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ANSYS Icepak Tutorials

ANSYS, Inc.
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(F) 724-514-9494

Release 14.5
October 2012
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Table of Contents
1. Using This Manual ................................................................................................................................... 1
1.1. Whats In This Manual ........................................................................................................................ 1
1.2. How To Use This Manual .................................................................................................................... 1
1.2.1. For the Beginner ...................................................................................................................... 1
1.2.2. For the Experienced User .......................................................................................................... 1
1.3.Typographical Conventions Used In This Manual ................................................................................ 1
1.4. Mouse Conventions Used In This Manual ........................................................................................... 2
1.5. When To Call Your ANSYS Icepak Support Engineer ............................................................................ 2
2. Finned Heat Sink ..................................................................................................................................... 3
2.1. Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 3
2.2. Prerequisites ..................................................................................................................................... 3
2.3. Problem Description ......................................................................................................................... 3
2.4. Step 1: Create a New Project .............................................................................................................. 4
2.5. Step 2: Build the Model ..................................................................................................................... 5
2.6. Step 3: Generate a Mesh .................................................................................................................. 18
2.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings ........................................................................................... 23
2.8. Step 5: Save the Model .................................................................................................................... 25
2.9. Step 6: Calculate a Solution ............................................................................................................. 25
2.10. Step 7: Examine the Results ........................................................................................................... 27
2.11. Step 8: Summary ........................................................................................................................... 36
2.12. Step 9: Additional Exercise ............................................................................................................. 36
3. RF Amplifier ........................................................................................................................................... 39
3.1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 39
3.2. Prerequisites ................................................................................................................................... 39
3.3. Problem Description ....................................................................................................................... 39
3.4. Step 1: Create a New Project ............................................................................................................ 40
3.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................... 41
3.6. Step 3: Create Assemblies ................................................................................................................ 55
3.7. Step 4: Generate a Mesh .................................................................................................................. 57
3.8. Step 5: Physical and Numerical Settings ........................................................................................... 61
3.9. Step 6: Save the Model .................................................................................................................... 63
3.10. Step 7: Calculate a Solution ........................................................................................................... 63
3.11. Step 8: Examine the Results ........................................................................................................... 66
3.12. Step 9: Summary ........................................................................................................................... 74
4. Use of Parameterization to Optimize Fan Location .............................................................................. 75
4.1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 75
4.2. Prerequisites ................................................................................................................................... 75
4.3. Problem Description ....................................................................................................................... 75
4.4. Step 1: Create a New Project ............................................................................................................ 76
4.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................... 76
4.6. Step 3: Creating Separately Meshed Assemblies ............................................................................... 87
4.7. Step 4: Generate a Mesh .................................................................................................................. 88
4.8. Step 5: Setting up the Multiple Trials ................................................................................................ 89
4.9. Step 6: Creating Monitor Points ....................................................................................................... 91
4.10. Step 7: Physical and Numerical Setting ........................................................................................... 92
4.11. Step 8: Save the Model .................................................................................................................. 93
4.12. Step 9: Calculate a Solution ........................................................................................................... 94
4.13. Step 10: Examine the Results ......................................................................................................... 94
4.14. Step 11: Reports ............................................................................................................................ 98
4.15. Step 12: Summary ......................................................................................................................... 99
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Tutorials
4.16. Step 13: Additional Exercise to Model Higher Altitude Effect ........................................................... 99
5. Cold-Plate Model with Non-Conformal Meshing ................................................................................ 103
5.1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 103
5.2. Prerequisites ................................................................................................................................. 103
5.3. Problem Description ..................................................................................................................... 103
5.4. Step 1: Create a New Project .......................................................................................................... 103
5.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................. 103
5.6. Step 3: Create a Separately Meshed Assembly ................................................................................ 107
5.7. Step 4: Generate a Mesh ................................................................................................................ 108
5.8. Step 5: Physical and Numerical Settings ......................................................................................... 109
5.9. Step 6: Save the Model .................................................................................................................. 112
5.10. Step 7: Calculate a Solution .......................................................................................................... 112
5.11. Step 8: Examine the Results ......................................................................................................... 112
5.12. Step 9: Summary ......................................................................................................................... 113
5.13. Step 10: Additional Exercise ......................................................................................................... 113
6. Heat-Pipe Modeling and Nested Non-Conformal Meshing ................................................................ 115
6.1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 115
6.2. Prerequisites ................................................................................................................................. 115
6.3. Problem Description ..................................................................................................................... 115
6.4. Step 1: Create a New Project .......................................................................................................... 116
6.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................. 117
6.6. Step 3: Create Nested Non-conformal Mesh Using Assemblies ........................................................ 121
6.7. Step 4: Generate a Mesh ................................................................................................................ 123
6.8. Step 5: Physical and Numerical Settings ......................................................................................... 124
6.9. Step 6: Save the Model .................................................................................................................. 125
6.10. Step 7: Calculate a Solution .......................................................................................................... 125
6.11. Step 8: Examine the Results ......................................................................................................... 125
6.12. Step 9: Summary ......................................................................................................................... 128
7. Non-Conformal Mesh .......................................................................................................................... 129
7.1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 129
7.2. Prerequisites ................................................................................................................................. 129
7.3. Problem Description ..................................................................................................................... 129
7.4. Step 1: Create a New Project .......................................................................................................... 130
7.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................. 130
7.6. Step 3: Generate a Conformal Mesh ............................................................................................... 132
7.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings ......................................................................................... 134
7.8. Step 5: Save the Model .................................................................................................................. 134
7.9. Step 6: Calculate a Solution ........................................................................................................... 134
7.10. Step 7: Examine the Results ......................................................................................................... 134
7.11. Step 8: Add an Assembly to the Model ......................................................................................... 136
7.12. Step 9: Generate a Non-conformal Mesh ...................................................................................... 138
7.13. Step 10: Save the Model .............................................................................................................. 139
7.14. Step 11: Calculate a Solution ........................................................................................................ 140
7.15. Step 12: Examine the Results ....................................................................................................... 140
7.16. Step 13: Summary ....................................................................................................................... 140
8. Mesh and Model Enhancement Exercise ............................................................................................. 141
8.1. Objective ...................................................................................................................................... 141
8.2. Prerequisites ................................................................................................................................. 141
8.3. Skills Covered ............................................................................................................................... 141
8.4. Training Method Used ................................................................................................................... 141
8.5. Loading the Model ........................................................................................................................ 141
8.6. A 15 Minute Exploration ................................................................................................................ 141

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Tutorials
8.7. Step-by-Step Approach ................................................................................................................. 142
8.8. Modification 1: Non-Conformal Mesh of the Heat Sink and Components ........................................ 143
8.9. Modification 2: Resolution of Thin Conducting Plate Intersecting Non-Conformal Region ................ 145
8.10. Modification 3: Non-Conformal Mesh for the hi-flux-comps Cluster .............................................. 146
8.11. Modification 4: A Super Assembly... .............................................................................................. 147
8.12. Modification 5: A Simplification Based on Magnitudes of Resistances... ......................................... 149
8.13. Modification 6: A Classic Case for Thin Conducting Plate... ............................................................ 150
8.14. Conclusion .................................................................................................................................. 151
9. Loss Coefficient for a Hexa-Grille ........................................................................................................ 153
9.1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 153
9.2. Prerequisites ................................................................................................................................. 153
9.3. Problem Description ..................................................................................................................... 153
9.4. Step 1: Create a New Project .......................................................................................................... 154
9.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................. 154
9.6. Step 3: Define Parameters and Trials ............................................................................................... 156
9.7. Step 4: Generate a Mesh ................................................................................................................ 163
9.8. Step 5: Physical and Numerical Settings ......................................................................................... 164
9.9. Step 6: Save the Model .................................................................................................................. 165
9.10. Step 7: Calculate a Solution .......................................................................................................... 165
9.11. Step 8: Examine the Results ......................................................................................................... 165
9.12. Step 9: Summary ......................................................................................................................... 167
10. Inline or Staggered Heat Sink ........................................................................................................... 169
10.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 169
10.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 169
10.3. Problem Description ................................................................................................................... 169
10.4. Step 1: Create a New Project ........................................................................................................ 170
10.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................ 171
10.6. Step 3: Define Design Variables .................................................................................................... 172
10.7. Step 4: Define Parametric Runs and Assign Primary Functions ...................................................... 174
10.8. Step 5: Generate a Mesh .............................................................................................................. 178
10.9. Step 6: Physical and Numerical Settings ....................................................................................... 178
10.10. Step 7: Save the Model .............................................................................................................. 178
10.11. Step 8: Define Monitor Points ..................................................................................................... 178
10.12. Step 9: Calculate a Solution ........................................................................................................ 179
10.13. Step 10: Examine the Results ...................................................................................................... 179
10.14. Step 11: Summary ..................................................................................................................... 185
11. Minimizing Thermal Resistance ........................................................................................................ 187
11.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 187
11.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 187
11.3. Problem Description ................................................................................................................... 187
11.4. Step 1: Create a New Project ........................................................................................................ 188
11.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................ 189
11.6. Step 3: Define Design Variables .................................................................................................... 189
11.7. Step 4: Generate a Mesh .............................................................................................................. 191
11.8. Step 5: Physical and Numerical Settings ....................................................................................... 192
11.9. Step 6: Save the Model ................................................................................................................ 192
11.10. Step 7: Define Primary, Compound, and Objective Functions ....................................................... 192
11.11. Step 8: Calculate a Solution ........................................................................................................ 195
11.12. Step 9: Examine the Results ....................................................................................................... 196
11.13. Step 10: Summary ..................................................................................................................... 197
11.14. Step 11: Additional Exercise ....................................................................................................... 197
12. Radiation Modeling .......................................................................................................................... 199
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Tutorials
12.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 199
12.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 199
12.3. Problem Description ................................................................................................................... 199
12.4. Step 1: Create a New Project ........................................................................................................ 199
12.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................ 199
12.6. Step 3: Generate a Mesh .............................................................................................................. 205
12.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings ....................................................................................... 207
12.8. Step 5: Solving the Model Without Radiation ................................................................................ 207
12.9. Step 6: Save the Model ................................................................................................................ 210
12.10. Step 7: Calculate a Solution- No Radiation .................................................................................. 211
12.11. Step 8: Surface to Surface (S2S) Radiation Model ........................................................................ 211
12.12. Step 9: Discrete Ordinates (DO) Radiation Model ........................................................................ 212
12.13. Step 10: Ray Tracing Radiation Model ......................................................................................... 212
12.14. Step 11: Examine the Results ...................................................................................................... 213
12.15. Step 12: Summary ..................................................................................................................... 215
13. Transient Simulation ......................................................................................................................... 217
13.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 217
13.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 217
13.3. Problem Description ................................................................................................................... 217
13.4. Step 1: Create a New Project ........................................................................................................ 217
13.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................ 218
13.6. Step 4: Generate a Mesh .............................................................................................................. 222
13.7. Step 5: Physical and Numerical Settings ....................................................................................... 222
13.8. Step 6: Save the Model ................................................................................................................ 223
13.9. Step 7: Calculate a Solution .......................................................................................................... 223
13.10. Step 8: Generate a Summary Report ........................................................................................... 223
13.11. Step 9: Examine the Results ....................................................................................................... 224
13.12. Step 10: Examine Transient Results in CFD Post ........................................................................... 226
13.13. Step 10: Summary ..................................................................................................................... 231
14. Zoom-In Modeling in ANSYS Workbench .......................................................................................... 233
14.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 233
14.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 233
14.3. Problem Description ................................................................................................................... 233
14.4. Step 1: Create a New Project ........................................................................................................ 234
14.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................ 235
14.6. Step 3: Generate a Mesh .............................................................................................................. 236
14.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings ....................................................................................... 237
14.8. Step 5: Save the Model ................................................................................................................ 238
14.9. Step 6: Calculate a Solution .......................................................................................................... 238
14.10. Step 7: Examine the Results ....................................................................................................... 238
14.11. Step 8: Create a Zoom-In Model ................................................................................................. 241
14.12. Step 9: Edit the Zoom-in Model .................................................................................................. 243
14.13. Step 10: Mesh the Zoom-In Model ............................................................................................. 245
14.14. Step 11: Zoom-In Physical and Numerical Settings ...................................................................... 246
14.15. Step 12: Examine the Zoom-in Results ........................................................................................ 247
14.16. Step 13: Summary ..................................................................................................................... 248
14.17. Step 14: Additional Exercise 1 .................................................................................................... 249
14.18. Step 15: Additional Exercise 2 .................................................................................................... 249
15. IDF Import ......................................................................................................................................... 251
15.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 251
15.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 251
15.3. Problem Description ................................................................................................................... 251

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Tutorials
15.4. Step 1: Create a New Project ........................................................................................................ 251
15.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................ 252
15.6. Step 3: Component Filtration Alternatives .................................................................................... 257
15.7. Step 4: Component Models Alternatives ...................................................................................... 258
15.8. Step 5: Summary ......................................................................................................................... 260
16. Modeling CAD Geometry .................................................................................................................. 261
16.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 261
16.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 261
16.3. Problem Description ................................................................................................................... 261
16.4. Step 1: Creating a New Project ..................................................................................................... 262
16.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................ 263
16.6. Step 3: Generate a Mesh .............................................................................................................. 271
16.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings ....................................................................................... 275
16.8. Step 5: Save the Model ................................................................................................................ 278
16.9. Step 6: Calculate a Solution .......................................................................................................... 279
16.10. Step 7: Examine the Results ....................................................................................................... 280
16.11. Step 8: Summary ....................................................................................................................... 283
17. Trace Layer Import for Printed Circuit Boards ................................................................................... 285
17.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 285
17.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 285
17.3. Problem Description ................................................................................................................... 286
17.4. Step 1: Create a New Project ........................................................................................................ 286
17.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................ 286
17.6. Conduction Only Model (PCB Without the Components) .............................................................. 295
17.7. Step 1: Generate a Mesh .............................................................................................................. 296
17.8. Step 2: Set Physical and Numerical Values .................................................................................... 296
17.9. Step 3: Save the Model ................................................................................................................ 297
17.10. Step 4: Calculate a Solution ........................................................................................................ 297
17.11. Step 5: Examine the Results ....................................................................................................... 297
17.12. PCB With the Actual Components Under Forced Convection ...................................................... 299
17.13. Step 1: Generate a Mesh ............................................................................................................ 300
17.14. Step 2: Set Physical and Numerical Values .................................................................................. 300
17.15. Step 3: Calculate a Solution ........................................................................................................ 300
17.16. Step 4: Examine the Results ....................................................................................................... 300
17.17. Using the Model Layers Separately Option ................................................................................. 301
17.18. Summary .................................................................................................................................. 302
17.19. Additional Exercise 1 ................................................................................................................. 302
17.20. Additional Exercise 2 ................................................................................................................. 302
18. Joule/Trace Heating .......................................................................................................................... 303
18.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 303
18.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 303
18.3. Problem Description ................................................................................................................... 303
18.4. Step 1: Create a New Project ........................................................................................................ 303
18.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................ 304
18.6. Step 3: Generate a Mesh .............................................................................................................. 309
18.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings ....................................................................................... 311
18.8. Step 5: Save the Model ................................................................................................................ 311
18.9. Step 6: Calculate a Solution .......................................................................................................... 311
18.10. Step 7: Examine the Results ....................................................................................................... 312
18.11. Step 8: Summary ....................................................................................................................... 315
19. Microelectronics Packages - Compact models .................................................................................. 317
19.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 317
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19.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 317
19.3. Problem Description ................................................................................................................... 317
19.4. Step 1: Create a New Project ........................................................................................................ 318
19.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................ 318
19.6. Step 3: Generate a Mesh .............................................................................................................. 328
19.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings ....................................................................................... 329
19.8. Step 5: Save the Model ................................................................................................................ 329
19.9. Step 6: Calculate a Solution .......................................................................................................... 329
19.10. Step 7: Examine the Results ....................................................................................................... 331
19.11. Step 8: Summary ....................................................................................................................... 332
19.12. Step 9: Additional Exercise ......................................................................................................... 332
20. Multi-Level Meshing .......................................................................................................................... 333
20.1. Objective .................................................................................................................................... 333
20.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 333
20.3. Skills Covered .............................................................................................................................. 333
20.4. Training Method Used ................................................................................................................. 333
20.5. Loading the Model ...................................................................................................................... 333
20.6. Step-by-Step Approach ............................................................................................................... 333
20.7. Modification 1: Multi-Level Meshing of the Fan_Guide ................................................................. 336
20.8. Modification 2: Multi-Level Mesh of the Sheetmetal_hs_assy.1 ..................................................... 337
20.9. Generate a Mesh ......................................................................................................................... 338
20.10. Conclusion ................................................................................................................................ 341
21. Characterizing a BGA-package by Utilizing ECAD Files .................................................................... 343
21.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 343
21.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 343
21.3. Problem Description ................................................................................................................... 343
21.4. Step 1: Create a New Project ........................................................................................................ 343
21.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................ 343
21.6. Step 3: Generate a Mesh .............................................................................................................. 348
21.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings ....................................................................................... 349
21.8. Step 5: Save the Model ................................................................................................................ 350
21.9. Step 6: Calculate a Solution .......................................................................................................... 350
21.10. Step 7: Examine the Results ....................................................................................................... 350
21.11. Step 8: Summary ....................................................................................................................... 352
22. Zero Slack with Non-Conformal Meshing ......................................................................................... 353
22.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 353
22.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 353
22.3. Problem Description ................................................................................................................... 353
22.4. Step 1: Create a New Project ........................................................................................................ 355
22.5. Step 2: Default Units .................................................................................................................... 355
22.6. Step 3: Build the Model ................................................................................................................ 355
22.7. Step 4: Import Traces ................................................................................................................... 355
22.8. Step 5: Add Slack Values .............................................................................................................. 357
22.9. Step 6: Generate Mesh (with Slack Values) .................................................................................... 357
22.10. Step 7: Zero Slack ...................................................................................................................... 358
22.11. Step 8: Generate Mesh (with Zero Slack) ..................................................................................... 359
22.12. Step 9: Physical and Numerical Settings ..................................................................................... 359
22.13. Step 10: Save the Model ............................................................................................................. 360
22.14. Step 11: Calculate a Solution ...................................................................................................... 360
22.15. Step 12: Examine the Results ...................................................................................................... 360
22.16. Step 13: Summary ..................................................................................................................... 360
23. ANSYS Icepak - ANSYS Workbench Integration Tutorial ................................................................... 361

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23.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 361
23.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 361
23.3. Problem Description ................................................................................................................... 361
23.4. Step 1: Create a New Project ........................................................................................................ 362
23.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................ 363
23.6. Step 3: Generate a Mesh .............................................................................................................. 366
23.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings ....................................................................................... 368
23.8. Step 5: Save the Model ................................................................................................................ 368
23.9. Step 6: Calculate a Solution .......................................................................................................... 368
23.10. Step 7: Examine the Results with CFD-Post ................................................................................. 369
23.11. Step 8: Thermo-Mechanical Structural Analysis ........................................................................... 371
23.12. Step 9: Summary ....................................................................................................................... 372
24. Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post ............................................................................................ 373
24.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 373
24.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 373
24.3. Problem Description ................................................................................................................... 374
24.4. Step 1: Create a New Project ........................................................................................................ 374
24.5. Step 2: Parametric Trials and Solver Settings ................................................................................. 377
24.6. Step 3: Calculate a Solution .......................................................................................................... 377
24.7. Step 4: Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post ............................................................................. 378
24.8. Step 5: Comparison Study ............................................................................................................ 401
24.9. Step 6: Summary ......................................................................................................................... 406
25. High Density Datacenter Cooling ..................................................................................................... 407
25.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 407
25.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 407
25.3. Problem Description ................................................................................................................... 407
25.4. Step 1: Create a New Project ........................................................................................................ 408
25.5. Step 2: Set Preferences ................................................................................................................ 409
25.6. Step 3: Build the Model ................................................................................................................ 410
25.7. Step 4: Generate a Mesh .............................................................................................................. 436
25.8. Step 5: Create Monitor Points ....................................................................................................... 437
25.9. Step 6: Physical and Numerical Settings ....................................................................................... 438
25.10. Step 7: Save the Model .............................................................................................................. 439
25.11. Step 8: Calculate a Solution ........................................................................................................ 439
25.12. Step 9: Examine the Results ....................................................................................................... 441
25.13. Step 10: Additional Exercise: Visualize and analyze the results in ANSYS CFD-Post ........................ 448
25.14. Step 11: Summary ..................................................................................................................... 448
26. Design Modeler - Electronics ............................................................................................................ 449
26.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 449
26.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 449
26.3. Problem Description ................................................................................................................... 449
26.4. Step 1: Create a New Project ........................................................................................................ 450
26.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................ 451
26.6. Step 3: Add Shortcuts to the Toolbar ............................................................................................ 452
26.7. Step 4: Edit the Model for ANSYS Icepak ....................................................................................... 453
26.8. Step 5: Opening the Model in ANSYS Icepak ................................................................................. 472
26.9. Step 6: Summary ......................................................................................................................... 474
27. CFD Modeling and Analysis of an Avionics Box ............................................................................... 475
27.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 475
27.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 475
27.3. Create a New ANSYS Icepak Project ............................................................................................. 475
27.4. Create a Support for the Box and Resize Cabinet .......................................................................... 477
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27.5. Set Up the Model for Non-conformal Meshing ............................................................................. 481
27.6. Generate the Mesh ...................................................................................................................... 485
27.7. Power and Material Inputs ........................................................................................................... 488
27.8. Fan Inputs ................................................................................................................................... 488
27.9. Additional Exercises .................................................................................................................... 503
27.10. Setup for Transient Analysis Forced Convection Mode ............................................................. 504
28. Translation of MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS DesignModeler ............. 509
28.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 509
28.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 509
28.3. Tutorial Outline ........................................................................................................................... 509
28.4. Part 1: General Topics .................................................................................................................. 509
28.5. ANSYS Workbench Project Schematic .......................................................................................... 510
28.6. DesignModeler ........................................................................................................................... 512
28.7. CAD Model Import ...................................................................................................................... 513
28.8. PART 2: Model Conversion From CAD to Icepak ............................................................................ 514
28.9. ANSYS DesignModeler- Electronics .............................................................................................. 514
28.10. Simplify - Level 0 ....................................................................................................................... 515
28.11. Slice Tool in DM ......................................................................................................................... 518
28.12. Simplify - Level 1 ....................................................................................................................... 521
28.13. Simplify - Level 2 ....................................................................................................................... 524
28.14. Simplification into Icepak Objects Level 3 ................................................................................ 524
28.15. What did we learn in this tutorial? .............................................................................................. 527
29. Translation of System Level MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS DesignModeler ................................................................................................................................................... 529
29.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 529
29.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 529
29.3. Tutorial Outline ........................................................................................................................... 529
29.4. Model Description ...................................................................................................................... 529
29.5. Getting Started ANSYS Workbench, Project Schematic ............................................................... 530
29.6. Getting Started - ANSYS DesignModeler ...................................................................................... 531
29.7. Import of CAD Geometry ............................................................................................................ 532
29.8. Initial Model Review .................................................................................................................... 532
29.9. CAD Geometry Information and Repair Utilities ........................................................................... 533
29.10. Suppress Non-Essential Bodies .................................................................................................. 534
29.11. Functionality Based Grouping ................................................................................................... 535
29.12. Simple Shapes vs. Complex Shapes ............................................................................................ 536
29.13. Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak ................................................................................ 538
29.14. Summary .................................................................................................................................. 575
30. MRF Tutorial ...................................................................................................................................... 577
30.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 577
30.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 577
30.3. Opening the Project .................................................................................................................... 578
30.4. Modifying the Geometry ............................................................................................................. 579
30.5. Generating the Mesh ................................................................................................................... 582
30.6. Examine the Mesh ....................................................................................................................... 586
30.7. Solution Settings for MRF Fan Model ........................................................................................... 588
30.8. Post-processing the Results ......................................................................................................... 593
30.9. BONUS SECTION: Comparing MRF to 3D Icepak Fans .................................................................... 594
31. Modeling an Airborne Electronics System at Altitude ...................................................................... 595
31.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 595
31.2. Opening the Project .................................................................................................................... 595
31.3. Adding the Fins ........................................................................................................................... 596

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Tutorials
31.4. Modeling the effects of Altitudes ................................................................................................. 601
31.5. Summary .................................................................................................................................... 608
32. Maxwell to ANSYS Icepak Coupling Tutorial ..................................................................................... 609
32.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 609
32.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 609
32.3. Problem Description ................................................................................................................... 609
32.4. Step 1: Create a New Project ........................................................................................................ 609
32.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................ 610
32.6. Step 3: Generate a Mesh .............................................................................................................. 625
32.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings ....................................................................................... 626
32.8. Step 5: Save the Model ................................................................................................................ 627
32.9. Step 6: Calculate a Solution .......................................................................................................... 627
32.10. Step 7: Examine the Results ....................................................................................................... 628
32.11. Step 8: Summary ....................................................................................................................... 629
Index ........................................................................................................................................................ 631

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xii

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Chapter 1: Using This Manual


1.1. Whats In This Manual
This manual contains tutorials that teach you how to use ANSYS Icepak to solve different types of
problems. In each tutorial, features related to problem setup and postprocessing are demonstrated.
The tutorial Finned Heat Sink provides detailed instructions designed to introduce the beginner to
ANSYS Icepak. This tutorial provides explicit instructions for all steps in the problem setup, solution,
and postprocessing. The remaining tutorials assume that you have read or solved the tutorial Finned
Heat Sink, or that you are already familiar with ANSYS Icepak and its interface. In these tutorials, some
steps will not be shown explicitly. The input files are available in the installation area and available for
download on the ANSYS Customer Portal.

1.2. How To Use This Manual


Depending on your familiarity with computational fluid dynamics and ANSYS Icepak, you can use this
tutorial guide in a variety of ways:
1.2.1. For the Beginner
1.2.2. For the Experienced User

1.2.1. For the Beginner


If you are a beginning user of ANSYS Icepak, you should first read and solve the tutorial Finned Heat
Sink, in order to familiarize yourself with the interface and with basic setup and solution procedures.
You may then want to try a tutorial that demonstrates features that you are going to use in your application. For example, if you are planning to solve a problem involving radiation, you should look at the
tutorial Radiation Modeling.
You may want to refer to other tutorials for instructions on using specific features, such as grouping
objects, even if the problem solved in the tutorial is not of particular interest to you.

1.2.2. For the Experienced User


If you are an experienced ANSYS Icepak user, you can read and/or solve the tutorial(s) that demonstrate
features that you are going to use in your application. For example, if you are planning to solve a
problem involving radiation, you should look at the tutorial Radiation Modeling.
You may want to refer to other tutorials for instructions on using specific features, such as grouping
objects, even if the problem solved in the tutorial is not of particular interest to you.

1.3. Typographical Conventions Used In This Manual


Several typographical conventions are used in this manuals text to facilitate your learning process.
Different type styles are used to indicate graphical user interface menu items and text inputs that you
enter (e.g., Open project panel, enter the name projectname).
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Using This Manual


A mini flow chart is used to indicate the menu selections that lead you to a specific panel. For example,
Model Generate mesh
indicates that the Generate mesh option can be selected from the Model menu at the top of the
ANSYS Icepak main window.
The arrow points from a specific menu toward the item you should select from that menu.
A mini flow chart is also used to indicate the list tree selections that lead you to a specific panel or operation. For example,
Problem setup

Basic parameters

indicates that the Basic parameters item can be selected from the Problem setup node in the
Model manager window
Pictures of toolbar buttons are also used to indicate the button that will lead you to a specific panel. For
indicates that you will need to click on this button (in this case, to open the Walls panel) in
example,
the toolbar.

1.4. Mouse Conventions Used In This Manual


The default mouse buttons used to manipulate your model in the graphics window are described in
Manipulating Graphics With the Mouse in the Icepak User's Guide. Although you can change the mouse
controls in ANSYS Icepak to suit your preferences, this manual assumes that you are using the default
settings for the mouse controls. If you change the default mouse controls, you will need to use the
mouse buttons you have specified instead of the mouse buttons that the manual tells you to use.

1.5. When To Call Your ANSYS Icepak Support Engineer


The ANSYS Icepak support engineers can help you to plan your modeling projects and to overcome
any difficulties you encounter while using ANSYS Icepak. If you encounter difficulties we invite you to
call your support engineer for assistance. However, there are a few things that we encourage you to
do before calling:
1. Read the section(s) of the manual containing information on the options you are trying to use.
2. Recall the exact steps you were following that led up to and caused the problem.
3. Write down the exact error message that appeared, if any.
4. For particularly difficult problems, package up the project in which the problem occurred (see Packing
and Unpacking Model Files in the Icepak User's Guide for instructions) and send it to your support engineer.
This is the best source that we can use to reproduce the problem and thereby help to identify the cause.

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Chapter 2: Finned Heat Sink


2.1. Introduction
This tutorial demonstrates how to model a finned heat sink using ANSYS Icepak.
In this tutorial you will learn how to:
Create a new project.
Create blocks, openings, fans, sources, and plates.
Include effects of turbulence in the simulation.
Calculate a solution.
Examine contours and vectors on object faces and on cross-sections of the model.

2.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you have little to no experience with ANSYS Icepak and so each step will be
explicitly described.

2.3. Problem Description


The cabinet contains an array of five high-power devices, a backing plate, ten fins, three fans, and a
free opening, as shown in Figure 2.1: Problem Specification (p. 4). The fins and backing plate are constructed of extruded aluminum. Each fan has a total volume flow rate of 18 cfm and each source dissipates
power at the rate of 33 W. According to the design objective, the base of the devices should not exceed
65C when the fins are swept with air at an ambient temperature of 20C.

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Finned Heat Sink


Figure 2.1: Problem Specification

2.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Start ANSYS Icepak, as described in Starting ANSYS Icepak in the Icepak User's Guide.
When ANSYS Icepak starts, the Welcome to Icepak panel opens automatically.

2. Click New in the Welcome to Icepak panel to start a new ANSYS Icepak project.
The New project panel appears.

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Step 2: Build the Model

3. Specify a name for your project and click Create.


ANSYS Icepak creates a default cabinet with the dimensions 1 m 1 m 1 m, and displays the
cabinet in the graphics window.

Note
You can rotate the cabinet around a central point using the left mouse button, or you
can translate it to any point on the screen using the middle mouse button. You can zoom
into and out from the cabinet using the right mouse button. To restore the cabinet to
its default orientation, select Home position in the Orient menu.

2.5. Step 2: Build the Model


To build the model, you will first resize the cabinet to its proper size. Then you will create the backing
plate and opening, followed by the elements that will be duplicated (i.e., the fans, fins, and devices).
1. Resize the default cabinet in the Cabinet panel.
Model

Cabinet

Extra
You can also open the Cabinet panel by selecting the Cabinet item in the Model manager
window and then clicking the Edit object button ( ) in the Object modification toolbar.

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Finned Heat Sink


Resizing of the cabinet object can also be done in the geometry window in the lower
right hand corner of the GUI.
a. In the Cabinet panel, click the Geometry tab.
b. Under Location, enter the following coordinates:
xS

xE

0.075

yS

yE

0.25

zS

zE

0.356

c. Click Done to resize the cabinet and close the panel.


d. In the Orient menu, select Scale to fit to scale the view of the cabinet to fit the graphics window.

Extra
You can also scale the view by clicking the Scale to fit button (

).

Extra
After selecting the object to be edited in the model tree, there are several ways you
can open the Edit panel:
Double-click on the object in the model tree, or
Type Ctrl+e, or
Right-click the object in the model tree and scroll to Edit object, or
Click the Edit button in the object geometry window, or
Click the Edit icon (

) in the model toolbar.

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Step 2: Build the Model


2. Create the backing plate.
The backing plate is 0.006 m thick and divides the cabinet into two regions: the device side (where
the high-power devices are contained in a housing) and the fin side (where the fins dissipate heat
generated by the devices). The backing plate is represented in the model by a solid prism block.

Extra
Blocks allow six-sided control for meshing and thermal specifications, whereas plates allow
for only two-sided control.
a. Click the Create blocks button (

) to create a new block.

ANSYS Icepak creates a new solid prism block in the center of the cabinet. You need to change
the size of the block.
b. Click the Edit object button (

) to open the Blocks panel.

c. Click the Geometry tab.


d. Enter the following coordinates for the block:
xS

xE

0.006

yS

yE

0.25

zS

zE

0.356

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Finned Heat Sink

e. Click Done to modify the block and close the panel.


3. Create the free opening on the fin side of the backing plate.
a. Click the Create openings button (

) to create a new opening.

ANSYS Icepak creates a free rectangular opening lying in the x-y plane in the center of the cabinet. You need to change the size of the opening.
b. Click the Edit object button (

) to open the Openings panel.

c. Click the Geometry tab.


d. Enter the following coordinates for the opening:
xS

xE

0.075

yS

yE

0.25

zS

0.006
0.356

zE

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Step 2: Build the Model

e. Click Done to modify the opening and close the panel.


4. Create the first fan.
Each fan is physically identical to the others, except with respect to its location on the cabinet wall.
To create the set of three fans, you will build a single fan as a template, and then create two copies,
each with a specified offset in the y direction.
) to create a new fan.

a. Click the Create fans button (

ANSYS Icepak creates a free circular fan lying in the x - y plane in the center of the cabinet. You
need to change the size of the fan and specify its mass flow rate.
b. Click the Edit object (

) to open the Fans panel.

c. Click the Geometry tab.


d. Enter the following coordinates for the fan:
xC

0.04

yC

0.0475

zC

e. Enter 0.03 for the external radius (Radius), and 0.01 for the internal radius (Int Radius).

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Finned Heat Sink

f.

Click the Properties tab.

g. Keep the default Fan type of intake.


h. Under the Fan flow tab, select Fixed and Volumetric. Enter a volume flow rate of 18 cfm.

Note
Make sure to update the units to cfm by clicking on the triangle button and selecting
cfm from the drop-down list.

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Step 2: Build the Model

i.

Click Done to modify the fan and close the panel.

5. Copy the first fan (fan.1) to create the second and third fans (fan.1.1 and fan.1.2).
a. In the graphics display window, select fan.1 using the Shift key and right mouse button.
b. In the object context menu, select Copy and the Copy fan fan.1 panel opens.
c. Enter 2 as the Number of copies.
d. Enable the Translate option and specify a Y offset of 0.0775 m.

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Finned Heat Sink

e. Click Apply.
ANSYS Icepak makes two copies of the original fan, each offset by 0.0775 m in the y direction
from the previous one.
6. Create the first high-power device.
Like the fans, each device is physically identical to the others, except with respect to its location in
the cabinet. To create the set of five devices, you will build a single rectangular planar source as a
template, and then create four copies, each with a specified offset in the y direction.
a. Click the Create sources button (

) to create a source.

ANSYS Icepak creates a free rectangular source in the center of the cabinet. You need to change
the geometry and size of the source and specify its heat source parameters.

Note
For planar objects, select the desired plane first, then enter the coordinates.

b. Click the Edit object button (

) to open the Sources panel.

c. Click the Geometry tab.


d. Keep the default selection of Rectangular.
e. In the Plane drop-down list, select Y-Z.
f.

12

Enter the following coordinates for the source:


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Step 2: Build the Model


xS

xE

yS

0.0315

yE

0.0385

zS

0.1805

zE

0.2005

g. Click the Properties tab.


h. Under Thermal specification, set the Total power to 33 W.

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Finned Heat Sink

i.

Click Done to modify the source and close the panel.

7. Copy the first device (source.1) to create the other four devices (source.1.1, source.1.2, source.1.3, and
source.1.4).
a. In the Model manager window, select the source.1 item under the Model node.
b. Click the Copy object button (

).

c. Follow the same instructions that you used above to copy the fans, using a Y offset of 0.045 m to
create 4 copies.
8. Create the first fin.
Like the fans and devices, each fin is physically identical to the others, except with respect to its
location in the cabinet. To create the array of ten fins, you will build a single rectangular plate as a
template, and then create nine copies, each with a specified offset in the y direction.
a. Click the Create plates button (

) to create a plate.

ANSYS Icepak creates a free rectangular plate in the x-y plane in the center of the cabinet. You
need to change the orientation and size of the plate and specify its thermal parameters.
b. Click the Edit object button (

) to open the Plates panel.

c. Click the Geometry tab.


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Step 2: Build the Model


d. In the Plane drop-down list, select X-Z.
e. Enter the following coordinates for the plate:
xS

xE

0.075

yS

0.0125

yE

zS

f.

0.006
0.05

zE

0.331

Click the Properties tab.

g. Under Thermal model, select Conducting thick from the drop-down menu.
h. Set the Thickness to 0.0025 m.
i.

Keep default as the Solid material.

Note
Since the default solid material is extruded aluminum, you need not specify the material explicitly here.

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Finned Heat Sink

j.

Click Done to modify the plate and close the panel.

9. Copy the first fin (plate.1) to create the other nine fins (plate.1.1, plate.1.2, ..., plate.1.9).
a. In the Model manager window, select the plate.1 item under the Model node.
b. Click the Copy object button (

).

c. Follow the same instructions that you used above to copy the fans, using a Y offset of 0.025 m to
create 9 copies.
The completed model will look like Figure 2.2: Completed Model for the Finned Heat Sink (p. 17),
which is shown in the Isometric view (available in the Orient menu or by clicking the Isometric
view button (

)).

Note
You can remove the object names by clicking the Display object names button (

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).

Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 2.2: Completed Model for the Finned Heat Sink

10. Check the model to be sure that there are no problems (e.g., objects that are too close together to allow
for proper mesh generation).
Model Check model

Note
You can also click the Check model button (

) to check the model.

Note
ANSYS Icepak should report in the Message window that 0 problems were found.

11. Check the definition of the modeling objects to ensure that you specified them properly.
View Summary (HTML)
The HTML version of the summary displays in your web browser. The summary displays a list of all
the objects in the model and all the parameters that have been set for each object. You can view
the detailed version of the summary by clicking the appropriate object names or property specifications. If you notice any incorrect specifications, you can return to the appropriate modeling object
panel and change the settings in the same way that you originally entered them.

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Finned Heat Sink

2.6. Step 3: Generate a Mesh


You will generate the mesh in two steps. First you will create a coarse mesh and examine it to determine
where further mesh refinement is required. Then you will refine the mesh based on your observations
of the coarse mesh.

Extra
For more information on how to refine a mesh locally, refer to Refining the Mesh Locally in
the Icepak User's Guide.
Model Generate mesh

Extra
You can also generate a mesh by clicking the Generate mesh button (
Mesh control panel.

), which opens the

1. Generate a coarse (minimum-count) mesh.


a. In the Mesh control panel, select Coarse in the Mesh parameters drop-down list.
ANSYS Icepak updates the panel with the default meshing parameters for a coarse (minimumcount) mesh, shown in the panel below.
b. Set the Mesh units and all the Minimum gap units to mm.
c. Set the Minimum gap to 1 mm for X, Y, and Z.
d. Set the Max X size to 3.5, the Max Y size to 12.5, and the Max Z size to 17.5.

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Step 3: Generate a Mesh

e. Click the Generate button to generate the coarse mesh.

Note
If the Allow minimum gap changes option is unchecked under the Misc tab, ANSYS
Icepak will inform you that your minimum object separation is more than 10% of the
smallest size object in the model . You can stop the meshing process, ignore the
warning, or allow ANSYS Icepak to correct the values.

f.

If this warning appears, click Change value and mesh in the Minimum separation in x and Minimum
separation in y panels to accept the recommended changes to your model and continue generating
the mesh.

2. Examine the coarse mesh on a cross-section of the model.

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Finned Heat Sink


a. Click the Display tab.
b. Turn on the Cut plane option.
c. In the Set position drop-down list, select X plane through center.
d. Turn on the Display mesh option.
The mesh display plane is perpendicular to the fins, and aligned with the devices, as shown in
Figure 2.3: Coarse Mesh on the y-z Plane (p. 21).

Note
The number of elements may vary slightly on different machines.

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Step 3: Generate a Mesh


Figure 2.3: Coarse Mesh on the y-z Plane

e. Use the slider bar to move the plane cut through the model. See Figure 2.4: Fine and Coarse Mesh
on the y-z Plane (p. 22) to examine a close-up view of the coarse mesh.

Note
You can change the mesh color using the Surface mesh color and the Plane mesh
color options.
The mesh elements near the fins are too large to sufficiently resolve the problem physics. In the
next step, you will generate a finer mesh.
3. Generate a finer mesh.
a. Click the Settings tab.
b. Under the Global tab, select Normal in the Mesh parameters drop-down list.
ANSYS Icepak updates the panel with the default meshing parameters and Minimum gap values
for a normal" (i.e., finer than coarse) mesh.
4. Click the Generate button in the Mesh control panel to generate the finer mesh.
5. Examine the new mesh.

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Finned Heat Sink


The graphics display updates automatically to show the new mesh. Click the Display tab and use
slider bar to advance the plane cut and view the mesh throughout the model.
Figure 2.4: Fine and Coarse Mesh on the y-z Plane

6. Turn off the mesh display.


a. Click the Display tab in the Mesh control panel.
b. Deselect the Display mesh option.
c. Click Close to close the Mesh control panel.

Note
After deselecting the Display mesh option and closing the Mesh control panel, you
can display the mesh on selected objects by using the context menu in the graphics
display window. To display the context menu, hold down the Shift key and press the
right mouse button anywhere in the graphics window, but not on an object. Select
Display mesh and select the object you want it displayed on.

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Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings


Figure 2.5: Display mesh option

2.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings


Before starting the solver, you will first review estimates of the Reynolds and Peclet numbers to check
that the proper flow regime is being modeled.
1. Check the values of the Reynolds and Peclet numbers.
Solution settings

Basic settings

a. Click the Reset button. Reset calculates the Reynolds and Peclet numbers.
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Finned Heat Sink


b. Check the values printed to the Message window.
The Reynolds and Peclet numbers are approximately 13,000 and 9,000, respectively, so the flow
is turbulent. ANSYS Icepak will recommend setting the flow regime to turbulent.

Note
These values are only estimates, based on the current model setup. Actual values may
vary, and may need to be verified, depending on your design.

c. Click Accept to save the solver settings.


2. Enable turbulence modeling.
Problem setup

Basic parameters

a. In the Basic parameters panel, select Turbulent as the Flow regime.


b. Keep the default Zero equation turbulence model.
a. Turn radiation off by clicking Off under Radiation.

b. Click Accept to save the new settings.

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Step 6: Calculate a Solution

2.8. Step 5: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak automatically saves the model for you before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model (including the mesh) yourself as well. If you exit ANSYS Icepak before you start
the calculation, you will be able to open the job you saved and continue your analysis in a future ANSYS
Icepak session. (If you start the calculation in the current ANSYS Icepak session, ANSYS Icepak will simply
overwrite your job file when it saves the model.)
File Save project

Note
Alternatively, you can click the

button in the File commands toolbar.

