joint Research Center, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027,
China. (Corresponding author: J. Chen, Email: jmchen@iipc.zju.edu.cn)
C. Liu is with the Department of Software Service Engineering, Beijing
Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China.
J. Fan is with State Key Lab. of Synthetical Automation for Process
Industries, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, China.
The Research was supported in part by NSFC under grants No. 61222305,
61304028, and 61174177, the Fundamental Research Fund for the Central
Universities No. N120308001, the National Program for Special Support of
Top-Notch Young Professionals and NCET-11-0445.
transmission path due to the time-varying network topology,
nodes in OppNets employ a store-carry-forward paradigm for
data transmissions [6], [7], [8], [9].
In order to enable such type of data exchanges, nodes in the
network have to keep in the listening mode to discover if there
is any neighboring node in their vicinity. In OppNets, the inter-
contact time is generally much longer than the contact duration
due to the sparsity of the network [10], [11], and hence nodes
will spend most of their energy in the idle listening mode
during inter-contact times. Experimental studies in [12], [13],
[14], [15] have shown that energy consumption in the idle
listening mode is almost as much as that in a receiving mode,
and thus nodes may potentially consume over 95% of their
energy in the idle listening mode searching for neighbors [16].
This makes energy saving a signicant problem in OppNets
due to the limited energy supplies for most mobile terminals.
It is well known that duty-cycle operation is a promising
approach for energy saving, in which nodes operate alter-
natively between wake-up and sleep states. The duty-cycle
operation can be classied into two categories: synchronous
and asynchronous [17], [18], [19], [20]. Typical synchronous
protocols enable nodes to synchronously sleep and wake
up, providing intermittent network services. However, since
time synchronization introduces tremendous communication
overhead and computation complexity, it is very challenging
to provide a global clock synchronization in OppNets, and
thus asynchronous protocols, allowing nodes to operate in-
dependently, become a favorable solution. Nevertheless, this
operation may cause signicant network performance degrada-
tion of many network operations including data transmission,
which usually happens when nodes switch to the sleep state to
save energy. Hence, it is pressing to investigate the impact of
duty-cycle operation on the network performance in OppNets.
Recently, research activities in OppNets [18], [20], [21]
mainly focus on investigating the impact when the working
schedule of the asynchronous duty-cycle operation is randomly
chosen. We argue that the design of this working schedule
eventually would have signicant impact on the network per-
formance in duty-cycle OppNets. For instance, many contacts
will be missed when nodes in the network switch to the sleep
state. To this end, in this paper, we aim to analyze the impact of
duty-cycle operation on the network performance in duty-cycle
OppNets, and design an energy-efcient working schedule
for duty-cycle OppNets that is not only effective in reducing
energy consumption, but also minimizing the potential network
performance degradation. Specically, our contribution is three
folds:
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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY 2
1) We carefully examine the contact process in duty-cycle
OppNets, and divide the contact in duty-cycle OppNets
into two kinds: the effective contact and the missed
contact.
2) Then, based on the analysis of the contact process in
duty-cycle OppNets, we propose an adaptive working
schedule for duty-cycle OppNets. The proposed working
schedule uses the past recorded contact histories to
predict the future contact information, so as to adaptively
schedule the wake-up and sleep states in each period to
increase energy efciency and network performance in
duty-cycle OppNets.
3) Finally, extensive real trace-driven simulations are con-
ducted to evaluate the performance of our proposed ap-
proach. The simulations results show that our proposed
approach performs far better than the random working
schedule and the periodical working schedule in terms of
the number of effect contacts, delivery ratio and delivery
delay.
The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. Sec-
tion II introduces related activities. Section III and Section IV
describe the network model and motivations, respectively.
Section V introduces our proposed adaptive working schedule
for duty-cycle OppNets. Section VI evaluates the performance
of our proposed adaptive working schedule through extensive
real trace-driven simulations. At last, Section VII concludes
the paper and presents the future work.
II. RELATED WORK
Energy saving in OppNets is motivated by the limited
battery life of mobile devices. Some studies focus on reducing
energy consumption in data transmission by designing energy-
efcient data forwarding strategy. Epidemic routing [22], is
a widely used data forwarding strategy in OppNets, which
simply oods data to the entire network. This strategy can
guarantee a high data delivery ratio, but is expensive in
terms of energy consumption since data in the network is
essentially ooded. Attempts to reduce energy consumption
in data transmission are explored in [23] and [24], [25]. A
simple approach to reduce the energy consumption of ooding
by only forwarding a copy of data with some probability p
(p < 1) was proposed in [23]. Spray-and-Wait proposed in [24]
reduces energy consumption by assigning a small number of
replica copies to a data item.
Some other studies focus on investigating the contact
probing process to reduce energy consumption in Opp-
Nets [26], [27], [28], [29], [30]. The impact of contact probing
on the probability of missing a contact was investigated
in [26]. Through extensive real trace-driven simulations, au-
thors showed that their proposed adaptive contact probing
mechanism, STAR, consumes three times less energy com-
pared with a constant contact probing interval scheme. The
impact of contact probing on link duration and the tradeoff
between the node energy consumption and throughput were
investigated in [27]. In order to switch between low-power,
slow discovery mode and high-power, fast discovery mode,
two novel adaptive schemes for dynamically selecting the
parameters of the contact probing process depending on a
mobility context were introduced in [28]. In [29], authors have
investigated the impact of contact probing on the probability of
detecting a contact between two nodes, and analyzed the trade-
off between energy efciency and the contact opportunities
under different situations using the Random WayPoint (RWP)
model. Authors in [30] proposes techniques to adaptively
schedule wakeup periods of mobile nodes between their inter-
contact times, which are much longer than their contact
durations. The proposed scheme can largely reduce the energy
consumption of contact probing during inter-contact times
when contact probing is unnecessary.
However, the above aforementioned studies only focus on
investigating the contact probing process to save energy, they
do not take into account the energy consumption in the idle lis-
tening mode. Actually, the idle listening consumes much more
energy than the contact probing process. Some studies have
applied the duty-cycle operation to save energy in OppNets.
Power saving trade-offs as a function of the wake-up, sleep
intervals and the contact duration were investigated in [21].
This work analyzes the trade-off between energy saving and
the contact probability, and the trade-off between Delay Tol-
erant Objects (DTO) dissemination time and energy saving
in duty-cycle OppNets when the contact duration is a certain
value. Authors in [18] also proposed a model to investigate the
tradeoff between energy saving and the contact probability in
duty-cycle OppNets only when the contact duration follows a
power law distribution. Then, based on the proposed model
in [18], a novel approach to improve the performance of
data forwarding in duty-cycle OppNets was proposed in [20].
The proposed forwarding strategy takes into account both the
contact frequency and the contact duration, and manages to
forward data copies along the opportunistic forwarding paths
which maximize the data delivery probability. An effective and
energy-efcient contact discovery scheme, i.e., cooperative
duty cycling (CDC), was proposed in [31]. Through theoretical
analysis and simulations, CDC is shown to be able to achieve
a remarkable performance in energy conservation. However,
CDC needs local synchronization of the cluster member nodes,
which is difcult to achieve and may cause tremendous
communication overhead and computational complexity in our
considered OppNets.
Different from all research activities above, we uniquely
focus on designing working schedule for duty-cycle OppNets,
which aims to increase energy efciency and minimize the
degradation of network performance.
III. NETWORK MODEL
Similar to [32], each node in the network is duty-cycled
with two states, wake-up state and sleep state, alternating
according to a working schedule. Nodes in the wake-up state
can exchange data with other nodes, send beacon messages
periodically to discover contacts, or listen to the wireless
channel to discover beacon messages from other nodes. Nodes
in the sleep state switch off their wireless interfaces to save
energy, and thus they cannot communicate with other nodes.
We consider a dynamic environment of N nodes within the
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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY 3
Node i
Node j
T
0
T
0
+T t T
0
+2T
<110000, 180s, 30s>
<101000, 180s, 30s>
t
2
t
1
(a) Effective Contact
Node i
Node j
t T
0
T
0
+T T
0
+2T
t
3
<101000, 180s, 30s>
<110000, 180s, 30s>
t
4
(b) Missed Contact
Fig. 1. Contact between two nodes in duty-cycle OppNets, where colored
slots represent the wake-up state, and others for the sleep state.
proximity of each other at any given time, where N = {i =
1, 2, . . . , N}, and each node i N employs a working sched-
ule periodically, represented by a tuple, s
i
=<
i
, T
i
, t >.