2.9. Step 6: Calculate a Solution


1. Start the calculation.
Solve Run solution

Note
You can click the Run solution button (

) in the Model and solve toolbar.

2. Keep the default settings in the Solve panel.

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Finned Heat Sink


3. Click Start solution to start the solver.

Note
There are no universal metrics for judging convergence, a good indicator is when the
solution no longer changes with more iterations and when the residuals have decreased
to a certain degree. The default criterion is that each residual will be reduced to a value

of less than
except the energy residual, for which the default criterion is
. It
is a good idea to judge convergence not only by examining residuals levels, but also by
monitoring relevant integrated quantities.
ANSYS Icepak begins to calculate a solution for the model, and a separate window opens where the
solver prints the numerical values of the residuals. ANSYS Icepak also opens the Solution residuals
graphics display and control window, where it displays the convergence history for the calculation.
Upon completion of the calculation, your residual plot will look something like Figure 2.6: Residuals (p. 27). You can zoom in the residual plot by using the left mouse.

Note
The actual values of the residuals may differ slightly on different machines, so your plot
may not look exactly the same as Figure 2.6: Residuals (p. 27).

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Step 7: Examine the Results


Figure 2.6: Residuals

4. Click Done in the Solution residuals window to close it.

2.10. Step 7: Examine the Results


ANSYS Icepak provides a number of ways to view and examine the solution results, including:
plane-cut views
object-face views
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Finned Heat Sink


The following steps illustrate how to generate and display each view.

Note
The objective of this exercise is to determine whether the air flow and heat transfer associated
with the heat sink (fans and fins) are sufficient to maintain device temperatures below 65C.
You can accomplish this by creating different plane cuts and monitoring the velocity vector
and temperature on it. Plane-cut views allow you to observe the variation in a solution variable
across the surface of a plane.
You will use the Plane cut panel to view the direction and magnitude of velocity across a
horizontal plane.
1. To open the Plane cut panel, select Plane cut in the Post menu.

Extra
You can also open the Plane cut panel by clicking the Plane cut button (

).

2. Display velocity vectors on a plane cut on the fin side of the enclosure.
Post Plane cut
a. In the Name field, enter the name cut-velocity.
b. In the Set position drop-down list, select X plane through center.

Tip
Click the triangle button located next to the Set position text field to open the dropdown list.

c. Turn on the Show vectors option.

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Step 7: Examine the Results


d. Click Create.
e. In the Orient menu, select Orient positive X.
This orients the model as shown in Figure 2.7: Velocity Vectors on the Fin Side of the Enclosure (p. 29). You can see that the maximum velocity occurs at the fan blades. The lowest velocity
occurs between the top fin and the adjacent cabinet wall, and between the bottom fin and the
adjacent cabinet wall.

Extra

You can also select the positive

orientation by clicking the Orient positive X button

).

Figure 2.7: Velocity Vectors on the Fin Side of the Enclosure

f.

In the Plane cut panel, turn off the Active option.


This temporarily removes the velocity vector display from the graphics window, so that you can
more easily view the next postprocessing object.

Note
You can later open the Inactive folder in the model tree and locate cut_velocity.
cut_velocity can be either deleted or reactivated by dragging it to Trash or to
the Post-processing folder, as well as with the right-click dialog.

3. Display contours of temperature on the fin side of the enclosure.

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Finned Heat Sink


a. Click New in the Plane cut panel.
b. In the Name field, enter the name cut-temperature.
c. In the Set position drop-down list, select X plane through center.
d. Turn on the Show contours option and click Parameters.
The Plane cut contours panel opens.
e. Keep the default selection of Temperature.
f.

For Shading options, keep the default selection of Banded.

g. For Color levels, select Calculated and then select This object from the drop-down list.
h. Click Apply.
ANSYS Icepak computes the color range for the display based on the range of temperatures on
this plane cut.

i.

Click Done to save the new settings, close the panel, and update the graphics display.
The graphics display updates to show the temperature contour plot. The actual values of temperature may slightly differ on different systems. You can use the scroll bar to change the xlocation of the plane cut. In addition, the plane cut can be dragged through the model when
you press the Shift key and hold down the middle mouse button on the plane. Ensure you click
the edge of the plane cut so as to not move any objects.
Figure 2.8: Temperature Contours on the Fin Side of the Enclosure (p. 31) shows that heat conducts
through the fins from the sources in both directions.

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Step 7: Examine the Results


Figure 2.8: Temperature Contours on the Fin Side of the Enclosure

j.

In the Plane cut panel, turn off the Active option.

4. Display velocity vectors superimposed with pressure contours.


a. Click New in the Plane cut panel.
b. In the Name field, enter the name cut-prvelocity.
c. In the Set position drop-down list, select X plane through center.
d. Specify the display of velocity vectors.
i.

Turn on the Show vectors option and click Parameters.


The Plane cut vectors panel opens.

ii. Select Fixed from the Color by drop-down list.


iii. Click on the square next to Fixed color and select black from the color palette.
iv. Click Done to close the panel.
e. Specify the display of contours of pressure.
i.

Turn on the Show contours option and click Parameters.


The Plane cut contours panel opens.

ii. In the Plane cut contours panel, select Pressure in the Contours of drop-down list.

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Finned Heat Sink


iii. For Shading options, keep the default selection of Banded.
iv. For Color levels, select Calculated and then select This object from the drop-down list.
v. Click Done to save the new settings, close the panel, and update the graphics display.
The graphics display updates to show the pressure contour plot superimposed on the velocity
vector plot.
Figure 2.9: Pressure Contours and Velocity Vectors on the Fin Side of the Enclosure (p. 32) shows
isolated regions of high pressure immediately downstream of the fans, including local maxima
at the upstream tips of the fins.
Figure 2.9: Pressure Contours and Velocity Vectors on the Fin Side of the Enclosure

f.

In the Plane cut panel, turn off the Active option.

5. Display contours of temperature on all five high-power devices.


An object-face view allows you to examine the distribution of a solution variable on one or more
faces of an object in the model. To generate an object-face view, you must select the object and
specify both the variable to be displayed (e.g., temperature) and the attributes of the view (e.g.,
shading type).
You will use the Object face panel to create a solid-band object-face view of temperature on all
five high-power devices and on the backing plate.
a. To open the Object face panel, select Object face in the Post menu.

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Step 7: Examine the Results


Post Object face

Extra
You can also open the Object face panel by clicking the Object face button (

).

b. In the Name field, enter the name face-tempsource.


c. In the Object drop-down list, click source.1, hold down the Shift key, and click source.1.4 to select
all the sources, and click the Accept button.
d. Turn on the Show contours option.

e. Click Parameters next to the Show contours option.


The Object face contours panel opens.
f.

In the Object face contours panel, keep the default selection of Temperature in the Contours of
drop-down list.

g. For Shading options, keep the default selection of Banded.


h. For Color levels, select Calculated and then select This object from the drop-down list.

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Finned Heat Sink

i.

Click Done to save the new settings, close the panel, and update the graphics display.
The graphics display updates to show the temperature contours on the sources.

j.

Use your right mouse button to zoom in and look more closely at each source.
Figure 2.10: Temperature Contours on the Five Devices (p. 35) shows a view with the temperature
contours on all five sources. The temperature distributions are similar for all sources: warm in
the center and decreasing in temperature toward the edges of the source. Temperature distributions on the top and bottom sources are similar to each other, as are distributions on the two
remaining sources.

Note
To view the temperature contours on an individual source, hold down the Shift key
and drag a box around a source object using the left mouse button. The source object
will show as highlighted in the Model manager window. Right click the source object
to display the context menu and select Create>Object face(s)>Separate. The Object
face panel is displayed for that particular object. Change the settings to match the
ones used above for all source objects and click Create.

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Step 7: Examine the Results


Figure 2.10: Temperature Contours on the Five Devices

k. In the Object face panel, turn off the Active option.


6. Display line contours of temperature on the backing plate.
a. Click New in the Object face panel.
b. In the Name field, enter the name face-tempblock.
c. In the Object drop-down list, select block.1 and click Accept.
d. Turn on the Show contours option and click Parameters.
The Object face contours panel opens.
e. In the Object face contours panel, keep the default selection of Temperature in the Contours of
drop-down list.
f.

For Contour options, deselect Solid fill and select Line.

g. For Level spacing, select Fixed and set the Number of contour lines to 200.
h. For Color levels, select Calculated and then select This object from the drop down list.
i.

Click Done to save the new settings, close the panel, and update the graphics display.
The graphics display updates to show the temperature contours on the block. Figure 2.11: Temperature Contours on the Backing Plate (p. 36) shows that most of the heat is confined to the
region near the sources. The maximum temperature occurs near the middle three sources.

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Finned Heat Sink


Figure 2.11: Temperature Contours on the Backing Plate

j.

Click Done in the Object face panel to close the panel.

7. Save the post-processing objects created.


a. Select Save post objects to file in the Post menu.
b. Click on Save in the File selection window that opens.
Upon saving the project, all objects created during post-processing are saved within a
post_objects file for future retrieval.

2.11. Step 8: Summary


In this tutorial, you set up and solved a model in order to determine the ability of the specified heat
sink to maintain source temperatures below 65 C. Postprocessing results show that the maximum
source temperature is about 60 C, indicating that the heat sink provides adequate cooling for the
sources.

2.12. Step 9: Additional Exercise


To determine the effectiveness of the heat sink under conditions involving the failure of the middle
fan, deactivate or edit fan.1.1, go to the Properties tab and turn on Failed under the Options tab,
assign a free-area ratio of 0.3, and click Done. Next, remesh the model, solve it again using a different
solution ID, and examine the new results.

Note
When you are finished examining the results, you can end the ANSYS Icepak session by
clicking Quit in the File menu.

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Step 9: Additional Exercise


File Quit

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Chapter 3: RF Amplifier
3.1. Introduction
This tutorial demonstrates how to model an RF Amplifier using ANSYS Icepak.
In this tutorial you will learn how to:
Create a new project.
Create openings, fans, sources, enclosure, PCB, heat sink and walls.
Use non-conformal meshing.
Include effects of gravity and turbulence in the simulation.
Calculate a solution.
Examine contours and vectors on object faces and on cross-sections of the model.

3.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you have little experience with ANSYS Icepak, but that you are generally familiar with the interface. If you are not, please review Sample Session in the Icepak User's Guide.

3.3. Problem Description


RF Amplifiers are typically sealed enclosures that are placed within larger systems. They present a
challenge from the thermal management perspective because no direct exchange of air exists between
the interior of the amplifier and the ambient. The common method of cooling such subsystems is to
mount a large heat sink on the amplifier housing that cools all the devices within the enclosure. A
simplified version of an RF amplifier (Figure 3.1: Schematic of the RF Amplifier (p. 40)) will serve as the
model for this tutorial. There will be free convection inside the amplifier and forced convection in the
external domain.

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RF Amplifier
Figure 3.1: Schematic of the RF Amplifier

3.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Start ANSYS Icepak, as described in Chapter 1 of the Users Guide.
When ANSYS Icepak starts, the Welcome to Icepak panel opens automatically.

2. Click New in the Welcome to Icepak panel to start a new ANSYS Icepak project.
The New project panel appears.

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Step 2: Build the Model

3. Specify the name amplifier for your project and click Create.
ANSYS Icepak creates a default cabinet with the dimensions 1 m 1 m 1 m, and displays the
cabinet in the graphics window.

Note
You can rotate the cabinet around a central point using the left mouse button, or you
can translate it to any point on the screen using the middle mouse button. You can zoom
into and out from the cabinet using the right mouse button. To restore the cabinet to
its default orientation, select Home position in the Orient menu.

3.5. Step 2: Build the Model


To build the model, you will first resize the cabinet to its proper size. Then you will create the amplifier
housing, devices (heat sources), PCB, heatsink, fan and other geometrical objects.
1. Resize the default cabinet and create an opening on one side of the cabinet.
Model

Cabinet

Select the cabinet in the Model tree and specify the following in the object geometry window:

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RF Amplifier

Extra
After selecting the object to be edited in the model tree, there are several ways you can
open the Edit panel:
Double-click on the object in the model tree, or
Type Ctrl+e, or
Right-click the object in the model tree and scroll to Edit object, or
Click the Edit button in the object geometry window, or
Click the Edit object icon (

) in the model toolbar

Figure 3.2: The Cabinet Geometry Tab Panel

One side of this cabinet has an opening. Assign Properties on this boundary, in the Properties tab
of the Cabinet object panel (Figure 3.3: The Cabinet Boundary Panel (p. 43)):
a. Change the Max y Wall type to be an Opening.
b. Click Done to accept the inputs and close the panel.

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Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 3.3: The Cabinet Boundary Panel

2. Create the Y and Z faces of the amplifier housing as an enclosure using the enclosure object.
Click on the Create enclosures icon (
and dimensions:

) in the model toolbar, then specify the following Name

In the Properties tab specify the followings:


a. Change the Boundary type to Open for Min X and Max X. For others, retain the boundary type as
Thin.
b. Specify the Solid material as Polystyrene-rigid-R12.

Tip
You have to scroll down the list to find this material.

c. Click Done.

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RF Amplifier
Figure 3.4: The Enclosure Panel

3. Create the Xmin face of the amplifier housing as a wall.


The wall covers the Xmin side of the enclosure.
4. Click on the Create walls icon (

) in the model toolbar to create a new wall.

In the object edit window, name the wall Xmin and change the plane to Y-Z.

Note
While we will use the align tools to place the wall at the desired locations, we could also
specify the dimensions/locations of the wall in the Geometry tab and achieve the same
result. However, the align tools are faster, and thus are the recommended method.
To start the process, left-click Morph Edges icon (
by-step procedure described below:

) in the model toolbar. Now, follow the step-

a. Select the Zmax edge of the wall (Figure 3.5: Schematic Showing Edge Identities for Alignment (p. 45))
by left mouse clicking it in the graphical window. Notice that it turns red to indicate that it has been
selected.
b. Click the middle mouse button to accept this edge.
c. Select the lower Zmax edge of the enclosure (Figure 3.5: Schematic Showing Edge Identities for
Alignment (p. 45)) with the left mouse button. Notice that it turns yellow to indicate that it has been
selected.

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Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 3.5: Schematic Showing Edge Identities for Alignment

d. Click the middle mouse button to accept the transformation. The wall Xmin should have now been
moved and resized. Now the wall should extend to the entire Xmin side of the enclosure.
To specify the remaining wall dimension, stay in the match edge mode and complete the following
steps:
a. Click the Zmin edge of the wall with the left mouse button. Be sure that it (and not the enclosure
edge) is highlighted in red. By repeatedly clicking the left mouse button, ANSYS Icepak cycles through
all possible edges.
b. Click the middle mouse button to accept.
c. Using the left mouse button, click the lower Zmin edge of the enclosure.
d. Click the middle mouse button to accept. The wall should now form the Xmin face of the enclosure.
e. Click the right mouse button to exit the Match edge mode.
The resulting model is shown in Figure 3.6: Geometry with Wall (p. 46) with shading to highlight
new definitions. Shading is available under the Info tab in most panels.

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RF Amplifier
Figure 3.6: Geometry with Wall

Double-click on the newly created wall object (Xmin) in the model tree to open the Walls panel.
Now specify the following properties to the wall in the Properties tab.
a. Specify a Wall thickness of 1 mm (0.001 m).
b. Specify the Solid material as Polystyrene-rigid-R12 under Plastics.
c. Specify the External conditions as Heat transfer coefficient and click the Edit button.
The Wall external thermal conditions panel opens.
i.

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Select Heat transfer coeff in the Thermal conditions group box.

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Step 2: Build the Model

ii. Set the Heat transfer coeff to 5 W/K-

iii. Click Done to close the Wall external thermal conditions panel.
iv. Click Done to close Walls panel (Figure 3.7: The Walls Panel (p. 47))
Figure 3.7: The Walls Panel

5. Create the PCB.


The PCB will cover the Xmax side of the enclosure.
a. Click on the Create printed circuit boards icon (
double click on the PCB object in the Model tree.

) in the Model toolbar to create a PCB and

b. Specify the following in the geometry window:

c. Specify the Trace layer type as Detailed and input the parameters under Trace layer parameters
(make sure that you enter both columns) in the Properties tab as shown in Figure 3.8: The Printed
circuit boards Panel (p. 48). There are four internal layers.
Please notice that the Effective conductivity in plane and normal directions are updated when
you click on the Update button (Figure 3.8: The Printed circuit boards Panel (p. 48)).

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RF Amplifier
Figure 3.8: The Printed circuit boards Panel

d. Click Done to close the Printed circuit boards panel.


6. Create the devices as 2D sources.
There are 12 devices on the bottom side of the PCB. Theses devices are created as 2D sources. The
following steps show you how to create one and then use the copy utility to create the remaining
11 sources.
a. Click on the Create sources icon ( ) in the model toolbar to create a source and double click on
the source object in the model tree.
b. Specify the following name, dimensions, and properties to the source.

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Step 2: Build the Model

c. In the Properties tab, specify the Total power as 7 W (Figure 3.9: The Sources Panel (p. 49)) and click
Done.
Figure 3.9: The Sources Panel

d. Create the other devices (sources) object by creating two copies of the device and translating it to
z= 0.055 m. Please follow the steps below for copying the source object.
i.

Right mouse click on the source object and choose the Copy option.

ii. Specify the Number of copies as 2.


iii. Turn on the Translate option.
iv. Specify the Z offset to 0.055 m.
v. Click Apply to copy the object.

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RF Amplifier
Figure 3.10: The Copy source device Panel

e. Similarly, create the other devices (sources) object by copying the sources created in the previous
steps.
i.

Left mouse click and select device, then while holding down the Ctrl key, select device.1,
and device.2. Right mouse click and choose the Copy option.

ii. Specify the Number of copies as 3.


iii. Turn on the Translate option.
iv. Specify the Y offset to 0.064 m.
v. Click Apply to copy the object.

Note
Following these two copy actions, you should now have 12 sources (Figure 3.11: Geometry with Devices (p. 51)) in a four rows by three columns pattern.

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Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 3.11: Geometry with Devices

7. Create the heat sink.


The extruded fin heat sink with the flow in the y direction will be created to remove the heat from
the PCB.
a. Click on the Create heat sinks icon ( ) in the Model toolbar to create a heat sink and double click
on the heat sink object in the model tree. Specify the following dimensions in the geometry window.

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RF Amplifier

b. In the heat sink object panel, select the Geometry tab, and specify a Base height of 0.004 m and an
Overall height of 0.04 m.
c. Specify the properties of the heat sink as shown in Figure 3.12: The Heat sinks Panel (p. 52) below.
Note that we are not changing parameters in the Flow/thermal data, Pressure loss, or Interface
tabs.
Figure 3.12: The Heat sinks Panel

d. Click Done to close the Heat sinks panel.


8. Create the fan.
For this model, we will make use of ANSYS Icepaks fan library and search tool.
a. Select the Library tab in the model manager window(Figure 3.13: Search Fan library Panel (p. 53)).
b. Right-click on Libraries in the model tree and choose Search fans.
The Search fan library dialog appears.
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Step 2: Build the Model


i.

In the Physical tab, deactivate the Min fan size and enter 80 mm for the Max fan size.

ii. Select the Thermal/flow tab, enable the Min flow rate option and specify a Min flow rate of 80
cfm.

Note
The minimum flow rate used in the search criteria implies the minimum free flow
of the fans.

iii. Click on the Search button.

Note
ANSYS Icepak lists all the fans in its libraries that satisfy these conditions.

c. Select the fan called delta.FFB0812_24EHE in the Name column by clicking on it with the left
mouse button.
d. Click Create to load the fan into the model.
Figure 3.13: Search Fan library Panel

e. Now, we need to specify the location of the fan created in the previous steps. Resize the fan geometry
based on the Figure 3.14: The Fans Panel (p. 54) (note X-Z plane).

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RF Amplifier
Figure 3.14: The Fans Panel

The final geometry should look like Figure 3.15: The Final Geometry (p. 55).

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Step 3: Create Assemblies


Figure 3.15: The Final Geometry

f.

Check the definition of the modeling objects to ensure that you specified them properly.
View Summary (HTML)

Note
The HTML version of the summary displays in your web browser. The summary displays
a list of all the objects in the model and all the parameters that have been set for
each object. You can view the detailed version of the summary by clicking the appropriate object names or property specifications. If you notice any incorrect specifications,
you can return to the appropriate modeling object panel and change the settings in
the same way that you originally entered them.

3.6. Step 3: Create Assemblies


For both organizational purposes and to have a finer mesh in the fan and enclosure, we will create two
assemblies. The first assembly will consist of the RF amplifier and heat sink; the second assembly will
consist only of the fan.
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RF Amplifier
1. To create the amplifier assembly:
a. Select the positive X view by either using the icon in the shortcut menu or simply press Shift+X and
then Shift+S to fit to scale the view in the graphics window.
b. While pressing Shift, drag a bounding box around the amplifier using the left mouse button. Release
the mouse button and notice that all of the objects forming the amplifier and heat sink have been
selected in the model tree.
c. Right-click on the highlighted enclosure (Housing) in the model tree and select Create and then Assembly from the list. All of the selected objects have now been added to the assembly.
d. In the Object geometry window, rename the assembly assembly.1" to amplifier and click Apply.
2. Create a new assembly for the fan object:
a. Click on the Create assemblies icon (

) in the model toolbar to create a new assembly.

b. In the Model tree, use the left mouse button to drag the fan, delta.FFB0812_24EHE, into the
new assembly to add it to this assembly.
c. In the Object geometry window, rename this assembly as fan and click Apply.

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Step 4: Generate a Mesh


Figure 3.16: Two Assemblies

3.7. Step 4: Generate a Mesh


Before generating a mesh, we will specify the slack values for the assemblies. Slack values represent a
finite offset from an object to a non-conformal mesh boundary and are required when meshing assemblies separately.
1. Edit both assemblies (right-click the assembly name in the model toolbar and select Edit), then select
the Meshing tab.
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RF Amplifier
2. Toggle on Mesh separately and then specify the slack values indicated in the following table. Make sure
you remember to add slack values to both assemblies.
Table 3.1: Slack Values for the Amplifier and Fan
Name

Min X

Min Y

Min Z

Max X

Max Y

Max Z

Amplifier

0.02

0.01

0.05

0.01

Fan

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.05

0.01

Figure 3.17: Fan Assemblies Panel

3. To create the mesh, go to Model Generate Mesh. The Mesh control panel (Figure 3.18: The Mesh
control Panel (p. 59)) appears. The Mesh control panel can also be opened by clicking on the Generate
mesh icon (

58

) in the shortcut menu.

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Step 4: Generate a Mesh


Figure 3.18: The Mesh control Panel

4. As a first step, generate a coarse mesh by choosing Coarse in the Mesh parameters drop-down list in
the Global tab, as shown in Figure 3.18: The Mesh control Panel (p. 59). Click Generate to create a mesh.

Note
If you have unchecked Allow minimum gap changes in the Misc tab, the Minimum
separation warning will appear. This warning message appears when the minimum gap
specified is more than 10% of the smallest sized object in the model. Please select Change
value and mesh if the warning message pops up.

5. To view the mesh, display a plane-cut view through the center of the cabinet, perpendicular to the fins
(y-z plane).
6. To create a plane-cut, follow these steps:
a. Click on the Display tab at the top of the Mesh control panel.
b. Toggle on Display mesh and Cut plane.
c. Under Plane location, set position to X plane through center in the drop-down list.
d. Press Shift+X to orient to the positive X direction and view the newly created plane cut.
e. Move the plane using the slider bar to see different views.
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RF Amplifier
Make sure that the amplifier assembly is expanded and inspect the cells adjacent to the heat sink
fins. Notice that the resolution is coarse (Figure 3.19: Coarse and Fine Mesh (p. 60)), with only a
couple of cells between fins. As flow passes between the fins, boundary layers will grow and their
degree of resolution will dictate the accuracy of the simulation. It is advisable to have at least three
to four cells between fins to adequately resolve the growth of boundary layers. Better resolution is
achieved by refining the mesh.
7. Choose Normal in the Mesh parameters drop-down list in the Settings tab. Click Generate and inspect
the resulting mesh. Note that the number of cells between adjacent fins have increased (Figure 3.19: Coarse
and Fine Mesh (p. 60)), providing better resolution of the boundary layers.
You can display the mesh on selected objects or the cut plane by using the context menu in the
graphics display window. To display the context menu, hold down the Shift key and press the right
mouse button anywhere in the graphics display window. Select Display mesh or Display cut plane
mesh in the context menu and the mesh will be displayed on selected objects or the cut plane will
be displayed.
It is also a good practice to select the Quality tab and review the Face Alignment, Quality, Volume,
and Skewness. The histograms show the figure of merit (Face Alignment, Quality Ratio, Volume or
Skewness) versus number of cells. By clicking on the bars that form the histogram, the particular
cells with that value of quality are displayed in the graphics window.
Figure 3.19: Coarse and Fine Mesh

8. Once you have explored the mesh quality, click Close to dismiss the Mesh control dialog box.

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Step 5: Physical and Numerical Settings

3.8. Step 5: Physical and Numerical Settings


Before starting the solver, you will first review estimates of the Reynolds and Peclet numbers to check
that the proper flow regime is being modeled.
1. Check the values of the Reynolds and Peclet numbers.
Solution settings

Basic settings

a. Click the Reset button.


b. Check the values printed to the Message window.
The Reynolds and Peclet numbers are approximately 56282.6 and 39876.6 respectively, so the
flow is turbulent. ANSYS Icepak recommends setting the flow regime to turbulent.

Note
These values are only estimates, based on the current model setup. Actual values may
vary, and may need to be verified, depending on your design.

c. Click Accept to save the solver settings.


2. Enable turbulence modeling.
Problem setup

Basic parameters

a. In the Basic parameters panel, select Turbulent as the Flow regime and keep the default Zero
equation turbulence model.

b. Turn on the Gravity vector option and make sure that gravity in the y-direction is -9.8 m/

Note
Specifying gravity is important for the natural convection inside the RF amplifier.

c. Turn off radiation.


d. Click Accept to save the new setting.
The panel appears as shown in Figure 3.20: Basic parameters Panel (p. 62).

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RF Amplifier
Figure 3.20: Basic parameters Panel

3. Return to the Basic settings panel, specify the number of iterations as 300, click Reset and then Accept
again.
4. Set up the temperature limits for all the sources.
Model Power and temperature limits
a. Enter a new value of 60C for Default temperature limit.
b. Click on All to default.
c. Click Apply and then click Accept to close the panel.

Note
The default temperature limit is used during postprocessing to identify components
that exceed their limits or components that are close to this limit. This value is not
used to solve the problem.

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Step 7: Calculate a Solution

3.9. Step 6: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak will save the model for you automatically before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model (including the mesh) yourself as well. If you exit ANSYS Icepak before you start
the calculation, you will be able to open the job you saved and continue your analysis in a future ANSYS
Icepak session. (If you start the calculation in the current ANSYS Icepak session, ANSYS Icepak will simply
overwrite your job file when it saves the model.)
File Save project

Note
You can click the save button (

) in the File commands toolbar.

3.10. Step 7: Calculate a Solution


1. Create monitors.

Note
It is good practice to monitor the solution progress for certain objects. Dragging the
object in the model tree and placing it in the Points folder can accomplish this.
a. Drag device.2 and cabinet_default_side_maxY into the Points folder.
b. Right mouse click on the cabinet_default_side_maxY in the Points folder.
c. Select Edit and deselect temperature and activate Velocity (Figure 3.21: The Modify point Panel (p. 64)).
d. Click Accept to accept the modifications and to dismiss the per-objects Modify point panel.

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RF Amplifier
Figure 3.21: The Modify point Panel

2. Start the calculation.


Solve Run solution
a. Enable Write overview of results when finished in the Results tab.
b. Click on the Start solution button to start the solver. While iterating the solution, windows will appear
showing convergence history, Figure 3.22: Convergence Plot (p. 65) and Figure 3.23: Monitor
Plot (p. 66).

Note
Alternatively, you can click on the Run solution icon (
toolbar to display the Run solution panel.

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) in the model and solve

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Step 7: Calculate a Solution


Figure 3.22: Convergence Plot

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Figure 3.23: Monitor Plot

3.11. Step 8: Examine the Results


Once the model has converged (Figure 3.22: Convergence Plot (p. 65) and Figure 3.23: Monitor
Plot (p. 66)), ANSYS Icepak automatically generates a solution overview report. This report contains
detailed information, such as object-based mass and volumetric flow rates, fan operating points, heat
flows for objects with specified power, heat flows for objects that communicate with the ambient,
maximum temperatures, and overall balances.
Please carefully review the solution overview and note that the solution satisfies conservation of mass
and energy (scroll to the bottom of the report). Also note the fan operating point. The solution overview
is automatically saved and can be reopened from Report Solution overview Create.
1. Compare the object temperature values for all sources with the temperature limits assigned.
Post Power and Temperature values
The Power and temperature limit setup window appears.
a. Click Show too hot.
The Power and Temperature limit setup show the default temperature limit and the resulting
maximum temperature value for each source next to them.
If an assembly is expanded in the model tree and if the resulting temperature of any object exceeds the temperature limit specified, ANSYS Icepak shows all the critical objects in red color.
b. Click Accept to close the dialog box.

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Step 8: Examine the Results


2. Create object faces.

Note
Ensure that the amplifier and fan assemblies are expanded, so that the fins are visible.
a. Press Shift+Z to orient the view in the positive Z direction.
b. To create an object face, click the Object face icon (

) in the shortcut toolbar.

c. In the Object drop down list, specify heatsink.1 as the object and click Accept.
d. Select Show contours and click the Parameters button (adjacent to show contours) to access the
Object face contours edit dialog box.
i.

Select This object in the drop-box adjacent to Calculated to use the object-based range.

ii. Click Done to close the Object face contours panel.


e. Click Done to close the Object face panel.

Note
You can also create contours on heatsink.1 by selecting this object in the Model
manager window and click the right mouse button to display the context menu. Select
Create>Object face(s)>Separate and the Object face panel will appear. The Object
face panel is displayed for that particular object.

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RF Amplifier
Figure 3.24: Object Face Panel

Note
Using the mouse, rotate the heat sink to examine the surface temperature distribution.
Notice that the location of the devices is clearly discernible on the bottom of the heat
sink. Also note that the devices get progressively hotter in the flow direction (Figure 3.25: Temperature Contours on the Face (p. 69)).

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Step 8: Examine the Results


Figure 3.25: Temperature Contours on the Face

Note
Notice that face.1 has now appeared in the model tree in the Post processing folder.
Right mouse click on face.1 and note that you can deactivate, edit, and delete it. You
can move face.1 into the Inactive folder to deactivate it. Face.1 can be either deleted
or reactivated by dragging it to Trash or to the Postprocessing folder, as well as with the
right mouse click dialog.

3. Create plane cuts.


a. To create a plane cut, click the Plane cut icon (

) in the shortcut toolbar.

b. Select the Set position as Point and normal and select Show vectors, as shown in the panel below.
Enter PX, PY, and PZ, as well as NX, NY, and NZ according to Figure 3.26: Plane Cut (p. 70).

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RF Amplifier
Figure 3.26: Plane Cut

c. Click the Parameters button adjacent to Show vectors.


d. Select Uniform in Display options group box and specify value as 5000. The Uniform option for the
velocity will put the vectors uniformly in the 5000 data points.
e. Select This object in the drop-box adjacent to Calculated and click Done to close the panel.
The vector plots are shown in the graphics window (Figure 3.27: Velocity Vectors on the Mid X
Plane (p. 71)).

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Step 8: Examine the Results


Figure 3.27: Velocity Vectors on the Mid X Plane

Note
Examining the vector plot, we can see that the flow pattern is symmetric, with two large
recirculating zones adjacent to the fan. Zoom into the region directly in front of the fan
and notice that two smaller recirculating zones exist in front of the hub. These local effects
can be important when objects are close to the hub region.

Note
You can move a plane cut through a model by pressing the Shift key, holding down the
middle mouse button on the edge of a vector and dragging the plane cut through the
model in the graphics display window.

4. Create isosurfaces.
a. Click the Isosurface icon (

) in the shortcut toolbar.

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RF Amplifier
b. Specify Temperature as the Variable, input a Value of 55C, and select Show contours and click
Parameters. In the Isosurface contours panel, select Smooth for Shading options and This object
in the drop-box adjacent to Calculated. Click Done.
c. Click Update in the Isosurface panel and notice that an isosurface has been placed around all of the
sources, indicating that they have temperatures in excess of 55C (Figure 3.28: Isosurface of Temperature 55C (p. 72)).
Figure 3.28: Isosurface of Temperature 55C

d. Now, change the Variable to Speed and input a Value of 4. Click Update. Notice that the regions
with velocities in excess of 4 m/s are now displayed (Figure 3.29: Isosurface of Speed 4 m/s (p. 73)).
e. Once you have examined the isosurface, delete or deactivate it using one of the previously described
methods.

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Step 8: Examine the Results


Figure 3.29: Isosurface of Speed 4 m/s

5. Create variation plots.


a. Click the Variation plot icon (

) in the shortcut toolbar.

Note
Before creating the variation plots, please ensure that the amplifier assembly is expanded, so that the fins are visible. Next, press Shift+Z to orient the view in the positive
Z direction.

b. Within the variation plot dialog box, complete the following:


i.

Specify the Variable as UY.

ii. Click the From screen button.


iii. Click the left mouse button on the center on the heat sink fins.
iv. Click Create.
c. An xy-plot of UY velocity versus z-coordinate should now be visible. Toggle on the Symbols button
and notice that the velocity profile across the solution domain is now represented with dots at the
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RF Amplifier
postprocessing locations. Notice that ANSYS Icepak has created a line that is colored locally according
to the UY velocity magnitude.
d. Save the xy-plot.
i.

Click the Save button at the bottom of the Variation of UY plot window.

ii. Enter a file name in the resulting Save curve dialog box.
iii. Click Save to save the file in the model folder.

3.12. Step 9: Summary


In this tutorial, you have learned about the usage of enclosure, PCB, source and heat sink objects. The
use of ANSYS Icepaks fan library and search tool has been explained. Meshing of assemblies and postprocessing features in ANSYS Icepak were also explained.

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Chapter 4: Use of Parameterization to Optimize Fan Location


4.1. Introduction
The purpose of this tutorial is to demonstrate the following ANSYS Icepak features with the help of a
small system level model.
In this tutorial you will learn how to:
Use network blocks as one way of modeling packages.
Specify contact resistance using side specifications of a block object.
Define a variable as a parameter and solve the parametric trials.
Specify fan curves.
Use local coordinate systems.
Generate a summary report for multiple solutions.

4.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you have little experience with ANSYS Icepak, but that you are generally familiar with the interface. If you are not, please review Sample Session in the Icepak User's Guide and the
tutorial Finned Heat Sink of this guide as some of the steps that were discussed in these tutorials will
not be repeated here.

4.3. Problem Description


The system level model consists of a series of IC chips on a PCB. A fan is used for forced convection
cooling of the power dissipating devices. A bonded fin extruded heat sink with eight 0.008 m thick fins
is attached to the IC chips. The fan flow rate is defined by a nonlinear fan curve. The system also consists
of a perforated thin grille. A study is carried out for the optimum location of the fan by using the
parameterization feature in ANSYS Icepak.

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Use of Parameterization to Optimize Fan Location


Figure 4.1: Schematic of the Geometry

4.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Start ANSYS Icepak, as described in Starting ANSYS Icepak in the Icepak User's Guide.
When ANSYS Icepak starts, the Welcome to Icepak panel opens automatically.
2. Click New in the Welcome to Icepak panel to start a new ANSYS Icepak project.
3. Specify a name for your project (i.e., fan_locations) and click Create.
ANSYS Icepak creates a default cabinet with the dimensions 1 m 1 m 1 m, and displays the
cabinet in the graphics window. This cabinet will be modified in the next section.

4.5. Step 2: Build the Model


1. Resize the default cabinet.
The cabinet forms the boundary of your computational model. Press the isometric view icon ( )
for a 3D view. Select Cabinet in the Model manager window and enter the location values as shown
in the panel below. The geometry window can be found in the lower right hand corner of the GUI.

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Step 2: Build the Model

Extra
The previous tutorial showed you how to enter these values in the Cabinet panel.

2. Create the Fan.


Click on the Create fans icon ( ) in the object toolbar next to the model tree to create a 2D intake
circular fan on one side of the cabinet. Change the plane to yz and enter the location values shown
in the geometry window below:

Defining a parameter for multiple trials.


One of the objectives of this exercise is to parameterize the location of the fan. To create a parametric variable in ANSYS Icepak, input a $ sign followed by the variable name. Thus, to create
the parametric variable zc, type $zc in the zC box in addition to the other location values, and
click Apply. When ANSYS Icepak asks you for an initial value of zc", enter an initial value of 0.1,
and click Done.
Figure 4.2: The Param value Panel

We will now set the physical properties that will define the fan behavior:
a. Edit the fan object and go to Properties tab.
b. In the Properties tab, retain the selection of Intake for Fan type and select Non-linear in the Fan
flow tab.
c. Enter the characteristic curve by clicking on the Edit button and selecting Text Editor in the dropdown list in the Non-linear curve group box.

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Use of Parameterization to Optimize Fan Location


Figure 4.3: The Fans Panel (Properties Tab)

d. First change the units of the volume flow rate and pressure according to the units in Table 4.1: Values
for the Curve Specification Panel (p. 78) and enter the values in pairs with a space between them in
the Curve specification panel.
Table 4.1: Values for the Curve Specification Panel
Volume Flow (CFM)

Pressure (in_water)

0.42

20

0.28

40

0.2

60

0.14

80

0.04

90

0.0

e. Click Accept to close the form.


f.

78

Select the Edit button again in the Non-linear curve group box and click on Graph Editor in the
drop-down list to view the fan curve (Figure 4.4: The Fan Curve Panel (p. 79) ).

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Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 4.4: The Fan Curve Panel

g. Click Done to close the Fan curve panel.


h. In the Properties tab, give the fan an RPM of 4000 in the Swirl tab, located next to the Fan flow
tab.
i.

In the Properties tab, give the fan an Operating RPM of 2000 in the Options tab, located next to
the Swirl tab.

Note
The fan curve defined originally for RPM=4000 will be automatically scaled according
to the fan laws for the new operating RPM=2000. The swirl RPM(4000) can also be
used to compute the swirl factor.

j.

Click Update and Done to close the fan window.

Now the model looks as shown in Figure 4.5: Model with Fan (p. 80).
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Use of Parameterization to Optimize Fan Location


Figure 4.5: Model with Fan

Extra
The shading of the fan object can be changed by changing the Shading option under
the Info tab to change the shading of just that object, or by leaving it as default and
changing the default shading option by going to View Default shading to change
the shading of all objects that have default shading selected.

3. Set up a Grille.
a. Click on the Create grille icon ( ) for creating a new grille, set its plane to yz. Then, using the
morph faces option move the grille to the max-X face of the cabinet. Step by step instructions on
how to use the morph faces option is presented in the graphics display window after clicking the
icon ( ) or you can also resize the grille as shown in the panel:

b. We will now define properties for the grill by clicking the Properties tab.

Note
This is a 50% open perforated thin grille.
i.

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Under velocity loss coefficient, retain the default selection of Automatic.

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Step 2: Build the Model


ii. Specify a Free area ratio of 0.5.
iii. Retain Perforated thin vent for the Resistance type.
iv. Click Update and then Done to close the panel.
For more details on loss coefficient data, please refer to Handbook of Hydraulic Resistance, by I. E.
Idelchick.
The model looks as shown in Figure 4.6: Model with Fan and Grill (p. 81).
Figure 4.6: Model with Fan and Grill

4. Set up a wall.

Note
The model includes a 0.01 m thick PCB that touches and covers the entire min-Y floor
of the cabinet. The PCB is exposed to the outside with a known heat flux of 20 W/m2. In
order to take in consideration the heat flux, we will use a wall object to simulate the PCB.
a. Click on the Create walls icon (
parameters for the wall object:
i.

) to create a new wall. We will define the geometry and physical

Make the plane xz.

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Use of Parameterization to Optimize Fan Location


ii. Use the morph faces icon (
min-Y floor of the cabinet.

) from the model toolbar so that the wall object covers the entire

iii. Edit the Wall object and go to Properties tab.


iv. In the Material group box, set the Wall thickness to 0.01 m and the Solid material to FR-4.
v. In the Thermal specification group box, specify a Heat flux of 20 W/m2.
vi. Click Update and then Done to close the panel.
After creating the wall, the model looks as shown in Figure 4.7: Model with Wall Added (p. 82).
Figure 4.7: Model with Wall Added

5. Create blocks.
In this step, we will create several types of blocks to represent different physics.
Creation of Solid Blocks
Now, we will create four blocks that dissipate 5 W each and have a contact resistance of 0.005
C/W on their bottom faces.
a. Create a new block ( ) , and retain the type as solid and geometry as Prism. Enter the location
values shown in the panel below:

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Step 2: Build the Model

b. Edit the block and specify the following in the Properties tab:
i.

In the Surface specification group box, click on the Individual sides check box and click Edit
(Figure 4.8: The Individual side specification (p. 83)).
A. Select MinY and toggle on Thermal properties and Resistance.
B. Under Thermal condition, retain the selection of Fixed heat and Total power of 0 W.
C. Select Thermal resistance from the drop-down menu next to Resistance.
D. Set Thermal resistance to 0.005 C/W and click Accept.
E. Click Accept to close the panel.
Figure 4.8: The Individual side specification

ii. In the Thermal specification group box in the Properties tab, retain the selection of default
for Solid Material (you can also select Al-Extruded which is the default).
iii. Set Total Power to 5 W.

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Use of Parameterization to Optimize Fan Location


iv. Click Update and Done to close the panel.
c. Next, make three copies of this block with an X offset of 0.08 m.

Extra
The previous tutorial showed you how to make a copy of an object.
Figure 4.9: Creation of Solid Blocks

Creation of Network blocks


Let us now create four IC chips in the form of network blocks. To create a network block, we will
create a Block object and change the block type to Network in the Properties tab. Each network
block will have junction-to-board, junction-to-case, and junction-to-sides thermal resistances. The
values of these resistances are known a priori.
a. Add a new block, and position it as shown in the panel below:

b. Edit the block to change the properties of this block;


Ensure that the Block type is set to Network.
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Step 2: Build the Model


Toggle on Star Network.
Enter the Network parameters as shown in Figure 4.10: The Properties Panel (p. 85).
Figure 4.10: The Properties Panel

c. Now make three copies of this network block with an X offset of 0.08 m. This finishes the creation
of the network blocks.
Creation of a Hollow Block

Note
Finally, to cut out a section of the cabinet from the computational domain, we can
create a hollow block. This represents a region that does not affect heat transfer, but
alters the flow patterns.
a. Create a new Block; make sure it is a hollow.
b. In the Geometry tab, create a new Local coord system.
c. Select Create new from the Local coord system: drop-down list.
d. Enter X offset = 0.1, Y offset = 0, Z offset = 0.