i
is node is bitmap where each bit indicates the wake-up or
sleep state, T
i
is the length of a period, and t is the duration
of each bit in
i
. For simplicity reasons, we assume that all
nodes in the network have the same T
i
, i N. Therefore, we
use T to indicate the value of the period directly. Moreover, we
assume that all nodes in the network employ the same D for
duty-cycle operations, which can be calculated as D = n
w
/n
p
,
where n
w
denotes the number of wake-up slots in T, and n
p
denotes the total number of slots in T.
Fig. 1 shows an example of the contact between two nodes
in the considered duty-cycle OppNets. Nodes i, j N have
the working schedules of s
i
=< 110000, 180s, 30s > and
s
j
=< 101000, 180s, 30s > at time T
0
to T +T
0
, respectively,
thus T = 180s, t = 30s, and D = 33.3%. Taking node
i as an example, it is in the wake-up state during the rst
two slots and in the sleep state during the next four slots
in a period. It is worth noting that when nodes hear the
beacon messages broadcast by the neighbors, they respond
with certain information, including, but not limited to, the
identity, service availability, etc.. Based on this information,
nodes can record the contact histories with all their neighbors.
IV. MOTIVATIONS
In OppNets, nodes are in contact with each other if they are
within a pre-determined communication range. The interval
during which nodes are in contact is called the contact
duration, and the beginning of the contact duration is called
the encountering time. Fig. 1 shows an example of the
contact between two nodes in duty-cycle OppNets. Let T
0
be
the start time of a certain period, then nodes i and j will switch
between the wake-up and sleep states every T according to
their working schedules. As shown in Fig. 1, a contact between
nodes i and j happens randomly in a certain period and lasts
for T
d
interval, which represents the contact duration. It is
worth noting that if this contact happens when nodes i and
Node i
Node j
t T
0
T
0
+T T
0
+2T
t
5
<100010, 180s, 30s>
<101000, 180s, 30s>
(a) Random working schedule
Node i
Node j
T
0
T
0
+T t T
0
+2T
t
5
<000101, 180s, 30s>
<000110, 180s, 30s>
(b) Adaptive working schedule
Fig. 2. An Example of (a) the random working schedule, and (b) the adaptive
working schedule.
j are not in the wake-up state simultaneously, then a missed
contact would happen. For example, if this contact happens
at time t
3
or t
4
, then this contact cannot be discovered by
each other. To this end, we divide the contact in duty-cycle
OppNets into two kinds: the effective contact and the missed
contact. The effective contact, able to be discovered by each
other and subsequently data exchanges, further describes two
scenarios: (a) when two nodes are both in the wake-up state at
the beginning of their encounter; (b) if not, they happened to
be both in the wake-up state before the contact ends, as shown
in Fig. 1(a). The missed contact, on the contrary, happens when
two nodes are not both in the wake-up state during the contact,
as shown in Fig. 1(b).
Based on the example and analysis above, we observe
that if nodes in the network randomly choose a working
schedule, many contacts in the network will be eventually
missed. However, if nodes in the network can adaptively set
their working schedules in each period, then a missed contact
can be turned to an effective contact. As shown in Fig. 2,
if nodes i and j randomly choose the working schedules of
< 101000, 180s, 30s > and < 100010, 180s, 30s > at time
T
0
to T + T
0
, respectively, then a contact between nodes
i and j occurs at time t
5
will not be discovered by each
other. However, if nodes i and j can predict the future contact
information, and choose the right time slots to wake up, then
this contact would become an effective contact. In this case,
nodes i and j adaptively choose the working schedules of
< 000101, 180s, 30s > and < 000110, 180s, 30s > at time
T
0
to T + T
0
, respectively. To this end, in the next section
we aim to design an adaptive working schedule for duty-cycle
OppNets.
V. PROPOSED ADAPTIVE WORKING SCHEDULE
In OppNets, unlike traditional connected networks (e.g.,
peer-to-peer networks and Internet-accessible networks), nodes
are intermittently connected. In the previous studies, authors
found that contacts of node pairs in OppNets have high
regularity [10], [11], [33]. Authors in [10], [11] found that
the pair-wise inter-contact time can be well approximated by a
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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY 4
power law distribution, and authors in [33] found that the pair-
wise inter-contact time follows an exponential distribution, but
there still lacks unied view on pair-wise inter-contact time
distribution until now. Therefore, in this paper we use the past
recorded contact histories stored in each nodes buffer (a piece
of memory) to predict the future contact information, so as
to adaptively schedule the wake-up and sleep states in each
period.
In [34], authors showed that each node can make a predic-
tion about the future contact information based on its previous
contact information. One of such contact information is the
expected Encounter Value (EV), which indicates the number
of nodes that a node expects to encounter in the future [34],
[35]. In this paper, we use this concept to set the working
schedule for nodes in the network. In order to facilitate the
calculation of the expected EV, we divide each period into
n
p
=
T
t
time slots, where t is the length of a time slot.
Then, we can use the expected EV in each time slot to
adaptively set the working schedule in each period for nodes
in the network.
To calculate the expected EV in each time slot, each node
needs to record the encountering time of each contact between
itself and any other neighboring node. As stated previously,
each node maintains a piece of memory to record the past
inter-contact time between itself and any other neighboring
nodes. The set of recorded past inter-contact time between
nodes i and j is denoted by H
ij
= {t
1
ij
, t
2
ij
, ..., t
hij
ij
}, where
t
k
ij
represents the recorded past k-th inter-contact time between
nodes i and j, and h
ij
is the total number of recorded inter-
contact time between nodes i and j.
As shown in Fig. 3, the last encountering time between
nodes i and j occurred at time t
0
ij
, and the start time of a
certain period is denoted as t (t t
0
ij
). Assume that the
next inter-contact time between nodes i and j is t
ij
, then the
probability that node i will encounter node j in the m-th slot
of this period is denoted as Pr{t + (m 1)t t
0
ij
< t
ij

t + mt t
0
ij
| t
ij
> t t
0
ij
}, m = 1, 2, ...,
T
t
. Therefore,
the expected EV of node i in the m-th time slot of this period
can be calculated as:
EV
i
(m) =

1jN,j=i
Pr{t + (m1)t t
0
ij
< t
ij
t+
mt t
0
ij
| t
ij
> t t
0
ij
},
=

1jN,j=i
Pr{t + (m1)t t
0
ij
< t
ij
t +mt t
0
ij
}
Pr{t
ij
> t t
0
ij
}
,
m = 1, 2, ...,
T
t
.
(1)
Considering r
m
ij
=| R
m
ij
|, where R
m
ij
= {t
k
ij
| t
k
ij
H
ij
, t+
(m1)t t
0
ij
< t
k
ij
t + mt t
0
ij
}, m = 1, 2, ...,
T
t
,
and u
ij
=| U
ij
| where U
ij
= {t
k
ij
| t
k
ij
H
ij
, t
k
ij
> t t
0
ij
}.
Then, we have:
Pr{t + (m1)t t
0
ij
< t
ij
t +mt t
0
ij
} =
r
m
ij
h
ij
,
(2)
and
Pr{t
ij
> t t
0
ij
} =
u
ij
h
ij
.
(3)
t t+t t+mt

t+T
Fig. 3. Illustrating the probability that node i will encounter node j in the
m-th slot of a certain period.
When we substitute Eq. (2) together with Eq. (3) into
Eq. (1), we have:
Pr{t + (m1)t t
0
ij
< t
ij
t +mt t
0
ij
| t
ij
> t t
0
ij
}
=
Pr{t + (m1)t t
0
ij
< t
ij
t +mt t
0
ij
}
Pr{t
ij
> t t
0
ij
}
=
r
m
ij
/h
ij
u
ij
/h
ij
=
r
m
ij
u
ij
.
(4)
Hence, the expected EV of node i in the m-th time slot of
this period can be expressed as:
EV
i
(m) =

1jN,j=i
r
m
ij
u
ij
, m = 1, 2, ...,
T
t
.
(5)
According to Eq. (5), each node in the network can calculate
the expected EV in each time slot of a certain period. It is
worth noting that if nodes i and j do not meet each other,
their expected EV is 0. Then, based on Eq. (5), the proposed
working schedule can be summarized as follows:
1) Taking a certain period as an example. At the start
time of the current period, each node updates the last
encountering time with nodes it has met in the previous
period just passed by, and divides the current period into
n
p
time slots.
2) After updating the last encountering time, each node
calculates the expected EV of each time slot in the
current period according to Eq. (5) using the recorded
contact histories.
3) Then, each node in the network will choose n
w
time
slots to wake up, and these n
w
time slots have the
highest value of the expected EV.
4) The above process will be repeated at the start time of
each period, and each node will set its working schedule
adaptively in each period.
From the above proposed working schedule for duty-cycle
OppNets, it can be found that node i has to update the exact
last encountering time with all nodes it has met at the start time
of each period, so as to calculate its expected EV in each time
slot. However, since nodes in duty-cycle OppNets may miss
contacts with their neighboring nodes when they are in the
sleep state, or have discovering delay with their neighboring
nodes when they are in the sleep state at the beginning of their
encounter, as shown in Fig. 1, it is difcult for nodes to obtain
the exact last encountering time with all neighboring nodes.
It is worth noticing that since the inter-contact time between
two nodes is much larger than the contact duration, and the
discovering delay is less than the contact duration, here we
ignore the discovering delay and only take the missed contact
into consideration.
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10.1109/TVT.2014.2312934, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY 5
1min 10min 1h 3h 1day 1week 1month 6months
10
5
10
4
10
3
10
2
10
1
10
0
Time
C
C
D
F