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Use of Parameterization to Optimize Fan Location


e. Click Accept. This is just to demonstrate the use of local coordinate system.
f.

Further, size the block as follows:

6. Now we will create the detailed heat sink. The heat sink base acts as a heat spreader for all the chips.
a. Click on the Create heat sinks icon (
in the following table:

) and edit it, entering its location and properties as shown

Table 4.2: Heatsink Properties


Geometry
Plane:

xz

xS/xE:

0.02/0.34

yS/yE:

0.03/

zS/zE:

0.1/0.23

Base height:

0.01 m

Overall height:

0.06 m

Properties
Type:

Detailed

Flow Direction:

Detailed Fin type:

Bonded fin

Fin setup
Fin spec:

Count/thickness

Count:

Thickness:

0.008 m

Flow/thermal data
Fin material:

default

Base material:

Cu-Pure

Interface
Fin bonding:

Click the Edit button

Effective thickness:

0.0002 m

Solid material:

default

b. Click Update and Done. This completes the model building process. The complete model should
look like that shown in Figure 4.11: Final Model (p. 87).

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Step 3: Creating Separately Meshed Assemblies


Figure 4.11: Final Model

4.6. Step 3: Creating Separately Meshed Assemblies


One of the key aspects of modeling is to use an adequate mesh for the model. We need to have a fine
mesh in the areas where temperature gradients are high or flow is turning. Having a too coarse of a
mesh will not give you accurate results and at the same time, too fine a mesh may lead to longer run
times. The best option is to explore the model carefully and look for opportunities to reduce mesh
counts in the areas where the gradients are not steep. Creating non-conformal assemblies gives required
accuracy along with reduced mesh count. Select set of objects to create assemblies. Also decide suitable
slack values for assembly bounding box. Your selection can be reviewed in the section below where
we will create non-conformal meshed assemblies.
We will now create two non-conformal meshed assemblies.
1. To create the first assembly, first highlight all the blocks (except the hollow block) and the heat sink
object in the model tree, then right-click on them and choose Create and then Assembly.
2. Right-click and select Rename from the menu. Rename the assembly, as Heatsink-packages-asy.
3. To build the bounding box" for the assembly called Heatsink-packages-asy, double-click on it to edit
the assembly.

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Use of Parameterization to Optimize Fan Location


4. In the Meshing tab of the Assemblies panel, toggle on Mesh separately, and then set the Slack parameters as the following:
Table 4.3: Slack Values for Heatsink-packages-asy Assembly
Min X

0.005 m

Max X

0.015 m

Min Y

0.005 m

Max Y

0.005 m

Min Z

0.005 m

Max Z

0.005 m

Note
Note that for the Heatsink-packages-asy, we have set a bounding box that is 0.005 m bigger
than the assembly at five sides except Max X where the slack is defined higher (0.015 m)
to capture the wake region of the flow.

5. Click Update and Done to complete the bounding box specifications for the assembly.
Following the same procedure above, create one more assembly for the fan object (name it Fanasy). Use the following table to assign the Slack values for the Fan-asy assembly.
Table 4.4: Slack Values for Fan-asy Assembly
Min X

0m

Max X

0.005 m

Min Y

0.002 m

Max Y

0.002 m

Min Z

0.002 m

Max Z

0.002 m

4.7. Step 4: Generate a Mesh


To generate the mesh:
1. Open the Mesh control panel, keep the default values for the mesh settings and ensure that Mesh assemblies separately is on.
2. Click Generate. You will get a warning about minimum separation if the Allow minimum gap changes
option is unchecked in the Misc tab.

Extra
This warning appears because the Minimum gap (separation) which is like a tolerance
setting for the mesher is larger than 10% of the smallest feature in the model. When
there are objects smaller than the mesher tolerance, those objects will not be meshed
correctly. To avoid this we use the change value and mesh option which modifies the
minimum gap to 10% of the smallest object. This option is used for this particular tutorial
and may not be applicable all the time. As separation setting is a useful tool designed
to avoid unnecessary mesh due to inadvertent misalignments in the model (without
modifying the geometry), we may use other options suitable to the model.

3. Click on Change value and mesh.

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Step 5: Setting up the Multiple Trials


4. Examine the mesh by taking plane cuts; examine Face alignment and Quality ratio.
5. Go to the Mesh control panel, click on the Display and Quality tabs to examine the mesh.

4.8. Step 5: Setting up the Multiple Trials


Before we start solving the model, we will set up the parametric trials for the fan location parameter
zc".
1. Go to the Solve menu and select Define trials.
a. The Parameters and optimization panel pops up.
b. Toggle on Parametric trials in the Setup tab.
c. Select the Design variables tab and next to Discrete values, type 0.165 following 0.1, separated by
a space as shown in the Figure 4.12: The Parameters and optimization Panel- Design variables
tab (p. 90):

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Use of Parameterization to Optimize Fan Location


Figure 4.12: The Parameters and optimization Panel- Design variables tab

d. Click Apply.

Note
After the first trial has been completed, ANSYS Icepak has the options of starting the
following trial(s) from the default initial conditions specified in Problem setup panel, or
from the solution(s) of the trial run(s) that have completed.
For this model, next go to the Trials tab and ensure the Restart ID is blank for the 2nd trial as
shown in Figure 4.13: The Parameters and optimization Panel- Trials tab (p. 91). This instructs ANSYS
Icepak to start the 2nd run from the default initial conditions.
2. Click on Reset button and select Values to use the base names for trial naming.

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Step 6: Creating Monitor Points


Figure 4.13: The Parameters and optimization Panel- Trials tab

3. Click Done to close the Parameters and optimization panel.

4.9. Step 6: Creating Monitor Points


Create two monitor points by dragging and dropping (block.1 and grille.1) into the Points folder to
monitor the velocity in the grille and the temperature in one of the solid blocks. The variables to be
monitored can be easily changed by selecting them in the Monitor points panel.

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Use of Parameterization to Optimize Fan Location


Figure 4.14: The Modify point Panel

4.10. Step 7: Physical and Numerical Setting


Set up the basic problem parameters to solve the flow and energy equations, and use the Zero equation
turbulence model. Since natural convection is not involved, there is no need to turn on the Gravity
vector.
Problem setup

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Basic parameters

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Step 8: Save the Model


Figure 4.15: The Basic parameters Panel

Solution settings

Basic settings

Enter 200 in the Number of iterations field in the Basic settings panel.
Figure 4.16: The Basic settings Panel

4.11. Step 8: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak saves the model for you automatically before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model (including the mesh) yourself as well. If you exit ANSYS Icepak before you start
the calculation, you will be able to open the job you saved and continue your analysis in a future ANSYS
Icepak session. (If you start the calculation in the current ANSYS Icepak session, ANSYS Icepak will simply
overwrite your job file when it saves the model.)
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Use of Parameterization to Optimize Fan Location


File Save project
Alternatively, click the save button (

) in the file commands toolbar.

4.12. Step 9: Calculate a Solution


In the Results tab of the Solve panel, enable Write overview of results when finished, then click
Dismiss to close the Solve panel. The Solve panel is used for single trials only; therefore, the solution
can only be calculated from the Parameters and optimization panel. Open the Parameters and optimization panel and click Run to calculate a solution for both trials.
Figure 4.17: The Parameters and optimization Panel- Trials tab

4.13. Step 10: Examine the Results


Once the solutions are done, click on the Post menu and select Load solution ID. Select the solution
that corresponds to the first (parametric) run, i.e., zc = 0.1. If you want to view objects inside the assem94

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Step 10: Examine the Results


blies, you can open all the model nodes by right mouse clicking Model in the Model manager window
and selecting Expand all. Use the various postprocessing features available in ANSYS Icepak to display
your solution. A description of how to generate plane cut and object face views can be found in Step
7: Examine the Results of the Finned Heat Sink tutorial. In particular, use the following views:
1. Plane cut panel to display the velocity vectors on a plane through the cabinet
Figure 4.18: Trial 1 Vector Plots at Constant Z Plane Cut

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Use of Parameterization to Optimize Fan Location


Figure 4.19: Trial 2 Vector Plots at Constant Z Plane Cut

Important
To view the 2nd parametric run, click on the Post menu and select Load solution
ID. Select the solution that corresponds to the second parametric run, i.e., zc = 0.165.
The graphics display window updates automatically.

2. Object face panel to display temperature contours on wall.1 and on all blocks

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Step 10: Examine the Results


Figure 4.20: Trial 1 Temperature Contours on Blocks and PCB (wall.1)

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Use of Parameterization to Optimize Fan Location


Figure 4.21: Trial 2 Temperature Contours on Blocks and PCB (wall.1)

3. Surface probe panel to display the temperature values at a particular point


Examine the solution sets of both runs. You will find that, in the second run, the maximum temperature is lower than in the first run and that the network blocks are the hottest objects inside the
cabinet. The second trial has the fan located at zC= 0.165 which is closer to the heat sink location.
This increases the flow velocity over the heat sinks and thus increases the convective heat transfer
coefficient, which leads to more heat transfer from the fins (blocks) and thus reduces the maximum
temperature.

4.14. Step 11: Reports


1. Overview Report
At the end of the runs, ANSYS Icepak automatically displays an overview report because you selected
Write overview of results when finished in the Solve panel. This report has:
fan operating point
volume flow rate through the grille

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Step 13: Additional Exercise to Model Higher Altitude Effect


heat flow from the chips
network junction temperatures
heat flows for the wall and the grille.
Examine these results. Go to the Report menu and then select Solution overview and click on
View to display the desired overview report.
2. Summary Report
You can also create a single summary report containing the results of all the trial runs completed.
Go to the Solve menu and select Define report. In the Define summary report panel, under ID
pattern, enter the default filter, "*", which picks all the available solution IDs. Press new and hold
down Ctrl and select block.1, block.1.1., block.2, block.2.1, and block.3 from the
drop-down menu under Objects, and then press Write. Verify that the second trial gives lower
temperatures.

4.15. Step 12: Summary


In this tutorial, you learned how to set up and solve parametric trials, specify fan curves and create a
new local coordinate system. The use of network blocks to model packages has been demonstrated as
well as how to specify contact resistance using side specifications of a block object. You also learned
how to generate a summary report for multiple solutions.

4.16. Step 13: Additional Exercise to Model Higher Altitude Effect


The final model can also be used to model the effects of higher altitudes. In order to model this correctly,
new air properties at the particular altitude need to be defined and assigned to the default fluid. The
density of air is the most affected property and gets lower as you go higher in altitude. The data for
air properties at a different altitude is presented in many handbooks and may even include temperature
change affect with it. For an altitude of 3000 m, we can select the available library material Air@3000m.
Please note that a custom material having any properties can be created and stored in the material
library to use in any project.

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Use of Parameterization to Optimize Fan Location

Then, select Problem setup Basic Parameters and assign the new air material to the default fluid.

In addition, in the Fan flow section of the Fans Properties tab, all the defined fan curves need to be
modified by multiplying the existing data with the ratio of densities (the density of air at 3000 m / the
density of air at 0 m), which in this case is smaller than 1. Finally, the model is ready to be run to account
for the effects of higher altitude.

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Step 13: Additional Exercise to Model Higher Altitude Effect

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Chapter 5: Cold-Plate Model with Non-Conformal Meshing


5.1. Introduction
This tutorial demonstrates how to model a cold-plate using ANSYS Icepak.
In this tutorial you will learn how to:
Use the priorities of different objects to model complex shapes in ANSYS Icepak.
Use multiple fluids in a model.

5.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you have reviewed Sample Session in the Icepak User's Guide and Tutorials
Finned Heat Sink and RF Amplifier of this guide.

5.3. Problem Description


The model consists of a cold-plate, where the cold-plate fluid is transporting a significant fraction of
the heat from two plates mounted on either side of it. The natural convection in the external air is also
instrumental in some heat transfer. The model setup is shown in Figure 5.1: The cold-plate Model (p. 107).
The objective of this exercise is to illustrate the use of two different fluids in ANSYS Icepak. The model
includes two heated plates, cooled by water circulating inside the cold-plate cavity, as well as by air
driven by natural convection externally. Separately meshed assemblies will be employed to reduce the
overall mesh count in the domain. The model will be constructed using the default metric unit system.

5.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


Create a new project called cold-plate.

5.5. Step 2: Build the Model


Construct the cabinet and all the other objects according to the following specifications. Note that
during the model building, you may use the alignment tools. Please remember that you can align the
face, edge and vertex of one object with another. For example, you could align the bottom face of the
cylinders to the cabinet (see Figure 5.1: The cold-plate Model (p. 107)). You may also use the align tools
to create the openings on the cold-plate inlet and outlet regions.
Cabinet
Enter the following start and end locations for the cabinet
Table 5.1: Cabinet Start and End Values
xS

0.0 m

xE

0.4 m

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Cold-Plate Model with Non-Conformal Meshing


yS

0.0 m

yE

0.3 m

zS

0.0 m

zE

0.2 m

Blocks
Create a solid block, block.1, and a fluid block, block.2 with the following specifications. The table
below also gives the geometrical region where block.2 is located to have the material properties of
the fluid.
Table 5.2: block.1 and block.2 Specifications
block.1

xS

0.05 m

xE

0.35 m

Geometry: Prism

yS

0.08 m

yE

0.22 m

Block type: Solid

zS

0.07 m

zE

0.13 m

block.2

xS

0.06 m

xE

0.34 m

Geometry: Prism

yS

0.09 m

yE

0.21 m

Block type: Fluid

zS

0.08 m

zE

0.12 m

Solid material:
Al-Extruded

Fluid material:
Water (@280K)
Because block.2 is being created after block.1, it will have a higher relative meshing priority.

Note
Because Al-Extruded is set as the Default solid in the Defaults tab of the Basic parameters panel, you can then leave the material selection as default while creating the object
instead of selecting the material each time when an object is being created.
Next, we will create some cylindrical blocks. While editing cylindrical blocks, first select the block
shape as cylinder, then select the desired plane and finally enter the dimensions.
Table 5.3: Cylindrical Block Specifications
Object

xC

yC

zC

Height

Radius

IRadius

Specifications

block.3

0.1
m

0.0
m

0.1
m

0.09 m

0.015 m

0.0 m

Block type: Solid

Geometry:
Cylinder

Solid material: Al-Extruded

Plane: X-Z
block.4
Geometry:
Cylinder

0.3
m

0.0
m

0.1
m

0.09 m

0.015 m

0.0 m

Block type:Solid
Solid material: Al-Extruded

Plane: X-Z

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Step 2: Build the Model


Object

xC

yC

zC

Height

Radius

IRadius

Specifications

block.5

0.1
m

0.0
m

0.1
m

0.09 m

0.01 m

0.0 m

Block type: Fluid

Geometry:
Cylinder

Fluid material: Water(@280K)

Plane: X-Z
block.6

0.3
m

0.0
m

0.1
m

0.09 m

0.01 m

0.0 m

Geometry:
Cylinder

Block type: Fluid


Fluid Material: Water(@280K)

Plane: X-Z
Because the fluid blocks, block.5 and block.6, are created after the solid blocks, they will have
higher relative meshing priorities.

Note
An alternative way to build the cylinders would be to create the solid block, block.3, and
then the fluid block, block.5, group these together, and then copy them with an offset of
0.2 in the x direction. Note that the naming of the cylinders will not be consistent with
the tutorial. However, you could rename the objects to their corresponding names in the
tutorial by right mouse clicking each copied object in the Model tree and selecting Rename.

Plates
Table 5.4: Plate Specifications
Object

Specifications

plate.1

xS

0.07 m

xE

0.33 m

Solid material:

Geometry:
Rectangular

yS

0.1 m

yE

0.2 m

Al-Extruded

Plane: X-Y

zS

0.06 m

zE

Power: 200W

plate.2

xS

0.07 m

xE

0.33 m

Solid material:

Geometry:
Rectangular

yS

0.1 m

yE

0.2 m

Al-Extruded

Plane: X-Y

zS

0.13 m

zE

Power: 200W

Thermal model: Conducting


thick: 0.01 m

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Cold-Plate Model with Non-Conformal Meshing


Thermal model: Conducting
thick: 0.01 m

Note
Note: An alternative way to create plate.2 would be to copy plate.1 with a Z offset of
0.07m.

Openings
The openings at the liquid inflow and outflow regions of the cold-plate are
Table 5.5: Opening Specifications
Object

xC

yC

zC

Radius

opening.1 (outlet
opening)

0.1 m

0m

0.1 m

0.01 m

0.3 m

0m

0.1 m

Specifications

0.01 m

Type: Free
Geometry: Circular
Plane: X-Z
opening.2 (inlet
opening)

Y velocity = 0.2
m/s

Type: Free
Geometry: Circular
Plane: X-Z

Note
You could also have made a copy of outlet opening (opening.1) with an X offset of 0.2
to create inlet opening (opening.2).
The openings at the cabinet boundary for external air natural convection are
Table 5.6: Openings at Cabinet Boundary Specifications
Object
opening.3

xS

0.4 m

xE

Type: Free

yS

0.0 m

yE

0.3 m

Geometry: Rectan- zS
gular

0.2 m

zE

0.0 m

Plane:Y-Z
opening.4

0.0 m

xE

Type: Free

106

xS
yS

0.0 m

yE

0.3 m

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Step 3: Create a Separately Meshed Assembly


Geometry: Rectan- zS
gular

0.2 m

zE

0.0 m

Plane:Y-Z

Note
Instead of creating the openings, opening.3 and opening.4 above, you could have edited
the cabinet and changed the wall type on these two faces to openings.
The final model should appear similar to the drawing shown in Figure 5.1: The cold-plate Model (p. 107).
Figure 5.1: The cold-plate Model

Note
Figure 5.1: The cold-plate Model (p. 107) has changed the opacity, shading and color of
some objects to make the objects easier to see.

5.6. Step 3: Create a Separately Meshed Assembly


To create a separately meshed assembly, highlight all the objects in the model tree other than the
cabinet, opening.3, and opening.4. Right mouse click on them and choose Create and then Assembly.

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Cold-Plate Model with Non-Conformal Meshing


To enable separate meshing for the assembly, double-click on assembly.1 to edit the assembly. Under
the Meshing tab, toggle on the Mesh separately button and then enter the slack values as follows:
Table 5.7: Slack Values for Mesh Assembly
Min X

0.01 m

Max X

0.01 m

Min Y

0.0 m

Max Y

0.01 m

Min Z

0.01 m

Max Z

0.01 m

The bounding box of the assembly is larger than the original assembly by 0.01 m on five sides. The
slack value for the min Y side of the assembly is set to be 0 m, since the min Y side of the assembly is
at the bottom surface of the cabinet. Click Update and Done to complete editing the separately meshed
assembly.

5.7. Step 4: Generate a Mesh


Open the Mesh control panel, make sure that the Mesh assemblies separately option is toggled on
and Normal mesh is selected for Mesh parameters. Change the Max size ratio to 4 and keep the
other global default mesh settings. The mesh needs to be refined for the inner prismatic fluid block
(block.2). In the Misc tab, make sure Allow minimum gap changes is checked. Then toggle on Object
params and click Edit in the Local tab. Choose block.2 and check Use per-object parameters and
enter 30, 16, and 10 respectively for the X, Y and Z counts for the mesh in the fluid block, as shown in
the following figure. Click Done to close the Per-object meshing parameters panel.

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Step 5: Physical and Numerical Settings

Click Generate to mesh the model. Visualize the mesh at plane cuts and surface displays from the
Display tab.

5.8. Step 5: Physical and Numerical Settings


A calculation of the Reynolds number shows that the problem is turbulent. To set up turbulent flow,
Basic parameters and choose the Zero equation turbulence model
go to Problem setup
for the Flow regime in the General setup tab.
Gravity acts in the negative x direction in this problem. To setup the effects of gravity, toggle on the
Gravity vector in the General setup tab. Enter the new values for the gravity vector as x = -9.80665,
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Cold-Plate Model with Non-Conformal Meshing


y = 0 and z = 0. Now go to the Transient setup tab and set an initial X velocity of 0.005 m/s in the x
direction. Accept all other defaults in the Basic parameters panel. These are shown in Figure 5.2: Switching on Gravity and Turbulent Flow (p. 110).
Figure 5.2: Switching on Gravity and Turbulent Flow

Note
For steady state natural convection cases, setting a small initial velocity opposite to the
gravity vector direction is advised as this assists with the initial convergence of the model.
For cases where there is no forced convection, clicking on Reset in the Solution settings
Basic settings menu automatically sets a small initial velocity in the direction opposite
to the gravity vector. This may not be necessary in this model though, because the flow will
be forced through the cold plate. We will have mixed convection (forced + natural) heat
transfer mode.

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Step 5: Physical and Numerical Settings


Figure 5.3: Basic and Advanced Solver Settings

Select the Basic settings panel from the Solution settings branch of the tree and set the Number of
iterations to 300. Go to Advanced settings and make sure Under-relaxation factors for Pressure,
Momentum, and Temperature are 0.3, 0.7, and 1.0, respectively. Change the Stabilization under Joule
heating potential to BCGSTAB, and select Double for the Precision drop-down list. The recommended
basic settings and advanced solver setup for this model are shown in Figure 5.3: Basic and Advanced
Solver Settings (p. 111).
Add three monitor points to the Points folder, one to monitor the velocity at the center of the opening.1
(outlet opening), and two to monitor the temperature at the center of block.2 and plate.2, respectively.
The easiest way to create them is to select the objects from the Model tree and then drag them to the
Points folder of the tree. ANSYS Icepak will then automatically monitor values at the centers of these
objects. The default setting is to monitor Temperature. To change this, double click on the object under
the Points folder, and choose which variables to monitor at that location.

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Cold-Plate Model with Non-Conformal Meshing

5.9. Step 6: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak automatically saves the model for you before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model after the model building and meshing is complete.
File Save project
Alternatively, click the save button (

) in the file commands toolbar.

5.10. Step 7: Calculate a Solution


Select the Solve menu and click on Run solution. In the Solve panel, under the Results tab toggle on
Write overview of results when finished, and then click Start solution.

5.11. Step 8: Examine the Results


Please review the solution overview report created to ensure that mass (volume) flow rate and energy
balances are satisfied. To postprocess the results, create the following object face and plane cut objects:
Table 5.8: Object Face and Plane Cut Specifications
Object

Specifications/Display Attributes

Description

face.1

Object: all blocks (select the blocks using Object-face view of temperature on all the blocks.
the Ctrl key or the Shift key and the left What is the maximum temperature?
mouse button)
Show contours/Parameters
Contours of: Temperature
Contours options: Solid fill and
Smooth
Color levels: Calculated/Global limits

cut.1

Set position: Z plane through center


Show vectors/ Parameters
Color by: Velocity Magnitude

Observation: Water is circulating through the internal


channel, providing most of the cooling for the
model. On the outside, air flows over the system by
natural convection.

Color levels: Calculated/Global limits


face.2

Objects: opening.1 (outlet) and opening.2 (inlet)


Show particle traces/ Parameters

Observe the flow pattern from inlet opening to


outlet opening passing through the cold plate. Animate the particle traces.

Variable: Speed
Display options: Uniform: 30
Particle options: Keep all the defaults
Style: Dye trace (Width = 1) and
Particles (Radius = 2)
Color levels: Calculated/ This Object
cut.2

Set position: X plane through center


Show particle traces/ Parameters

Observe the flow pattern in (+) X direction. Animate


the particle traces.

Variable: Speed
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Step 10: Additional Exercise


Display options: Uniform: 30
Particle options: Keep all the defaults
Style: Dye trace (Width = 1) and
Particles (Radius = 2)
Color levels: Calculated/ This Object
cut.3

Set position: Y plane through center


Show contours of Temperature.

Due to the nature of the problem, the temperature


distribution should be symmetric around the central
xy plane. Please verify this in the solution.

You can save the postprocessing objects that you just created by clicking Save post objects to file
option in the Post menu. ANSYS Icepak will save these objects under the file named post_objects in
the Icepak project folder.

5.12. Step 9: Summary


In this problem, we modeled a cold-plate that included two heat plates cooled by water circulating inside
the cold-plate cavity as well as air driven by natural convection externally. This exercise also demonstrated
how to use the priorities of different objects to model complex shapes in ANSYS Icepak and the use of
multiple fluids in a model.

5.13. Step 10: Additional Exercise


To see the cooling capacity (effectiveness) of water, you may run the same model by replacing the fluid
properties (of the fluid blocks) by Glycol, i.e., make all the fluid blocks air blocks. You should see a significant increase in the maximum temperature.

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Chapter 6: Heat-Pipe Modeling and Nested Non-Conformal Meshing


6.1. Introduction
This tutorial demonstrates how to model simple heat pipes and an active heat sink using ANSYS Icepak.
In this tutorial, you will learn how to:
Create orthotropic solid materials.
Use those materials to simulate a heat-pipe in a system.
Use of copy mirror and copy translate functions.
Create nested non-conformal assemblies.

6.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you have little experience with ANSYS Icepak, but that you are generally familiar with the interface. If you are not, please review Sample Session in the Icepak User's Guide and the
tutorial Finned Heat Sink of this guide. Some steps in the setup and solution procedure will not be
shown explicitly.

6.3. Problem Description


Heat pipes are used to transport heat from a heat source area (where there is limited space for heat
dissipation) to a place where it is dissipated. The objective of this exercise is not to model the detailed
physics inside a heat pipe. Instead, we will model a heat pipe by using a series of cylindrical solid blocks
that connect the heat source to an air-cooled heat sink. These blocks will have an orthotropic conductivity with very large conductivity in the pipe axis direction where the heat is carried away. The model
will be constructed using the default metric unit system. We will also make use of nested non-conformal
meshing using assemblies to reduce the cell count in the model.

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Heat-Pipe Modeling and Nested Non-Conformal Meshing


Figure 6.1: Heat-pipe Tutorial Base Model

6.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Copy the file ICEPAK_ROOT/tutorials/heat-pipe/heat-pipe-nested-NC.tzr to your
working directory. You must replace by the full path name of the directory where ANSYS Icepak is installed
on your computer system.
2. Start ANSYS Icepak, as described in Starting ANSYS Icepak in the Icepak User's Guide.

Note
ANSYS Icepak can be started in ANSYS Workbench using the import .tzr feature or it can
be opened as a stand-alone product.

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Step 2: Build the Model


3. Click Unpack in the Welcome to Icepak panel.
4. In the File selection panel, select the packed project file heat-pipe-nested-NC.tzr and click Open.
5. In the Location for the unpacked project file selection dialog, select a directory where you would like
to place the packed project file, enter a project name in the New project text field then click Unpack.

6.5. Step 2: Build the Model


Note
In ANSYS Icepak, the packed file feature compresses a model to the files needed to build,
mesh and run the model (job, model and problem files). In many of the tutorials, part of the
model is already created and packed to speed up the learning process. The model originally
has three blocks and only block.1 has an assigned power (25 W). The model also has one
fan and one grille. Next, we will build a heat sink in the area of the fan, grille and the heat
pipe system to connect block.1 to the heat sink.
1. Create materials utilizing ANSYS Icepaks orthotropic material conductivity feature. The idea is to have
a material that has very high conductivity in the pipe heat removal directions but normal conductivity
in the other directions.
Click on the material icon (

) in the object toolbar for each new material to be created.

Click on the material name with the right mouse button and select Edit or double click the material
name to open the Edit panel.
Go to the Properties tab and make sure to toggle on Material type to be Solid and set the Conductivity type to be Orthotropic from the drop-down list.
Deselect the Edit check box next to conductivity and create the following materials with orthotropic
conductivity properties using the template in Figure 6.2: Orthotropic Material Properties (p. 118).

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Heat-Pipe Modeling and Nested Non-Conformal Meshing


Figure 6.2: Orthotropic Material Properties

Table 6.1: Orthotropic Properties


Name

Nominal Conductivity

Orthotropic multiplier

material.1

20000

X=1

Y = 0.005

Z = 0.005

material.2

20000

X = 0.005

Y=1

Z = 0.005

material.3

20000

X=1

Y=1

Z = 0.005

The above materials have the so-called orthotropic conductivity, which is not uniform in all three
directions. The effective conductivity in each direction is equal to the nominal conductivity multiplied by the orthotropic multiplier in that direction.
2. After creating these heat pipe materials, we build the heat pipe made of cylindrical blocks and square
joints.
Create five block objects.
Use the values in the following table (be sure to note the geometry)
Table 6.2: Block Specifications
Object

Geometry

xC

yC

zC

Height

Radius

IRadius

Specifications

pipe1

Shape:
Cylinder

0.05
m

0.11
m

0.1 m

0.245
m

0.01 m

0.0 m

Type: Solid

Plane: YZ
pipe2

118

Shape:
Cylinder

Solid material:
material.1
0.325
m

0.365
m

0.1 m

0.267
m

0.01 m

0.0 m

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Type: Solid

Step 2: Build the Model


Object

Geometry

xC

yC

zC

Height

Radius

IRadius

Plane: YZ
pipe3

Specifications
Solid material:
material.1

Shape:
Cylinder

0.31
m

0.125
m

0.1 m

0.225
m

0.01 m

0.0 m

Plane: XZ

Type: Solid
Solid material:
material.2

Object

Geometry

xS

yS

zS

xE

yE

zE

Specifications

Joint1

Shape:
Prism

0.295
m

0.095
m

0.085
m

0.325
m

0.125 m

0.115 m

Type: Solid
Solid material:
material.3

Joint2

Shape:
Prism

0.295
m

0.35
m

0.085
m

0.325
m

0.38 m

0.115 m

Type: Solid
Solid material:
material.3

Note
You can use the Copy object function to speed up the creation of the remaining objects
after pipe1 and joint1 are created. However, the names will not be the same as the
tutorial. To rename an object, right mouse click the object in the Model tree and click
Rename.

3. Next, we will also build the heat sink using block objects.
Build the base and one pin according to the following
Table 6.3: Base and Pin Specifications
Object

Geometry

xS

yS

zS

xE

yE

zE

Properties

Base

Shape:
Prism

0.42
m

0.35
m

0.05
m

0.592
m

0.38 m

0.15 m

Block type: Solid


Solid material: default

Object

Geometry

xC

yC

zC

Height

Radius
/ Radius 2

Int radius / Int


radius 2

Properties

Pin

Shape:
Cylinder,

0.44
m

0.38
m

0.067
m

0.04 m

0.01 m /
0.006 m

0m/0
m

Block type: Solid

Plane: X-Z

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Solid material: default

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Heat-Pipe Modeling and Nested Non-Conformal Meshing


Non-uniform radius
Note that the non-uniform radius option is in the Geometry tab as shown below and that the
Plane option is X-Z (Figure 6.3: Non-uniform Cylinder (p. 120)).
Figure 6.3: Non-uniform Cylinder

Make two copies of Pin with an offset of 0.033 m in the Z direction (i.e., Number of copies= 2,
Translate with Z offset = 0.033 m).
Highlight the three tapered fins (Pin, Pin.1 and Pin.2), make four copies of this highlighted group with
an offset of 0.033 m in the X direction (i.e., Number of copies = 4, Translate with X offset = 0.033
m).

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Step 3: Create Nested Non-conformal Mesh Using Assemblies


Group all the pins by highlighting them in the model tree, click on the right mouse and select Copy
and finally make one copy as follows: Number of copies = 1, Translate with Y offset = -0.03, Mirror
with Plane: XZ and About: Low end.
The final model should appear as shown in Figure 6.4: Model with Heat Pipe and Heat Sink (p. 121).
Figure 6.4: Model with Heat Pipe and Heat Sink

6.6. Step 3: Create Nested Non-conformal Mesh Using Assemblies


In this exercise, our goal is to reduce the overall cell count to a reasonable level while retaining a good
cell resolution within the model, especially where the velocity and temperature gradients are higher.

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Heat-Pipe Modeling and Nested Non-Conformal Meshing


1. Create three individual assemblies (one for the heat sink and the base, the second one for the vent, and
the last one for the fan).
a. Highlight all the pins and the base in the model tree.
b. Right mouse click and select Create then Assembly.
c. Rename the assembly as Heatsink-asy.
d. Double click on the assembly to open the Edit panel.
e. Under the Meshing tab, toggle on the Mesh separately button.
f.

Set the slack to the following values:


Table 6.4: Slack Values for Heatsink-asy
Min X

0.005 m

Max X

0.005 m

Min Y

0.005 m

Max Y

0.005 m

Min Z

0.015 m

Max Z

0.005 m

Note
For the Heatsink-asy, we have set a bounding box that is 0.005 m bigger than the
assembly at five sides except Min Z where the slack is defined higher (0.015m) to
capture the wake region of the flow.

g. Click Update and Done.


h. Following the same procedure above, create two more assemblies; one for vent.1 (name it Vent-asy)
and one for the fan (name it Fan-asy).
i.

Use the following tables to assign slack values for Vent-asy and Fan-asy assemblies, respectively.
Table 6.5: Slack Values for Vent-asy
Min X

0.01 m

Max X

0.01 m

Min Y

0.01 m

Max Y

0.01 m

Min Z

0.01 m

Max Z

0m

Table 6.6: Slack Values for Fan-asy


Min X

0.01 m

Max X

0.01 m

Min Y

0.01 m

Max Y

0.01 m

Min Z

0m

Max Z

0.01 m

2. Put the previously created assemblies into an outer assembly covering all.
a. Highlight all the three assemblies above and click the right mouse button.
b. Select Create assembly.

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Step 4: Generate a Mesh


c. Rename this main assembly HS-vent-fan-asy.
d. Assign the following slack values to the assembly.
Table 6.7: Slack Values for HS-vent-fan-asy
Min X

0.02 m

Max X

0.02 m

Min Y

0.02 m

Max Y

0.02 m

Min Z

0m

Max Z

0m

6.7. Step 4: Generate a Mesh


1. Go to Model Generate Mesh or use the toolbar shortcut (

) to open the Mesh control panel.

2. In the Mesh control panel, specify a global maximum element size of 0.025 m in all three directions
(Max X size = Max Y size = Max Z size = 0.025).
3. Verify that the Coarse option is selected next to Mesh parameters and change the Max size ratio from
10 to 5.
4. Make sure that Mesh assemblies separately button is toggled on.
5. Under the Options tab, set the Init element height to 0.003.
Figure 6.5: Mesh control Panel

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123

Heat-Pipe Modeling and Nested Non-Conformal Meshing


6. Click Generate. Visualize the mesh by making plane cuts and surface displays under the Display tab,
especially between the heat sink pins and on the surface of the fan and grille objects. The meshing
panel should look like the one in Figure 6.5: Mesh control Panel (p. 123) when finished:

6.8. Step 5: Physical and Numerical Settings


1. Go to Problem setup
Basic parameters. In the General setup tab, change the Flow regime
to be Turbulent and keep the default selection of Zero equation.
2. Go to the Transient setup tab and set the initial condition for the velocity in the z-direction to be -0.1
m/s to achieve faster convergence (If there is an initial guess at the start of the solution there is a lesser
chance of large initial velocities in the first iteration).
These two steps are shown in Figure 6.6: Turbulent Flow and Initial Z-Velocity (p. 124). Click Accept
for these changes to take effect.
Figure 6.6: Turbulent Flow and Initial Z-Velocity

3. Under Solution settings


settings Panel (p. 125)).

124

Basic settings, set the Number of iterations to 200 (Figure 6.7: Basic

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Step 8: Examine the Results


Figure 6.7: Basic settings Panel

4. Click Accept.

6.9. Step 6: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak automatically saves the model for you before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model (including the mesh) yourself as well.
File Save project

6.10. Step 7: Calculate a Solution


1. Add in two monitor points, one to monitor velocity at the center of vent.1, and one to monitor the
temperature at the center of the block.1.
a. Select vent.1 and block.1 from the list and then drag them to the Points branch of the tree. (Alternatively, one can create monitor points by simply selecting these objects in the model tree, clicking
on the right mouse button and selecting Create and then Monitor point.)
b. Because ANSYS Icepak will by default monitor the temperature at the centroid or center of these
objects, double-click on vent.1 under the monitor Points branch.
c. Select velocity as the variable to monitor and deselect temperature.
d. Accept the change.
2. Go to Solve Run solution or click on the shortcut button (
solution.

). Start the solver by clicking Start

6.11. Step 8: Examine the Results


To postprocess results for this exercise, create the following object-face and plane-cut views:
Table 6.8: Object Face and Plane Cut Specifications
Object

Specifications

Description

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Heat-Pipe Modeling and Nested Non-Conformal Meshing


Object: all blocks

Object-face view of temperature on all the blocks.

(Choose using Ctrl and Shift keys


and left mouse button)

face.1

Observations: The view shows the flow of heat


from the heated block (block1.) to the air-cooled
heat sink.

Show contours
Parameters
Contours of: Temperature
Contours options: Solid fill/ Smooth
Color levels: Calculated/ Global limits
cut.1

Plane location:
Set position: Y plane through center
Scroll up to about 0.8
Show vectors
Parameters

Plane cut (x-z) view of the velocity vectors through


the center of the fan.
Observations: The view shows air flowing from
the grill to the fan, passing through the fins of
the heat sink.

Color by: Velocity magnitude


face.1 and cut.1 should look similar to Figure 6.8: face.1 (Temperature Contour -all blocks) (p. 127) and
Figure 6.9: cut.1 (Velocity Vectors through Fan) (p. 128) that follow.

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Step 8: Examine the Results


Figure 6.8: face.1 (Temperature Contour -all blocks)

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Heat-Pipe Modeling and Nested Non-Conformal Meshing


Figure 6.9: cut.1 (Velocity Vectors through Fan)

6.12. Step 9: Summary


In this problem, we have modeled a simplified heat pipe using cylindrical solid blocks of orthotropic
conductivity. The exercise also demonstrated the application of copy and mirror features as well as the
use of nested non-conformal meshing using assemblies in ANSYS Icepak.

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Chapter 7: Non-Conformal Mesh


7.1. Introduction
This tutorial compares the effects of using a conformal mesh versus a non-conformal mesh in a simple
pin-fin heat sink problem.
In this tutorial, you will learn how to:
Generate a non-conformal mesh and related parameters such as bounding box, slacks etc.
Understand the effects of non-conformal mesh on total mesh counts and on results.
Generate and compare summary reports.
Apply non-conformal rules and restrictions.

7.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the menu structure in ANSYS Icepak and that you have
solved Sample Session in the Icepak User's Guide and the tutorial Finned Heat Sink. Some steps in the
setup and solution procedure will not be shown explicitly.

7.3. Problem Description


The model consists of a pin-fin heat sink composed of aluminum, which is in contact with a source
dissipating 10 W, as shown in Figure 7.1: Problem Specification (p. 130). The source-heatsink assembly
sits in the middle of a wind tunnel with a wind speed of 1.0 m/s. The ambient temperature is 20C. The
flow regime is turbulent.
The objective of this exercise is to become familiar with the non-conformal meshing methodology and
its application. The solution results of conformal and non-conformal mesh will be examined and compared.
In ANSYS Icepak, assemblies of objects can be meshed separately. A region can be defined around a
particular assembly and this region can be meshed independently of the mesh outside this region. This
allows a fine mesh to be confined in a particular region of interest and it helps to reduce overall mesh
count without sacrificing the accuracy of the results.

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Non-Conformal Mesh
Figure 7.1: Problem Specification

7.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


Open a new project and name it non-conformal.

7.5. Step 2: Build the Model


Cabinet
Enter the following start and end locations for the Cabinet.
xS

0.3 m

xE

0.7 m

yS

0.5 m

yE

0.7 m

zS

0.0 m

zE

1.0 m

Opening on Cabinet Boundaries


Open the Cabinet object panel. In the Properties tab, change Wall type of Min z to Opening.
Click Edit to open the Openings panel. In the Properties tab of the Openings panel, enter 1 m/s
for the Z velocity and keep Temperature as ambient (which is 20C).
Grille on Cabinet Boundaries
Under the Properties tab of the Cabinet panel, change the wall type of Max z to Grille. Click Edit
to open the Grille panel. In the Properties tab of the Grille panel, change the free area ratio to
0.8 and leave the other default property specifications.

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Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 7.2: Grille Properties Specifications

Source
Create a source using the following dimensions:
Object

Specification

source.1

xS = 0.48 m

xE = 0.52 m

Geometry: Rectangular

yS = 0.52 m

yE =

Plane: X-Z

zS = 0.48 m

Total power: 30 W

zE = 0.52 m

Heat sink
Now, create a heat sink with the following geometrical and physical properties.
Tab

Settings

Geometry

Plane: X-Z
Start/end
xS = 0.46 m, xE = 0.54 m
yS = 0.50 m, yE =
zS = 0.40 m, zE = 0.6 m
Base height: 0.02 m
Overall height: 0.1 m

Properties

Type: Detailed
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Non-Conformal Mesh
Flow direction: Z
Detailed fin type: Cross cut extrusion
Fin setup/Fin spec: Count/thickness
Count: 8 in Z-dir and 8 in X-dir
Thickness: 0.01 m in Z-dir and 0.004 m in X-dir
Flow/thermal data: default base and pin material
The screen shots of the heatsink panel is shown in Figure 7.3: Heat sink Properties (p. 132).
Figure 7.3: Heat sink Properties

7.6. Step 3: Generate a Conformal Mesh


Generate a conformal mesh for the model.
1. Open the Mesh control panel using Model Generate mesh.
a. In the Mesh control panel, set the Max element size for X to 0.02 m, for Y to 0.01 m, and for Z
to 0.05 m.
b. Under the Global tab, make sure that Normal is selected next to Mesh parameters.
c. Under the Misc tab, make sure Allow minimum gap changes is checked.

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Step 3: Generate a Conformal Mesh


d. Click Generate.

Note
The minimum gap for X, Y, Z might adjust to 10% of the minimum dimension in respective directions. Make a note of the number of elements, the minimum face
alignment and the aspect ratio.

2. Examine the mesh.


a. Click the Display tab.
b. Turn on the Cut plane option.
c. In the Set position drop-down list, select Y plane through center.
d. Turn on the Display mesh option.

Note
The mesh display plane is an x-z plane cut through the center of the cabinet as shown
in Figure 7.4: Conformal Mesh, Central Y Plane (p. 133). Note the clustered mesh lines extending from the heat sink all the way across the domain in both the x and z directions.
The total number of cells is about 144000.
Figure 7.4: Conformal Mesh, Central Y Plane

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Non-Conformal Mesh
3. Turn off the mesh display.
a. Deselect the Display mesh option.
b. Click Close to close the Mesh control panel.

7.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings


Before starting the solver, you first review estimates of the Reynolds and Peclet numbers to check that
the proper flow regime is being modeled.
Solution settings

Basic settings

Click Reset in the Basic settings panel. Check the values printed to the Message window. The Reynolds
and Peclet numbers are approximately 12600 and 8900, respectively, so the flow is turbulent.
Basic parameters and choose the Zero
To set up turbulent flow, go to Problem setup
equation turbulence model under the General setup tab. Click Accept to accept the new solver settings.
Go to Solution settings
Basic settings and set the Number of iterations to 300. Go to Advanced settings and specify Under-relaxation factors for Pressure, Momentum, and Temperature
as 0.7, 0.3, and 1.0 respectively.
Define a monitor point by dragging the source object (source.1) into the Points folder. This creates a
monitor point for temperature of the object, which can be used to judge convergence.