Infocom 06
MIT Reality
Fig. 4. CCDF of the inter-contact time in the Infocom 06 trace and MIT
Reality trace.
For the missed contact, if node i has missed a contact with
node j in the previous period, the last encountering time t
0
ij
between nodes i and j will not be updated in this period,
then the calculation of the expected EV between nodes i
and j will not be accurate. However, when time passes by,
it is obvious that the expected EV between nodes i and j
will decrease. Fig. 4 shows the Complementary Cumulative
Distribution Function (CCDF) of the inter-contact time in the
Infocom 06 trace and MIT Reality trace. It can be found that
less than 6% of inter-contact times in the Infocom 06 trace are
larger than 3 hours, which means that when the inter-contact
time between nodes i and j is larger than 3 hours, the expected
EV between nodes i and j will be nearly zero. Similarly, it
can be also found that less than 4% of inter-contact times in
the MIT Reality trace are larger than 20 days, which means
that when the inter-contact time between nodes i and j is
larger than 20 days, the expected EV between nodes i and
j will be nearly zero. It is worth noticing that inter-contact
times in the MIT Reality trace are much larger than that in
the Infocom 06 trace. The main reason is that contacts in the
MIT Reality trace are much sparser than that in the Infocom
06 trace. Towards this end, we argue that our mechanism is
still effective if nodes have missed contacts with other nodes.
VI. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
In this section, we focus on evaluating the performance of
our proposed adaptive working schedule using different real
mobility traces in duty-cycle OppNets.
A. Simulation Setup
We compare the performance of our proposed adaptive
working schedule with the random working schedule and
the periodical working schedule using the Epidemic routing
protocol [22] and the Bubble Rap routing protocol [36]. In
the random working schedule, nodes in the network randomly
choose time slots to wake up in each time period. In the
periodical working schedule, nodes in the network randomly
choose a working schedule at the start time of the simulation,
TABLE I
TRACE STATISTICS
Trace MIT Reality Infocom 06
Device Smart Phones iMote
Network type Bluetooth Bluetooth
Duration (days) 246 3
Granularity (seconds) 300 120
No. of internal contacts 114,046 182,951
No. of devices 97 78
Contact frequency/pair/day 0.024 6.7
and then run the working schedule periodically at each period.
In the Epidemic routing protocol, data copies are ooded to
nodes in the network. In the Bubble Rap routing protocol, data
copies are rst forwarded to nodes which have higher global
centrality. When data copies are forwarded to the community
to which the destination node belongs, then data copies are
rst forwarded to nodes which have higher local centrality.
Furthermore, unless otherwise stated, we set the length of
a period T as 5 minutes, and the size of each time slot as
30s in the Infocom 06 trace, while the length of a period
T as 10 minutes, and the size of each time slot as 60s in
the MIT Reality trace. In our simulation studies, we focus
on the following four performance metrics for performance
evaluation:
1) Number of Effective Contacts: the total number of
effective contacts over a certain interval encountered by
nodes in the network.
2) Delivery Ratio: the ratio of data being successfully
delivered by nodes in the network.
3) Delivery Delay: the average delay of the successfully
delivered data.
4) Delivery Cost: the average number of data being trans-
mitted by nodes in the network.
We use two experimental traces, Infocom 06 [37] and MIT
Reality [38] collected from realistic environments to evaluate
the performance of our proposed adaptive working schedule
with the random working schedule and the periodical working
schedule. Users in these two traces are all carrying Bluetooth-
enabled mobile devices, which record contacts by periodically
detecting their peers nearby. The traces cover various types of
corporate environments and have various experiment periods.
The details of these two traces are summarized in Table I.
B. Performance Comparison
In this part, we carry out experiments to compare the
performance of our proposed adaptive working schedule with
the random working schedule and the periodical working
schedule in the Infocom 06 and MIT Reality traces, using
the Epidemic routing protocol and the Bubble Rap routing
protocol, respectively.
Fig. 5 shows the comparison of the number of effective con-
tacts in the Infocom 06 and MIT Reality traces, respectivley.
Fig. 5(a) shows the comparison of the number of effective
contacts in the Infocom 06 trace, and Fig. 5(b) shows the
comparison of the number of effective contacts in the MIT
Reality trace. It can be found that the number of effective
contact increases as the duty cycle increases, and our proposed
0018-9545 (c) 2013 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See
http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.
This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI
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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY 6
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
Duty Cycle (%)
T
h
e

N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

E
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e

C
o
n
t
a
c
t
s


Periodcial
Random
Adaptive
(a) The number of effective contacts when the simulation time is
2 hours in the Infocom 06 trace
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
0
500
1000
1500
Duty Cycle (%)
T
h
e

N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

E
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e

C
o
n
t
a
c
t
s


Periodical
Random
Adaptive
(b) The number of effective contacts when the simulation time is
24 hours in the MIT Reality trace
Fig. 5. Comparison of the number of effective contacts in different traces
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
Duty Cycle (%)
D
e
liv
e
r
y

R
a
t
io


Periodical
Random
Adaptive
(a) Delivery Ratio
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
Duty Cycle (%)
D
e
liv
e
r
y

D
e
la
y

(
m
in
u
t
e
s
)


Periodical
Random
Adaptive
(b) Delivery Delay
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Duty Cycle (%)
D
e
liv
e
r
y

C
o
s
t


Periodical
Random
Adaptive
(c) Delivery Cost
Fig. 6. Performance comparison using the Epidemic routing protocol when TTL is 2 hours in the Infocom 06 trace
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
Duty Cycle (%)
D
e
liv
e
r
y

R
a
t
io


Periodical
Random
Adaptive
(a) Delivery Ratio
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
980
1000
1020
1040
1060
1080
1100
Duty Cycle (%)
D
e
liv
e
r
y

D
e
la
y

(
m
in
t
u
e
s
)


Periodical
Random
Adaptive
(b) Delivery Delay
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Duty Cycle (%)
D
e
liv
e
r
y

C
o
s
t


Periodical
Random
Adaptive
(c) Delivery Cost
Fig. 7. Performance comparison using the Epidemic routing protocol when TTL is 24 hours in the MIT Reality trace
adaptive working schedule performs better than the random
and periodical working schedules in terms of the number of
effective contacts. This is reasonable because our proposed
adaptive working schedule uses the the past recorded contact
histories to predict the future contact information, so as to
adaptively schedule the wake-up and sleep intervals in each
period. Therefore, a lot of missed contacts in the random and
periodical working schedules are turned to effective contacts.
Fig. 6 shows the performance comparison by using the
Epidemic routing protocol in the Infocom 06 trace. It can be
found that the delivery ratio, delivery delay and delivery cost
in the Infocom 06 trace are all tightly related to the duty cycle.
As the duty cycle increases from 10% to 100%, the delivery
ratio and delivery cost both increase, and the delivery delay
decreases, especially when the duty cycle is less than 50%.
This is because less contacts will be missed when the duty
cycle increases, or more contacts can be used for data delivery,
resulting in the increase of the delivery ratio and delivery
cost, and the decrease of the delivery delay. Furthermore, our
proposed adaptive working schedule outperforms the random
working schedule and the periodical working schedule in
terms of delivery ratio and delivery delay, especially when
the duty cycle is less than 50%. However, the delivery cost
of our proposed adaptive working schedule is larger than that
of the random working schedule and the periodical working
schedule, especially when the duty cycle is less than 50%. The
main reason is that less contacts will be missed in our proposed
adaptive working schedule, compared with the random and
0018-9545 (c) 2013 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See
http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.
This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI
10.1109/TVT.2014.2312934, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY 7
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0.45
0.5
Duty Cycle (%)
D
e
liv
e
r
y

R
a
t
io


Periodical
Random
Adaptive
(a) Delivery Ratio
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
125
Duty Cycle (%)
D
e
liv
e
r
y

D
e
la
y

(
m
in
u
t
e
s
)


Periodical
Random
Adaptive
(b) Delivery Delay
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Duty Cycle (%)
D
e
liv
e
r
y

C
o
s
t


Periodical
Random
Adaptive
(c) Delivery Cost
Fig. 8. Performance comparison using the Bubble Rap routing protocol when TTL is 4 hours in the Infocom 06 trace
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
Duty Cycle (%)
D
e
liv
e
r
y

R
a
t
io


Periodical
Random
Adaptive
(a) Delivery Ratio
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
1050
1055
1060
1065
1070
1075
1080
1085
1090
1095
Duty Cycle (%)
D
e
liv
e
r
y

D
e
la
y

(
m
in
u
t
e
s
)


Periodical
Random
Adaptive
(b) Delivery Delay
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Duty Cycle (%)
D
e
liv
e
r
y

C
o
s
t


Periodical
Random
Adaptive
(c) Delivery Cost
Fig. 9. Performance comparison using the Bubble Rap routing protocol when TTL is 24 hours in the MIT Reality trace
periodical working schedule, as shown in Fig. 5. In that sense,
our proposed adaptive working schedule allows more data
delivery among effective contacts, resulting in the increase
of the delivery ratio and delivery cost, and the decrease of
the delivery delay. It is also worth noting that when the duty
cycle is larger than 80%, the random and periodical working
schedules perform nearly as good as our proposed adaptive
working schedule. This is because when the duty cycle is
larger than 80%, few contacts are missed not only in our
proposed adaptive working schedule, but also in the random
and periodical working schedules.
Fig. 7 shows the performance comparison by using the
Epidemic routing protocol in the MIT Reality trace. It can be
found that similar to the results in Fig. 6, as the duty cycle in-
creases from 10% to 100%, the delivery ratio and delivery cost
in the MIT Reality trace both increase, and the corresponding
delivery delay decreases, especially when the duty cycle is
less than 50%. Furthermore, our proposed adaptive working
schedule also outperforms the random working schedule and
the periodical working schedule in terms of delivery ratio and
delivery delay, especially when the duty cycle is less than 50%.
It is worth noticing that the delivery delay in the MIT Reality
trace is much larger than that in the Infocom 06 trace, this is
because the contacts in the MIT Reality trace are much sparser
than the latter, therefore it will take more time to deliver a data
to the destination.
Figs. 8 and 9 shows the performance comparison using
the Bubble Rap routing protocol in the Infocom 06 and
MIT Reality traces, respectively. It can be found that similar
to the results in Figs. 6 and 7, the delivery ratio, delivery
delay and delivery cost in the Infocom 06 and MIT Reality
traces are also tightly related to the duty cycle. Furthermore,
our proposed adaptive working schedule also outperforms the
random working schedule and the periodical working schedule
in terms of delivery ratio and delivery delay, and the random
working schedule outperforms the periodical working schedule
especially when the duty cycle is less than 50%. Additionally,
similar to the results in Figs. 6 and 7, the delivery delay in the
MIT Reality trace is also much larger than that in the Infocom
06 trace.
To summarize, as the duty cycle increases, the number of
effective contacts, the delivery ratio and the delivery cost of
our proposed adaptive working schedule, the random working
schedule and the periodical working schedule all increase
in the Infocom 06 and MIT Reality traces, while the cor-
responding delivery delay decreases in the Infocom 06 and
MIT Reality traces. Moreover, our proposed adaptive working
schedule performs better than the random working schedule
and the periodical working schedule in terms of the number
of effective contacts, delivery ratio and delivery delay with
reasonable delivery cost, not only in the Infocom 06 trace, but
also in the MIT Reality trace, using different routing protocol,
especially when the duty cycle is less than 50%. Therefore,
we conclude that our proposed adaptive working schedule is
an effective and robust approach for duty-cycle OppNets.
C. Impact of T
In this part, we carry out experiments when varying the
value of T in the Infocom 06 and MIT Reality traces, aiming to
investigate the impact of T on the performance of our proposed
0018-9545 (c) 2013 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See
http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.
This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI
10.1109/TVT.2014.2312934, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY 8
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
Duty Cycle (%)
D
e
liv
e
r
y