7.8. Step 5: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak saves the model for you automatically before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model (including the mesh) before the solution. The model can be saved using File
Save project.

7.9. Step 6: Calculate a Solution


Start the calculation by clicking on Solve Run solution. Specify conformal" as the ID. Click Start
solution to start the solver.

7.10. Step 7: Examine the Results


In this step, you will examine the maximum temperature using ANSYS Icepaks summary reporting tool.
Report Summary report
1. Define a report that will display temperature data for the source and the heat sink.
a. In the Define summary report panel, click New.
b. In the Objects drop-down list, select heatsink.1 and click Accept.
c. In the Value drop-down list, select Temperature.
d. Repeat steps (a) through (c) for source.1.

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Step 7: Examine the Results

e. Click Write to generate a summary report.


ANSYS Icepak opens the Report summary data panel, where minimum, maximum, and mean
temperatures for the heat sink and source are displayed. Note that the maximum temperature is
about 36.7 C.

2. Click Done to close the Report summary data panel.


3. Click Close to close the Define summary report panel.

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Non-Conformal Mesh

7.11. Step 8: Add an Assembly to the Model


You will now create an assembly out of the source and heat sink objects. The assembly will be meshed
separately from the rest of the model.

Note
Because you are changing the current model, thereby invalidating the post-processing data
that has been loaded from the previous steps, you will need to generate a mesh (a nonconformal mesh) and calculate the solution again which is shown in steps 9 through 11.
1. Create an assembly consisting of the source and the heat sink objects.
a. Click the Create assemblies button ( ) to create a new assembly. This creates an assembly node
in the Model manager window under the Model node.
b. Select the source.1 item under the Model node in the Model manager window, hold down the Ctrl
key, and then select the heatsink.1 item.
c. Hold down the left mouse button, drag both highlighted items into the assembly.1 node of the tree,
then release the left mouse button.
2. Edit the assembly and define its bounding box.
a. Select the assembly.1 node in the Model tree, and then click the Edit object button (
the Assemblies panel.

) to open

b. Click the Meshing tab.


c. Turn on the Mesh separately option and enter the Slack parameters shown in Figure 7.5: Slack Values
and Mesh Controls in the Separately Mesh Assembly (p. 137).

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Step 8: Add an Assembly to the Model


Figure 7.5: Slack Values and Mesh Controls in the Separately Mesh Assembly

This creates a bounding box region that is 0.05 m larger than the assembly on four sides. Since
Min Y is already at the bottom of the cabinet, no slack value can be provided for it. A larger
slack value of 0.15 m has been provided in the Max Z direction to resolve the wake region. Not
that a smaller Max X and Max Z grid size has been specified within the assembly compared to
the global max grid size. This helps to refine the mesh within the separately meshed assembly.
d. Click Done to set the properties of the assembly and close the panel.
The new model is shown in Figure 7.6: The Source and Heat Sink in a Separately Meshed Assembly (p. 138).

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Non-Conformal Mesh
Figure 7.6: The Source and Heat Sink in a Separately Meshed Assembly

7.12. Step 9: Generate a Non-conformal Mesh


assembly.1 will be meshed separately when the mesh is generated. The non-conformal mesh will limit
the clustering to a region inside a bounding box slightly larger than the source-heatsink assembly.
1. Generate a non-conformal mesh for the model.
Model Generate mesh
a. In the Mesh control panel, keep the Max element size for X set to 0.02 m, for Y set to 0.01 m,
and for Z set to 0.05 m.
b. Under the Global tab, make sure the Mesh assemblies separately option is checked.
c. Click Generate to create the mesh.

Note
Make a note of the number of elements, the minimum face alignment, and the aspect
ratio.

2. Examine the mesh.


a. Click the Display tab.
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Step 10: Save the Model


b. Turn on the Cut plane option.
c. In the Set position drop-down list, select Y plane through center.
d. Turn on the Display mesh option.
The mesh display plane is an - plane cut through the center of the cabinet as shown in Figure 7.7: Non-conformal Mesh (p. 139). Note the clustered mesh lines extending from the heat sink
all the way across the domain in both the and directions only within the bounds of the assembly. The total number of cells is about 107000.

Figure 7.7: Non-conformal Mesh

3. Turn off the mesh display.


a. Deselect the Display mesh option.
b. Click Close to close the Mesh control panel.

7.13. Step 10: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak will save the model for you automatically before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model (including the mesh) yourself as well.
File Save project

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Non-Conformal Mesh

7.14. Step 11: Calculate a Solution


1. Retain the same Number of iterations (300) in the Basic settings panel.
2. Start the Solution.
Solve Run solution
a. Specify non-conformal as the solution ID.
b. Click Start solution to start the solver.

Note
The monitor point that you already created is automatically used for the new solution.
The solution converges after about 175 iterations. Note, however, that the exact number of iterations
required for convergence may vary on different computers.

7.15. Step 12: Examine the Results


In this step, you will examine the maximum and minimum temperatures of the source and heat sink in
the new version of the model.
Report Summary report
1. Define a report that displays temperature data for the assembly.
a. Retain the same temperature report of the source and the heat sink, as used in the version without
the assembly.
b. Click Write to generate a summary report.
Note that the maximum temperature is about 35.8 C, representing a temperature rise of about
15.8 C from the ambient temperature of 20 C. The maximum temperature is very close to that
obtained in the version with conformal mesh.
2. Click Done to close the Report summary data panel.
3. Click Close to close the Define summary report panel.

7.16. Step 13: Summary


In this tutorial, you generated both a conformal and a non-conformal mesh for a simple source-heatsink
geometry and compared the two sets of results. The comparison found an approximate 20 percent reduction in the number of cells for the non-conformal mesh with a negligible change in the temperature
data.

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Chapter 8: Mesh and Model Enhancement Exercise


8.1. Objective
The objective of this exercise is to lead you through the decision making process thats involved in
improving a model. The inferences from the exercise should help you make appropriate modeling
choices during your next thermal modeling project.

8.2. Prerequisites
The trainee should be familiar with:
ANSYS Icepak modeling objects
Basics of meshing
Non-conformal meshing

8.3. Skills Covered


Choice of thin vs. thick objects
Basic meshing techniques
Non-conformal meshing
Use of object separation setting

8.4. Training Method Used


A troubleshooting approach is used in this tutorial. A model with potential for improvement is provided.
You will be given 15 minutes to try your hand at improving the model (note: you are not expected to
complete all the improvements in this short time). This will help you familiarize yourself with the issues
associated with the model. Then, an approach for improving the model is delineated in the form of
step-by-step hints. Feel free to explore the software interface, collaborate with another trainee, or ask
the instructor.

8.5. Loading the Model


Unpack and load the model named meshing-tutorial-start.tzr.
Rename it to any other name of your choice.

8.6. A 15 Minute Exploration


Without making any changes, the model results in about 675,000 cells. It is possible to reduce this mesh
significantly without compromising accuracy. You are allowed to modify, delete, or add objects as long
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Mesh and Model Enhancement Exercise


as the physics being modeled stays unchanged. You may want to refer to the power and material specifications to justify model changes. Non-conformal meshing is one of the techniques that will help you
accomplish this task.
Work with this model for as long as you prefer within the allocated 15 minutes and STOP. Proceed to
the next set of instructions.

Hint
Start by generating the mesh without any changes. View mesh cut planes at various orientations and locations to identify root causes that result in unnecessary mesh clusters in noncritical regions. Then modify the model in order to tackle the issues you notice.

8.7. Step-by-Step Approach


Save the model you have been working on to another name. (You may be revisiting this model to compare
notes with the suggested approach)
Reload the model you had unpacked earlier (meshing-tutorial-start").
Save it to another name of your choice.
Generate mesh without modifying the model. You will see a mesh count of about 675,000 cells.

Note
Ensure the meshing type is Mesher-HD.

Create mesh cut planes in different orientations to identify the root cause for such a high mesh count.
One such cut plane (Z plane through center set position) is shown in Figure 8.1: A Mesh Cut Plane View
of the Given Model When Meshed Without Modifications (p. 143).
Figure 8.1: A Mesh Cut Plane View of the Given Model When Meshed Without Modifications (p. 143) shows
that the high mesh count is due to grid bleeding from the heat sink and the components cooled by it.

Note
What feature in ANSYS Icepak allows you to avoid grid bleeding?

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Modification 1: Non-Conformal Mesh of the Heat Sink and Components


Figure 8.1: A Mesh Cut Plane View of the Given Model When Meshed Without Modifications

8.8. Modification 1: Non-Conformal Mesh of the Heat Sink and Components


1. Create an assembly containing the heat sink and the components cooled by it (green colored objects).
Name it HS-asy.

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Mesh and Model Enhancement Exercise

Tip
Shift + left mouse click and draw a window around the group of objects you would like to
assemble.
You can make the mesh and some objects invisible to select the heat sink objects.
You can also select the objects in the Model manager window by left mouse clicking
heatsink.1 and then Shift + left mouse clicking HS_component.

2. We will test two non-conformal assembly options: a regular non-conformal assembly (with slack values)
and a zero slack non-conformal assembly.

Regular non-conformal assembly


a. Activate Mesh separately under the Meshing tab of the Assemblies panel for this assembly (HSasy) and specify appropriate slack values (we recommend 1 mm on all sides). While specifying slack
values, make sure that you are not violating any of the rules regarding non-conformal meshing.

Note
It is recommended to use the Case check macro to ensure a thin conducting plate
is not intersecting a non-conformal assembly. In the Macros menu, select Case check>
Automatic Case Check Tool. Click the Apply button for the following options: Assembly intersection check and Thin Conducting Plate and Assembly Intersections.
If there is an intersecting plate, the slack value should be changed to get rid of this
error.

b. Generate the mesh again.


c. Observe the decrease in element count with every modification you make. The mesh count should
be around 341,000 cells.

Zero slack non-conformal assembly


a. Open the HS-asy edit panel and change the slack values on all sides to zero.

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Modification 2: Resolution of Thin Conducting Plate Intersecting Non-Conformal


Region
b. Generate the mesh again.
c. Display the mesh at some selected planes to observe mesh in the domain.
d. Display the mesh on Mask.1. Note that the mesh fully exists for the plate, even though it is intersecting
with a face of the assembly.
e. Observe the reduction in the mesh count; the mesh count should be about 305,000 cells.

Note
Zero slack non-conformal assembly resulted in fewer mesh count than the regular nonconformal assembly intersecting thin conducting plate. This limitation will be resolved
in the next step.

8.9. Modification 2: Resolution of Thin Conducting Plate Intersecting


Non-Conformal Region
Question the choice of using the thin conducting plate object type for the plate object (Mask.1).
What is the thickness of the mask plate?
What is the conductivity of the solid material assigned to this plate?
Find out the thickness and conductivity of the PCB on which the thin plate is lying.
Based on the above information, do you think that the mask object is a significant spreader of heat
compared to the PCB?
The mask is not a significant heat spreader, however it tends to impede heat flow across it. Hence,
we cannot completely ignore it.
In fact, there are two mask plates modeled as thin conducting plates in this model (one for each
PCB).
Change the plate type of both mask plates to Contact Resistance while maintaining the same
thickness (0.00001 m). This way you maintain the thermal resistance in the normal direction while
ignoring the heat spreading laterally.
Regenerate the mesh or load the existing one (the mesh is still the same as there is no change in geometry).
View cut planes of the mesh to see if you have any more unnecessary mesh clusters. Figure 8.2: Mesh
Bleeding After 1 Non-Conformal Region (p. 146) shows one such cut plane.
This time the unwanted grids are from the clusters of components called hi-flux-comp" (red colored
objects).

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Figure 8.2: Mesh Bleeding After 1 Non-Conformal Region

8.10. Modification 3: Non-Conformal Mesh for the hi-flux-comps Cluster


1. Create a non-conformal mesh around the cluster of components called hi-flux-comps".
Even though you are only interested in isolating the hi-flux-comps", there are two cylindrical
objects very close to it. You have two choices.
Avoid the cylinders by using zero slack value. This may be too small and create a small gap between
the interface and the cylinders, which is not desirable.
Include the cylinders to the assembly. This is the suggested approach.
2. Create a zero slack non-conformal assembly that includes the hi-flux-comps, Tabs, Dies, and adjacent
cylinders. Note that the Tabs and Dies are contained within the hi-flux-comps.
3. Generate the mesh again.
4. Repeat cut plane viewing. Figure 8.3: Mesh Bleeding from the Boards (p. 147) shows a cut plane view after
creating the two separate mesh regions.

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Modification 4: A Super Assembly...


Figure 8.3: Mesh Bleeding from the Boards

8.11. Modification 4: A Super Assembly...


The mesh bleeding you see in Figure 8.3: Mesh Bleeding from the Boards (p. 147) can be tackled by creating
a separately meshed assembly of the entire enclosure object (the blue box). In order to see the effect of
zero slack non-conformal assemblies, you may want to try meshing the model once with zero slack assembly,
and then with slack values for the non-conformal assembly.
The resultant mesh cut plane is shown in Figure 8.4: Cut Plane View of Recursive Embedded Mesh (p. 148).

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Figure 8.4: Cut Plane View of Recursive Embedded Mesh

This method of creating a super assembly containing sub-non-conformal assemblies is called nested nonconformal meshing" or recursive embedded meshing".
Revisiting the Separation Setting
By default, ANSYS Icepaks accepts all minimum gap changes. We shall revisit these changes now.
In the Mesh control panel, set all the Minimum gap settings to 0.0001 m.
In the Misc tab, uncheck Allow minimum gap changes.
Generate the mesh.
The pop-up message as shown in Figure 8.5: Separation Warning (p. 148) will appear.
Figure 8.5: Separation Warning

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Modification 5: A Simplification Based on Magnitudes of Resistances...


This warning appears because the separation (think of it as a tolerance setting for the mesher) distance
is larger than 10% of the smallest feature in the model.
When there are objects smaller than the mesher tolerance, those objects will not be meshed correctly.
However, note that the separation setting is a useful tool designed to avoid unnecessary meshes due
to inadvertent misalignments in the model (without modifying the geometry).
Look for the name of the object featured in the warning and its dimension.
Why should you model an object thats 0.1 mm in thickness? Is it likely to improve the accuracy of your
results?
Do not accept the suggested change to the separation settings.

8.12. Modification 5: A Simplification Based on Magnitudes of Resistances...


From the name of the object, one can infer that the warning is regarding an air gap under one of the
components, which is modeled as a thick plate.
There is a reason for not using contact resistance type plate to model the Airgap.
Two thin objects cannot overlap. If the Airgap was modeled as contact resistance plate, the underlying
mask may not be meshed in the region common to the Mask and the Airgap.
What is the Mask thickness and conductivity?
What is the Airgap thickness and conductivity?
The purpose for modeling these two objects is to capture their insulating effects.
How does the resistance (thickness/conductivity) of the mask compare to that of the Airgap?
Does the mask contribute significantly to the overall (sum) of the two resistances?
Can you justify suppressing the mask under the air gap by making the Airgap a contact resistance
plate?
When you make the Airgap a contact resistance plate, make sure that the Effective thickness is the
same (1e-4 m).
Also make sure the Airgap has higher priority over the Mask object.
You can do this by editing the plate object and changing the Priority setting under the Info tab.
(Larger priority number means higher priority. Objects with higher priority are listed lower in the
Model manager window).
Generate the mesh again.
This time you will see another separation warning about the AL-spreader. Again, do not accept the
changes.

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8.13. Modification 6: A Classic Case for Thin Conducting Plate...


Since a contact resistance plate will not model the in-plane spreading of heat, we cant use it here.
Thin conducting plate models conduction in the normal as well as the planar direction. At the same
time the thin conducting plate will not generate slender cells.
The decrease in thickness due to a thin plate approximation of the Al-spreader is negligible.
Generate the mesh one more time. You will see the separation warning again - this time about the die
objects which are 0.0004 m.
These objects are power generating components, which are already thin conducting plates. The warning
is about the width of the packages.
The surface area of the dies is a critical parameter affecting the temperature prediction for the component.
This cannot be simplified.
Hence accept the suggested change in separation setting. The resultant mesh count will be significantly
less than what we got without any changes to the given model.

Note
It is also possible to use a separation distance larger than the recommended 10% value.
Values of up to 50% (of the smallest dimension) may be used in cases where reducing the
mesh count is critical.

You will now get a separation warning about the tabs. We cannot change the geometry of the tabs, so
accept the suggested change in separation settings again.
Here are some suggested qualities of meshes:
The size of the first cells from critical heat dissipating surfaces should be less than 1 mm for a 1st cut
analysis.
View mesh cut plane on the wall of the enclosure object, the PCB and the critical heat generating
components to see if you are fulfilling the above requirement.
Use the Object params control to request mesh refinement near all the important surfaces mentioned
above.
Generate the mesh to see if your request is being honored.
Finally, a comparison...
For comparison purposes, deactivate the Mesh assemblies separately option in the Mesh control
panel and generate the mesh. The difference between the mesh with this check button active and
inactive is the effect of non-conformal meshing.
STOP: Solution and post processing are beyond the scope of this exercise. Please compare the suggested
approach with the approach you were attempting during the initial 15 minute period of this tutorial.

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Conclusion

8.14. Conclusion
A model with room for improvement is provided. Using approximate object choices and meshing
strategies, the model and the mesh were improved. The approach delineated in this exercise can help
reduce significant run time without compromising the physics being modeled.

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Chapter 9: Loss Coefficient for a Hexa-Grille


9.1. Introduction
This tutorial demonstrates how to define trials, run parametric solutions, and post-process the results.
Often, there is a need to calculate the loss coefficient of grilles that have certain hole patterns. The
purpose of the problem is to determine the minor loss coefficient of a grille that has hexagonal holes.
In this tutorial you will learn how to:
Define a parameter to optimize the design.
Define trials.
Define primary and compound functions that you want to report.
Calculate parametric solutions.
Report and plot parametric results.

9.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the menu structure in ANSYS Icepak and that you have
solved or read the tutorial Finned Heat Sink. Some steps in the setup and solution procedure will not
be shown explicitly.

9.3. Problem Description


The model includes a cabinet that is 160 mm in length with inlet and outlet openings at the two ends
(with cross sectional area of 7.363 mm x 12.7 mm), and four symmetry walls at the other sides. The
model also includes a part of the hexa-grille placed at the center of the channel in the streamwise direction, as shown in Figure 9.1: Problem Specification (p. 154). The grille has one full hexagonal hole at
the center and four quarter hexagonal holes placed around it. This pattern was selected because it
forms a periodic region and is sufficient to calculate the loss coefficient. The solution obtained from
this run can be replicated to form the solution for the entire domain.

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Loss Coefficient for a Hexa-Grille


Figure 9.1: Problem Specification

9.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Copy ICEPAK_ROOT/tutorials/loss-coefficient/loss-coefficient.tzr to your working
directory. Replace ICEPAK_ROOT by the full path name of the directory where ANSYS Icepak is installed
on your computer system.
2. Start ANSYS Icepak, as described in Starting ANSYS Icepak in the Icepak User's Guide.
When ANSYS Icepak starts, the Welcome to Icepak panel opens automatically.
3. Click Unpack in the Welcome to Icepak panel.
The File selection panel appears.
4. In the File selection panel, select the packed project file loss-coefficient.tzr and click Open.
The Location for the unpacked project file selection dialog appears.
5. In the Location for the unpacked project file selection dialog, select a directory where you would like
to place the packed project file, enter a project name in the New project text field, then click Unpack.

9.5. Step 2: Build the Model


This tutorial uses an existing model. ANSYS Icepak displays the model in the graphics window, as shown
in Figure 9.2: Loaded Model (p. 155).

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Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 9.2: Loaded Model

Save the problem to a new project file.


This enables you to expand on the problem without affecting the original file.
File Save project as
1. In the Project text box, enter the name loss-coefficient-new.
2. Click Save.

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Loss Coefficient for a Hexa-Grille

9.6. Step 3: Define Parameters and Trials


You will first define a parameter and trials according to the parameter. Next, you will define a summary
report, then primary and compound functions to be reported.
).

1. Define a velocity parameter at the inlet opening in terms of the Reynolds number (

Note
The velocity at the inlet opening in terms of the Reynolds number ( ), which is custom, where
arily used in loss-coefficient plots in lieu of velocity, is calculated as =
the kinematic viscosity = 1.5843e-5 kg/m.s, and the hydraulic diameter of the duct Dh
= 9.322e-3 m.

a. Select the inlet opening, cabinet_default_side_minx, in the Model manager window, and then click
the Edit object button ( ) to open the Openings panel.
b. Click the Properties tab.
c. Select X Velocity and set the value to $Re*1.5843e-5/9.322e-3.

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Step 3: Define Parameters and Trials

d. Click Done to set the properties of the opening. This opens the Param value panel.
e. Set the Initial value of Re to 10, and click Done to close both the Param value and the Openings
panels.

2. Define six trials according to the different values of the Reynolds number.
Solve Define trials
a. In the Parameters and optimization panel, make sure Parametric trials and All combinations are
enabled in the Setup tab.
b. Click on the Design variables tab, enter the following values for the Reynolds number in the box
next to Discrete values: 10 50 100 500 1000 1750.
Click Apply to accept the changes.

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Note
Parameters values can also be exported/imported by clicking the Export or Import
button in the Setup tab of the Parameters and optimization panel. Clicking Export
or Import opens a file selection dialog box and overrides any existing data.

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Step 3: Define Parameters and Trials

c. Click the Trials tab to review the trials. Make sure the Trials across top option at the bottom of the
tab is disabled, and click Reset to select Values instead of Numbered in order to use the base names
as values.

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d. Click Done to close the panel.


3. Define the report that displays average velocity and pressure data at the inlet and outlet openings.
Solve Define report

Note
The loss coefficient is obtained by dividing the total pressure differential through the

domain by the average dynamic pressure,

a. In the Define summary report panel, click New.


b. In the Objects drop-down list, select cabinet_default_side_maxx and click Accept.
c. In the Value drop-downlist, select UX.
d. Repeat steps (a) and (b), then select Pressure in the Value drop-down list.
e. Repeat steps (a) through (d) for cabinet_default_side_minx.

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Step 3: Define Parameters and Trials

f.

Click the Close button to accept the settings and close the panel.

4. Set the parametric trials and define primary and compound functions.
Solve Run optimization
a. In the Parameters and optimization panel, click the Setup tab.
b. Verify that the Parametric trials and All combinations options are turned on.
c. Click the Functions tab.
d. Define four primary functions (Pstat_in, Pstat_out, Uave_in, and Uave_out).

Note
These functions represent static pressures and velocities at the inlet and outlet, respectively.
i.

Under Primary functions, click the New button to open the Define primary function panel.

ii. In the Define primary function panel, enter Pstat_in for the Function name.
iii. Select Report summary from the Function type drop-down list and cabinet_default_side_minx
Pressure from the Item drop-down list and retain the selection of Max.

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iv. Click Accept to accept the changes and close the panel.

v. Repeat steps (i) through (iv) for the following three functions:
Function
name

Function type

Item

Max/Mean

Pstat_out

Report summary

cabinet_default_side_maxx
Pressure

Max

Uave_in

Report summary

cabinet_default_side_minx UX

Mean

Uave_out

Report summary

cabinet_default_side_maxx UX

Mean

Important
All function names are case-sensitive.

5. Define five compound functions (Pdyn_in, Pdyn_out, Ptot_in, Ptot_out, and Kfact).
a. Under Compound functions, click the New button to open the Define compound function panel.
b. In the Define compound function panel, enter Pdyn_in for the Function name.
c. Next to Definition enter 0.5*1.1614*$Uave_in*$Uave_in.

d. Click Accept to accept the changes and close the panel.


e. Repeat steps (a) through (d) for the following four functions:

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Step 4: Generate a Mesh


Function name

Definition

Pdyn_out

0.5*1.1614*$Uave_out*$Uave_out

Ptot_in

$Pstat_in+$Pdyn_in

Ptot_out

$Pstat_out+$Pdyn_out

Kfact

($Ptot_in-$Ptot_out)/$Pdyn_out

6. Click Done to close the Parameters and optimization panel.

9.7. Step 4: Generate a Mesh


For this model, you will generate the mesh in just one step. The resulting mesh will be sufficiently fine
near object faces to resolve the flow physics properly.
Model Generate Mesh
1. Generate the mesh for the model.
a. Keep all the defaults in the Mesh control panel.
b. Click Generate in the Mesh control panel to generate the mesh.
2. Examine the mesh.

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a. Click the Display tab.
b. Turn on the Cut plane option.
c. In the Set position drop-down list, select Y plane through center.
d. Turn on the Display mesh option.

Note
The mesh display plane is an - plane cut through the center of the cabinet as
shown in Figure 9.3: Mesh on the x-z Plane (p. 164).

Figure 9.3: Mesh on the x-z Plane

3. Deselect the Display mesh option to turn off the mesh display.
4. Click Close to close the Mesh control panel.

9.8. Step 5: Physical and Numerical Settings


1. Confirm that only the flow solution is to be obtained, and the flow regime is set to laminar.
Problem setup

Basic parameters

a. Keep the default selection of Flow(velocity/pressure) under Variables solved.


b. Keep the default selection of Laminar for the Flow regime.
c. Click Accept to close the panel.

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Step 8: Examine the Results


2. Increase the Number of iterations to 500.
Solution settings

Basic settings

a. Enter 500 in the Number of iterations field.


b. Click Accept in the Basic settings panel.
3. Confirm under-relaxation factors are correct.
Solution settings

Advanced settings

a. Make sure the Precision for the solver is Double.


b. Click Accept in the Advanced solver setup panel.

9.9. Step 6: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak will save the model for you automatically before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model (including the mesh) yourself as well. If you exit ANSYS Icepak before you start
the calculation, you will be able to open the project you saved and continue your analysis in a future
ANSYS Icepak session. (If you start the calculation in the current ANSYS Icepak session, ANSYS Icepak will
simply overwrite your project file when it saves the model.)
File Save project

9.10. Step 7: Calculate a Solution


Start the calculation.
1. Solve Run optimization

Note
button in the Model and solve toolbar to display the
Alternatively, you can click the
Parameters and optimization panel.

2. Make sure Allow fast trials (single .cas file) is unchecked in the Setup tab.
3. Click Run in the Parameters and optimization panel.

9.11. Step 8: Examine the Results


As ANSYS Icepak starts performing the trials, the Parametric trials panel opens, displaying all the
function values defined a priori, as well as parameters and running times for each trial. The Parametric
trials can also be opened by selecting Show optimization/param results from the Report menu.
Report Show optimization/param results

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Plot the loss coefficient, Kfact, against the Reynolds number, Re.
1. In the Parametric trials panel, click the Plot button to open the Selection panel.

2. In the Selection panel, select Re as the

axis variable, and click Okay.

3. In another Selection panel, which automatically opens up, select Kfact as the y axis variable, and click
Accept.
This displays the plot Kfact vs Re, as shown in Figure 9.4: Kfact vs Re Plot (p. 167)

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Step 9: Summary
Figure 9.4: Kfact vs Re Plot

9.12. Step 9: Summary


In this tutorial, you used the parameterization tool to calculate the loss coefficient of a grille for different
values of Reynolds number (Re). You also defined other functions (e.g., static pressure and velocities at
the inlet and outlet) that were reported for different Reynolds numbers. The results show that as Re
increases, the loss coefficient decreases.

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Chapter 10: Inline or Staggered Heat Sink


10.1. Introduction
This tutorial demonstrates how to use the check-box (boolean) parameter control for design variables,
and how to assign primary functions, in order to determine whether an inline or a staggered pin fin
heat sink performs better in a single model. The resulting maximum temperature on the package will
be compared. Non-conformal meshing will also be employed to reduce the cell count, required memory,
and run time. In addition, particle traces passing a non-conformally meshed assembly will be presented
during the post-processing of the results.
In this tutorial you will learn how to:
Define a check-box parameter (design variable).
Define different values for a design variable.
Run and report parametric trials.
Clip a plane cut to align it with the sides of a heat sink assembly.
Display particle traces coming from the fan and the opening.

10.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the menu structure in ANSYS Icepak and that you have
solved or read Tutorial Finned Heat Sink (p. 3). Some steps in the setup and solution procedure will
not be shown explicitly.

10.3. Problem Description


The model includes the package assembly, containing a BGA package object (compact conduction
model), inline or staggered assemblies consisting of the respective heat sink objects, PCB object,
spreader plate, a fan at the exit, and an opening at the inlet of the wind tunnel. The model geometry
is shown in Figure 10.1: Problem Specification (p. 170).

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Inline or Staggered Heat Sink


Figure 10.1: Problem Specification

10.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Copy the file
ICEPAK_ROOT /tutorials/heat_sink/heat_sink2b.tzr to your working directory. You
must replace ICEPAK_ROOT by the full path name of the directory where ANSYS Icepak is installed
on your computer system.
2. Start ANSYS Icepak, as described in Section 1.5 of the Users Guide.

Note
When ANSYS Icepak starts, the Welcome to Icepak panel will open automatically.

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Step 2: Build the Model


3. Click Unpack in the Welcome to Icepak panel.

Note
The File selection panel will appear.

4. In the File selection panel, select the packed project file heat-sink2b.tzr and click Open.

Note
The Location for the unpacked project file selection dialog will appear.

5. In the Location for the unpacked project file selection dialog, select a directory where you would like
to place the packed project file, enter a project name in the New project text field, then click Unpack.

10.5. Step 2: Build the Model


Note
This tutorial uses an existing model. ANSYS Icepak will display the heat sink model in the
graphics window. To view all components, expand all the assemblies of the model in the
Model manager window.

Note
You can rotate the cabinet around a central point using the left mouse button, or you can
translate it to any point on the screen using the middle mouse button. You can zoom into
and out from the cabinet using the right mouse button. To restore the cabinet to its default
orientation, select Home position from the Orient menu.
Save the problem to a new project file.

Note
This will allow you to expand on the problem without affecting the original file.
File Save project as
In the Project name text box, enter the name heat-sink-new.
Click Save.

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10.6. Step 3: Define Design Variables


Note
For both heat sinks, you will define the HeatSink parameter, which will activate/deactivate
heat sinks parametrically.
1. Define the HeatSink parameter for the Inline heat sink.
a. Select the Inline assembly in the Model manager window, and then click the Edit object button
( ) to open the Assemblies panel.

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Step 3: Define Design Variables

b. Right-click the Active check box to open the Active parameter panel.
c. Select ON if variable is equal to this objects name.
d. Enter $HeatSink in the Variable text box.

Caution
Note that all function names are case sensitive.

e. Click Accept in the Active parameter panel to accept the changes and close the panel.

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f.

Click Update in the Assemblies panel to open the Param value panel.

g. In the Param value panel, enter Staggered for the Initial value of HeatSink, and click Done to
close the panel.

Note
The word Active in the Assemblies panel became green. Also, note that the Inline
assembly in the Model manager window is moved to the Inactive node.

h. Click Done in the Assemblies panel to close the panel.


2. Define the HeatSink parameter for the Staggered heat sink.
a. Repeat above steps for the Staggered assembly.

Note
You will not have to specify the initial value again.

10.7. Step 4: Define Parametric Runs and Assign Primary Functions


You will first define values for your design variable. Next, you will review parametric trials and define
primary functions to be calculated and reported.
Solve Run optimization

Extra
Alternatively, you can click the

button.

1. Define parameter values.


a. In the Parameters and optimization panel, click the Design variables tab.
b. Next to Discrete values, after "Staggered" type in "Inline". Make sure to separate the two
with a space.
c. Click Apply to accept the changes.

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Step 4: Define Parametric Runs and Assign Primary Functions

2. Review trials.
a. Click the Trials tab.
b. Make sure that the Order for Staggered is 1, and for Inline is 2.
c. Select tr_HeatSink_Staggered as the Restart ID for the tr_HeatSink_Inline trial as shown in the
image below.

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Inline or Staggered Heat Sink

3. Define a primary function.


a. Click the Functions tab.
b. Click the New button in the Primary functions group box.

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Step 4: Define Parametric Runs and Assign Primary Functions

c. In the Define primary function panel, enter Tmax next to Function name.
d. In the Value drop-down list, select Maximum temperature of objects.
e. In the Object drop-down list, select the 700_BGA_40X40_5peripheral_p1.50 object in the Package
assembly, and click Accept.

f.

In the Define primary function panel, click Accept to save the changes and close the panel.

g. Click Done in the Parameters and optimization panel to close the panel.

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Inline or Staggered Heat Sink

10.8. Step 5: Generate a Mesh


For this model, you will not generate a mesh in advance. Meshing will be automatically performed for
each design trial during the parametric trials.
Model Generate Mesh
1. Make sure that the Mesh type is Mesher-HD.
2. In the Global tab, make sure that the Mesh assemblies separately option is turned on.
3. Keep all other defaults in the Mesh control panel.
4. Click Close in the Mesh control panel to close the panel.

10.9. Step 6: Physical and Numerical Settings


Define basic parameters.
Solution settings

Basic settings

Set the Number of iterations to 300.


Set Energy to 1e-8.
Click Accept in the Basic settings panel to accept the settings and close the panel.
Solution settings

Advanced settings

Set Precision to Double.


Click Accept in the Advanced solver setup panel to accept the settings and close the panel.

10.10. Step 7: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak will save the model for you automatically before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model (including the mesh) yourself as well. If you exit ANSYS Icepak before you start
the calculation, you will be able to open the project you saved and continue your analysis in a future
ANSYS Icepak session. (If you start the calculation in the current ANSYS Icepak session, ANSYS Icepak will
simply overwrite your project file when it saves the model.)
File Save project

10.11. Step 8: Define Monitor Points


It is always a good approach to define monitor points before starting to run a simulation. In this model,
a temperature monitor point was already defined by dragging the BGA package object into the Points
node in the Model manager window. A velocity monitor point was also defined by dragging the Xmax
opening object into the Points node and selecting Velocity and unchecking Temperature from the
Modify points panel. In addition to the residual plot, the monitor plot will display temperature at the
center of the BGA package object during the solution process and provide an indication of convergence.

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Step 10: Examine the Results

10.12. Step 9: Calculate a Solution


1. Open the Parameters and optimization panel, if it is not already opened.
Solve Run optimization

Note
You can click the

button in the Model and solve toolbar.

2. Click the Setup tab, and make sure that options Parametric trials and All combinations are selected.
Deselect Allow fast trials (single .cas file).
3. Click Run in the Parameters and optimization panel, to start the calculations.

Note
As ANSYS Icepak starts calculating solutions for the model, the Solution residuals window,
displaying convergence history, and the Temperature Point monitors window will open.
Also, the Parametric trials panel will open displaying the function values, as well as
parameters and running times for both trials, as shown in Figure 10.2: The Parametric
trials Panel (p. 179). The Parametric trials can also be opened by selecting Show optimization/param results from the Report menu.
Figure 10.2: The Parametric trials Panel

10.13. Step 10: Examine the Results


The results from tr_HeatSink_Inline will be examined in this section.
1. In the Orient menu, select Orient negative Z.
2. Display velocity vectors on a plane cut at the exit region of the heat sink.

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Inline or Staggered Heat Sink


Post Plane cut

Extra
You can also open the Plane cut panel by clicking the

button.

a. In the Name field, enter the name cut_velocity.


b. In the Set position drop-down list, select Vertical - screen select.
c. Select a point in the graphics window between the fan and the heat sink assembly.
d. Turn on the Show vectors option, and click Parameters to open the Plane cut vectors panel.
e. In the Plane cut vectors panel, in the Color levels group box, select This object from the Calculated
drop-down list.
f.

Check Project to plane.

g. Click Done in the Plane cut vectors panel to accept the changes and close the panel.
h. In the Orient menu, select Isometric view.

Note
The graphics window will be updated, as shown in Figure 10.3: Velocity Vectors at the
Exit Region of the Heat Sink (p. 181)

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Step 10: Examine the Results


Figure 10.3: Velocity Vectors at the Exit Region of the Heat Sink

3. Move this plane cut through the model.


a. Hold down the Shift key, press and hold down the middle mouse button on the edge of a vector.
b. Drag the plane cut through the model in the graphics display window.

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4. Clip the plane cut to align it with the sides of the heat sink assembly.
a. In the Orient menu, first select Orient positive X, then Scale to fit.
b. In the Plane cut panel (that was already opened), select Enable clipping, then click Max Y in the
orange region under Clip to box.
c. Click the top edge of the assembly in the graphics window.
d. In the Plane cut panel, click Min Z in the orange region under Clip to box.
e. Click the left edge of the assembly in the graphics window.
f.

In the Plane cut panel, click Max Z in the orange region under Clip to box.

g. Click the right edge of the assembly in the graphics window.


h. Click the Update button.

Note
The graphics window will be updated, as shown in Figure 10.4: Clipped Plane
Cut (p. 183)

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Step 10: Examine the Results


Figure 10.4: Clipped Plane Cut

5. Display particle traces in a forward direction.


a. In the Orient menu, select Isometric view.
b. In the Plane cut panel, unselect Show vectors and Enable clipping and select Show particle traces.
c. Click Parameters next to Show particle traces to open the Plane cut particles panel.
d. Select Speed from the Variable drop-down list.
e. In the Display options group box, keep the default selection of Uniform, and enter 50.
f.

In the Style group box, keep the default selection of Dye trace and select Particles with Radius 2.

g. In the Color levels group box, select This object from the Calculated drop-down list.
h. Click Done to update the graphics window.

Note
The graphics window will display the particle traces in the forward direction, as shown
in Figure 10.5: Forward Particle Traces (p. 184)

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Figure 10.5: Forward Particle Traces

6. Display particle traces at the opening (Xmax).


a. In the Orient menu, select Orient negative Z.
b. In the Plane cut panel, deselect Active and click New.
c. In the Name field, enter the name opening-velocity.
d. In the Set position drop-down list, select Vertical - screen select.
e. Select a point in the graphics window near the opening (Xmax). This point will should be around
0.814 on the slider bar.
f.

Turn on the Show particle traces option, and click Parameters to open the Plane cut particles
panel.

g. Select Speed from the Variable drop-down list.


h. In the display options group box, keep the default selection of Uniform, and enter 50.

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Step 11: Summary


i.

In the Style group box, keep the default selection of Dye trace and select Particles with Radius 2.

j.

In the Color levels group box, select This object from the Calculated drop-down list.

k. Click Done in the Plane cut particles and Plane cut panels to close the panels and update the
graphics window.
l.

In the Orient menu, select Isometric view.


Figure 10.6: Opening particle traces

10.14. Step 11: Summary


In this tutorial, you used the optimization tool to determine whether an inline or a staggered pin fin
heat sink performs better in a single model. The resulting maximum temperature on the package was
found to be higher in the case of the staggered heat sink.

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185

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Chapter 11: Minimizing Thermal Resistance


11.1. Introduction
Heat sink optimization is crucial in a variety of industrial applications. Usually, the challenge is to minimize the thermal resistance (or to maximize the heat transfer) and the amount of material used for the
heat sink. The objective of this tutorial is to minimize the thermal resistance for the big heat sink, while
keeping the maximum temperature in the entire system below 70C and ensuring that the total mass
of the heat sinks does not exceed 0.326 kg.
In this tutorial you will learn how to:
Set up an optimization problem.
Define design variables.
Define primary, compound, and objective functions.

11.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the menu structure in ANSYS Icepak and that you have
solved or read the tutorial Finned Heat Sink. Some steps in the setup and solution procedure will not
be shown explicitly.

11.3. Problem Description


The model comprises an FR-4 board (FR-4.1) of 20.32 cm 30.48 cm and 1.59 mm thick with several
components placed on the board (Figure 11.1: Problem Specification (p. 188)). Two grilles are placed at
the upstream and downstream of the board with the free flow area ratios of 60% and 50%, respectively.
There are also two components (block.1.3 and block.1.3.1) dissipating 5 W each.
There is a CPU (block.1) dissipating 50W and a heat sink (heatsink_small) is placed on the top of it.
Between the heat sink and the CPU, there is a thermal interface material (TIM_1) with a thermal conductivity of W/mK. These components and three small power caps (power_cap_1.1, power_cap_1.1.1
and power_cap_1.1.2), dissipating 1 W each, form a non-conformal assembly (hs_assembly_1).
On the other side of the board, there are eight chips, dissipating 20 W each, and a parallel plate heat
sink (heatsink_big) is placed on the top of the chips. Similar to the case of the small heat sink, there
is a thermal interface material (TIM_2.1 and TIM_2.1.1) between the large heat sink and the chips with
the same thermal conductivity. These components together form a non-conformal assembly (hs_assembly_2).

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Figure 11.1: Problem Specification

11.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Copy ICEPAK_ROOT/tutorials/optimization/optimization.tzr to your working directory.
Replace ICEPAK_ROOT by the full path name of the directory where ANSYS Icepak is installed on your
computer system.
2. Start ANSYS Icepak, as described in Starting ANSYS Icepak in the Icepak User's Guide.
When ANSYS Icepak starts, the Welcome to Icepak panel opens automatically.
3. Click Unpack in the Welcome to Icepak panel.
The File selection panel appears.
4. In the File selection panel, select the packed project file optimization.tzr and click Open.
The Location for the unpacked project file selection dialog appears.
5. In the Location for the unpacked project file selection dialog, select a directory where you would like
to place the packed project file, enter a project name in the New project text field, then click Unpack.

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Step 3: Define Design Variables

11.5. Step 2: Build the Model


This tutorial uses an existing model. ANSYS Icepak will display the model in the graphics window. To
view all components, expand all the assemblies of the model in the Model manager window.

Note
You can rotate the cabinet around a central point using the left mouse button, or you can
translate it to any point on the screen using the middle mouse button. You can zoom into
and out from the cabinet using the right mouse button. To restore the cabinet to its default
orientation, select Home position from the Orient menu.
Save the problem to a new project file (this enables you to expand on the problem without affecting
the original file).
File Save project as
1. In the Project name text box, enter the name optimization-new.
2. Click Save.

11.6. Step 3: Define Design Variables


The large heat sink needs to be optimized in terms of the number of fins and fin thickness. Therefore,
you will define the following design variables for the large heat sink: fin count (in the range from 2 to
18) and fin thickness (in the range from 0.254 mm to 2.032 mm).
1. Define the finCount and finThick design variables for the heatsink_big and specify their initial
values.
a. Expand the hs_assembly_2 node in the Model manager window.
b. Select the heatsink_big in the Model manager window and click the Edit object button (
open the Heat sinks panel.

) to

c. Click the Properties tab.


d. Under the Fin setup tab, type $finCount next to Count, and press Enter on the keyboard to
open the Param value panel.

Important
All function names are case-sensitive.

e. In the Param value panel, enter 12 for the Initial value of finCount, and click Done to close the
panel.

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f.

In the Heat sinks panel, under the Fin setup tab, type $finThick next to Thickness, and press
Enter on the keyboard to open the Param value panel.

g. In the Param value panel, enter 0.762 for the Initial value of finThick, and click Done to close the
panel.

h. Click Done in the Heat sinks panel to close the panel.


2. Specify the constraint values for the design variables.
Solve Run optimization

Extra
Alternatively, you can click the

button.

a. Turn on the Optimization option in the Setup tab. Then click on the Design variables tab.

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Step 4: Generate a Mesh

The design variables that you had defined will be listed in the panel, and their initial values will
be shown in the Base value text box.
b. Select finCount from the list, then enter 2 for the Min value constraint, 18 for the Max value
constraint.
c. Select Allow only multiples, keep the default value of 1, and click Apply.
d. Select finThick from the list, then enter 0.254 for the Min value constraint, 2.032 for the Max
value constraint, and click Apply.
e. Make sure Allow only multiples is only activated for finCount, not finThick.
f.

Click Done to close the Parameters and optimization panel.

11.7. Step 4: Generate a Mesh


For this model, you will not generate a mesh in advance. Meshing will be automatically performed for
each design trial during parametric trials.
Model Generate Mesh.
1. Make sure that the Mesh type is Mesher-HD and the Mesh assemblies separately option is turned on.
2. Make sure the Allow minimum gap changes is enabled in the Misc tab.
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3. Click Close in the Mesh control panel to close the panel.

11.8. Step 5: Physical and Numerical Settings


Problem setup

Basic parameters

1. Keep all the defaults in the Basic parameters panel.


2. Click Accept in the Basic parameters panel to accept the settings and close the panel.
Solution settings

Basic Settings

1. Make sure Number of iterations is 125.


2. Make sure the convergence criteria for Flow is 0.001, and for Energy is 1e-7.
3. Click Accept to close the Basic settings panel.

11.9. Step 6: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak will save the model for you automatically before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model (including the mesh) yourself as well. If you exit ANSYS Icepak before you start
the calculation, you will be able to open the project you saved and continue your analysis in a future
ANSYS Icepak session. (If you start the calculation in the current ANSYS Icepak session, ANSYS Icepak will
simply overwrite your project file when it saves the model.)

11.10. Step 7: Define Primary, Compound, and Objective Functions


Note
The objective of this tutorial is to minimize the thermal resistance of the heat sink while
keeping the maximum temperature for the entire system below 70C and ensuring that the
total mass of the heat sinks does not exceed 0.326 kg. Therefore, you will define the following
primary functions: thermal resistance for the large heat sink (bighsrth), mass of the large
heat sink (bighsms), mass of the small heat sink (smlhsms), and global maximum temperature of 70C (mxtmp). You will also define a compound function, the total mass of the heat
sinks of 0.326 kg (totalmass). For the objective function, you will minimize the thermal
resistance of the large heat sink (bighsrth).
1. Go to Solve Run optimization to open the Parameters and optimization panel.
2. In the Functions tab, define four primary functions.
a. Define the thermal resistance function for the large heat sink (bighsrth).
i.

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Click the New button under Primary functions.

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Step 7: Define Primary, Compound, and Objective Functions

ii. In the Define primary function panel, enter bighsrth next to Function name.
iii. In the Function type drop-down list, keep the default selection of Global value.
iv. In the Value drop-down list, select Thermal resistance of heatsink.
v. In the Object drop-down list, select the heatsink_big object under hs_assembly_2, and click
Accept to save the changes and close the panel. .
b. Define the mass function for the large heat sink (bighsms).
i.

Repeat step (a) for the bighsms as the Function name, Global value as the Function type,
Mass of objects as the Value, and heatsink_big as the Object.

c. Define the mass function for the small heat sink (smlhsms).
i.

Repeat step (a) for the smlhsms as the Function name, Global value as the Function type,
Mass of objects as the Value, and heatsink_small as the Object.

d. Define a constraint function as the global maximum temperature of 70C (mxtmp).


i.

Click the New button under Primary functions.

ii. In the Define primary function panel, enter mxtmp next to Function name.
iii. In the Function type drop-down list, keep the default selection of Global value.
iv. In the Value drop-down list, keep the default selection of Global maximum temperature.
v. Select Constraint and keep the default selection of Max value.
vi. Enter 70 in the text entry field and click Accept to save the changes and close the panel.
3. Define a compound function.
a. Under Compound functions, click the New button to open the Define compound function panel.

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b. In the Define compound function panel, enter totalmass for the Function name.
c. Next to Definition enter $bighsms+$smlhsms.
d. Select Constraint and keep the default selection of Max value.
e. Enter 0.326 in the text entry field and click Accept to save the changes and close the panel.
4. Define an objective function.
a. In the Parameters and optimization panel, select bighsrth from the Objective function drop-down
list.
b. Keep the default selection of Minimize value.

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Step 8: Calculate a Solution

11.11. Step 8: Calculate a Solution


1. Open the Parameters and optimization panel, if it is not already opened.
Solve Run optimization

Note
Alternatively, you can click the

button in the Model and solve toolbar.

2. Set up the optimization process.


a. In the Parameters and optimization panel, click the Setup tab.
b. Verify that the Optimization option is turned on, and keep all the defaults for this option.
c. Deselect Allow fast trials (single .cas file).

Note
Due to the geometry change based on the fin thickness and fin count, the fast trials
option is not possible in this problem.

d. Select Sequential solution of flow and energy equations.

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3. Click Run in the Parameters and optimization panel to start the calculations.

11.12. Step 9: Examine the Results


As ANSYS Icepak starts calculating solutions for the model, the Optimization run window opens and
ANSYS Icepak displays the function values, design variables, and the running times for each optimization
iteration. In addition, the function values and design variables are plotted versus iteration number, as
shown in Figure 11.2: The Optimization run Panel (p. 197).

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Step 11: Additional Exercise


Figure 11.2: The Optimization run Panel

Note
Each iteration takes three trials.

11.13. Step 10: Summary


In this tutorial, you used the optimization tool to minimize the thermal resistance for the big heat sink.
The results show that ANSYS Icepak predicts the best (optimized) case has a fin count of 18 and a fin
thickness of 0.56 mm. In this case, the maximum temperature for the entire system is determined to
be 69.21C (with the constraint of 70C) while the total mass is 0.3245 kg (with the constraint of 0.326
kg). The objective function (thermal resistance) is predicted as 0.242C/W.

11.14. Step 11: Additional Exercise


You can also try to optimize the fin count and the fin thickness of both heat sinks and the free flow
area ratios of the inlet and exit grilles. A sample case may be as follows:
Design variables
Fin count for the large heat sink: 2-20
Fin thickness for the large heat sink: 0.254-2.032mm
Fin count for the small heat sink: 2-12
Fin thickness for the small heat sink: 0.254-2.032 mm
Free flow area ratio of the inlet grille: 30-80%
Free flow area ratio of the exit grille: 30-80%
Primary functions
Thermal resistance for the large heat sink (bighsrth)
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Mass of the large heat sink (bighsms)
Mass of the small heat sink (smlhsms)
Maximum temperature for the entire system: 70C (mxtmp)
Compound function
Total mass of the heat sinks: 0.45 kg (totalmass)
Objective function
Minimize the large heat sink thermal resistance (bighsrth)

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Chapter 12: Radiation Modeling


12.1. Introduction
This tutorial demonstrates how to model radiation in ANSYS Icepak.
In this tutorial, you will learn how to include the effects of radiation in a free convection environment
with surface-to-surface (S2S), discrete ordinates (DO) and ray tracing radiation models.

12.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you have worked on Sample Session in the Icepak User's Guide and the tutorials
Finned Heat Sink and RF Amplifier in this guide.

12.3. Problem Description


Radiation heat transfer becomes significant at high temperatures and is typically more important for
natural convection problems as compared to forced convection problems in electronics cooling applications. ANSYS Icepak provides three different models to solve for radiation effects: surface to surface
(S2S) model, discrete ordinates (DO) model and ray tracing model. This tutorial involves a source with
a heat sink placed on a printed circuit board (PCB) and is being cooled with natural convection. We will
first solve the model without radiation, then use the surface to surface model followed by the discrete
ordinates and the ray tracing models and lastly compare the results of all these four cases.

12.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


Open a new project and name it hsink-rad.

12.5. Step 2: Build the Model


1. Open the Cabinet panel by double clicking the Cabinet object in the Model manager window. In the
Geometry tab, enable the Fix values option to make sure the values stay the same as we use different
units. Change all the units from m to mm. Then, input the following dimensions in the Geometry tab
of the Cabinet panel (Figure 12.1: Dimensions of the Cabinet and the Boundary Condition Specifications (p. 200)).

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Radiation Modeling
Figure 12.1: Dimensions of the Cabinet and the Boundary Condition Specifications

2. In the Properties tab of the Cabinet panel, define all the sides of the cabinet as shown above. The min
y and max y sides are defined as openings while all the remaining sides are stationary walls.
3. Click Done to close the Cabinet panel.
4. The printed circuit board (PCB), heat sink base and the fins of the heat sink will be constructed using
the block object in ANSYS Icepak.
5. Create the PCB.
a. First, create a block and rename it as PCB in the Info tab of the Blocks panel.
b. Specify the dimensions of the block in the Geometry tab as shown below in Figure 12.2: Dimensions
of the PCB (p. 201).

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Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 12.2: Dimensions of the PCB

c. Click Done to close the Blocks panel.


6. Create a new material and assign it to the PCB.
a. Right-click the Model node and select Create object and then Material. A new node called Materials
will open.
b. Expand the Materials node until you reach material.1. Double click material.1 to open the Materials
panel.
c. In the Properties tab of the Materials panel, choose Orthotropic from the Conductivity type dropdown list.
i.

Enter 40, 40, and 0.4 W/m-K for the X, Y, and Z directions, respectively.

d. Click Done to close the Materials panel.


e. In the Model manager window, double click the PCB object we created to open the Blocks panel
again.
f.

In the Properties tab of the Blocks panel, pick material.1 from the Solid material drop-down list.

g. Click Done to close the Blocks panel.

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Radiation Modeling
7. Create the heat sink base.
a. Create a new block and rename it as hs-base in the Info tab of the Blocks panel.
b. Specify the dimensions of the block in the Geometry tab as shown below in Figure 12.3: Dimensions
of the hs-base (p. 202).
Figure 12.3: Dimensions of the hs-base

c. Click Done to close the Blocks panel.


8. Create the fins.
a. Create a new block and rename it as hs-fin.1.1 in the Info tab of the Blocks panel.
b. Specify the dimensions of the block in the Geometry tab as shown below in Figure 12.4: Heat Sink
Fin Dimensions (p. 203).

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Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 12.4: Heat Sink Fin Dimensions

c. Leave all the other properties as their default values. Click Done to close the Blocks panel.
d. To complete the creation of the remaining fins we will use a copy procedure.
i.

Right click the hs-fin1.1 object in the Model manager window and select Copy. The Copy block
hs-fin.1.1 panel opens.

ii. Set Number of copies to 8.


iii. Check the Translate option and set the X, Y and Z offset to 15, 0, and 0 mm respectively.
iv. Click Apply to close the Copy block hs-fin.1.1 panel and create the new fins.
9. Create a 75W 2D source.
a. Create a source using the Create sources button in the model toolbar.
b. In the Sources panel, specify the geometry and properties of the source according to Figure 12.5: Source at the Bottom on the Heat Sink (p. 204).
c. Click Done to close the Sources panel and complete the creation of the model.

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Radiation Modeling
Figure 12.5: Source at the Bottom on the Heat Sink

Tip
Alternatively, you can use the snapping tool from the object geometry area to snap the
source dimensions to those of the min z side of the hs-base block object.

The final model should appear as shown in Figure 12.6: Schematic of the Model (p. 205).

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Step 3: Generate a Mesh


Figure 12.6: Schematic of the Model

12.6. Step 3: Generate a Mesh


In order to generate a fine mesh on the heat sink and the neighboring regions while retaining a
coarser mesh in the remaining part of the model, we create a non-conformal assembly enclosing all
the objects created and specify separate meshing parameters for this assembly.
1. Choose the source (source.1), base of the heat sink (hs-base), and all the fins (hs-fin1.1.x) in the Model
tree together and right mouse click to and select Create and then Assembly.
2. Double click assembly.1 in the model tree to open the Assemblies panel.
a. In the Meshing tab, click on the Mesh separately button, and specify the slack values as well as the
max sizes in each of the coordinate directions for the assembly as depicted in Figure 12.7: Meshing
Parameters for assembly.1 (p. 206).

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Radiation Modeling
b. This will refine the mesh within the assembly and also prevent the increase in the overall mesh count
by confining the fine mesh to within the assembly object.

Note
The units depicted in Figure 12.7: Meshing Parameters for assembly.1 (p. 206) are in
mm and m.
Figure 12.7: Meshing Parameters for assembly.1

c. Click Done to close the Assemblies panel.


3. Once the assembly creation is complete, open the Mesh control panel by pressing the Generate mesh
button.
a. Change the Mesh units to mm.
b. Input the Max element size specifications according to Figure 12.8: Global Mesh Control Parameters (p. 207).

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Step 5: Solving the Model Without Radiation


Figure 12.8: Global Mesh Control Parameters

c. Keep all other parameters as their default values.


d. Make sure Allow minimum gap changes is checked under the Misc tab.
e. Press Generate to create the mesh.
f.

You can view the mesh using the Cut plane and Surface options available in the Display tab.

g. Once you have finished viewing the mesh, make sure you uncheck Display mesh in the Display tab,
and click Close to close the Mesh control panel.

12.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings


Once the model is meshed, we will solve it for different situations, i.e. with radiation off followed by
including the effects of radiation using both the view factor method as well as the discrete ordinates
and ray tracing methods available in ANSYS Icepak 13 or later.

12.8. Step 5: Solving the Model Without Radiation


1. Go to

Problem setup

Basic parameters.

a. Under the General setup tab(Figure 12.9: Basic Parameters (p. 208))
i.

Make sure that solution for both the Flow and Temperature is switched on.

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Radiation Modeling
ii. Because this is a natural convection problem turn on the Gravity vector option.
iii. Choose Turbulent under the Flow regime group box and use the default option of Zero equation.
iv. Make sure that the Radiation option is turned Off.
Figure 12.9: Basic Parameters

b. Under the Defaults tab


i.

In the Ambient conditions group box, set the Temperature and the Radiation temp to 40C.

c. Under the Transient setup tab.


i.

Enter a small velocity value for the Y velocity such as 0.01 m/s.

Note
In free convection flow problems, setting a small initial velocity opposite to the
gravity vector direction is suggested.

ii. Retain the defaults for all other settings in the Basic parameters panel.
d. Press Accept to close the Basic parameters panel.
2. Go to

208

Solution settings

Basic settings.

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Step 5: Solving the Model Without Radiation


a. Set the Number of iterations to 400
b. Make sure the Flow is 0.001 and the Energy is 1e-7 in the Convergence criteria group box.
c. Click Accept to close the Basic settings panel.
3. Go to

Solution settings

Advanced settings.

a. In the Advanced solver setup panel specify the Under-relaxation parameters of 0.7 and 0.3 for
Pressure and Momentum, respectively.
b. Select Double from the precision drop-down list at the bottom of the panel (Figure 12.10: Solution
Settings (p. 210)).

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Radiation Modeling
Figure 12.10: Solution Settings

c. Keep all other default options in the Advanced solver setup panel.
d. Press Accept to close the Advanced solver setup panel.

12.9. Step 6: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak will save the model for you automatically before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model (including the mesh) yourself as well.
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Step 8: Surface to Surface (S2S) Radiation Model


File Save project

12.10. Step 7: Calculate a Solution- No Radiation


1. Go to Solve Run solution to bring up the Solve panel.
a. Enter norad as the solution ID.
b. Click on Start solution at the bottom of the panel.
c. Once the solution residuals have converged you can post process the results using plane cuts and
object faces. Note the maximum value of temperature for comparison with successive runs wherein
radiative heat transfer will be enabled in the model.

Note
You can check the maximum temperatures of each object by going to Report
Solution overview Create.

12.11. Step 8: Surface to Surface (S2S) Radiation Model


1. Go to

Problem setup

Basic parameters.

a. In the Basic parameters panel, select On in the Radiation group box.


b. Make sure the Surface to surface radiation model is enabled.
c. Click Accept to close the Basic parameters panel.
2. To model radiation effects go to Model Radiation form factors or use the radiation icon (
open up the Form factors panel.

) to

a. Under Participating objects, select all objects by clicking All and leave all other settings to their
default values.
b. Press Compute to calculate the view factors.
i.

You can display the view factors calculated by clicking each participating object listed under
Display object values.

ii. After reviewing the view factors, select Dont recompute.


iii. The settings for the view factor calculations setup are shown in Figure 12.11: Enabling Radiation
in ANSYS Icepak Model (p. 212).
c. Press Close to close the Form factors panel.

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Radiation Modeling
Figure 12.11: Enabling Radiation in ANSYS Icepak Model

3. Go to Solve Run solution and start the solver with S2S as the solution ID.
4. Once the solution residuals have converged, make note of the maximum temperature.

12.12. Step 9: Discrete Ordinates (DO) Radiation Model


Next, we will run the discrete ordinates radiation model.
1. Go to

Problem setup

Basic parameters.

a. Enable the Discrete ordinates radiation model option in the Radiation group box.
b. Press Accept to close the Radiation panel.
2. Start the solution again with DO as the solution ID.
3. Once the solution residuals have converged, make note of the maximum temperature.

12.13. Step 10: Ray Tracing Radiation Model


Next, we will run the ray tracing radiation model.
1. Go to

Problem setup

Basic parameters.

a. Enable the Ray tracing radiation model option in the Radiation group box.
b. Press Accept to close the Radiation panel.
2. Start the solution again with Ray as the solution ID.
3. Once the solution residuals have converged, make note of the maximum temperature.

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Step 11: Examine the Results

12.14. Step 11: Examine the Results


Compare the maximum temperature between the runs where radiative heat transfer was enabled versus
the runs where it was not. You can clearly see that radiation is important in this model and there is a
significant difference in the maximum temperature in the field with and without radiation. Further,
there is reasonable agreement in the plane cut post processing objects obtained using the different
radiation models. Figure 12.12: Plane cuts on the z = 20 mm plane for (a) Radiation disabled (b) S2S
radiation model (c) Discrete ordinates radiation model and (d) ray tracing radiation model (p. 214)
compares the temperature fields for all the four cases.

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Radiation Modeling
Figure 12.12: Plane cuts on the z = 20 mm plane for (a) Radiation disabled (b) S2S radiation model
(c) Discrete ordinates radiation model and (d) ray tracing radiation model

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Step 12: Summary


Table 12.1: Maximum Source Temperature for Different Models
No radiation

82.45C

Surface to surface

74.97C

Discrete ordinates

76.23C

Ray tracing

75.55C

Note
The actual values may differ slightly on different machines, so your values may not look exactly
the same.
In most models, the use of the surface to surface (view factors) model is strongly recommended. The
discrete ordinates model should be used only for very complex geometries where there are many surfaces
and computation of the view factors can become extremely computationally expensive. This is also true
when there are CAD objects present in the ANSYS Icepak model. The ray tracing model is also for
complex geometries and for objects that have large temperature variations.

12.15. Step 12: Summary


In this problem we demonstrated how to model radiation in ANSYS Icepak. We first solved the model
without radiation and then used the surface-to-surface model followed by the discrete ordinates and
ray tracing methods and lastly compared the results of all four cases.

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Chapter 13: Transient Simulation


13.1. Introduction
The purpose of this exercise is to demonstrate how to model and post-process transient problems.
In this tutorial, you will learn how to:
Define a transient problem
Specify time-dependent parameters for objects
Group and copy modeling objects
Examine the results of a transient simulation, including animating results over time

13.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you have worked on Sample Session in the Icepak User's Guide and the first
two ANSYS Icepak tutorials of this guide.

13.3. Problem Description


The model involves a natural convection cooled heat sink and four heat sources attached to the bottom
of the heat sink. The power dissipated by each of the four sources varies with time and peaks at 100
W.

13.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Create a new project called transient.
2. From Problem setup
Basic parameters, go to the Transient setup tab, select Transient under
the Time variation group box. Then enter the Start and End times as 0 and 20 seconds, respectively.
3. Click on Edit parameters and set the Time step increment to 1 s and the Solution save interval to 1.
Click Accept in the Transient parameters panel and then the Basic parameters panel to save the new
time parameters.

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Transient Simulation
Figure 13.1: Setting up the Model as Transient

13.5. Step 2: Build the Model


Construct the model according to the following specifications. The final model is shown in Figure 13.4: Schematic of the Model (p. 222).
Cabinet
xS

0.05 m

xE

0.35 m

yS

0.1 m

yE

0.55 m

zS

0.05 m

zE

0.25 m

Open the Cabinet object panel, go to the Properties tab, under Wall type, change Min y and Max
y to Opening. Press Done and then Shift+I for an isometric view.
Plate
Object

Specification

plate.1

xS = 0.1 m

xE = 0.3 m

Solid material:

Geometry:

yS = 0.2 m

yE = 0.4 m

default

Rectangular

zS = 0.12 m

(Al-Extruded)

Plane: X-Y

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Thermal model:

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Step 2: Build the Model


Object

Specification
Conducting thick: 10
mm

Blocks
Object

xC

yC

zC

Height

Radius

IRadius

Specification

block.1

0.15 m

0.25 m

0.13 m

0.06 m

0.02m

0.0

Block type:

Geometry:

Solid

Cylinder

Radius2

IRadius2

Solid material:

Plane: X-Y

0.012m

0.0

default

Nonuniform radius

(Al-Extruded)

Make two copies of the tapered fin (block.1), offset by 0.05 m in the X direction (i.e., Number of
copies = 2, and Translate with X offset = 0.05 m). Select all three tapered fins, and make two copies
of this group with an offset of 0.05 m in the Y direction (i.e., Number of copies = 2, and Translate
with Y offset = 0.05 m). Remember to right mouse click on the icon in the Model tree to copy objects.
These tapered cones model a heat sink with tapered cone fins.
Sources
The four sources have a peak power of 100 Watts each with a cycle time of 20 seconds. The variation
, where

Object

and

of power is according to the following exponential curve,


and is the time.

are constant,

Specification

source.1

xS = 0.12
m

xE = 0.18
m

Geometry: Rectangular

yS = 0.22
m

yE = 0.28
m

Plane: X-Y

Total power = 100


W

zS = 0.12
m

Create a source (source.1) per the specification in the table above. In the Properties tab of the
Sources panel, toggle on Transient, click Edit, and enter 0 for Start time and 20 for End time. To
specify the variation curve, click on Exponential and set a = 0.025 and b = 100. Click Update and
Done, in the Transient power panel, and then the Sources panel.

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Transient Simulation
Figure 13.2: Defining Transient Power for the Sources

Now make one copy of source.1 with an offset of 0.1 m in the X-direction. Select source.1 and
source.1.1, then make one copy of these two sources with an offset of 0.1 m in the Y-direction to
complete the construction of the sources.
Basic
To view the time-dependent power specified for the sources, go to Problem setup
parameters. Select the Transient setup tab and click on View (next to Edit parameters) near the
top of this panel. This displays the time variation of the power specified using sources.

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Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 13.3: Viewing the Variation of Power on the Sources with Time

A time dependent power profile such as a piecewise linear curve can also be imported/exported by
clicking Save All and Load All in the Transient panel. Clicking Load All will open the Load all curves
file selection dialog box and override any existing data. Select the CSV file containing the curve data
and click Open.
The final model should appear as that shown in Figure 13.4: Schematic of the Model (p. 222).

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Transient Simulation
Figure 13.4: Schematic of the Model

13.6. Step 4: Generate a Mesh


To generate a mesh for this model, go to Model Generate mesh and specify a global maximum
element size of 0.02 m in the x, y and z directions in the Max element size group box. Across from
Mesh parameters, select Normal and keep the default global mesh settings parameters. Then go to
the Options tab and select Init element height and enter 0.005. Then click Generate to create the
mesh. Once the mesh is generated, display and examine the mesh from the Display tab. Remember to
uncheck the Display mesh option when you are done examining the mesh.

Note
The Init element height feature can be used in a relatively simple model as this one.
It is not recommended to be used for complex models as this can create very large
mesh count.

13.7. Step 5: Physical and Numerical Settings


The transient settings for this model were defined at the initial stages of model building. This is required
as assigning transient power to the sources require the problem as transient a priori.
Go to

Problem setup

Basic parameters. In the General setup tab, ensure Laminar is set for

Flow regime, and toggle on the default Gravity vector (i.e., X = 0, Y = -9.80665 m/s2, Z = 0). In the
Transient setup tab, give a small initial (global) velocity of 0.001 m/s in the Y direction. Accept the
changes made and exit this window.

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Step 8: Generate a Summary Report


Go to Solution settings
Basic settings and click on Reset to examine the estimated Rayleigh
Advanced settings and set the Under-relaxation
number. Then go to Solution settings
factors to 0.7 for Pressure and 0.3 for Momentum. Press Accept to close the panel.
In the Basic settings panel, set Iterations/ timestep to 100. The number of iterations per time-step
should be sufficient for the solution to converge at each time-step. Press Accept to close the panel.
Figure 13.5: Basic settings Panel

Create a point monitor to monitor the temperature change with time by dragging and dropping source.1
into the Points folder in the Model tree.

13.8. Step 6: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak automatically saves the model for you before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model (including the mesh) yourself as well.
File Save project

13.9. Step 7: Calculate a Solution


Go to Solve Run solution. In the Results tab, click Write overview of results when finished and
click Start solution.

13.10. Step 8: Generate a Summary Report


Go to Solve menu and select Define report. In the Define summary report panel, enable Specified.
Select All times in the Report time group box. Select New, hold down the Shift key and select all
blocks in the Objects drop down list. Click Accept. Click Write to display the Report summary data
panel shown in Figure 13.6: Define summary report Panel (p. 224)

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Transient Simulation
Figure 13.6: Define summary report Panel

13.11. Step 9: Examine the Results


Results of transient runs can be displayed in still images or animations.
To display still images, you can choose to display at a given time or a given time-step. To do so, after
creating post objects in the same manner as in a steady state run, you can go to Post Transient
settings or click the transient settings icon (
) to open the Post-processing time panel. To display
at a given time-step, you can toggle on Time step, and click Forward or Backward to step through
the time steps. To display at a given time, you can toggle on Time value, fill in the time to begin the
display and the time Increment, and select Forward or Backward.
To view these images in this model, create the following post-processing objects:
Table 13.1: Object Face and Plane Cut Specifications
Object

Specifications

Description

face.1

Object: all blocks and


plate.1

Observations: The view shows the temperature distribution on


the faces of all the blocks and the base plate. The transport of
thermal energy from the sources to the fins of the heatsink can
be clearly observed.

Show contours/Parameters

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Step 9: Examine the Results


Object

Specifications

Description

Contours of: Temperature


Contours options: Solid
fill
Shading options: Smooth
Color levels: Calculated/Global limits
Post Transient settings:
Time step: 1 or Time
value: 0
Forward or Backward
cut.1

Set position: Z plane


through center
Show vectors/Parameters

Observation: The view shows air flowing from one opening to


the other. Also notice that the velocity distribution changes with
time.

Color by: Velocity magnitude


Transient: Same as the
above
To animate the above post objects, go to Post Transient settings to open the Post-processing
time panel. Click on Animate to open the Transient animation window. To animate the current display
on screen, click on Animate in the Transient animation panel. The animation can be played once,
from the start time to end-time, or in the Loop mode.
In addition to animating the display in screen, you can also write the animation to a file in MPEG, GIF,
and some other neutral formats to be saved and played back later using a third party software. To do
that, go to Post Transient settings, then click Animate to open the Transient animation panel.
Toggle on Write to file, then click Write to open the Save animation panel. Pick a file format, give it
a file name, and then Save. This sequence saves the entire display area with no scaling.
Alternatively, you can click on the Options tab in the Save animation panel and modify the Scale
factor in the Save animation options panel. Also available in Save animation options panel is Print
region. Choose the default Full screen or Mouse selection. Choosing Mouse selection allows one to
draw a rubber band and select only a part of the screen. To do so, choose Mouse selection, specify
the file type and file name, then click on Save in the Save animation panel. With the cursor showing
a square and the red prompt at the bottom of the screen, draw a rectangular region with the left mouse
to save it to the animation file.
You can examine how a variable changes over time at selected points using the History plot panel. To
open this panel, select History plot in the Post menu or click (

) in the Postprocessing toolbar.

In the History plot panel, enter 20 seconds for End time, click the Add point button and select
source.1 for the point. Click the Create button to display the plot shown in Figure 13.7: History
plot (p. 226).

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Transient Simulation
Figure 13.7: History plot

13.12. Step 10: Examine Transient Results in CFD Post


You can also postprocess results using tools in ANSYS CFD-Post. Go to the Post menu in Icepak and
select Write CFD Post File. Enabling this option writes out a data file (filename.cfd.dat) that can be
loaded into CFD-Post.
To launch CFD Post for a Windows system, click Start>All Programs>ANSYS 14.5>Fluid Dynamics>CFD
Post 14.5 or for a Linux system you can access CFD Post using ~ansys_inc/v145/CFD-Post/bin/cfdpost.
In CFD Post, select Load Results... in the File menu to display the Load Results File dialog box. Select
the filename.cfd.dat file that corresponds to the transient solution.

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Step 10: Examine Transient Results in CFD Post


Figure 13.8: Results in CFD Post

Once the results have been loaded into CFD-Post, there are several options to view and analyze a
transient solution.
1. Display time history similar to what is displayed in Icepak.
a. Go to Insert Text
b. Enter the text, Auto Annotation
.
c. In the Definition tab of the Details view, enter Time
.
d. Enable the Embed Auto Annotation option.
e. In the Type drop-down list, select Timestep.
f.

Click Apply.

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Transient Simulation
Figure 13.9: Details of Auto Annotation

2. Create a contour.
a. Go to Insert Contour and create a new contour named TemperatureContours.
b. Update the settings for the Geometry tab of the Details view for TemperatureContours as
shown in Figure 13.10: Details of TemperatureContours (p. 229) and click Apply to create the contour
(Figure 13.11: TemperatureContours Display (p. 230).

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Step 10: Examine Transient Results in CFD Post


Figure 13.10: Details of TemperatureContours

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Transient Simulation
Figure 13.11: TemperatureContours Display

3. Display temperature at different time steps.


) to display the Timestep Selector panel. Double click a timestep
a. Click the timestep selector icon (
to view the corresponding temperatures. See Figure 13.12: Timestep Selector Panel (p. 231) for details.

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Step 10: Summary


Figure 13.12: Timestep Selector Panel

Additional options that are available in CFD-Post can be found in Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFDPost.

13.13. Step 10: Summary


In this tutorial, you set up and solved a transient model and used the animation technique to examine
the results over time. Results were also examined in CFD-Post.

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231

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Chapter 14: Zoom-In Modeling in ANSYS Workbench


14.1. Introduction
This tutorial demonstrates how to create and modify a zoom-in model (system sub-model) in ANSYS
Icepak. You will begin in ANSYS Workbench and drag an Icepak template into the Project Schematic.
An Icepak .tzr file is imported, the model is modified and solved according to the instructions in the
tutorial. The project will also include postprocessing results in CFD-Post.
In this tutorial, you will learn how to:
Create an ANSYS Icepak analysis in ANSYS Workbench
Create a zoom-in model from a solved system level model
Run that model with more detail added
Merge the detailed system level model back into the system level model
Postprocess results in CFD-Post

14.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you have little experience with ANSYS Icepak and ANSYS Workbench, but
that you are generally familiar with the interface. If you are not, please review Sample Session in the
Icepak User's Guide and the tutorial ANSYS Icepak - ANSYS Workbench Integration Tutorial of this guide.

14.3. Problem Description


The objective of this exercise is to become familiar with ANSYS Icepaks zoom-in-model capabilities.
Detailed systems can sometimes be solved first with reasonable simplifications, and then have more
detailed sub-models run from boundary conditions created from the region in question. For example,
multiple packages can be simplified as one plate with the total power of all packages. A system level
model can be solved, and a sub-region can be created with the velocities and temperatures from the
system level model and have more detail on the board in question.
In this tutorial, you will run a simplified system level model of a slotted chassis, learn how to create an
ANSYS Icepak zoom-in model, run that model and then merge the detailed section back into the original
system.

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Zoom-In Modeling in ANSYS Workbench


Figure 14.1: Problem Specification

14.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Start ANSYS Workbench.

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Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 14.2: ANSYS Workbench

2. Copy ICEPAK_ROOT/tutorials/rack/rack.tzr to your working directory. You must replace


ICEPAK_ROOT by the full path name of the directory where ANSYS Icepak is installed on your computer
system.
3. Drag an Icepak template from the Toolbox into the Project Schematic.
4. Right mouse click the Icepak Setup cell and select Import Icepak Project From .tzr.
5. Select Browse... and the File selection panel appears. Select the packed project file rack.tzr and
click Open.
6. The CAD model appears in the graphics display window. Click the isometric toolbar icon (
the isometric view of the model.

) to display

14.5. Step 2: Build the Model


Note
Look at the specifications of the different components. The model has 10 pairs of plates
(Figure 14.1: Problem Specification (p. 234)). If you examine any pair of plates, plate.1.x represents the PCB and plate.2.x represents the components on that PCB. In real life each PCB

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Zoom-In Modeling in ANSYS Workbench


would have many components mounted on it. We are simplifying the model by representing
the components with a single plate. The thickness of these plates equals the average height
of the components. All the PCBs have the same configuration and the same components.
The total power of the components in each PCB is 30 W, so each of the plates (plate.2.x)
are 30 W.
Save the problem to a new project file. This will allow you to expand on the problem without affecting
the original file.
File Save project
1. In the Project text box, enter the name rack-new.
2. Click Save.

Note
ANSYS Workbench will close Icepak to save the model, you will need to launch Icepak again
to continue.

14.6. Step 3: Generate a Mesh


For this model, you will generate the mesh in just one step. You will specify object-specific meshing
parameters to ensure that the resulting mesh is sufficiently fine near object faces to resolve the flow
physics properly.
1. Go to Model Generate Mesh or use the toolbar shortcut (

) to open the Mesh control panel.

2. In the Mesh control panel, make sure Mesher-HD is selected as the Mesh type.
3. Set the Max element size for X, Y, and Z to 0.03 m if not already set.
4. Select the Normal option next to Mesh parameters.
5. In the Local tab, select Edit next to Object params (Figure 14.3: Object Parameters in the Mesh control
Panel (p. 237)). Verify that the individual localized mesh settings for the following objects are:
Object type

Object name

Parameter

Requested Value

Openings

All openings

Y count

10

Plates

All plates

Low end height

0.003

High end height

0.003

Y count

Block

block.3

Note
You can also set mesh parameters by right clicking object in the Model tree and selecting
Edit mesh parameters.

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Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings


Figure 14.3: Object Parameters in the Mesh control Panel

6. Press Done to close the Per-object meshing parameters panel.


7. In the Settings tab of the Mesh control panel, Generate the mesh and then display and check the mesh
quality from the Display tab. Uncheck the Display mesh option when you are done.

14.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings


1. Go to Solution settings
Basic settings and Solution settings
and verify that the following values are set for each variable:

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Advanced settings ,

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Zoom-In Modeling in ANSYS Workbench

2. Go to Problem setup
Basic parameters and make sure the Flow regime is Turbulent and
the turbulence model is Zero equation under the General setup tab. Press Accept to close the panel.
3. Now add two temperature point monitors for plate2.1 and plate2.2 into the Points folder to observe
the progress of the solution at the center of the objects. To do this, highlight both objects in the Model
tree using the Ctrl key and the left mouse button, and then drag objects into the Points folder. The
default setting for a monitor point is temperature so nothing else has to be done.

14.8. Step 5: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak saves the model for you automatically before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model (including the mesh) yourself as well. If you exit ANSYS Icepak before you start
the calculation, you will be able to open the project you saved and continue your analysis in a future
ANSYS Icepak session. (If you start the calculation in the current ANSYS Icepak session, ANSYS Icepak will
simply overwrite your project file when it saves the model.)
File Save project

14.9. Step 6: Calculate a Solution


1. Go to Solve Run solution menu and turn on Sequential solution of flow and energy equations
in the General setup tab.

Note
When gravity is not turned on in the solution, you have the opportunity to reduce solve
time if desired by selecting this option. Since there are no buoyancy effects, there is no
longer a coupling of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations. Thus, you can completely
converge the flow equations and then use that value in the energy equation instead of
solving both on every iteration.

2. Click Start solution to run the solver.

14.10. Step 7: Examine the Results


1. After the solution has converged, create the following post processing objects:
Object

Description

face.1

Object: plate2.2

Object-face view of temperature on plate2.2

Show contours/Parameters

238

Specifications

Observation(s): Note the min & max temperatures and the


temperature distribution.

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Step 7: Examine the Results


Object

Specifications

Description

Contours of: Temperature


Contours options: Solid
fill
Shading options: Banded
Contour levels:
Level spacing: Fixed/
Number = 20
Calculated: This object
Object: all fans

Objects-face showing the flow pattern.

Show particle
traces/Parameters

face.2

Observation(s): Animate the particle traces. If you want to


see motion from start to end, turn off particles and animate
the traces.

Variable: Speed
Display options: Uniform
= 50
Style: Dye trace and
Particles
Plane location:

Plane cut (x-y) view of the velocity vectors in the z plane.

Set position: Z plane


through center

cut.1

Observation(s): Flow patterns (especially around the plates)

Show vectors
Plane location:

Plane cut (y-z) view of the velocity vectors in the x plane.

Set position: X plane


through center

cut.2

Observation(s): Flow patterns (especially around the plates)

Show vectors
face.1 and cut.1 should look similar to Figure 14.4: face.1 (Plate2.2 Temperature) (p. 240) and Figure 14.5: cut.1 (Z-Plane Through Center Velocity) (p. 241).

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Zoom-In Modeling in ANSYS Workbench


Figure 14.4: face.1 (Plate2.2 Temperature)

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Step 8: Create a Zoom-In Model


Figure 14.5: cut.1 (Z-Plane Through Center Velocity)

2. Finally, save all the postprocessing objects created. Go to Post Save post objects to file. Save it
with default file name post_objects to be used in future.

14.11. Step 8: Create a Zoom-In Model


With a solution obtained for the main model, we can now zoom-in around one pair of PCB-components
plates, namely plate.1.2 and plate.2.2.
1. Go to Post Create zoom-in model. The Zoom-in modeling panel appears. The boundaries for the
zoom-in also appear in the ANSYS Icepak main window as a bold white box. By default this zoom-in box
is coincidental with the cabinet.
2. Resize this box by entering the values shown in Figure 14.6: The Zoom-in modeling setup Panel (p. 242)
into the zoom-in window. Be sure to change Max Y to an outflow and Min Z and Max Z to walls. (Please
note that the zoom-in box now surrounds plate.1.2 and plate.2.2 and includes portions of some on the
remaining system level model objects (Figure 14.7: Zoom in Box (p. 243)).) There needs to be one outflow
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Zoom-In Modeling in ANSYS Workbench


to compensate for slight differences in flow with a pressure differential. The wall objects are created
since the entire face on that side is created in a solid or on a solid surface.

Note
The coordinates for each of the zoom-in boundaries can also be specified by clicking the
Select button to the right of the appropriate text entry box and clicking the left mouse
button on the desired point in the graphics display window. You may want to orient your
view depending upon the coordinate being selected to ensure a more accurate selection.
The boundaries of the zoom-in model will be displayed in the graphics window as you
update them.
Figure 14.6: The Zoom-in modeling setup Panel

3. Click on Accept to create the zoom-in model. Since many of the parts in the zoom-in model extend out
of the zoom-in box, a warning message window should appear listing a set of objects that lie outside.
4. In the Objects overlapping dialog box, click the Resize button to resize these parts to fit into the zoomin model. ANSYS Icepak writes out a zoom-in model called IcepakProj.zoom_in. ANSYS Icepak reports
on the operations to construct the model and creates the profiles in the ANSYS Icepak messages window.

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Step 9: Edit the Zoom-in Model


Figure 14.7: Zoom in Box

14.12. Step 9: Edit the Zoom-in Model


1. Set up a new Icepak template in same ANSYS Workbench project. Then link a Results cell to this Icepak
component. The Results cell should link to the Icepak Solution cell.
2. Right mouse click the Icepak Setup cell, select Import Icepak Project and Browse....

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Zoom-In Modeling in ANSYS Workbench


3. In theBrowse For Folder file selection dialog, select the zoom-in model called IcepakProj.zoom_in. (It
will be in the same location as the folder for the system level model.) In the system level model we used
a single conducting thick plate to represent the components. We can now replace the plate.2.2 by the
individual components.
4. Double click plate.2.2 to open the Plates panel and make the following changes:
Field

Value

Info
Name

Chip

Geometry
Specify by

Start / length

yL

0.05 m

zL

-0.05 m

Properties
Power

3.0 W

5. Create nine additional components in an array.


a. Right mouse click Chip and select Copy.
b. Create two copies of Chip with an Z-offset of -0.065 m.
c. Select and highlight all three Chip plates in the Model tree.
d. Make three copies of the three plates with an Y-offset set to 0.07 m in the same way you copied the
single chip.
e. View the geometry in isometric view (Shift+I).
f.

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Delete two of the components to form the pattern shown in Figure 14.8: Schematic of the Completed
Zoom-in Model (p. 245).

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Step 10: Mesh the Zoom-In Model


Figure 14.8: Schematic of the Completed Zoom-in Model

14.13. Step 10: Mesh the Zoom-In Model


1. Go to Model Generate mesh, and set the Mesh type to Mesher-HD and the Mesh parameters to
Coarse.
2. In the Local tab, turn off the Object params.
3. In the Global tab, enter the following global mesh settings:
Table 14.1: Global Settings for Zoom-in Model
Max element size for X:

0.003 m

Max element size for Y:

0.02 m

Max element size for Z:

0.02 m

Min elements in gap

Min elements on edge

Max size ratio

The meshing panel should now look like Figure 14.9: Zoom-in Mesh control Panel (p. 246).
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Zoom-In Modeling in ANSYS Workbench


Figure 14.9: Zoom-in Mesh control Panel

4. Generate the mesh and then display and check the mesh quality from the Display tab. Make sure to
uncheck the Display mesh option when you are done.

14.14. Step 11: Zoom-In Physical and Numerical Settings


1. Drag and drop the two chips in the corners of the top row (chip.5 and chip2.3) into the Points folder
in the Model tree to monitor the temperature at the centers of these two chips.
2. Delete the monitor point plate.2.2 brought in from the system level model (it no longer exists as an
object).
3. Go to

Solution settings

Basic settings to change the maximum number of iterations to 300.