R
a
t
io


T=5min
T=10min
T=20min
(a) Delivery Ratio
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
Duty Cycle (%)
D
e
liv
e
r
y

D
e
la
y

(
m
in
t
u
e
s
)


T=5min
T=10min
T=20min
(b) Delivery Delay
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
Duty Cycle (%)
D
e
liv
e
r
y

C
o
s
t


T=5min
T=10min
T=20min
(c) Delivery Cost
Fig. 10. Performance of the adaptive working schedule with different T when TTL is 2 hours in the Infocom 06 trace
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
0.5
0.55
0.6
0.65
0.7
0.75
0.8
0.85
DutyCcyle (%)
D
e
liv
e
r
y

R
a
t
io



T=5min
T=10min
T=20min
(a) Delivery Ratio
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
935
940
945
950
955
960
965
970
975
980
985
Duty Cycle (%)
D
e
liv
e
r
y
D
e
la
y

(
m
in
u
t
e
s
)


T=5min
T=10min
T=20min
(b) Delivery Delay
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
Duty Cycle (%)
D
e
liv
e
r
y

C
o
s
t


T=5min
T=10min
T=20min
(c) Delivery Cost
Fig. 11. Performance of the adaptive working schedule with different T when TTL is 24 hours in the MIT Reality trace
adaptive working schedule in different traces.
Fig. 10 shows the performance of our proposed adaptive
working schedule with different T when TTL is 2 hours in the
Infocom 06 trace, using the Epidemic routing protocol. It can
be found that with the increase of duty cycle, the delivery ratio
and delivery cost of our proposed adaptive working schedule
increase as T decreases, and the delivery delay of our proposed
adaptive working schedule decreases as T decreases. In other
words, our proposed working schedule performs better when
T is smaller. The is reasonable because according to our
proposed adaptive working schedule, each node will update
the last encountering time with nodes it has met in the previous
period just passed by at the start time of each period. If T is
smaller, the past recorded contact histories, which are used to
predict the future contact information will be more accurate.
Fig. 11 shows the performance of our proposed adaptive
working schedule with different T when TTL is 24 hours in
the MIT Reality trace, using the Epidemic routing protocol. It
can be found that with the increase of the duty cycle, similar
to the results in the Infocom 06 trace, the delivery ratio and
delivery cost of our proposed adaptive working schedule in the
MIT reality trace also increase as T decreases, and the delivery
delay of our proposed adaptive working schedule decreases as
T decreases. In other words, our proposed working schedule
performs better when T is smaller.
To summarize, T has a signicant impact on the perfor-
mance of our proposed adaptive working schedule. Although
decreasing the value of T can increase the delivery ratio and
decrease the delivery delay, it also increases the delivery cost
of our proposed adaptive working schedule. Therefore, we
should choose an appropriate value of T according to different
applications.
VII. CONCLUSIONS
In this paper, we proposed an adaptive working schedule
for duty-cycle OppNets. The proposed working schedule uses
the past recorded contact histories to predict the future contact
information with other neighbors, so as to adaptively schedule
the wake-up and sleep intervals in each period to increase
energy efciency and network performance in duty-cycle Opp-
Nets. Extensive real trace-driven simulations are conducted to
evaluate the performance of our proposed adaptive working
schedule. The results show that our proposed adaptive working
schedule for duty-cycle OppNets is superior to the random
working schedule and the periodical working schedule in terms
of the number of effect contacts, delivery ratio and delivery
delay with reasonable delivery cost.
Our proposed adaptive working schedule can be applied
to multiple applications such as detecting social interactions,
location tracking, crowdsourcing and so on. In all such ap-
plications, the mobile nodes need to actively discover their
emerging mobile or static neighboring nodes, which are oper-
ating their radios at duty cycles to extend their lifetime. In this
paper, we have demonstrated the effectiveness of our proposed
approach using real mobility traces. In the future, we intend
to investigate more realistic network scenarios where mobile
nodes exhibit more dynamic and heterogeneous behaviors, and
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This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI
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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY 9
build a medium-size testbed to demonstrate the effectiveness
of our proposed approach.