4. Solve the model by selecting Solve Run solution and by clicking on Start solution under the
General setup tab.

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Step 12: Examine the Zoom-in Results

14.15. Step 12: Examine the Zoom-in Results


After the solution has converged, create the following postprocessing objects and compare the results
with the system level models.
Object

Specifications

Description

face.1

Object: all chips

Object-face view of temperature on all chips

Show contours/ Parameters

Observation(s): Note the min & max temperatures and the


temperature distribution.

Contours of: Temperature


Contours options: Solid
fill
Shading options:
Smooth
Calculated: This object
Object: side_opening.miny

Object-face showing the flow pattern

Show particle traces/


Parameters

face.2

Observation(s): Note the flow pattern on both sides of plate1.2


and over the components. Animate the particle traces.

Variable: Speed
Particle options
Start time: 0; End time:
1
Display options: Uniform = 100
Style: Dye trace and
Particles
Figure 14.10: face.1 and face.2 (p. 248) shows the two object faces at the same time.

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Zoom-In Modeling in ANSYS Workbench


Figure 14.10: face.1 and face.2

14.16. Step 13: Summary


If we were to model all the components in the system level model, we could have ended up with a cell
count of about 10 times the size of the zoom-in model. The simplifications at the system-level enabled
us to quickly solve the system level model. The zoom-in model showed us the temperature variation
at the card level, which was essential to identify the correct locations of the hot spots.

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Step 15: Additional Exercise 2

14.17. Step 14: Additional Exercise 1


Set up this problem in a Workbench based Icepak project. Then set up another Icepak component in
the same Workbench project schematic and replace the PCB plate with a detailed PCB object and
postprocess the results in CFD Post.
You can then perform a comparison study in CFD Post by setting up a third Icepak component. This
time duplicate the first Icepak component and link this component to the available Results component.
Post process the results in CFD Post and compare them to the results containing the PCB plate object.

14.18. Step 15: Additional Exercise 2


Additional exercise may be performed to create a non-conformal mesh assembly surrounding the details
of the third PCB in the main model. Then, the results obtained using non-conformal meshed assembly
may be compared to the results obtained using the main model with the conformal mesh and to the
ones from the zoom_in approach with conformal mesh.
1. Save the IcepakProj.zoom_in model with a new model name such as rack.zoom_in_merge. Use the right
mouse button on the Icepak Setup cell to display the context menu. Select Rename and enter
rack.zoom_in_merge for the system name.

2. Delete all the components within the model except all the plates which represents the PCB and the chips
and re-save the model. (This version has all the unnecessary components for the system merge removed.)
3. Save the main model rack as rack-merge-NC using the Rename option in the Icepak Setup cell context
menu.

4. Open the main model rack.


5. Use File Merge Project to import rack.zoom_in_merge into this model with all the details of chips.

Note
There will be two projects in the rack-new_files folder, IPK and IPK-1. Select IcepakProj
located at dp0/IPK-1/Icepak.

6. Deactivate the old components residing where the merged components are ( plate.1.2 and plate.2.2).
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Zoom-In Modeling in ANSYS Workbench


7. Create a non-conformal assembly containing all the chips and the board. It is suggested a slack value of
3-5 mm in all directions for the assembly is a good value to start without violating any of the rules.
8. Finally, mesh and run the model with a different solution ID and compare the results to the previously
obtained ones. Verify that the results are very comparable.
Figure 14.11: Temperature Comparison: Zoom-in vs. System with Non-conformal assembly (p. 250)
shows a temperature comparison between the zoom-in model and the system level model with a
non-conformal assembly. While the temperatures are slightly different, the overall distribution (hot
spots) stay the same.
Figure 14.11: Temperature Comparison: Zoom-in vs. System with Non-conformal assembly

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Chapter 15: IDF Import


15.1. Introduction
This tutorial demonstrates the IDF" import capability of ANSYS Icepak.
In this tutorial, you will learn how to:
Import IDF files.
Apply the various options offered in ANSYS Icepaks IDF import capability.

15.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the menu structure in ANSYS Icepak and that you have
solved or read the tutorial Finned Heat Sink. If you have not, please review Sample Session in the Icepak
User's Guide.

15.3. Problem Description


Intermediate Data Format (IDF) is a data exchange specification between ECAD and MCAD for the design
and analysis of printed circuit boards. An IDF CAD model is generated by software such as Mentor
Graphics. Typical IDF models include a board file and a library file. The board file includes board layout
(board dimension and shape, location of the components), and the library file includes component information (size, power dissipation, junction to case and junction to board thermal resistance, etc.). ANSYS
Icepaks IDF import utility is designed to convert the IDF CAD data into an ANSYS Icepak model automatically. ANSYS Icepak imports the geometry as well as parameters such as power and material property
based on the availability of such information.
This tutorial does not involve generating a mesh, calculating a solution or examining results. These
steps will not be shown in this tutorial.

15.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Start ANSYS Icepak, as described in Starting ANSYS Icepak on a Linux System and Starting ANSYS Icepak on
a Windows System of the Users Guide.
When ANSYS Icepak starts, the Welcome to Icepak panel opens automatically.

2. Click New in the Welcome to Icepak panel to start a new ANSYS Icepak project.
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IDF Import
The New project panel appears.
3. Specify a name for your project.
a. In the Project name text box, enter the name idf-demo.
b. Click Create.

15.5. Step 2: Build the Model


To build the model, you will first import the board layout. The board and the associated library files
have to be chosen at this step.
File Import IDF file New
Figure 15.1: IDF Import Menu

1. In the IDF import panel, click the Browse button next to the Board file (ascii) field and select the file
(brd_board.emn). Board files have the extension *.emn" or *.brd". Note that the library file
(brd_board.emp) gets loaded automatically (Figure 15.2: IDF import Panel - Load files (p. 253)).

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Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 15.2: IDF import Panel - Load files

2. Click Next and go on to the Layout options section (Figure 15.3: IDF import Panel - Layout options (p. 254)).
Import type as Detail
Board plane as XY - this is always detected automatically
Board shape as Rectangular
Board properties - Click Edit button to access the Board properties where you can enter details such
as number of trace layers, coverage and layer thickness etc. Layer properties refer to the average
properties of all internal layers. In this example, examine the defaults, and click Cancel to close the
Board properties panel.

Note
More advanced PCB models are covered in the introductory tutorial, RF Amplifier, and
application tutorial, Trace Layer Import for Printed Circuit Boards (p. 285) located in this
guide.

Drilled holes are for positioning purposes and usually are not thermally important. During the import,
they can be ignored. By default, ANSYS Icepak leaves import drilled holes unchecked under Detailed
options.
Enable Make all components rectangular under Detailed options to convert all polygonal components
to prisms.

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IDF Import
Figure 15.3: IDF import Panel - Layout options

3. Click Next to go to the Component filters section (Figure 15.4: IDF import Panel - Component figures (p. 254)). Components can be filtered either by size and power or by component type. For now, select
Filter by component type and Import all components. The other options will be explained in more
detail at the end of the tutorial.
Figure 15.4: IDF import Panel - Component figures

4. Click Next to go to the Component models section (Figure 15.5: IDF import Panel - Component models (p. 255)).
5. Select Model all components as and keep the default settings. The option Choose specific component
model will be discussed later in the tutorial.

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Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 15.5: IDF import Panel - Component models

6. Click on Next to go to the Miscellaneous options section (Figure 15.6: IDF import Panel - Miscellaneous
options (p. 256)). Select Append Part Name to Reference Designator under the Naming conventions
group box.

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IDF Import
Figure 15.6: IDF import Panel - Miscellaneous options

7. Click Finish to complete the import.


8. Examine the imported model (Figure 15.7: IDF Imported Model with All Components (p. 257)).
Observe:
the different types of blocks
the material properties of the PCB block, which is called BOARD_OUTLINE.1
the power and resistance values of the network blocks, if any
Note that:
The components form into groups according to types automatically.
You can use the edit function under groups to change properties for all the components in the same
group at one time.
You should check message windows for missing properties.
Figure 15.7: IDF Imported Model with All Components (p. 257) shows ANSYS Icepak model with
components modeled as 3D objects (solid blocks or two-resistor network blocks). Appropriate
boundary conditions need to be applied before starting thermal analysis. In addition, you can review
power values by selecting the Power and temperature limits option in the Model menu.

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Step 3: Component Filtration Alternatives


Figure 15.7: IDF Imported Model with All Components

15.6. Step 3: Component Filtration Alternatives


1. If Filter by size/power is chosen (Figure 15.8: IDF Import Panel - Components filters: Filter by
size/power (p. 257)), the size filter and/or power filter may be specified. Only those components that are
either larger than the specified size filter, or dissipate more than the specified power filter, are imported.
If these fields are ignored, all components are imported.
Figure 15.8: IDF Import Panel - Components filters: Filter by size/power

2. If Filter by component type is chosen (Figure 15.9: IDF Import Panel - Component filters: Filter by
component type (p. 258)), the required components can be selected through the Component selection
panel (Figure 15.10: Component selection Panel (p. 258)); otherwise all the components are included. The
Component selection panel contains reference designators for all components.

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IDF Import
Figure 15.9: IDF Import Panel - Component filters: Filter by component type

After clicking Choose, you can choose individual components from the panel in the figure below:
Figure 15.10: Component selection Panel

15.7. Step 4: Component Models Alternatives


1. The Model all components as option is available through both filtration mechanisms.
2. The Choose specific component model option is available when filtering by component type. ANSYS
Icepak allows the component property to be added if no thermal information is available from the IDF
file (IDF 2.0), or modify properties if it is available (IDF 3.0).
3. Under Choose specific component model, properties of required components can be loaded from an
existing file using the Load data from file option. The format for the file is:
Reference designat- Power
or
(W)

Rjc
(C/W)

Rjb
(C/W)

Figure 15.11: Set Component Property Using File (p. 259) shows a sample file. Objects not present in
the file are imported with data already present in the IDF file, or as solid blocks with no power
specification.

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Step 4: Component Models Alternatives


Figure 15.11: Set Component Property Using File

4. Component properties may also be edited manually by selecting the Specify values for individual
component types option. The components to be imported are listed under Selected components. The
component name is composed of the type and name and the number of copies, followed by a more
descriptive part name (Figure 15.12: Manual Selection of Component Models (p. 259)). To manually set
the component property, you can select the component in the Selected components list. Multiple selections can be made with Ctrl + left mouse or Shift + left mouse. Then, you can choose the model type:
Two-resistor (Rjc-Rjb), 3d blocks, or 2d sources, and specify power. For a two-resistor model, Rjc and Rjb
values need to be specified as well. After inputting your specifications, you can click Apply to complete
the modification.
Figure 15.12: Manual Selection of Component Models

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IDF Import

15.8. Step 5: Summary


IDF import capability of ANSYS Icepak was used to import a board level model with all components. It
was observed that the board properties and component properties (where specified) were automatically
updated in the ANSYS Icepak model. Components filtration and modeling alternatives that are available
in the IDF import mechanism, were also discussed.

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Chapter 16: Modeling CAD Geometry


16.1. Introduction
Complex geometries are common in todays electronics cooling applications. Examples include complex
enclosure shapes, heat sink fins, louvers, etc. Proper accounting of the geometry of these objects is
important for accurate prediction of flow and heat transfer. Modeling of these complex geometries is
possible by using the direct CAD modeling feature in ANSYS Icepak. The hex-dominant mesher is used
to create an unstructured mesh for these complex shapes.
This tutorial demonstrates how to use the hex-dominant mesher to create an unstructured mesh for
complex shapes in ANSYS Icepak.
In this tutorial you will learn how to:
Use a CAD object and create an unstructured mesh using the hex-dominant mesher.
Solve for flow and heat transfer in a model.
Examine contours and vectors on object faces and on cross-sections of the model.

16.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you have little experience with ANSYS Icepak, but that you are generally familiar with the interface. If you are not, please review Sample Session in the Icepak User's Guide.

16.3. Problem Description


The cabinet contains a heat sink 1 with extruded fins having aerofoil cross section, mounted on a block
with a heat source placed between them. These objects are placed in a wind tunnel setup as shown in
Figure 16.1: Wind Tunnel Model with Heatsink Modeled as CAD Block (p. 262).

The heat sink used for this sample problem was obtained from the company Alpha, www.alphanovatech.com/cindexe.html#w.
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Modeling CAD Geometry


Figure 16.1: Wind Tunnel Model with Heatsink Modeled as CAD Block

16.4. Step 1: Creating a New Project


1. Start ANSYS Icepak, as described in Starting ANSYS Icepak in the Icepak User's Guide.
When ANSYS Icepak starts, the Welcome to Icepak panel opens automatically.

2. Click New in the Welcome to Icepak panel to start a new ANSYS Icepak project.
The New project panel appears.

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Step 2: Build the Model

3. Specify a name for your project.


a. In the Project name text box, enter the name shapes.
b. Click Create.

Note
ANSYS Icepak creates a default cabinet with the dimensions 1 m 1 m 1 m and displays
the cabinet in the graphics window.

16.5. Step 2: Build the Model


To build the model, you will first create the CAD block representing the heat sink. You will need to
import the required CAD file into ANSYS Icepak. ANSYS Icepak can import CAD files in step and IGES
formats.
1. Import the IGES/Step file into ANSYS Icepak
a. Go to Model CAD data.
b. Select Load in the CAD data panel and click on Load IGES/Step file.
c. Select w35-20.stp in the File selection panel and click Open.

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Modeling CAD Geometry

d. The CAD model appears in the graphics display window.


2. In the CAD data panel, select the surfaces to be used to create the CAD block.
a. In the Creation mode section of the CAD data panel, ensure Selected is enabled.
b. Select Use CAD surfaces directly.
c. In the Create object section, select Blocks.
d. Drag a rectangular region around the displayed CAD model to select the surfaces to be used to create
the CAD block. Clicking on the middle mouse button creates the block (e.g., F_4074 or similar name)
which can be used in the ANSYS Icepak model. In the CAD data panel, under Families, click None
to hide all CAD lines and surfaces.

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Step 2: Build the Model

e. Close the CAD data panel.


3. Resize the default cabinet in the Cabinet panel.
Model

Cabinet

a. In the Cabinet object panel, click the Geometry tab.


b. Under Location, enter the Start/end coordinates shown in Table 16.1: Coordinates for the Cabinet (p. 265) :

Important
Note that the dimensions are in mm.
Table 16.1: Coordinates for the Cabinet
xS

-100 mm

xE

150 mm

yS

-5 mm

yE

20 mm

zS

-25 mm

zE

25 mm

c. Click Update to resize the cabinet.


d. In the Orient menu, select Isometric view to scale and orient the view of the cabinet to fit the
graphics window (Figure 16.2: Creating the Heat Sink CAD Block From a CAD File (p. 266)).

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Modeling CAD Geometry


Figure 16.2: Creating the Heat Sink CAD Block From a CAD File

4. Edit the cabinet properties to specify the Min x and Max x sides as openings.
a. Select Opening from the drop-down menu under Wall type for Min x and Max x.

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b. Select Edit to display the Openings object panel for Min x and specify the

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velocity to be 5 m/s.

Step 2: Build the Model

c. Press Done in the Openings object panel and the changes will be applied to the Cabinet object
panel.
5. Create a block at the base of the heat sink.
a. Click the Create blocks button (

) to create a new block.

ANSYS Icepak creates a new solid prism block in the center of the cabinet. You need to change
the size of the block.
b. Click the Edit object button (

) to open the Blocks panel.

c. Click the Geometry tab.

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Modeling CAD Geometry


d. Enter the Start/end coordinates for the Prism block as shown in Table 16.2: Coordinates for the
Block (p. 268).

Important
Note that the dimensions are in mm.
Table 16.2: Coordinates for the Block
xS

-30 mm

xE

30 mm

yS

-5 mm

yE

0 mm

zS

-25 mm

zE

25 mm

The block touches the cabinet in the Min y direction, and the heat sink in Max y. The Min z and
Max z sides of the block touch the cabinet.
e. In the Properties tab, select Solid for the Block type if not already selected. Under Thermal specification, keep default as the Solid material. Because the default solid material is extruded aluminum,
you need not specify the material explicitly here.
f.

Click Done to modify the block and close the panel.

6. Create a source between the base block and the heat sink.
a. Click the Create sources button (

) to create a source.

b. Edit the source Geometry with the Start/end dimensions given in Table 16.3: Coordinates for the
Source (p. 268).

Important
Note that the dimensions are in mm.
Table 16.3: Coordinates for the Source
Shape

Rectangular

Plane

X-Z

xS

-10 mm

xE

10 mm

yS

yE

zS

10 mm

zE

-10 mm

c. Edit the source Properties and specify a Total power of 50.0 Watts.

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Step 2: Build the Model

d. Click Done to modify the source property and close the panel.

Note
We will allow heat transfer from the base of the metal block by creating a wall, wall.1 on
the Min y side of the block and the cabinet boundary.

7. Create a wall at the base of the metal block.


a. Edit the wall Geometry with Start/end dimensions given in Table 16.4: Coordinates for the Wall (p. 269).

Important
Note that the dimensions are in mm.
Table 16.4: Coordinates for the Wall
Shape

Rectangular

Plane

X-Z

xS

-30 mm

xE

30 mm

yS

-5 mm

yE

zS

-25 mm

zE

25 mm

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Modeling CAD Geometry


b. Edit the wall Properties to specify the boundary conditions of the wall.
i.

Select Heat transfer coefficient from the External conditions drop-down list.

ii. Press Edit to open the Wall thermal conditions panel.


iii. Select Heat transfer coeff in the Thermal conditions group box.
iv. Input a Heat transfer coeff of 10 W/km2 and keep the default selection of Constant in the Heat
transfer coefficient group box. The Reference temperature is ambient.
Figure 16.3: Specifying Boundary Condition for the Wall

v. Press Done in the Wall external thermal conditions panel and then the Walls object panel to
apply the changes close the panels.
The final model should correspond to the one shown in Figure 16.1: Wind Tunnel Model with Heatsink
Modeled as CAD Block (p. 262).

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Step 3: Generate a Mesh

16.6. Step 3: Generate a Mesh


1. In order to properly mesh the heat sink, a fine mesh needs to be used in that region. To reduce the
overall mesh count, the finely meshed region should be secluded using a separately meshed assembly.
a. Choose the heat sink (F_4074 or similar name) and source.1 from the Model tree and create an
assembly called assembly.1.
b. The meshing parameters for this assembly are shown in Figure 16.4: Meshing Parameters for assembly.1 (p. 272).

Important
Note that the dimensions are in mm.

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Modeling CAD Geometry


Figure 16.4: Meshing Parameters for assembly.1

Note
The slacks in the Min Z and Max Z directions are specified by snapping with the
cabinet boundary in the respective directions. Note the use of Max element size in
each direction to control the mesh refinement in the assembly.

c. Press Done to close the Assemblies panel.


2. Another separately meshed assembly, assembly.2 is created with assembly.1 to enable a smooth
transition of the fine mesh in assembly.1 to the relatively coarse mesh in the outer regions of the
model.
a. Choose assembly.1, block.1 and wall.1 from the Model tree and create assembly.2.

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Step 3: Generate a Mesh


b. The meshing parameters for this assembly are shown in Figure 16.5: Meshing Parameters for assembly.2 (p. 273).

Important
Note that the dimensions are in mm.
Figure 16.5: Meshing Parameters for assembly.2

Note
There is a larger max grid size in this assembly compared to assembly.1.

c. Press Done to close the Assemblies panel.

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Modeling CAD Geometry


3. Go to Model Generate mesh.
a. Keep the default selection of Mesher-HD for the Mesh type and input the settings shown in Figure 16.6: Mesh control Panel Inputs (p. 274) below.

Important
Note that the dimensions are in mm.
Figure 16.6: Mesh control Panel Inputs

Note
When meshing models containing CAD blocks, you could select Hexa unstructured
or Hexa cartesian for the global Mesh type, but only Mesher-HD should be used to
mesh CAD blocks. Therefore, you must create assemblies with Mesher-HD as the
Mesh type around all the CAD blocks.

b. Click Generate to create the mesh.


4. The surface mesh on the heat sink and the mesh on the center y" plane is shown in Figure 16.7: Mesh
Near Heat Sink (p. 275). The relatively coarse mesh in the overall cabinet, the intermediate mesh in assembly.2 and the fine mesh in assembly.1 is clearly seen in the central y" plane view of the mesh
as shown in Figure 16.8: Y-Plane View of Mesh (p. 275).

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Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings


Figure 16.7: Mesh Near Heat Sink

Figure 16.8: Y-Plane View of Mesh

16.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings


1. Go to

Problem setup

Basic parameters.

a. In the General Setup tab, make sure that both the flow and the temperature fields are switched on.

Note
This is a forced convection problem; therefore the natural convection as well as radiation effects can be ignored.

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Modeling CAD Geometry


b. Switch off the Radiation and make sure Gravity vector is unchecked.
c. Choose Turbulent and then Zero equation in the Flow regime group box.

Note
The problem being dominated by forced convection, a sequential solution of flow
and energy equation shall be used.

d. Press Accept to save the settings and close the panel.


2. Under Solution settings
Basic settings, specify the number of iterations to 300, the Flow
convergence to 0.001 and the Energy convergence to 1e-14, as shown in Figure 16.9: Basic settings
Panel (p. 277), and press Accept to save the settings and close the panel.

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Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings


Figure 16.9: Basic settings Panel

3. Stringent energy convergence criterion is required when the energy equation is solved separately.
Go to

Solution settings

Advanced settings.

a. Make sure that the Under-relaxation parameters for Pressure and Momentum are 0.3 and 0.7 respectively.
b. Input the following for Temperature in the Linear solver group box:
i.

Choose W from the Type drop-down list.

ii. Enter 1e-6 for the Termination criterion and the Residual reduction tolerance.
c. Change Precision to Double.

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Modeling CAD Geometry


Figure 16.10: Advanced solver setup Panel

Note
These settings are used for separate solution of the energy equation

d. Press Accept to save the changes and close the panel.

16.8. Step 5: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak saves the model for you automatically before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model (including the mesh) yourself as well. If you exit ANSYS Icepak before you start
the calculation, you will be able to open the job you saved and continue your analysis in a future ANSYS
Icepak session. (If you start the calculation in the current ANSYS Icepak session, ANSYS Icepak will simply
overwrite your job file when it saves the model.)
File Save project

Note
You can click the save project button (

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) in the File commands toolbar.

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Step 6: Calculate a Solution

16.9. Step 6: Calculate a Solution


1. Go to Solve Run solution to display the Solve panel.
a. Enable Sequential solution of flow and energy equations.
b. Click Start solution to start the solver.
ANSYS Icepak begins to calculate a solution for the model, and a separate window opens where
the solver prints the numerical values of the residuals. ANSYS Icepak also opens the Solution
residuals graphics display and control window, where it displays the convergence history for
the calculation.

Note
The actual values of the residuals may differ slightly on different machines, so your
plot may not look exactly the same as Figure 16.11: Residuals (p. 279).
Figure 16.11: Residuals

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Modeling CAD Geometry


c. Click Done in the Solution residuals window to close the panel.

16.10. Step 7: Examine the Results


The distribution of the different quantities on the CAD heat sink can be visualized using the object face
option, as in any other ANSYS Icepak object.
1. Click the Object face button (

) under the Postprocessing toolbar.

a. Choose the CAD block from the Object drop-down list


b. Click on Show contours and then Parameters to open the Object face contours panel.
c. Keep the default selection of Temperature in the Contours of drop-down list.
d. Keep the default selection of Solid fill in the Contours of group box.
e. Select Smooth in the Shading options group box.
f.

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Keep the default selection of Calculated in the Color levels group box and choose This object from
the drop-down list.

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Step 7: Examine the Results


Figure 16.12: Post Object Face Settings for CAD Block

g. Press Done in the Object face contours panel and then in the Object face panel to close the panels
and view the postprocessing object.
This maps the color range to the temperature distribution on the heat sink. The temperature on a
given point can be seen using the surface probe tool.
Figure 16.13: Temperature Distribution on the Heat Sink (p. 282) shows the temperature distribution
on the heat sink.

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Modeling CAD Geometry


Figure 16.13: Temperature Distribution on the Heat Sink

2. Right click face.1 in the Model tree and deselect Active to deactivate the postprocessing object.
3. Click the Plane cut button (

) under the Postprocessing toolbar.

a. Select Y plane through center from the Set position drop-down list.
b. Select Show vectors option.
c. Click Create and Done. Zoom in to display more details.
The velocity field around the heat sinks fins, visualized on the central y -plane, is shown in Figure 16.14: Velocity Field Around the Heat Sinks Fins (p. 283).

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Step 8: Summary
Figure 16.14: Velocity Field Around the Heat Sinks Fins

16.11. Step 8: Summary


In this tutorial, you imported a CAD object and set up a problem. You then created an unstructured
mesh using the hex-dominant mesher. This forced convection problem was solved for flow and heat
transfer and the results were examined on object faces and cut planes in the model.

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283

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Chapter 17: Trace Layer Import for Printed Circuit Boards


17.1. Introduction
A printed circuit board (PCB) is generally a multi-layered board made of dielectric material and several
layers of copper traces. From the thermal modeling point of view, a PCB may be treated as a homogeneous material with bi-directional thermal conductivity, i.e. thermal conductivity value is different in the
normal-to-plane direction than that of the in-plane direction. This approach is reasonable as long as
the trace distribution is more-or-less uniform in any given layer. However, with the continuing challenges
to increase product functionality while decreasing product size, designers are compelled to place more
and more functionality on individual PCBs. As PCBs become more densely populated, their trace layers
are becoming more non-uniform and it is prudent to use locally varying thermal conductivity information
on the board.
PCBs often have large copper spread in the power and ground planes, this along with the presence of
vias (especially thermal vias) can be effectively used by the designer to spread heat from the package.
A detailed conductivity map of the pcb is required to simulate heat transfer, which is possible in Ansys
Icepak using the trace feature.
Conducting a computational heat transfer simulation for each individual layer is costly and impractical
for a system level model. In ANSYS Icepak, it is possible to import trace layout of the board and compute
locally varying orthotropic conductivity (kx, ky, and kz) on the board using a profile mesh size. The supported file formats are (1) MCM, BRD and TCB files and (created using Cadence, Synopsys, Zuken, and
Mentor), (2) ANF files and (3) ODB++ files.
Ansoftlinks installation and licensing is required to create ANF files to be read by Icepak. Icepak can
read ODB++ files, but an Ansoftlinks license is required. To import MCM/BRD files, Cadence Allegro
must be installed.
In this tutorial, we will show :
How to import trace layout of a typical PCB in TCB format and solve two sample cases based on the trace
layout information.
How to use Model layers separately option for better accuracy.
How to import Gerber format layer and via files.

17.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the menu structure in ANSYS Icepak and that you have
solved or read the tutorial Finned Heat Sink. Some steps in the setup and solution procedure will not
be shown explicitly.

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Trace Layer Import for Printed Circuit Boards

17.3. Problem Description


A PCB board, library files and traces are imported to create the model. The model is first solved for
conduction only, without the components and then solved using the actual components with forced
convection.

17.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Start ANSYS Icepak, as described in Starting ANSYS Icepak in the Icepak User's Guide.
When ANSYS Icepak starts, the Welcome to Icepak panel opens automatically.

2. Click New in the Welcome to Icepak panel to start a new ANSYS Icepak project.
The New project panel appears.
3. Specify a name for your project.
a. In the Project name text box, enter the name trace-import.
b. Click Create.

17.5. Step 2: Build the Model


To build the model, you will first import the board layout. The board and the associated library files
have to be chosen at this step and the trace file can be imported later.
File Import IDF file New
1. In the IDF import panel, select the board (A1.bdf ). Specify the model directory using Browse.
The associated library files are imported automatically.

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Step 2: Build the Model


2. Select Next to see your Layout options. Keep Detail for the Import type, XY for the board plane and
Rectangular for the board shape.

Note
Because we import the trace information later, we do not need to edit the board properties
at this time.

3. Select Next to see the Component filtering options. Ensure Import all components is selected.

Note
You can filter certain components at this step by their size and power information, i.e.
you can ignore the small components or the ones dissipating low power. We will import
all of the components in this tutorial.

4. Select Next to see the Component models section. Select Model all components as. Keep the default
selection of 3d blocks and the default Cutoff height for modeling components as 3d blocks.

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Trace Layer Import for Printed Circuit Boards

Note
If you have thin components on your board, they can be modeled as 2D sources. In this
tutorial, we would like to model all the components as rectangular blocks.

5. Click Next to go to the Miscellaneous options section where you can specify the naming and monitor
options. Keep the default options and click Finish to start importing the files. This will take some time
depending on the speed of your machine.

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Step 2: Build the Model

You have learned how to import board and library files, and in general you can import any IDF file
by using the procedure above.
The next step in building the model is to import the trace files. A pre-built board model named
A11" (see Figure 17.1: A11 Board Layout (p. 290)) will be used to demonstrate the trace file import.
This pre-built model was extracted from the previous board file (A11.brd), a number of small components were removed and a non-conformal assembly was formed.
a. Unpack A11.tzr file to your desktop and name the project A11".

Note
As mentioned earlier, the trace file (.brd, .tcb, .mcm, .anf, or .odb++) can either be
imported during the IDF file import or the trace layout information can be assigned
to the board after importing the IDF file.

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Trace Layer Import for Printed Circuit Boards


Figure 17.1: A11 Board Layout

b. Right click BOARD_OUTLINE.1 in the Model manager window and click Edit to display the Blocks
object panel.
To import the trace layout, follow the procedures below.
i.

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In the Geometry tab, select ASCII TCB from the Import ECAD file drop down list (Figure 17.2: Blocks [BOARD_OUTLINE.1] Panel (p. 291)).

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Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 17.2: Blocks [BOARD_OUTLINE.1] Panel

ii. Select A1.tcb from the Trace file panel. This process may take a few minutes depending on the
speed of your computer.
iii. Once the import process is completed, you can edit the layer information in the Board layer and
via information panel (Figure 17.3: Importing Trace Layout and Editing Layer Information (p. 292)).
The number of layers in the board will automatically be imported to ANSYS Icepak and you
will have to enter the thickness of each layer and the material type. In this tutorial, the metal
layers are pure Cu and the dielectric layers are FR-4.
iv. Enter the layer thickness as shown in Table 17.1: Thickness Information on the Board (Layer 1: Top,
Layer 7: Bottom layers) (p. 291).
Table 17.1: Thickness Information on the Board (Layer 1: Top, Layer 7: Bottom layers)
Layer

Thickness (mm)

Layer 1

0.04

Layer 2

0.45364

Layer 3

0.062

Layer 4

0.467

Layer 5

0.055

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Trace Layer Import for Printed Circuit Boards


Layer

Thickness (mm)

Layer 6

0.442

Layer 7

0.045

Figure 17.3: Importing Trace Layout and Editing Layer Information

v. By default, layers are lumped for each sub-grid, therefore, the Model layers separately option
is off. They can also be modeled separately, which will be discussed later when the Model layers
separately option is used.
vi. Via information (e.g., material, plating thickness, filled/un-filled, via diameter etc.) is imported
automatically (Figure 17.4: Vias Information (p. 293)), keep the default settings.

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Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 17.4: Vias Information

vii. Click Accept to save your settings.

Note
The background mesh matrix (rows and columns) is used to compute the orthotropic conductivity on the board. The rows represent the division of the board in
the y-direction, the columns represent the division of the board in the x-direction
and the size field determines the divisions of the board and indicates the grid size
in each direction. The values of k, kx, ky, and kz on each cell are determined by
the local trace density and the direction. ANSYS Icepak does not include the trace
geometry in the physical model; however, the locally varying orthotropic conductivity is mapped from the background mesh to the physical model mesh. Once the
trace file is imported and assigned to the board geometry, the trace layers are
associated with the board and are moved (in translation and/or rotation) with the
board object.

viii.Press Done to close the Blocks object panel.

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ix. Right click on the object BOARD_OUTLINE.1 and go to Traces from the menu.

Note
You can view the traces in three different ways, i.e. single color, color by layer,
or color by trace. Each of the trace layers can be viewed separately by switching
the visible option on or off in the layers part of the panel. (Figure 17.5: Displaying
Traces on the Board (p. 294)).
Figure 17.5: Displaying Traces on the Board

x. Select color by trace; the board traces are as shown in Figure 17.6: Trace Layout on the PCB with
the Color by trace Option (p. 295).

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Conduction Only Model (PCB Without the Components)


Figure 17.6: Trace Layout on the PCB with the Color by trace Option

You can view the location of individual trace layers as shown in Figure 17.7: Displaying Trace
Layers (p. 295) by enabling the Display traces in 3D option in the Preferences panel.
Edit Preferences Display
After enabling this option, zoom in and display the positive Y view of your model.
Figure 17.7: Displaying Trace Layers

17.6. Conduction Only Model (PCB Without the Components)


Follow these steps for a conduction-only model:

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17.7. Step 1: Generate a Mesh


You will generate a mesh for each sample problem. First we will consider a board without any components.
1. Make all objects (including the openings) inactive except the BOARD_OUTLINE.1 object.
2. Select the cabinet and select Autoscale from the Edit window to make the size of the board and the
cabinet the same.
3. Go to the Properties tab of the Cabinet object panel, and select Wall from the Min z and Max z dropdown lists.
4. Press Edit next to Min z to open the Walls object panel.
a. In the Properties tab, select Temperature from the External conditions drop-down list, and keep
the ambient temperature (20C).
b. Press Done to close the panel.
5. Press Edit next to Max z to open the Walls object panel.
a. In the Properties tab, specify a Heat flux of 50000 W/m2 in the Thermal specification group box.
b. Press Done to close the panel.

Note
The rest of the sides are insulated. The board will be simulated using a conduction-only
model.

6. Press Done to close the Cabinet panel.


7. Go to Model Generate mesh to open the Mesh control panel.
a. Make sure the Mesh type is Mesher-HD.
b. Specify a Max element size for X, Y, and Z as 5, 3, and 0.05 mm respectively, and a Minimum gap
of 1 mm in all three directions.
c. Keep all other defaults and click Generate.
8. Once the mesh has been created, Close the Mesh control panel.

17.8. Step 2: Set Physical and Numerical Values


1. Go to

Problem setup

Basic parameters.

a. Since this is a conduction only model, toggle off the Flow option in the General setup tab.
b. Make sure Radiation is off and keep all other default values.
c. Press Accept to close the Basic parameters panel.

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Step 5: Examine the Results


2. Go to

Solution settings

Basic settings.

a. Keep the default Number of iterations and set the Convergence criteria for Energy to 1e-12.
b. Click Accept to close the panel.
3. Go to

Solution settings

Advanced settings.

a. Input the following for Temperature in the Linear solver group box:
i.

Choose W cycle from the Type drop-down list.

ii. Enter 1e-6 for both the Termination criterion and Residual reduction tolerance.
b. Select Double for the solver Precision.
c. Press Accept to close the Advanced solver setup panel.

17.9. Step 3: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak saves the model for you automatically before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model (including the mesh) yourself as well.
File Save project

17.10. Step 4: Calculate a Solution


Go to Solve Run solution or click on the shortcut button (
solution.

). Start the solver by clicking Start

17.11. Step 5: Examine the Results


1. Once the model has converged, Activate cut.1 if not already activated.
2. Edit cut.1 and make sure that Point and normal is the Set position.
3. Make sure that PX, PY, PZ are 0, 0, and 0.78232, respectively and the NX, NY, and NZ are 0, 0, and 1,
respectively.
4. Press Done and view the model.
The mid-plane temperature distribution shows that the high temperature regions occur at the no-trace
areas and low temperature regions occur at areas with a high trace concentration. This is expected as
the copper content is directly proportional to the trace concentration. It is worth noting that if a compact
or detailed PCB were used in lieu of the traced PCB, one would obtain a fixed temperature for the entire
mid-plane and this fixed temperature would be different from the average temperature of the traced
PCB on the same plane.

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Figure 17.8: Temperature Distribution on the PCB (mid-plane)

Note
The spatially varying non-uniform conductivity of the board can also be viewed during post
processing. The conductivities in the three direction K_X, K_Y, and K_Z are available as postprocessing variables with plane cuts and object faces. Figure 17.9: K_X Distribution on the
PCB (mid-plane) (p. 299) plots kx at the board mid-plane by selecting K_X from the Contours
of drop-down list from Plane cut contours panel of the cut.1 object. In the present case,
because we chose not to model the layers separately, there will be no variation of the conductivities in the board-normal direction.

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PCB With the Actual Components Under Forced Convection


Figure 17.9: K_X Distribution on the PCB (mid-plane)

17.12. PCB With the Actual Components Under Forced Convection


Follow these steps for a model that has components:

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17.13. Step 1: Generate a Mesh


1. In order to put the actual components back into the model, highlight all the components under the Inactive folder and drag them back into the Model folder. Highlight the two wall objects created for the
conduction only" model and drag them into the Inactive folder.
2. Click on the Cabinet and Autoscale it from the Edit window.
3. If not already defined, assign an X Velocity of -1.5 m/s in the Properties tab of the Openings panel for
the Max x side of the cabinet (the minus sign shows that the flow is in the negative x direction).
While not shown here, the trace import feature has a number of advantages on the meshing side.
It should be remembered that detailed PCBs cannot intersect non-conformal assemblies; however,
there is no such limitation for block objects. Since a PCB is represented as a block in the case of
importing traces, non-conformal assemblies can intersect it.
4. Open the Mesh control panel and choose X, Y, Z sizes as 9.5, 7, and 0.7 mm respectively.
5. Keep all other defaults and Generate the mesh.

17.14. Step 2: Set Physical and Numerical Values


1. Since we now have forced convection, go to Problem Setup
Basic parameters toggle on the
Flow button. Keep and choose Turbulent and Zero equation for the flow regime and press Accept to
close the panel.
Basic settings and make sure the Number of iterations is 300 and
2. Go to Solution settings
that the Convergence criteria are the same as the last mode, and press Accept to close the panel.
3. Keep the same Advanced settings as the previous case.

17.15. Step 3: Calculate a Solution


Click Solve Run Solution to display the Solve panel. Enter a different solution id for the forced
convection model (i.e., A11-conv). Enable Sequential solution of flow and energy equations and click
Start solution.

17.16. Step 4: Examine the Results


To display contours of temperature on the board, follow the procedures below.
1. Once the model has converged, deactivate cut.1 and go to Post Object Face.
2. Select BOARD_OUTLINE.1 from the Object drop-down list, and deselect all the options except Max Z
in the Object sides group box.
3. Turn on the show contours and click on Parameters button.
4. Keep the default selection of Temperature.
5. For Color levels, select This object from the drop-down list.
6. Press Done in the Object face contours panel and then the Object face panel to view the postprocessing
object.
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Using the Model Layers Separately Option


This shows the temperature distribution at the top of the surface of the board (Figure 17.10: Top
Surface Temperature Distribution: PCB With Imported Traces (100 x 100) in Forced Convection (p. 301)).
There are two hot spots underneath the high heat flux components.
Figure 17.10: Top Surface Temperature Distribution: PCB With Imported Traces (100 x 100) in
Forced Convection

7. Deactivate the face.1 postprocessing object.

17.17. Using the Model Layers Separately Option


Next we revisit the conduction only model. This time all the metal layers will be modeled separately
and not lumped together in the thickness direction.
1. Go to the Post Load solution ID.
2. Select the solution ID corresponding to the model which has just the PCB without any components.
3. Deactivate all postprocessing objects if any are active.
4. Display the Board layer and via information panel by selecting the Edit button across from Trace
layers and vias in the Geometry tab of the Blocks panel for the BOARD_OUTLINE.1 object.
5. Check the Model layers separately box and press Accept to close the panel.
6. Press Done to close the Blocks panel.

Note
The Model layers separately option automatically creates contact resistance plates in the
plane of the board at the start and end locations of each metal layer. These dummy plates
have zero thermal resistance and their sole purpose is to ensure proper mesh resolution

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within the board. Figure 17.11: Contact Resistance Plates for Meshing the Individual Layers
Separately (p. 302) shows the plates created for the tracing layers on this board.
To model each of the layers separately we need to ensure that there is at least one cell
across each of the metal and dielectric layers at the correct locations in the board-normal
direction.
Figure 17.11: Contact Resistance Plates for Meshing the Individual Layers Separately

7. Now the model can be meshed again same mesh settings as earlier except for the Minimum gap in the
Z direction should be set to 0.25 mm to account for the contact resistance plates, and solved with the
exact same boundary conditions. The temperature distribution and conductivity profiles on the board
can be viewed again during post processing to examine the effect of modeling the layers separately as
compared to the previous case.

17.18. Summary
In this tutorial, you imported the board layout and trace files. Then you simulated the board using a
conduction only model. Postprocessing this model showed high temperature regions occurring at the
no-trace areas and low temperature regions occurring at areas with a high trace concentration. Then
you simulated the board with the components put back into the model and simulated under forced
convection. Then you simulated the conduction using the Model layers separately option.

17.19. Additional Exercise 1


Using this model, you can determine the joule/trace heating of the imported traces. This problem is
described in Tutorial Joule/Trace Heating.

17.20. Additional Exercise 2


Create a model with a detailed package with thermal solder balls. Place it on a board modeled without
and with separate meshing of the layers and check the difference of temperature distribution.

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Chapter 18: Joule/Trace Heating


18.1. Introduction
In Tutorial Trace Layer Import for Printed Circuit Boards (p. 285), you learned how to import a trace layout
of a typical PCB using TCB format and also learned how to model the trace layers separately for better
modeling accuracy. In this tutorial, you will learn how to model resistive heating or joule heating of the
imported traces in the PCB.
Since PCB traces have electrical resistance, they will heat up as current flows through them. Modeling
this phenomenon will provide us with an accurate prediction of the temperature distribution in the
PCB, which can be important, for example, in evaluating the performance of the cooling system.

18.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you have completed Tutorial Trace Layer Import for Printed Circuit
Boards (p. 285) of this guide. This same model is used to determine the joule/trace heating capability
in ANSYS Icepak.

18.3. Problem Description


The model in Tutorial Trace Layer Import for Printed Circuit Boards (p. 285) contains imported traces
and will be used in this tutorial. You will determine the joule/trace heating capacity of the traces.

18.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Start ANSYS Icepak, as described in Chapter 1 of the Users Guide.

Note
When ANSYS Icepak starts, the Welcome to Icepak panel will open automatically.

2. Click Unpack in the Welcome to Icepak panel to start a new ANSYS Icepak project.

Note
The File selection panel will appear.

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Joule/Trace Heating
3. In the File selection panel, select the packed project file joule-heating.tzr and click Open.

Note
The project file can be found in your installation directory at ICEPAK_ROOT/tutorials/joule-heating/joule-heating.tzr.

4. In the Location for the unpacked project panel, select a directory where you would like to place the
packed project file, enter a project name in the New Project text field, and click Unpack.

18.5. Step 2: Build the Model


This tutorial uses an existing model. Since the traces are already imported in the model, you will work
directly on the Joule heating capability in ANSYS Icepak.
1. Select BOARD_OUTLINE.1 from the Model tree and open the Blocks panel.
a. In the Geometry tab, click on the Edit button next to Model trace heating. The Trace heating
panel opens.
i.

In the drop-down list under Layers, select INT1_3. The list below Display traces shows available
traces. You can filter the traces to view by setting an Area filter (the default in ANSYS Icepak is
20% of the Largest trace area) and clicking the Filter button. In this example, use an Area filter
of 17890 mm2, as this will only show the significant traces.

Note
The Trace heating panel lists the traces in each layer in order of descending area,
see Figure 18.1: Trace Heating Panel Selection and Options (p. 305).

ii. Before you create a solid trace of Trace 1_1724, you need to modify the Max angle filter and
the Min length filter to ignore the fine details in the trace geometry and reduce the mesh count.
If not already selected, select Trace 1_1724 and set the Max angle filter to 135 and the Min
length filter to 1.0 mm.

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Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 18.1: Trace Heating Panel Selection and Options

iii. Click on the Create solid trace button. ANSYS Icepak will create a polygonal solid block named
BOARD_OUTLINE.layer-3-trace-1_1724 that contains the trace information. (The actual
name may vary). Click Done to close the Trace heating panel.

Note
You can try reducing the Area filter to 1000 mm2 to check how many traces appear. We are interested in the second largest trace, trace 1_1724.

b. Click Done in the Blocks panel to close the panel and view the model.
2. Select the polygonal trace from the Model tree and open the Blocks panel.

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Joule/Trace Heating
a. In the Geometry tab of the Blocks panel, make sure there are around 60 vertices for the trace, as
shown in Figure 18.2: Polygonal Trace Block (p. 306).
Figure 18.2: Polygonal Trace Block

b. Go to the Properties tab.


i.

Make sure that the Solid material is tr_1_1724_sol_mat and then select Edit definition in
the drop-down list.
A. The Materials panel opens.
B. Make sure the Properties tab of the Materials panel looks like Figure 18.3: Trace Materials
Panel Properties Tab (p. 307).
C. Press Done to close the Materials panel.

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Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 18.3: Trace Materials Panel Properties Tab

ii. In order to activate Joule heating of the trace, press the Edit button for the Joule option. The
Joule heating power panel opens.
A. For the first boundary condition in the Boundary conditions group box, set Side to side1,
Boundary type to current, and specify the Current to 25 Amps.
B. For the second boundary condition, set Side to side42, Boundary type to voltage, and the
Voltage to 0 V.

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Joule/Trace Heating
Figure 18.4: Boundary conditions for the Trace Block

Note
Current conservation needs to be manually inspected by the user.

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Step 3: Generate a Mesh


Figure 18.5: Entry and Exit Sides for the Trace Block

Note
The side numbers are estimates as they may be slightly different for each
model.

C. Press Done in the Joule heating power panel and then the Blocks panel to close the panels
and view the model.

18.6. Step 3: Generate a Mesh


1. Create a non-conformal assembly for the trace.
a. Right click the BOARD_OUTLINE.1.layer-3-trace-1_1724 object and go to Create and then
Assembly.
b. Double click the assembly you created to open the Assemblies panel.
i.

In the Meshing tab, select Mesh separately and input the Slack settings, Mesh type, Max element size, and Min gap settings as shown in Figure 18.6: Mesh Settings for the Trace Board (p. 310).

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Joule/Trace Heating
Figure 18.6: Mesh Settings for the Trace Board

Note
Ensure Mesh type is Mesher-HD.

c. Press Done to close the Assemblies panel.


2. Go to Model Generate mesh to open the Mesh control panel.
a. Make sure the Mesh type is Mesher-HD.
b. Keep the global settings under the Max element size group box as 9, 5, and 0.75 mm, for X, Y, and
Z respectively.
c. Set the Minimum gap as 0.75, 0.45, and 0.035 mm for X, Y, and Z, respectively.
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Step 6: Calculate a Solution


d. Generate the mesh.
e. Check the mesh quality for the trace and the overall model from the Display and Quality tabs.

18.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings


1. Double click the cabinet_default_side_maxx object in the Model tree to open the Openings
panel.
a. In the Properties tab, make sure the X Velocity is -1.5 m/s.
b. Press Done to close the panel.
2. Go to

Problem setup

Basic parameters.

a. Since this is a forced convection problem, ensure that the Flow is toggled on and that Turbulent is
selected under Flow regime. Select Zero equation as the turbulence model.
b. Press Accept to close the panel.
3. Go to

Solution settings

Basic settings.

a. Make sure the Convergence criteria for Flow is 0.001.


b. Set the Number of iterations to 200 and the Convergence criteria for Energy and Joule heating
to 1e-8.
c. Press Accept to close the panel.
4. Go to

Solution settings

Advanced settings.

a. Input the following for Temperature in the Linear solver group box:
i.

Choose W cycle from the Type drop-down list.

ii. Enter 1e-6 for both the Termination criterion and Residual reduction tolerance.
b. Make sure the Precision for the solver is Double.
c. Press Accept to close the Advanced solver setup panel.

18.8. Step 5: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak will save the model for you automatically before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model (including the mesh) yourself as well.
File Save Project

18.9. Step 6: Calculate a Solution


1. Click Solve Run Solution.
2. Click Start solution.

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Joule/Trace Heating

18.10. Step 7: Examine the Results


Once the model has converged, create an object face.
1. Select the trace and show the temperature contours.
a. Go to Post Object face.
b. In the Object drop-down list, select the trace (BOARD_OUTLINE.1.layer-3-trace-1_1724).
c. Select Show contours and click Parameters. In the Object face contours panel, select Temperature
in the Contours of drop-down list and select This object next to Calculated in the Color levels
group box. Click Apply.
d. Observe the trend of the temperature contour and how it varies from one side to other, and compare
the maximum temperature for the cases with and without trace modeling (Figure 18.7: Trace Temperature Contours with Forced Convection (p. 313)).

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Step 7: Examine the Results


Figure 18.7: Trace Temperature Contours with Forced Convection

2. Now plot the electric potential of the same trace, Figure 18.8: Trace Electric Potential Contours with
Forced Convection (p. 314).

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Joule/Trace Heating
Figure 18.8: Trace Electric Potential Contours with Forced Convection

a. Click on Parameters to open the Object face contours panel.


b. Select Electric Potential from the Contours of drop-down list and press Apply.
c. Observe the contours.
Do you observe any similarity between the temperature and the electric potential contours?
The temperature contours are closely related to the electric potential contours, which is a direct
result of joule heating of the trace.
d. Press Done in the Object face contours and Object face panels to close the panels.

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Step 8: Summary

18.11. Step 8: Summary


Tutorial Trace Layer Import for Printed Circuit Boards (p. 285) is utilized to model the joule heating capability of a trace.

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Chapter 19: Microelectronics Packages - Compact models


19.1. Introduction
This tutorial is a case study of a board design. A card supplier is making two package type changes to
an existing commercial board. The objective of the thermal simulation project is to see if the selected
new packages are likely to function without overheating. In the event of over heating, what kind of
thermal management should be recommended?
In this tutorial, you will learn how to:
Perform a board level simulation with appropriate package models.
Determine if the selected new packages can function without overheating.

19.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you have worked on Sample Session in the Icepak User's Guide and the first
two ANSYS Icepak tutorials of this guide.

19.3. Problem Description


A designer is to select packages for a new design at the drawing board level. Available information
about the board and packages is given. Determine cooling solutions in the event there is overheating.
Figure 19.1: Problem Specification

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Microelectronics Packages - Compact models

19.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Copy the file ICEPAK_ROOT/tutorials/compact-package/compact-package-modeling.tzr
to your working directory. You must replace ICEPAK_ROOT by the full path name of the directory where
ANSYS Icepak is installed on your computer system.
2. Start ANSYS Icepak, as described in Starting ANSYS Icepak in the Icepak User's Guide.
3. Click Unpack in the Welcome to Icepak panel.
4. In the File selection panel, select the packed project file compact-package-modeling.tzr and
click Open.
5. In the Location for the unpacked project file selection dialog, select a directory where you would like
to place the packed project file, enter a project name (i.e., test-1) in the New project text field then
click Unpack.

19.5. Step 2: Build the Model


This tutorial uses an existing model. ANSYS Icepak will display the model in the graphics window as
shown in Figure 19.2: Layout of the board to be analyzed (p. 319). Available information about the board
and packages is shown in Table 19.1: Available Details for Objects in the Model (p. 319) and
Table 19.2: Available Information for 400 PBGA (p. 320).

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Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 19.2: Layout of the board to be analyzed

Table 19.1: Available Details for Objects in the Model


Object

# of Occurrences in
model

Available information

PCB

1.6 mm thick, FR4 Material, six 1 oz. layers 0


of Copper, 30% coverage for all layers

Heat Spreader for TO-220 packages

Extruded Aluminum

TO-220 Packages

DIP

400 PBGA (new package type to


the existing board)

= 2.5 C/W

Power
(w)

0
1.5

None

0.5

See Table 19.2: Available Information for


400 PBGA (p. 320)

2.0

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Object

# of Occurrences in
model

Available information

Power
(w)

232 PQFP (new package type to


the existing board)

232 leads, 40 mm X 40 mm Footprint, 2


mm height

3.5

Note
An ounce of Copper is actually the thickness of 1 ounce/sq.ft of plane copper sheet. Using
copper density this translates to a thickness of 0.035 mm.
Table 19.2: Available Information for 400 PBGA
Feature

Size (mm)

Overall package

Material/Conduct- Other info


ivity (W/mK)

26 x 26 x 2.15

Where to input this


info?
Dimensions tab

Mold compound

0.8

Die/Mold tab

Die

18 x 18 x 0.4

Silicon material

Die/Mold tab

Die Flag

18 x 18 x 0.035
(equivalent)

80.0 (effective)

Die/Mold tab

Die Attach

0.05 mm thick

Not mentioned

Die/Mold tab

Substrate

0.4 mm thick

FR4

Substrate tab

Substrate
traces

0.035 mm thick

Copper

4 layers, top and


bottom 30% coverage intermediate
layers are 100%
(plane layers)

Substrate tab

Vias

Unknown

Not mentioned

Number of vias unknown

Substrate tab (use 0


for vias)

Solder Balls

Standard

Solder

20 x 20 count, full
array

Solder tab

Wire Bonds

Not mentioned

Usually Gold

Die/Mold tab

1. Create the PCB


Create a PCB object by clicking on the Create printed circuit boards button (
). Then edit the
PCB by clicking the Edit object button ( ) while the PCB object is selected in the Model tree. Enter
the following in the Geometry tab:
Object type

Name

Shape/Type/Plane

Global Coordinates (m)


XS YS ZS XE YE ZE

PCB

pcb.1

XZ

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.25 NA 0.2

a. Go to the Properties tab. Enter the PCB thickness of 1.6 mm for Substrate thickness.

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Step 2: Build the Model


b. Change the default unit from micron to Cu-oz/ft2 for high and low surface thickness and for internal
layer thickness under Trace layer parameters section.
2. Material information for the PCB is in Table 19.1: Available Details for Objects in the Model (p. 319). This
information can be entered for the selected PCB object as shown in Figure 19.3: PCB Edit Form with input
based on PCB information in the Table with Model Object Details above (p. 321).
Figure 19.3: PCB Edit Form with input based on PCB information in the Table with Model
Object Details above

Now, you should see the PCB object overlapping the block called PCB. There is no more need for
this block.

Note
You recreated the PCB object geometry using coordinates of the imported PCB block.

3. Deactivate the block named PCB".


4. Heat spreader for TO-220 devices
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Microelectronics Packages - Compact models


a. Since default solid material happens to be extruded aluminum, all three spreaders should have come
into the model with correct material specification. Check this information by editing the objects.
5. Modeling Packages
This model has four different types of objects. Based on available information and our objectives,
we shall use different compact package modeling capabilities in ANSYS Icepak.
a. TO220 Type Packages
i.

There are 9 TO-220 device blocks. Select them all at once by drawing a window" with Shift+left
mouse (see Figure 19.4: Window Selecting Multiple Objects for Simultaneous Edit (p. 322)). Press
Shift+I for an isometric view. Simultaneous selection can also be done in the Model manager
window, press the Ctrl key and left mouse click to select objects.
Figure 19.4: Window Selecting Multiple Objects for Simultaneous Edit

ii. You should see all TO-220 devices highlighted in the tree. Please note that only TO-220 objects
should be selected. If you see other objects highlighted (such as the Spreader objects), please
deselect them by holding down the Ctrl key and left mouse clicking them in the tree. You can
simultaneously edit all of the remaining objects at once by clicking your right mouse on any one
of the selected TO-220 objects in the tree.
A. Select Network for the Block type.
B. Keep the default selection of Two Resistor for the Network type.

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Step 2: Build the Model


C. In order to assign the resistance, we need to identify a reference side. This is the purpose of
board side" input. We want the resistance to be applied from Junction to the side in contact
with the spreader (Max Z side). We can accomplish this in two ways:
Designate Min Z side as the Board side and assign the supplier provided resistance value
(2.5 C/W from Table 19.1: Available Details for Objects in the Model (p. 319)) to Rjc.
OR
Designate Max Z side as the Board side and assign the supplier provided resistance value
to Rjb.

Note
Zero resistance means that there would not be any link and the resistance
values are infinite.

D. Input 1.5 W for the Junction power.


Figure 19.5: TO-220 Properties Tab

iii. Click Done to finish the operation.


b. DIP type packages
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i.

As we did before for the TO_220 objects, select all the DIP objects and simultaneously edit them.

ii. Use default solid material (any material will work because we are not interested in DIP temperature).
A. Input 0.5 W in the Total Power field.
B. Click Done

Note
Dip is the package type for which we have the least information. So we are
left with two options:
Try to get information from supplier.
OR
Perform a tentative simulation with available information. The options are considered along with the following facts:
The DIPs constitute a lower heat flux than the other components in the board.
This is an existing design in which the DIPs have been known to run well below
their specified temperature even at max power.
Based on the above reasoning, it is easier to perform a tentative simulation
with the available power information than to obtain the information from the
supplier. In this context the purpose of the DIP package modeling is to appropriately account for air and PCB heating due to flow over the DIPs. Accurate
prediction of the DIP temperature is not an objective.

c. PQFP package modeling


Internal details are unavailable for the PQFP type package. But based on the exterior details
such as lead count, foot print size, and package height information, it is possible to construct a
compact model of a typical package for screening analysis.
i.

Go to the Libraries node by clicking the Library tab in the Model manager window. Then rightclick Libraries and select Search packages.

Note
A package may also be created using either IC package macros or a package object.)

ii. In the Search package library panel enter all known information about the package
(Table 19.1: Available Details for Objects in the Model (p. 319)) as search criteria. Clicking the Search
button should return 1 the closest matching packages from the library. Pick the package that is
1

If search does not return a relevant package, click on the package object icon to create a new package object. After entering the
few known values, you may enter reasonable values or leave the remaining parameters as defaults.

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Step 2: Build the Model


most similar in description to the 232-lead PQFP information available and select Create. Figure 19.6: Package Search Procedure (p. 325) depicts the package search procedure.
Figure 19.6: Package Search Procedure

iii. Go back to the Project tab and edit the newly created package object. Make sure that:
The Package type is QFP.
The Package thickness is 2.0 mm.
The Model type is Compact Conduction Model (CCM).

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The Symmetry is Full.

Note
CCM is a compact model based on geometric simplifications that still preserve the
original heat transfer pathways of the package. It has been demonstrated 2 that
CCM is fairly accurate and boundary condition independent. Other options under
Model type are:
To model the package in full detail. This option is meant for package level modeling.
Using this in board or system design will unduly complicate the simulation.
To characterize Junction-to-case and Junction-to-board network resistances for a
two resistance compact model. We will be doing this for the PBGA package.

iv. Select the Die/Mold tab. (The Substrate and Solder tabs show blank interface since QFP type
packages do not have solder or substrate). Enter 3.5 W for Power.
v. Use all other defaults under Die/Mold tab. Click Done to close the tab.
vi. The package created is in an arbitrary location. You may use the Align face centers button (
)
to position the base center of the created package object with that of the 232PQFP block. The
dimensions of the package should match the dimensions of the 232PQFP block:

vii. There is no more need for the 232PQFP block. Deactivate it.
viii.There is another 232PQFP" block (232PQFP.1). Create a copy of the first package object and
align with the remaining 232PQFP" block. Then, deactivate the second 232PQFP" block
(232PQFP.1). The dimensions of the second package should be:

d. PBGA package modeling


We have fairly comprehensive information about the PBGA type package from the supplier (see
Table 19.2: Available Information for 400 PBGA (p. 320)). Using this information we can construct
a CCM or characterize to determine jc and jb to model it as a 2-resistor network model as
shown here:
i.

Select all the blocks named 400-PBGA and edit all of them simultaneously.

Karimanal, K.V. and Refai-Ahmed, G., Validation of Compact Conduction Models of BGA Under An Expanded Boundary Condition
Set", Proceedings of the ITHERM 2002, May 2002, San Diego, Ca, USA.

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Step 2: Build the Model


A. Select Network as the Block type and Two resistor as the Network type.
B. Set the board side as Min Y.
C. Input the estimated jc (1.4 C/W) and jb (6.75 C/W) values in the Rjc and Rjb fields respectively.
D. Input a Junction power of 2.0 W.
E. Click Done to finish.
ii. Edit the Cabinet. In the Properties tab, you have the option to define the boundary condition
(Wall type) for each side of the cabinet. Set the Wall type for Min x and Max x as Opening.
iii. Press Edit for the Min x side to open the Openings panel.
iv. In the Properties tab of the Openings panel, assign an X velocity of 1 m/s.
v. Click Done to close the Openings panel.
vi. The Max x side opening should have the default settings (free opening).
vii. All other cabinet boundaries should be Default.

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Microelectronics Packages - Compact models


viii.Click Done in the Cabinet panel to confirm changes.
ix. You should see the openings on the min and max X sides of the cabinet.

19.6. Step 3: Generate a Mesh


1. Click the mesh icon

a. Make sure Mesher-HD is selected as the Mesh type and Normal is selected for Mesh parameters.
b. Click Generate to create the mesh.
Figure 19.7: Mesh control panel

c. Evaluate your mesh from the Display and Quality tabs.


2. (optional) Create non-conformal assemblies around each package set to reduce the mesh count. As a
start, use 3 mm slack values for all sides of each assembly. Resize the assemblies if required. With nonconformal assemblies, it is possible to reduce the number of elements in the mesh significantly. Display
and compare the conformal and non-conformal meshes.

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Step 6: Calculate a Solution

19.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings


Let us solve the board model with a 1 m/s inlet velocity.
1. Go to Problem setup
setup tab.

Basic parameters and set the Flow regime to Turbulent in the General

Press Accept to close the panel.


Basic settings panel and click Reset. It is advisable to always click the
2. Go to Solution settings
reset button in the Basic settings panel before starting the solver. Set the number of iterations to 200
in the Basic settings panel and close the panel.

19.8. Step 5: Save the Model


Save the model after the model building and meshing is complete.
File Save project

19.9. Step 6: Calculate a Solution


1. Define point monitors of temperature for 232-Lead_PQFP package and DIP objects. A point monitor
will be created to monitor the temperature change with iterations (Figure 19.8: Monitor Point Definition (p. 330)).

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Microelectronics Packages - Compact models


Figure 19.8: Monitor Point Definition

2. Go to Solve Run solution and enable Sequential solution of flow and energy equations.

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Step 7: Examine the Results


Figure 19.9: Solve panel

3. Click Start solution.

19.10. Step 7: Examine the Results


First we would like to get an idea of the general temperature distribution pattern on the board.
1. Create temperature contours of the PCB by clicking the Object face icon ( ), selecting Show contours,
clicking Parameters and selecting This object for the Calculated drop-down list.
Probe temperatures values at desired location after clicking on probe icon (

).

Note the higher temperatures in the parts of the PCB under the PQFP packages.
2. Go to Report Network block values. The Message window lists all network block temperatures.
Network junction temperatures can also be obtained from the overview report.
3. The closeness of the PBGAs to each other is a cause for their overheating. How much is the problem
due to the temperature of the air approaching these components?
A picture of the thermal boundary layer over the PBGAs can be seen by taking XY cut plane of temperature contours over the PBGA blocks.

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Microelectronics Packages - Compact models


4. What is the cause for the somewhat high temperatures of the TO-220 devices?
Are the heat spreaders too close? If so, the air flowing between the spreaders will overheat preventing
further heat dissipation to the air. You can find out if this is the case by creating XZ cut planes of
vectors and contours that cut across the spreader blocks.
5. The highest temperatures are in the 400-PBGA blocks. Effective cooling solutions can be designed by
understanding heat flow pathways.
Generate a summary report of heat flow for the 400-PBGA blocks. By deactivating the button under
Comb in the summary report panel, you can generate an itemization of heat flow through each of
the sides of the object.

19.11. Step 8: Summary


In this tutorial, you performed a board level simulation and determined cooling solutions in the event
there is overheating.

19.12. Step 9: Additional Exercise


Post-processing showed that the components of 400-PBGA are the most critical object since they are
the hottest. Here are some cooling ideas to set up and perform ANSYS Icepak simulations:
What if...
1. The flow is in the negative X direction?
2. The flow is in the negative X direction, and by judicious use of flow resistances, more flow is diverted
toward the PBGAs (for the same overall flow rate)?
3. The bottom side of the PCB is not dissipating any heat as a result of lying on domain boundary. On the
other hand, there seem to be plenty of space above the board. The main reason for the headroom above
the PCB is the height of the spreader blocks. While there is room to move up the spreader by a little bit,
more room can be gained if the spreader is longer in the X direction but shorter in Y height. What if
both sides of the PCB are exposed to airflow by moving it up?
4. A heatsink is mounted on the PBGA blocks? Will it be possible to use a heatsink in contact with all
PBGAs? Are there any practical issues?

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Chapter 20: Multi-Level Meshing


20.1. Objective
The objective of this exercise is to provide a means to improving the mesh resolution and optimizing
the mesh count of a model consisting of CAD objects using the multi-level meshing technique. The
procedure from this exercise should help you make appropriate modeling and meshing choices during
your thermal modeling project.

20.2. Prerequisites
The trainee should be familiar with:
ANSYS Icepak modeling objects
Basics of meshing
Non-conformal meshing

20.3. Skills Covered


Basic meshing techniques
Non-conformal meshing
Multi-level meshing
Uniform mesh parameters option

20.4. Training Method Used


A model with potential for improvement is provided. Then, an approach for improving the model is
presented. Feel free to explore the software interface, collaborate with another trainee, or ask a Technical Services Engineer.

20.5. Loading the Model


Unpack and load the model named HangingNode.tzr"
Rename it to any other name of your choice.

20.6. Step-by-Step Approach


Without making any changes, the model results in about 650000 finite volume cells. Please note that
this mesh count has been obtained making use of the non-conformal meshing technique that allows
for localized fine meshing, thus eliminating mesh bleeding. However, this mesh does not fully resolve
the fine-level geometric features of the CAD objects. It is possible to further reduce the mesh count
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Multi-Level Meshing
and improve mesh resolution on and around the CAD objects using the multi-level meshing technique.
This procedure starts with a coarse background mesh and resolves fine level features through a series
of successive mesh refinements. It is possible to reduce the mesh count to approximately 500000 and
improve mesh resolution at the same time using this technique along with the uniform mesh parameters
option.
Generate mesh without modifying the model. You will see a mesh count of about 650,000 cells.

Note
The mesh count may differ slightly on different machines.

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Step-by-Step Approach
Figure 20.1: Mesh of Flow Guide Without Multi-Level Meshing

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Multi-Level Meshing
Figure 20.2: Mesh of Sheetmetal_HS Without Multi-Level Meshing

20.7. Modification 1: Multi-Level Meshing of the Fan_Guide


In the Meshing tab of the fan_guide.1 assembly, retain the slack and minimum gap values. However,
change the Max element size values to 4.0 mm.
Toggle on Set uniform mesh params.
In the Multi-level tab, toggle on Allow multi-level meshing and set Max Levels to 2.
Keep the default selection of Proximity and Curvature size function.

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Modification 2: Multi-Level Mesh of the Sheetmetal_hs_assy.1

20.8. Modification 2: Multi-Level Mesh of the Sheetmetal_hs_assy.1


In the Meshing tab of the Sheetmetal_hs_assy.1, retain the slack and minimum gap values. However,
change the Max element size values to 3.5 mm.
Toggle on Set uniform mesh params.
In the Multi-level tab, toggle on Allow multi-level meshing, keep Max Levels as 2 and set Buffer levels
to 1.
Keep the default selection of Proximity and Curvature size function.
Enter a value of 1 for Mesh buffer layers.

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20.9. Generate a Mesh


Generate a mesh with the modifications using the same settings as before.

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Generate a Mesh

Observe the decrease in element count.


Display the mesh of the FLOW_GUIDE and the sheetmetal_hs_assy.1.
Figure 20.3: Flow_Guide Mesh (p. 340) shows the surface mesh on the flow_guide. Fine mesh resolution in some regions is necessary for a body fitted mesh. This can be clearly seen in the figure. In
addition, it can be observed that the mesh resolution is coarser in regions where a fine resolution is
not necessary to describe the geometry accurately.
Figure 20.4: Sheetmetal Heatsink Mesh (p. 340) shows the mesh on and around the sheetmetal heatsink.
It can be seen that the mesh resolution is fine in the fin region and coarser as we move away from
the heatsink.

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Multi-Level Meshing
Figure 20.3: Flow_Guide Mesh

Figure 20.4: Sheetmetal Heatsink Mesh

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Conclusion

20.10. Conclusion
Using multi-level meshing, we were able to improve the mesh resolution and instantly transition to
coarser meshes thus reducing the overall mesh count. Hence, this approach significantly reduces run
time while enhancing the accuracy of the simulation.

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Chapter 21: Characterizing a BGA-package by Utilizing ECAD Files


21.1. Introduction
In Tutorials Trace Layer Import for Printed Circuit Boards and Joule/Trace Heating you learned how to
import trace layouts for a PCB. In this tutorial, you will learn how to import trace layouts on a BGA
package substrate by using TCB files.
In this tutorial, you will learn how to:
Import trace layout of a BGA package substrate in TCB format.
Display traces using the Color by trace option.
Plot temperature contours on the wirebonds.
Determine junction-to-case resistance for the package.

21.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the menu structure in ANSYS Icepak and that you have
solved or read the tutorial Finned Heat Sink of this guide.

21.3. Problem Description


In this tutorial, you will see how to determine temperature profiles on the wirebonds of a BGA package
and junction-to-case resistance.

21.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Start ANSYS Icepak, as described in Starting ANSYS Icepak in the Icepak User's Guide.
2. Click New in the Welcome to Icepak panel to start a new ANSYS Icepak project.
3. Specify a name for your project (i.e., BGA-package) and click Create.

21.5. Step 2: Build the Model


To build the model, you will change the units, create the PCB, import the traces and resize the cabinet
to its proper size. Then you will create a wall object.
1. Change the unit of length to mm.
Edit Preferences
a. In the Preferences panel, click on Units, under the Defaults node. In the Category box, scroll down
and select Length, and under Units, select mm.

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b. Click Set as default, Set all to defaults and then This project.
2. Create the package object.
a. Click on the packages object button (

) in the objects toolbar.

b. In the Packages panel, click the Dimensions tab and select ASCII TCB from the Import ECAD file
drop-down list.
Figure 21.1: The Packages Panel (Dimensions Tab)

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Step 2: Build the Model


c. Select block_1.tcb in the Trace file panel and click Open.

Note
block_1.tcb can be found in the installation directory at ICEPAK_ROOT/tutorials/BGA-package/block_1.tcb.

d. Keep the numbers for the layers and vias and click Accept in the Board layer and via information
panel.

Note
If the Objects outside panel is displayed, click the Resize Cabinet button.

e. Click on the Die/Mold tab and assign a die Power of 0.5 W.


f.

Click Done.

g. Click on the Cabinet in the object tree and click the Autoscale button located in the edit window
in the lower right corner of the main menu.

Note
Click the Scale to fit icon (

) to refocus your model.

h. Right click on the package object in the object tree, choose Traces Color by trace to display the
traces.

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Figure 21.2: Display of Traces

As can be seen in Figure 21.2: Display of Traces (p. 346), the wirebonds are lumped into polygonal
plates by ANSYS Icepak.
i.

Change the cabinet zS to -1.2 mm.

j.

Create a PCB object and input the following in the Geometry tab:
Plane

X-Y

Specify by

Start / end

xS

-7.03 mm

xE

7.03 mm

yS

-7.03 mm

yE

7.03 mm

zS

-1.2 mm

zE

k. In the Properties tab, set the substrate thickness as 0.8 mm, then enter the following Cu percentages
for the layers:

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Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 21.3: Properties Tab of the Printed Circuit Boards Panel

l.

Click on Update. Note that the thermal conductivity information (plane and normal) for the PCB is
updated.

m. Press Done to close the panel.


n. Create a wall object and align it with the min-z side of the cabinet and Rename it as Bottom.
o. Edit the wall object and insulate it by keeping the heat flux as zero in the Properties tab.
p. Make a copy of the wall and translate it in the z direction by 2.95 mm and rename the new wall to
Top.
We would like to determine the heat transfer coefficient on the top surface with the well-known
correlation in the literature, (Incropera et. al 1). In order to do that, you can follow the procedure
in Figure 21.4: Determining Heat Transfer Coefficient on the Top Wall (p. 348).

Frank Incropera and David DeWitt, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1981.
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Figure 21.4: Determining Heat Transfer Coefficient on the Top Wall

21.6. Step 3: Generate a Mesh


1. Click the Generate mesh button (

).

2. In the Mesh control panel, enter 0.5 mm, 0.5 mm, and 0.14 mm for the Max element size for x, y, and
z, respectively. Change the Minimum gap values to 0.05 mm, 0.05 mm, and 0.01 mm for x, y and z, re-

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Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings


spectively. In the Misc tab, unselect Allow minimum gap changes and click Change value and mesh
in the Minimum separation panels.

Note
Ensure that Mesh type is Mesher-HD.

3. Click Generate.
Figure 21.5: Mesh control Panel

4. Click Close to close the panel once you have created the mesh.

21.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings


1. Go to

Problem setup

Basic parameters.

a. Uncheck Flow in the General setup tab.


b. Turn off the radiation and click Accept to close the panel.
2. Go to

Solution settings

Basic settings.

a. Change the Number of iterations to 25 and the Convergence criteria for Energy to 1e-15.
b. Click Accept to close the panel.
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3. Go to

Solution settings

Advanced settings.

a. Input the following for Temperature in the Linear solver group box:
i.

Choose W from the Type drop-down list.

ii. Enter 1e-6 for both the Termination criterion and Residual reduction tolerance.
b. In the Precision drop-down list, select Double.
c. Click Accept to save your settings and close the panel.

21.8. Step 5: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak will save the model for you automatically before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model (including the mesh) yourself as well. If you exit ANSYS Icepak before you start
the calculation, you will be able to open the project you saved and continue your analysis in a future
ANSYS Icepak session. (If you start the calculation in the current ANSYS Icepak session, ANSYS Icepak will
simply overwrite your project file when it saves the model.)
File Save project

21.9. Step 6: Calculate a Solution


Go to Solve Run solution. Click Start solution.

21.10. Step 7: Examine the Results


1. When the model converges, plot the temperatures contours on the wirebond and view the variation/symmetry of the temperature profiles.
a. Go to Post Object face and choose the wirebonds under the package object.
Figure 21.6: Object face Panel

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Step 7: Examine the Results


b. Select Show contours and click Parameters.
c. Select This object from the Calculated drop-down list.
d. Press Done in the Object face contours and Object face panels to close the panels and view the
temperature contours.
Figure 21.7: Temperature Contours on the Wirebonds (Top View)

2. Go to the Report Summary report and click on New twice.


a. Choose Source_DIE1 under the package object for the first object and the Top wall for the second
object.
b. Keep the default selection of Temperature under Value for both.
c. Press Write to create the Summary report.
Max die and max top wall temperatures are determined as 131.2 and 127.7C, respectively. Note
that the top wall represents the case for the package. Therefore, junction-to-case resistance for this
package is determined as:

(21.1)
=

   


Where

is the die power (0.5 W in this case). Therefore,


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(21.2)

21.11. Step 8: Summary


In this tutorial, you learned how to import trace layouts for a PCB on a BGA package substrate by using
a TCB file.

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Chapter 22: Zero Slack with Non-Conformal Meshing


22.1. Introduction
This tutorial compares the mesh of a non-conformal assembly with and without slack values around a
heat sink, package and board. The zero slack scenario will be solved and the number of iterations, and
temperature distribution on objects in the model will be performed.
In this tutorial you will learn how to use the zero slack capability in ANSYS Icepak.

22.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you have reviewed Sample Session in the Icepak User's Guide and the tutorials
Finned Heat Sink and RF Amplifier of this guide.

22.3. Problem Description


The model consists of a detailed heat sink, a BGA package, a block with traces and fluid blocks. The
model setup is shown in Figure 22.1: Problem Schematic (p. 354).

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Zero Slack with Non-Conformal Meshing


Figure 22.1: Problem Schematic

The objective of this exercise is to illustrate the advantage of using the zero slack capability. The model
will be constructed using the default metric unit system.

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Step 4: Import Traces

22.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Copy the file ICEPAK_ROOT/tutorials/ZeroSlack/ZeroSlack_Tut.tzr to your working directory. You must replace ICEPAK_ROOT by the full path name of the directory where ANSYS Icepak is
installed on your computer system.
2. Start ANSYS Icepak, as described in Starting ANSYS Icepak in the Icepak User's Guide.
When ANSYS Icepak starts, the Welcome to Icepak panel opens automatically.
3. Click Unpack in the Welcome to Icepak panel.
The File selection panel appears.
4. In the File selection panel, select the packed project file ZeroSlack_Tut.tzr and click Open.
The Location for the unpacked project file selection dialog appears.
5. In the Location for the unpacked project file selection dialog, select a directory where you would like
to place the unpacked project file, enter a project name (e.g.0slack) in the New project text field then
click Unpack.

22.5. Step 2: Default Units


Make sure the default unit of length is mm.
Edit Preferences
1. In the Preferences panel, click on Units under the Defaults node. In the Category box, scroll down and
select Length, and under Units, make sure mm has an asterisk next to it. If there is no asterisk next to
mm:
a. Select mm from the Units box.
b. Click Set as default.
2. Click Set all to defaults and click This project.

22.6. Step 3: Build the Model


This tutorial uses an existing model. The model contains existing package, board and heatsink assemblies.

22.7. Step 4: Import Traces


1. In the model tree, expand the Board assembly to display the pcb object if it is not already visible. Right
click pcb in the Model manager window and click Edit to display the Blocks panel.
2. In the Geometry tab, select ASCII TCB from the Import ECAD file drop-down list.

Note
You need to unzip the tcb file before you can import it.

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3. In the Trace file panel, select BOARD_OUTLINE.tcb. Turn off the Resize Block option because the pcb
was imported using an idf file, so the dimensions are already correct. This process may take a few minutes
depending on the speed of your computer.

Note
The Resize Block option is necessary when the board size is not known or an idf file is
not available.

4. Once the import is completed, you can edit the layer information in the Board layer and via information
panel. Enter the layer thickness as shown in the table below.
Layer

Thickness (mm)

Layer 1

0.04

Layer 2

0.45364

Layer 3

0.062

Layer 4

0.467

Layer 5

0.055

Layer 6

0.442

Layer 7

0.045

5. By default, layers are lumped for each sub-grid, therefore, the Model layers separately option is off and
will need to be enabled.
a. Click Accept to close the Board layer and via information panel.
b. Then click Edit next to Trace layers and vias in the Blocks panel to reopen the Board layer and
via information panel.
c. The Model layers separately option can now be enabled.
6. The via information is imported automatically, so keep the default settings.
7. Click Accept to save your settings.

Note
You can view the traces in three different ways, i.e. Single color, Color by trace, or Color
by layer.
The meshing plates are placed at the location of the different layers; they are used to ensure
the mesh resolution is high enough at the different layers.

8. Click Done to close the Blocks panel.

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Step 6: Generate Mesh (with Slack Values)

22.8. Step 5: Add Slack Values


You will add slack values to the heat sink assembly.

Note
Non-conformal assemblies are used to reduce mesh count in models and to improve mesh
quality.
1. Set the slack values for the heat sink assembly as shown in the figure below.

22.9. Step 6: Generate Mesh (with Slack Values)


You will generate a mesh for the heatsink assembly with slack values.
1. Go to Model Generate mesh to open the Mesh control panel.
2. Select Mesher-HD as the Mesh type if not already selected.
3. Make sure that the Min elements in gap is 2, the Min elements on edge is 1, and the Max size ratio
is 3.

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4. Go to the Local tab and click Edit next to Object params. You will see the following requested values
in the Per-object meshing parameters panel (scroll down to see the inside ratios):
Table 22.1: Object Parameters
Object type

Object name

Parameter

Requested

block

pcb

X count

25

Z count

assembly

Heatsink

all inside ratios

assembly

Board

all inside ratios

assembly

Package

all inside ratios

5. Press Done to close the Per-object meshing parameters panel.


6. Keep all other settings as default and click Generate.
7. Take note of the mesh count and view a cut plane of the mesh from the Display tab.

Note
The package is not well resolved and it is divided between the heatsink and board assemblies. Moreover, mesh bleeding from the meshing plates extends beyond the board because of the slack values.

22.10. Step 7: Zero Slack


Next, we will consider a board with non-conformal meshing with zero slack values.
Non-conformal assemblies with zero slack help in resolving specific objects without extending the mesh
to the rest of the cabinet. Also, zero slack non-conformal assemblies remove certain limitations that are
present with regular non-conformal assemblies like intersections with other non-conformal assemblies.
In this tutorial, the use of zero slack non-conformal assemblies allows us to have a separate non-conformal assembly for the package and to accurately resolve the mesh.

Note
Currently, zero slack assemblies are unable to participate in radiation when a surface coincides
with the assembly interface.
1. Change the slack values for the heat sink assembly as shown in the figure below.

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Step 9: Physical and Numerical Settings

2. In addition, enable Mesh separately in the package and board assemblies (do not change any other
values in these assemblies).

22.11. Step 8: Generate Mesh (with Zero Slack)


Generate a mesh with the same global mesh settings as in Step 6: Generate Mesh (with Slack Values) (p. 357) so that you can compare the mesh count. Observe that the mesh count is significantly less
than that of the mesh with slack values.

22.12. Step 9: Physical and Numerical Settings


1. In the model tree, go to Solution settings
Basic settings and
Advanced settings, and verify that the following values are set:

Solution settings

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Zero Slack with Non-Conformal Meshing


2. Go to Problem setup
Basic parameters and make sure the Flow regime is Turbulent and
the turbulence model is Zero equation in the General setup tab. Also, give a small initial (global) X
velocity of 1.5 m/s in Transient setup tab. Accept the changes made and exit this window.

22.13. Step 10: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak saves the model for you automatically before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model (including the mesh) yourself as well.
File Save project

22.14. Step 11: Calculate a Solution


Go to Solve Run solution. Click Start solution.

22.15. Step 12: Examine the Results


After the solution has converged, create the following post processing objects:
Object

Specifications

Description

cut.1

Set position: Y plane through


center

Plane cut (x-z) view of the velocity vectors in the y plane.

Show vectors
Object: pcb

Object-face view of temperature


on pcb

Show contours / Parameters

face.1

Note the min & max temperatures and the temperature distribution.

Calculated: This object


face.2

Object: pcb
Show contours / Parameters

Object-face showing the conductivity, K_X.

Contours of : K_X

22.16. Step 13: Summary


Zero slack is a feature in ANSYS Icepak that alleviates most restrictions encountered while using the
original non-conformal assemblies. Zero slack non-conformal assemblies not only reduces mesh count
further than original non-conformal assemblies but also allow the user to mesh specific objects separately.
For example in this model, the zero slack capability allowed meshing of the package object separately.

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Chapter 23: ANSYS Icepak - ANSYS Workbench Integration Tutorial


23.1. Introduction
This tutorial demonstrates how to create and solve an ANSYS Icepak analysis in ANSYS Workbench. You
will model a geometry using the direct CAD modeling feature in ANSYS Icepak and create a non-conformal mesh for the complex shapes. The project will also include postprocessing the results in ANSYS
CFD-Post and performing a static structural analysis.
In this tutorial, you will learn how to:
Create an ANSYS Icepak analysis in ANSYS Workbench.
Postprocess results in ANSYS CFD-Post.
Solve a project and transfer to ANSYS Mechanical for further analysis.

23.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you have little experience with ANSYS Workbench and so each step will be
explicitly described.

23.3. Problem Description


The graphics board contains a heat sink with extruded fins having aerofoil cross section, a PCB, capacitors,
memory cards and ports. These objects are placed in a setup as shown in the figure below.

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Figure 23.1: Problem Schematic

23.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Start ANSYS Workbench.

Note
When ANSYS Workbench starts, the Toolbox and Project Schematic are displayed.

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Step 2: Build the Model

23.5. Step 2: Build the Model


1. Add a Geometry template by dragging the template from the Toolbar under the Component Systems
node into the Project Schematic. Perform a right mouse click on the Geometry cell (A2) and go to Import
Geometry. Click Browse and select graphics_card_simple.stp to load the geometry. The file
graphics_card_simple.stp can be found at ICEPAK_ROOT/tutorials/Workbench. You must
replace ICEPAK_ROOT by the full path name of the directory where ANSYS Icepak is installed on your
computer system.

Note
A green check mark in the Geometry cell indicates the geometry has been imported
successfully.

2. Double-click the Geometry (A2) cell to open DesignModeler as you need to edit the geometry first before
exporting into ANSYS Icepak.
a. Keep the selection of Meter as the desired length unit and press OK.
b. Click Generate to display the model.

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c. Edit the geometry in DesignModeler using the Electronics option in the Tools menu. Select Simplify
and choose the appropriate simplification level and select bodies.
i.

Select All objects for Selection Filter.

ii. Keep the Simplification Type as Level 2 and click Generate.


Refer to the Design Modeler documentation for more detailed information on using the Electronics options.

Note
The Electronics menu is shown only if the DesignModeler option Enable Electronics
Options is turned on.

d. Close DesignModeler and return to ANSYS Workbench.


3. Drag and drop an Icepak template into the Project Schematic on top of the Geometry cell (A2) to
transfer the geometry into ANSYS Icepak.
4. Right click on the Setup cell (B2) and select Edit to launch ANSYS Icepak.
a. The CAD model appears in the graphics display window and has been converted into ANSYS Icepak
objects. Click the isometric toolbar icon (

) to display the isometric view of the model.

b. In the object edit panel of each of the objects, rename the object (if necessary) in the Info tab and
enter the specifications in Properties tab as shown in Table 23.1: Object Properties (p. 364).