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Huan Zhou received his Ph.D degree in Control
Science and Engineering from Zhejiang University,
Hangzhou, China, in 2014. He was a visiting scholar
at the Temple University from November, 2012 to
May, 2013. His research interests include mobile
social networks, opportunistic mobile networks, and
Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks.
0018-9545 (c) 2013 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See
http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.
This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI
10.1109/TVT.2014.2312934, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY 10
Hongyang Zhao received the B.E. degree in Au-
tomation from Shanghai Jiaotong University in 2011.
Currently, he is a master student in Department of
Control Science and Engineering, and a member of
the Group of Networked Sensing and Control (IIPC-
nesC) in the State Key Laboratory of Industrial Con-
trol Technology at Zhejiang University. His research
interests include delay tolerant networks and mobile
social networks.
Jiming Chen (IEEE M08 SM11) received B.Sc
degree and Ph.D degree both in Control Science and
Engineering from Zhejiang University in 2000 and
2005, respectively. He was a visiting researcher at
INRIA in 2006, National University of Singapore
in 2007, and University of Waterloo from 2008 to
2010. Currently, he is a full professor with De-
partment of Control Science and Engineering, and
the coordinator of group of Networked Sensing and
Control in the State Key laboratory of Industrial
Control Technology at Zhejiang University, China.
His research interests are estimation and control over sensor network, sensor
and actuator network, coverage and optimization in sensor network. He
currently serves associate editors for several international Journals including
IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, IEEE Transactions
on Industrial Electronics and IEEE Networks. He is a guest editor of IEEE
Transactions on Automatic Control, Computer Communication (Elsevier),
Wireless Communication and Mobile Computer (Wiley) and Journal of
Network and Computer Applications (Elsevier). He also serves as a Co-
chair for Ad hoc and Sensor Network Symposium, IEEE Globecom 2011,
general symposia Co-Chair of ACM IWCMC 2009 and ACM IWCMC 2010,
WiCON 2010 MAC track Co-Chair, IEEE MASS 2011 Publicity Co-Chair,
IEEE DCOSS 2011 Publicity Co-Chair, IEEE ICDCS 2012 Publicity Co-
Chair and TPC member for IEEE ICDCS 2010, IEEE MASS 2010, IEEE
SECON 2011, IEEE INFOCOM 2011, IEEE INFOCOM 2012, IEEE ICDCS
2012 etc.
Chi Harold Liu (S05-M10) is currently an Asso-
ciate Professor and Head of Department of Software
Service Engineering at Beijing Institute of Technol-
ogy, China. He is also the Director of the National
Data Intelligence Lab for China Light Industry, and
Deputy Director of IBM Mainframe Technology
Center (Beijing). He holds a Ph.D. degree from Im-
perial College, U.K., and a B.Eng. degree from Ts-
inghua University, China. Before joining academia,
he was a research scientist at IBM Research - China,
worked as a Postdoctoral researcher at Deutsche
Telekom AG in Berlin, Germany, and a visiting researcher at IBM T.J. Watson
Research Center, USA. His current research interests include the Internet-of-
Things (IoT), Cloud Computing and Big Data, and protocol designs for ad-
hoc, sensor and mesh networks. He has published more than 40 prestigious
conference and journal papers, and owned 10+ EU/US/China patents. He has
served as Founder and General Chair of the International Workshop on IoT
Enabling Technologies (IoT-ET12), in conjunction with IEEE WCNC12,
International Workshop on Networking and Object Memories for IoT (NOMe-
IoT11), in conjunction with ACM UbiComp11, and International Workshop
on IoT Networking and Control (IoT-NC13), in conjunction with IEEE
SECON13. He serves as the Peer Reviewer of Qatar National Research
Foundation, and National Science Foundation, China. Recently, he has been
interviewed by EEWeb.com as a featured engineer. He is a member of IEEE
and ACM.
Jialu Fan received the B.E. degree in automation
from Northeastern University, Shenyang, China, in
2006, and the Ph.D. degree in control science and
engineering from Zhejiang University, Hangzhou,
China, in 2011. She was a Visiting Scholar with the
Pennsylvania State University during 2009C2010.
Currently, she is a Lecturer with the State Key Lab-
oratory of Synthetical Automation for Process In-
dustries, Northeastern University, Shenyang, China.
Her research interests include networked control
systems, delay-tolerant networks, and mobile social
networks.