Note
To open the object edit panel, perform a right mouse click on the object and select
Edit. After editing the object, you can press Update to save the changes and click a
different object in the Model tree to go to that object without closing the panel.
Table 23.1: Object Properties
Object
SERIAL_PORT

SERIAL_PORT

default

0.0 Watts

MEMORY1

MEMORY_1

Ceramic_material

5 Watts

MEMORY1.1

MEMORY_2

Ceramic_material

5 Watts

CAPACITOR

CAPACITOR_1

default

0.0 Watts

CAPACITOR.1

CAPACITOR_2

default

0.0 Watts

KB

KB

default

0.0 Watts

HEAT_SINK

HEAT_SINK

default

0.0 Watts

CPU

364

New name

Solid Material

Total Power

CPU

Ceramic_material

20 Watts

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Step 2: Build the Model


Object

New name

ALHPA_MAIN_PCB

PCB

Solid Material
Custom- PCB solid_material

Total Power
0.0 Watts

Conductivity type- Orthotropic


X = 20, Y = 0.4, Z = 20

Note
Edit the Solid material by selecting a material in the drop down list. To create a
(Custom) material, select Create material in the drop down list and click the Properties tab in the Materials panel and enter the specifications.

c. Resize edit the properties of the default cabinet in the Cabinet panel.
Model
i.

Cabinet

In the Cabinet panel, click the Geometry tab. Under Location, enter the following coordinates:
Table 23.2: Coordinates for the Cabinet
xS = -0.19 m

xE = 0.03 m

yS = 0 m

yE = 0.02848 m

zS = -0.11 m

zE = 0 m

ii. Edit the cabinet properties to specify Min x and Max x sides as openings.
A. In the Properties tab of the Cabinet object panel, select Opening from the drop-down menu
under Wall type for Min x and Max x.
B. Select Edit to display the opening for the Max x object panel.
C. In the Properties tab, specify the x velocity to be 2 m/s. Click Done in the Openings and
Cabinet panels to apply the changes and close the panels.
d. The final model should correspond to the one shown below.

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Figure 23.2: The Final Model Display

23.6. Step 3: Generate a Mesh


Note
For more information on how to refine a mesh locally, refer to Refining the Mesh Locally in
the Icepak User's Guide.
1. Click the assembly toolbar icon (
) to create an assembly. Add the HEAT_SINK and CPU objects to the
assembly and rename it CPU_assembly.

Note
To add objects to an assembly, select one or more objects in the Model manager window
and drag them into the desired assembly node.

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Step 3: Generate a Mesh


2. Go to the CPU_assembly object panel and click the Meshing tab. Enable the Mesh separately option
and enter the following slack values. Click Done to close the panel.
Table 23.3: Slack Values
Min X = 0.005 m

Max X = 0.005 m

Min Y = 0.0016 m

Max Y = 0 m

Min Z = 0.001 m

Max Z = 0.005 m

3. Specify the overall mesh controls as shown in the Mesh control panel below.
Model Generate mesh

Note
The Mesh units and Minimum gap values are in mm, and Set uniform mesh params
is checked in the Global tab.
Press Generate to create the mesh. You can check the mesh using the Display and Quality tabs
in the Mesh control panel. Press Close when you are done.
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23.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings


1. Go to

Problem setup

Basic parameters in the Model manager window.

a. In the General setup tab, make sure that both flow and the temperature fields are switched on.
b. Select Turbulent and Zero equation for the Flow regime and turn Off the Radiation.
c. Click Accept to close the panel.
2. Go to Solution settings Basic settings and Solution settings Advanced settings in
the Model manager window and verify that the following values are set for each variable:
Basic settings
No. of iterations = 100
Flow = 0.001
Energy = 1e-7
Advanced settings
Pressure = 0.3
Momentum = 0.7

23.8. Step 5: Save the Model


1. Go to File Save project.

Note
You can click the save icon (

) in the File commands toolbar.

The Save As panel appears.


2. Specify the name ice_wb for your project and click Save.
3. ANSYS Workbench will close ANSYS Icepak to save the model, you will need to launch ANSYS Icepak
again to continue.

23.9. Step 6: Calculate a Solution


1. Go to Solve Run solution to display the Solve panel.
2. Keep the default settings in the Solve panel.
3. Click Start solution to start the solver.
ANSYS Icepak begins to calculate a solution for the model and a separate window opens where the
solver prints the numerical values of the residuals. ANSYS Icepak also opens the Solution residuals
graphics display and control window, where it displays the convergence history for the calculation.
Note that the actual values of the residuals may differ slightly on different machines, so your plot
may not look exactly the same as the figure below.
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Step 7: Examine the Results with CFD-Post

4. Once the solution converges, click Done in the Solution residuals window to close it.

23.10. Step 7: Examine the Results with CFD-Post


Note
The postprocessing of results can be done within ANSYS Icepak; however, you can also examine results in ANSYS CFD-Post. This section will describe how to transfer information to
ANSYS CFD-Post and use its postprocessing options, so you may close ANSYS Icepak.

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1. After calculating a solution in ANSYS Icepak, a green check mark will be displayed in the Icepak Solution
cell in the Project Schematic. The green check mark indicates that all data is up to date. Select Results
under the Component Systems node in the Toolbox. Drag the Results cell on top of the Icepak Solution
cell (B3) to transfer the data.

2. Double click the C2 Results cell to launch ANSYS CFD-Post. The model should appear in the display
window.
3. To generate contours, please do the following:
a. Go to Insert Contour or click on the Contour button
Contour 1 and click OK.

to create a contour. Retain the name

b. In the Geometry tab under Details of Contour 1:


i.

Keep the default selection of All Domains in the Domains drop-down list.

ii. Click on the ... button next to Locations to display the Locations Selector dialog box. Highlight
all CPU, PCB and HEAT_SINK objects and click OK to close the panel.

Note
You can select multiple objects by holding down either Shift or Ctrl and selecting
the objects.

iii. Select Temperature in the Variable drop-down list.


iv. Select Apply to display the contours.
4. To generate a 3D streamline, please do the following:
a. Go to Insert Streamline or click on the Streamline button
the name Streamline 1 and click OK.

to create the streamline. Retain

b. In the Geometry tab under Details of Streamline 1:


i.

Keep the default selection of 3D Streamline in the Type drop-down list.

ii. Keep the default selection of All Domains in the Domains drop-down list.
iii. Select cabinet_default_side_maxx minx from the Start From drop-down list.
iv. Keep the default selection of Velocity in the Variable drop-down list.

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Step 8: Thermo-Mechanical Structural Analysis


v. Keep all other defaults and click Apply to display the streamline.
c. You can also animate the streamline. To animate the streamline, go to Tools Animation or click
on the animation button

5. When you are done examining the results, close ANSYS CFD-Post and return to ANSYS Workbench.

23.11. Step 8: Thermo-Mechanical Structural Analysis


In addition to solving this problem in ANSYS Icepak, you can also perform a static structural analysis.
1. Select Static Structural from the Toolbox and drag and drop this cell on top of the Icepak Solution cell
(B3).
2. Click on the Geometry cell (A2) and drag and drop it on top of the Static Structural Geometry cell
(D3). The geometry is now shared.

3. Right click on the Setup cell (D5) and click Update.


4. Double click on the Model cell ( D4) to launch ANSYS Mechanical.
5. Click on the Imported Body Temperature object. This object is found under the Imported Load
(Solution) node.
6. Under Details, ensure that the Scoping Method is Geometry Selection. Click the Box Select button

, hold down the Ctrl key and drag a box around the entire model to select it. Click on
the cell to the right of Geometry and then click Apply. Nine bodies should be selected.
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7. Select All from the Icepak Body drop-down list.
8. Click Solve.

23.12. Step 9: Summary


In this tutorial, you imported CAD objects and set up a problem. You then created a non-conformal
mesh using the hex-dominant mesher. This forced convection problem was solved for flow and heat
transfer and the results were examined on contours and 3D streamlines in the model.

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Chapter 24: Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


24.1. Introduction
This tutorial demonstrates the use of ANSYS CFD-Post for post-processing results from ANSYS Icepak
analyses.
In this tutorial, you will learn how to:
Create a workflow in ANSYS Workbench.
Postprocess ANSYS Icepak results in ANSYS CFD-Post.

24.2. Prerequisites
Familiarity with the ANSYS Workbench interface
Familiarity with the ANSYS Icepak interface
Figure 24.1: Quick Reference - CFD Post Interface

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Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


Figure 24.2: Quick Reference - Mouse Button Mapping (default) in CFD Post:

To adjust or view the mouse mapping options, go to Edit Options, then Viewer Setup Mouse
Mapping in ANSYS CFD-Post.

24.3. Problem Description


Figure 24.3: Problem Schematic - Graphics Card Model (two configurations) (p. 374) shows the ANSYS
Icepak model of a graphics card that contains a printed circuit board. The board components include
memory cards, capacitors, CPU, and serial connectors for peripheral devices. The CPU is cooled by a
heat sink. A fan and grille have been used to enhance the convective heat transfer within the system.
Two configurations, varying the positioning of the fan and grille, will be considered for CFD analysis.
Figure 24.3: Problem Schematic - Graphics Card Model (two configurations)

24.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Create a workflow by linking ANSYS Icepak and ANSYS CFD-Post in ANSYS Workbench.
a. Start a new ANSYS Workbench session.

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Step 1: Create a New Project


b. Drag an ANSYS Icepak component module from the Toolbox and drop it on the Project Schematic
window as shown in Figure 24.4: Creating an ANSYS Icepak Component (p. 375).
Figure 24.4: Creating an ANSYS Icepak Component

c. Rename the ANSYS Icepak component module as Parametric Setup as shown in Figure 24.5: Renaming the ANSYS Icepak Component Module (p. 375). To rename the title, double click on the title
Icepak or click the left mouse button on the down arrow (
the drop down list.

) and select the Rename option from

Figure 24.5: Renaming the ANSYS Icepak Component Module

d. As shown in Figure 24.6: Linking the Results (ANSYS CFD-Post) Component to the ANSYS Icepak
Component (p. 376) and Figure 24.7: Final Project Schematic (p. 376), drag and drop a Results (ANSYS
CFD-Post) component module onto the Solution cell of the Parametric Setup to link the ANSYS
Icepak analysis to ANSYS CFD-Post. Rename the Results component module to CFD Post.

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Figure 24.6: Linking the Results (ANSYS CFD-Post) Component to the ANSYS Icepak
Component

Figure 24.7: Final Project Schematic

e. Save the project using File/Save (name the project as ice-cfdpost) from the ANSYS Workbench
interface.
2. Import project into ANSYS Icepak
a. Right click the ANSYS Icepak Setup cell and import the packed ANSYS Icepak project file ice-cfdpost.tzr located in the project directory.

Note
ice-cfdpost.tzr can be found at ICEPAK_ROOT /tutorials/CFD-Post/icecfdpost.tzr. You must replace ICEPAK_ROOT by the full path name of the directory
where ANSYS Icepak is installed on your computer system.

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Step 3: Calculate a Solution


b. The ANSYS Icepak interface will launch with the selected project loaded for modeling/analysis.

24.5. Step 2: Parametric Trials and Solver Settings


1. Go to Edit Preferences Postprocessing and confirm that Merge zones when possible for CFDpost data option is selected.
2. Go to Solve Run solution Results and verify that Create heat flux vectors in CFD Post is enabled
and click Dismiss.
3. Go to Solve Run optimization.
a. In the Design variables tab, review the parametric setup.
b. In the Trials tab, note that two of the four trials will be considered for CFD analysis.
Figure 24.8: Solution Trials

24.6. Step 3: Calculate a Solution


1. Click Run in the Parameters and optimization panel.
2. ANSYS Icepak will run two trials and automatically write out the results for post-processing in ANSYS
CFD-Post at the end of each trial.
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Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


3. Save the project by going to File Save project.
4. Close ANSYS Icepak by going to File Close Icepak.

24.7. Step 4: Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


1. Open the results in ANSYS CFD-Post.
a. On the project schematic, double click the Results cell to launch the ANSYS CFD-Post interface.
b. ANSYS CFD-Post automatically reads in the most recent solution set (trial 004).
2. Create a Surface Group for the board and all the components.
a. Go to Insert Location Surface Group.
b. Name the group as BoardANDComponents.

c. Go to the Details view located on the lower left hand side of the screen (see Figure 24.1: Quick Reference - CFD Post Interface (p. 373)).
Figure 24.9: Details View for BoardANDComponents Surface Group

d. In the Geometry tab, click


i.

378

next to Locations to open the Location Selector panel.

As shown in Figure 24.10: Selection for the BoardANDComponents Surface Group (p. 379), hold
down Shift and the left mouse button to select all but the last eight (cabinet*, fan and grille)
surfaces from the list.

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Step 4: Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


Figure 24.10: Selection for the BoardANDComponents Surface Group

ii. Click OK to close the Location Selector panel and add the surfaces.
e. Click Apply in the Geometry tab to apply the settings.
3. Create another Surface Group for the cabinet.
a. Go to Insert Location Surface Group and name the group CabinetSurfaces.
Figure 24.11: Listing of Surface Groups under User Locations and Plots

b. As before, open the Location Selector panel, but this time select only the cabinet surfaces, and press
OK.

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Figure 24.12: Selection for the CabinetSurfaces Surface Group

c. In the Render tab, apply the settings as shown in Figure 24.13: Rendering Details for the CabinetSurfaces Surface Group (p. 380) and click Apply.
Figure 24.13: Rendering Details for the CabinetSurfaces Surface Group

d. Uncheck the BoardANDComponents object from User Locations and Plots.

380

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Step 4: Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


Figure 24.14: Updated Model

e. Note that these newly create Surface Groups are listed under User Locations and Plots in the Outline
tab.
4. Plot Contours of Temperature on the Surface Group BoardANDComponents.
a. Change the Units for this postprocessing session.
i.

Go to Edit Options Units.

ii. Set the System to Custom.


iii. Set the unit for Temperature to C.

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Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


Figure 24.15: Setting Units in CFD Post

iv. Click Apply and then OK to set the units and close the panel.
b. Go to Insert Contour and create a new contour object named TemperatureContours.
c. For the contour TemperatureContours, update the settings for the Geometry tab of the Details
view as shown in Figure 24.16: Geometry Settings for TemperatureContours (p. 383) and click Apply.

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Step 4: Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


Figure 24.16: Geometry Settings for TemperatureContours

d. Go to the Render tab and deselect Show contour lines.


e. Click Apply to create the contour.

Note
TemperatureContours is listed under User Locations and Plots.

5. Modify the display of the default legend view.


a. Double click Default Legend View 1 listed under User Locations and Plots to access the corresponding Details view.
b. Modify the settings in the Definitions and the Appearance tabs as shown in Figure 24.17: Settings
for Default Legend View 1 (p. 384) and click Apply.

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Figure 24.17: Settings for Default Legend View 1

Figure 24.18: Modified Legend View

6. Plot Vectors, displaying heat flux on the Surface Group BoardANDComponents.

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Step 4: Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


a. Deselect TemperatureContours in the User Locations and Plots node.
b. Go to Insert Vector and create a new Vector object named HeatFluxVectors and click OK.
c. Modify the Geometry tab of the Details view as shown in Figure 24.19: Geometry Settings for HeatFluxVectors (p. 385) and click Apply.
Figure 24.19: Geometry Settings for HeatFluxVectors

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Figure 24.20: Display of HeatFluxVectors

7. Plot Thermal Chokepoint, displaying regions of high heat flux on the Surface Group BoardANDComponents.
a. Deselect HeatFluxVectors in the User Locations and Plots node.
b. Go to Insert Contour and create a new Contour object named Chokepoint and click OK.
c. Open the Location Selector panel and select only the ALPHA_MAIN_PCB surfaces. Press OK to close
the Location Selector panel and add the surfaces.

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Step 4: Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


Figure 24.21: Selection for Thermal Chokepoint

d. Modify the Geometry tab of the Details view as shown in Figure 24.22: Geometry Settings for
Chokepoint (p. 388) and click Apply.

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Figure 24.22: Geometry Settings for Chokepoint

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Step 4: Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


Figure 24.23: Display of Chokepoint

8. Plot Streamlines originating from the fan and colored by temperature.


a. Deselect Chokepoint and select TemperatureContours in the User Locations and Plots node.
b. Go to Insert Streamline and create a new Streamline object named StreamlinesFan and
click OK to access the Details view panel.
c. Modify the Geometry tab as shown in Figure 24.24: Geometry Settings for StreamlinesFan (p. 390)
and click Apply.

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Figure 24.24: Geometry Settings for StreamlinesFan

d. Modify the Color tab as shown in Figure 24.25: Color Settings for StreamlinesFans (p. 390) and click
Apply.
Figure 24.25: Color Settings for StreamlinesFans

e. Modify the Symbol tab as shown in Figure 24.26: Symbol Settings for StreamlinesFan (p. 391) and
click Apply.

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Step 4: Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


Figure 24.26: Symbol Settings for StreamlinesFan

Figure 24.27: Display of StreamlinesFan

9. Create a Keyframe Animation of StreamlinesFan.


a. Go to Tools Animation and select Keyframe Animation.

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b. Click the
button to insert a new frame called KeyframeNo1 as shown in Figure 24.28: Keyframe
Animation Panel (p. 392).
Figure 24.28: Keyframe Animation Panel

c. Right click the background next to the model in the 3D viewer and select the View from +Y option
under Predefined Camera.
Figure 24.29: View From +Y

d. Add another keyframe called KeyframeNo2 to the Animation panel.

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Step 4: Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


e. Check the Animate Camera option on the Keyframe Animation panel (you may need to activate
the display of the lower half of the Animation panel using the drop down arrow ).
f.

Similarly, update the display and add new frames as follows:


i.

View from -Z and add KeyframeNo3.

ii. View from +X and add KeyframeNo4.


iii. Isometric view (Y up) and add KeyframeNo5.
g. Click

to view the animation.

h. Click the Options button on the Animation panel to access the Animation Options panel.
i.

Set the Animation Speed to Slower from the drop-down menu by a factor of 20 and click OK.
Figure 24.30: Animation Options Panel

j.

Replay the animation and note that the animation is less choppy compared to the original one.

k. Close the Keyframe Animation panel.


l.

Deselect the TemperatureContours and StreamlinesFan objects under User Locations and
Plots.

10. Create a Plane object displaying temperature contours and velocity vectors.
a. Go to Insert Location Plane and create a plane named PlaneCut.
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Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


b. Modify the Details for PlaneCut as shown in Figure 24.31: Details for PlaneCut (p. 394) and click
Apply.
Figure 24.31: Details for PlaneCut

c. Deactivate the display of the plane by deselecting PlaneCut and activate the contour display by
selecting TemperatureContours under User Locations and Plots.
d. Double click on TemperatureContours or right click Edit to access the Details view. Update
the details as shown in Figure 24.32: Details for TemperatureContours (p. 394) and click Apply.
Figure 24.32: Details for TemperatureContours

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Step 4: Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


Figure 24.33: Display of PlaneCut

e. Go to the Details view for the PlaneCut (do not activate the display of the PlaneCut) and make
the following modifications:
i.

Switch Method to XY Plane and click Apply.

ii. Use the scroll bar to change the Z location for PlaneCut.

f.

The plane cut can also be traversed across the domain using the animation tools in CFD Post.
i.

Go to Tools Animation and select Quick Animation (default) and highlight the PlaneCut
object.

ii. Using the scroll bar, adjust the number of frames for the animation as shown in Figure 24.34: Quick
Animation Settings (p. 396) and click the

button.

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Figure 24.34: Quick Animation Settings

iii. The animation can be viewed on the screen or can be written out to an animation file by checking
the Save Movie option.
iv. Stop the animation by clicking the

button.

v. Close the Animation panel.


g. Deactivate the display of the contours by deselecting the TemperatureContours object under
User Locations and Plots.
h. Go to Insert Vector and create a vector object named VelVectors.
i.

Modify the Details for VelVectors to set the Locations to PlaneCut and click Apply.

j.

As before, use the Details view for the PlaneCut to manually traverse the plane displaying the
vectors across the domain.

k. Deactivate the display of the vectors by deselecting Velvectors under User Locations and Plots.
11. Create an Isosurface of 27C and 3 m/s.
a. Go to Insert Location Isosurface and create an Isosurface name HotSpots.
b. Modify the Details for HotSpots to create an isosurface for 27C (Variable: Temperature, Value:
27C).
c. Similarly, modify the Details to create an isosurface for 3 m/s (Variable: Velocity, Value: 3 m/s).
d. Deactivate the display of the isosurface by deselecting HotSpots under User Locations and Plots.
12. Create a Volume for values above 25C.
a. Go to Insert Location Volume and create a Volume named IsoVolume.
b. Modify the Details for IsoVolume as shown in Figure 24.35: Details of IsoVolume (p. 397) and click
Apply.

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Step 4: Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


Figure 24.35: Details of IsoVolume

Figure 24.36: Display of IsoVolume

c. Deactivate the display of the volume by deselecting IsoVolume under User Locations and Plots.

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13. Create a Chart of Temperature variation across a Line.
a. Go to Insert Location Line and create a Line named ForChart.
b. Modify the Details for ForChart as shown in Figure 24.37: Details for Line ForChart (p. 398). and
click Apply.
Figure 24.37: Details for Line ForChart

c. Deactivate the display of the line by deselecting ForChart under User Locations and Plots.
d. Go to Insert Chart to create a Chart named TemperatureVariation.
e. Modify the Details for TemperatureVariation as follows:
i.

General tab: Set the Type to XY.

ii. General tab: Set the Title to Temperature Variation along Z axis.
iii. Data Series tab: Set Location to ForChart.
iv. X Axis tab: Set Variable to Z.
v. Y Axis tab: Set Variable to Temperature.
f.

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Leave all other settings as their defaults and click Apply.

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Step 4: Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


Figure 24.38: Plot of TemperatureVariation Along ForChart

Note
The chart TemperatureVariation is added under the Report node of the Outline
tree.

14. Create an Expression and Variable that can be used for postprocessing.
a. Switch to the Expressions tab (located next to the Outline tab) and review the list of available expressions.

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i.

Right click in the white space and click New to create a new expression named VelocityRatio.

ii. Click Ok to access the Details view for VelocityRatio.


iii. Right click the white space in the Definition tab to access the Functions, Expressions, Variables,
Locations and Constants which will be used to create the expression VelocityRatio.

iv. Create the expression as shown in Figure 24.39: Expression for VelocityRatio (p. 400) and click Apply.
Figure 24.39: Expression for VelocityRatio

Note
Velocity is found under Variables, volumeAve()@ is found under Functions
CFDPost, and default_fluid is found under Locations Other.

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Step 5: Comparison Study


b. Switch to the Variables tab and review the list of Derived, Geometric, Solution, and User Defined
variables.
i.

Right click the white space and click New to create a new variable named VelRatio.

ii. Click Ok to access the details view for VelRatio.


iii. Select Expression for the Method and set VelRatio to correspond to the Expression VelocityRatio.

iv. Click Apply to create VelRatio.

Note
VelRatio is listed under the User-Defined type of Variables.

c. Contours, Isosurfaces, Vectors, Charts, etc. can now be plotted using this new variable.

24.8. Step 5: Comparison Study


1. Open a new ANSYS CFD-Post session
a. Go to File Close CFD Post to close the existing ANSYS CFD-Post session.
b. In the ANSYS Workbench project schematic, right click the Solution cell of the parametric setup
component to transfer the solution data to a new Results component, as shown in Figure 24.40: Creation of New Results Component and Updated Project Schematic (p. 402).
c. Rename the Results component to Comparison Study.

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Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


Figure 24.40: Creation of New Results Component and Updated Project Schematic

d. Double click the Results cell of Comparison Study to launch a new ANSYS CFD-Post session.

Note
As before, ANSYS CFD-Post automatically reads in the most recent solution set (trial
004).
2. As shown in Figure 24.41: The Load Results Panel (p. 403), go to File Load Results to load an additional solution set. Navigate to the ~ice-cfdpost_files/dp0/IPK/Icepak/IcepakProj folder
to pick trial001.cfd.dat as the second solution set for the comparison study.

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Step 5: Comparison Study


Figure 24.41: The Load Results Panel

3. Set up the display of the two solution sets.


a. Synchronize the camera and the visibility in the displayed views by turning on the corresponding
features from the Shortcuts Toolbar (located above the models in 3D viewer displays).

b. Rotate, Zoom, or Pan one of the displays and confirm that the other display follows suit.
c. Using the Shortcuts Toolbar, modify the display to a landscape view (switch from

to

4. As before, go to Insert Location Surface Group and create a Surface Group named BoardAndComponents.

Important
The Surface Group in this ANSYS CFD-Post session should include the board and component surfaces from BOTH solution sets. Use the Location Selector to select all but the
last eight surfaces from each list. The easiest way to do this is to select all the objects
from both groups using Shift and the left mouse button, then deselecting the cabinet
objects from both groups using Ctrl and the left mouse button.

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Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


Figure 24.42: Display of BoardANDComponents

5. Deselect BoardAndComponents from User Locations and Plots.


6. As before, go to Insert Contour and create a new contour object named TemperatureContours
and set its Locations to the BoardAndComponents Surface Group. Set Variable to Temperature
and click Apply.
7. Update the display of the Default Legend View (each display will need to be updated individually) as
before.

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Step 5: Comparison Study


Figure 24.43: Display of Legend View

8. Go to Insert Streamline and create a Streamline object named StreamlinesFans and edit the
Details as below:
a. Geometry tab: Select fan1_minx from both solution sets for Start From and set # of Points to 50.
b. Color tab: Set Mode to Variable and select Temperature for Variable.
c. Symbol tab: Select Show Symbols and Show Streams. Set the Interval to 0.005 s.
d. Click Apply.

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Figure 24.44: Display of Streamlines Comparison

e. Perform a detailed comparison study using the various features (Isosurface, Plane, Animation etc.)
discussed earlier in this tutorial.

24.9. Step 6: Summary


In this tutorial, you learned how to import an ANSYS Icepak project from a .tzr file in ANSYS Workbench.
You then learned how to use a solution that was solved in ANSYS Icepak and postprocess it in ANSYS
CFD-Post. You also learned how to compare parametric solutions side-by-side in ANSYS CFD-Post.

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Chapter 25: High Density Datacenter Cooling


25.1. Introduction
This tutorial demonstrates how to model a datacenter using ANSYS Icepak.
In this tutorial, you will learn how to:
Use macros to create computer room air conditioning units (CRACs), server cabinets, power distribution
units (PDUs), and perforated floor tiles in the datacenter.
Organize the model using groups.
Include effects of gravity and turbulence in the simulation.
Define object-specific meshing parameters.
Create contours, particle traces, iso-surfaces to better understand the airflow patterns and temperature
stratification within the datacenter space.

25.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the menu structure in ANSYS Icepak and that you have
solved or read the tutorial Finned Heat Sink of this guide. Some steps will not be shown explicitly.

25.3. Problem Description


This tutorial considers a 1200 sq. ft. datacenter with a slab to slab height of 12 ft as shown in Figure 25.1: Geometry of the Datacenter Model (p. 408). The datacenter consists of a 1.5 ft underfloor
plenum and a 2 ft ceiling plenum. The CRACs discharge cold air into the underfloor plenum. The cold
air enters the main datacenter space mainly through the perforated floor tiles and returns back to the
air conditioning units as shown in Figure 25.2: Expected Airflow Path (p. 408). The cooling load, as summarized in Table 25.1: Size and Capacity of Heat Sources in Datacenter (p. 407) corresponds to the heat
output from the server cabinets and the PDUs.
Table 25.1: Size and Capacity of Heat Sources in Datacenter
Heat
Source

Size

Power

Server Cabin- 2 ft x 3 ft x 7
et
ft

3000
W

High Density

2 ft x 3 ft x 7
ft

7000
W

PDU

4 ft x 2 ft x 5
ft

3600
W

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Figure 25.1: Geometry of the Datacenter Model

Figure 25.2: Expected Airflow Path

25.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Start ANSYS Icepak, as described in Starting ANSYS Icepak in the Icepak User's Guide.
2. Click New in the Welcome to Icepak panel to start a new ANSYS Icepak project.
3. Specify a name for your project such as datacenter and click Create.
ANSYS Icepak creates a default cabinet with the dimensions 1 m 1 m 1 m, and displays the
cabinet in the graphics window.

Note
You can rotate the cabinet around a central point using the left mouse button, or you
can translate it to any point on the screen using the middle mouse button. You can zoom

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Step 2: Set Preferences


into and out from the cabinet using the right mouse button. To restore the cabinet to
its default orientation, select Home position in the Orient menu.

25.5. Step 2: Set Preferences


1. Go to Edit Preferences. The Preferences panel opens.
2. Go to Display in the Options node.
a. Select Float for the Color legend data format and enter 2 under Numerical display precision.
3. Go to Editing in the Options node.
a. Set the Default dimensions to Start/length.
4. Go to Object types in the Options node.
a. Turn off Decoration for all object types and update line Width to 2 for blocks, fans, openings, plates,
resistances and grilles.
Figure 25.3: The Preferences Panel - Object types

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5. Go to Units in the Defaults node.
a. Click Set all to Imperial.
b. Click This project to apply the preferences to this project.

25.6. Step 3: Build the Model


To build the model, you will first resize the cabinet to its proper size. Then you will create the features
of the datacenter, including CRACs (2), server cabinets (44), perforated floor tiles (44), raised floor (1),
dropped ceiling (1), return grilles (8), PDUs (2), cable trays (4), columns (2) and miscellaneous blockage
(1).
1. Resize the default cabinet.
a. Select the Cabinet in the Model tree and specify the following in the object geometry window:

b. Press Apply to resize the cabinet.


) to show a scaled-to-fit isometric view of the cabinet.

c. Click the Isometric view button (

Note
The walls of the cabinet are adiabatic and do not participate in radiation by default.
Radiation will not be considered for this analysis.

2. Create the raised floor.


a. Click the Create plates button (

).

ANSYS Icepak creates a free rectangular plate in the x-y plane in the center of the cabinet. You
need to change the orientation and size of the plate and its location within the cabinet.
b. In the object geometry window:
i.

Set the Name to raisedfloor.

ii. Change the Plane to xz.


iii. Enter the following dimensions:

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Step 3: Build the Model


iv. Press Apply to resize and rename the object.
3. Create the first CRAC unit.
a. Go to Macros Datacenter components CRAC to open the CRAC panel.
b. Enter the dimensions as shown below in Figure 25.4: The CRAC Panel (p. 412).
c. Make sure the Flow direction is -Y.
d. Select Mass flow rate and input a value of 15.9 lbm/s.
e. Specify a Supply temperature of 55 F.

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Figure 25.4: The CRAC Panel

Note
Mass flow rate has units of lbm/s.

f.

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Press Accept to create the CRAC unit.

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Step 3: Build the Model


Figure 25.5: The CRAC Unit in the Graphics Window

4. Set the per-object meshing parameters for the fans crac_intake and crac_exhaust.
a. Open the Mesh control panel by clicking the Generate mesh button (

).

b. In the Local tab, check Object params and press Edit.


i.

In the Per-object meshing parameters panel, Ctrl+left click crac_exhaust and crac_intake
to select both objects.

ii. Check the Use per object parameters option.


iii. Check the X count and Z count options and specify a Requested value of 4 for both options.

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Figure 25.6: Per-object Meshing Parameters for the Fans

c. Click Done to close the Per-object meshing parameters panel.


d. Click Close to close the Mesh control panel.
5. Create a new group for the CRAC unit.
a. Select all the CRAC objects by Shift+left clicking cracunit and then crac_exhaust in the Model
manager window.
b. Right click one of the selected objects and go to Create and then Group.
c. In the Create group panel, enter CRACs in the Name for new group text field.

d. Press Done to create the new group.


6. Create the second CRAC unit.
a. Expand the Groups node in the Model manager window.
b. Right click CRACs and select Copy.
c. In the Copy group panel, check Group name and enter CRACs.
d. Check Translate and set the Z offset to 10 ft.

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Step 3: Build the Model


Figure 25.7: The Copy Group CRACs Panel

e. Press Apply and Done to copy the CRAC unit and close the panel.

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Figure 25.8: Two CRAC Units in the Graphics Window

f.

Now may be a good time to Save the project (

).

7. Create a row of server racks.


a. Go to Macros Datacenter components Rack (Front to Rear).
b. Input the dimensions as show below in Figure 25.9: The Rack (Front to Rear) Panel (p. 417).
c. Set the Flow direction to -X.
d. Specify a Heat load of 3000 W.
e. Specify a Volume flow of 450 cfm.
f.

Set the Number of racks to 11.

g. Under Create additional racks along select +Z.

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Step 3: Build the Model


Figure 25.9: The Rack (Front to Rear) Panel

h. Press Accept to create the server racks.

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Figure 25.10: Row of Server Racks in the Graphics Window

Note
The volumetric flow rate input for the recirculation opening is converted by ANSYS
Icepak to a mass flow rate input to the computational stage of the analysis. For this
conversion, ANSYS Icepak uses the density specified for Air in the materials panel as
shown below.

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Step 3: Build the Model

8. Create a new group for the server racks.


a. Select all the server rack objects by Shift + left clicking rack and then rack-opns.10 in the
Model manager window.
b. Right click one of the selected objects and go to Create and then Group.
c. In the Create group panel, enter RACKs in the Name for new group text field.

d. Press Done to create the new group.


9. Create a second row of server racks
a. Right click RACKs in the Groups node and select Copy.
b. In the Copy group panel, check Group name and enter RACKs.
c. Check Rotate and Translate in the Operations group box.
d. Set the Axis to Y and the Angle to 180.
e. Set the X offset to 7 ft.
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Figure 25.11: The Copy Group RACKs Panel

f.

420

Press Apply and Done to copy the row of server racks and close the panel.

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Step 3: Build the Model


Figure 25.12: Two Rows of Server Racks in the Graphics Window

10. Create a row of high density server racks.


a. Go to Macros Datacenter components Rack (Front to Rear).
b. Enter hdrack in the Name text field.
c. Input the dimensions as show below in Figure 25.13: The Rack (Front to Rear) Panel (p. 422).
d. Set the Flow direction to -X.
e. Specify a Heat load of 7000 W.
f.

Specify a Volume flow of 1000 cfm.

g. Set the Number of racks to 11.


h. Under Create additional racks along select +Z.

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Figure 25.13: The Rack (Front to Rear) Panel

i.

Press Accept to create the high density server racks.

11. Create a new group for the high density server racks.
a. Select all the high density server rack objects by Shift+left clicking hdrack and then hdrackopns.10 in the Model manager window.
b. Right click one of the selected objects and go to Create and then Group.
c. In the Create group panel, enter HDRACKs in the Name for new group text field.
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Step 3: Build the Model


d. Press Done to create the new group.
12. Create a second row of high density server racks.
a. Right click HDRACKs in the Groups node and select Copy.
b. In the Copy group panel, check Group name and enter HDRACKs.
c. Check Rotate and Translate in the Operations group box.
d. Set the Axis to Y and the Angle to 180.
e. Set the X offset to 7 ft.
f.

Press Apply and Done to copy the row of high density server racks and close the panel.
Figure 25.14: Two Rows of High Density Server Racks in the Graphics Window

13. Create a row of perforated tiles.


a. Go to Macros Datacenter components Tile.
b. Set the Number of tiles to 11.
c. Enter the dimensions as show below in Figure 25.15: Tile Panel (p. 424).

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d. Choose +Z.
e. Enter 0.35 for Uniform under % Open area.
Figure 25.15: Tile Panel

f.

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Press Accept to create the tiles.

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Step 3: Build the Model


Figure 25.16: Row of Tiles in the Graphics Window

14. Set the per-object meshing parameters for all the resistance objects.
a. Open the Mesh control panel by clicking the Generate mesh button (

).

b. In the Local tab, press Edit next to the Object params option.
i.

In the Per-object meshing parameters panel, Shift+left click tile and then tile.10 to select
all the resistance objects.

ii. Check the Use per object parameters option.


iii. Check the X count and Z count options and specify a Requested value of 4 for both options.
iv. Check the Y count option and specify a Requested value of 3.

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Figure 25.17: Per-object Meshing Parameters for the Tiles

c. Click Done to close the Per-object meshing parameters panel.


d. Click Close to close the Mesh control panel.
15. Create a new group for the perforated tiles.
a. Select all the tile objects by Shift+left clicking tile and then tile_open_bottom.10 in the
Model manager window.
b. Right click one of the selected objects and go to Create and then Group.
c. In the Create group panel, enter TILEs in the Name for new group text field.
d. Press Done to create the new group.
16. Create three more rows of perforated tiles.
a. Right click TILEs in the Groups node and select Copy.
b. In the Copy group panel, check Group name and enter TILEs.
c. Check Translate and set the X offset to 2 ft.
d. Press Apply and Done to copy the row of perforated tiles and close the panel.
e. Right click TILEs in the Groups node again and select Copy.
f.

In the Copy group panel, check Group name and enter TILEs.

g. Check Translate and set the X offset to 14 ft.


h. Press Apply and Done to copy both rows of perforated tiles and close the panel.

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Step 3: Build the Model


Figure 25.18: Four Rows of Tiles in the Graphics Window

17. Create the ceiling plenum.


a. Click the Create plates button (

).

b. In the object geometry window:


i.

Set the Name to ceilingplenum.

ii. Change the Plane to xz.


iii. Enter the following dimensions:

iv. Press Apply to resize and rename the object.


18. Create a return grille.
a. Click the Create grille button (

).

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b. Double click the grille.1 object in the Model manager window to open the Grille panel.
c. In the Info tab, enter ceiling-return under Name and enter CEILING-RETURN under Groups.
d. In the Geometry tab, set the Plane to X-Z and enter the following dimensions:

e. In the Properties tab, set the Free area ratio to 0.5.


f.

Press Done to apply the settings and close the panel.

19. Create two rows of return grilles.


a. Right click CEILING-RETURN in the Groups node and select Copy.
b. Set the Number of copies to 2.
c. In the Copy group panel, check Group name and enter CEILING-RETURN.
d. Check Translate and set the Z offset to 9 ft.
e. Press Apply and Done to copy the return grille and close the panel.
f.

Right click CEILING-RETURN in the Groups node again and select Copy.

g. In the Copy group panel, check Group name and enter CEILING-RETURN.
h. Check Translate and set the X offset to -14 ft.
i.

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Press Apply and Done to copy the row of return grilles and close the panel.

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Step 3: Build the Model


Figure 25.19: Two Rows of Return Grilles in the Graphics Window

20. Create two more return grilles.


a. Click the Create grille button (

).

b. Double click the newly created object to open the Grille panel.
c. In the Info tab, enter ceiling-return-crac1 under Name and select CEILING-RETURN from
the Groups drop-down list.
d. In the Geometry tab, set the Plane to X-Z and enter the following dimensions:

e. In the Properties tab, set the Free area ratio to 0.5.


f.

Press Done to apply the settings and close the panel.

g. Right click the vent ceiling-return-crac1 from the Model tree and select Copy.
h. In the Copy group panel, check Group name and enter CEILING-RETURN.
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i.

Check Translate and set the Z offset to 10 ft.

j.

Press Apply and Done to copy the return grille and close the panel.

k. Right click ceiling-return-crac1.1 and Rename the object to ceiling-return-crac2.


Figure 25.20: Two CRAC Return Grilles in the Graphics Window

21. Set the per-object meshing parameters for the return grilles.
a. Open the Mesh control panel by clicking the Generate mesh button (

).

b. In the Local tab, press Edit next to the Object params option.
i.

In the Per-object meshing parameters panel, Shift+left click ceiling-return and then
ceiling-return.3 to select all the return grilles.

ii. Check the Use per object parameters option.


iii. Check the X count and Z count options and specify a Requested value of 4 for both options.

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Step 3: Build the Model


Figure 25.21: Per-object Meshing Parameters for the Return Grilles

c. Click Done to close the Per-object meshing parameters panel.


d. Click Close to close the Mesh control panel.
22. Create a PDU.
a. Go to Macros Datacenter components PDU to open the PDU panel.
b. Enter the dimensions as shown below in Figure 25.22: The PDU Panel (p. 432).
c. Set the PDU flow direction to +Y.
d. Set the Heat output to 3600 W.
e. Set the Percent open area on top and the Percent open area on bottom to 0.25.

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Figure 25.22: The PDU Panel

f.

Press Accept to create the PDU.

23. Set the per-object meshing parameters for the grilles pdu_vent_in and pdu_vent_out.
a. Open the Mesh control panel by clicking the Generate mesh button (

).

b. In the Local tab, check Object params and press Edit.


i.

In the Per-object meshing parameters panel, Ctrl+left click pdu_vent_in and pdu_vent_out
to select both objects.

ii. Check the Use per object parameters option.


iii. Check the X count and Z count options and specify a Requested value of 4 for both options.
c. Click Done to close the Per-object meshing parameters panel.

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Step 3: Build the Model


d. Click Close to close the Mesh control panel.
24. Create a new group for the PDU.
a. Select all the PDU objects by Shift+left clicking pdu_unit and then pdu_part4 in the Model
manager window.
b. Right click one of the selected objects and go to Create and then Group.
c. In the Create group panel, enter PDUs in the Name for new group text field.
d. Press Done to create the new group.
25. Create the second PDU.
a. Right click PDUs in the Groups node and select Copy.
b. In the Copy group panel, check Group name and enter PDUs.
c. Check Translate and set the X offset to 14 ft and the Z offset to 28 ft.
d. Press Apply and Done to copy the PDU and close the panel.
Figure 25.23: Two PDUs in the Graphics Window

e. Now may be another good time to Save the project (

).

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26. Create blockages.
a. Click the Create blocks button (

).

b. In the object geometry window:


i.

Set the Name to piping and the Group to BLOCKAGE.

ii. Set the Type to Hollow.


iii. Enter the following dimensions:

iv. Press Apply to resize and rename the object.


c. Click the Create blocks button (

).

d. In the object geometry window:


i.

Set the Name to blockage and the Group to BLOCKAGE.

ii. Set the Type to Hollow.


iii. Enter the following dimensions:

iv. Press Apply to resize and rename the object.


27. Create columns.
a. Click the Create blocks button (

).

b. In the object geometry window:


i.

Set the Name to column1 and the Group to COLUMNS.

ii. Set the Type to Hollow.


iii. Enter the following dimensions:

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Step 3: Build the Model


iv. Press Apply to resize and rename the object.
c. Click the Create blocks button (

).

d. In the object geometry window:


i.

Set the Name to column2 and the Group to COLUMNS.

ii. Set the Type to Hollow.


iii. Enter the following dimensions:

iv. Press Apply to resize and rename the object.


28. Create cabletrays.
a. Click the Create blocks button (

).

b. In the object geometry window:


i.

Set the Name to cabletray1 and the Group to CABLETRAYS.

ii. Set the Type to Hollow.


iii. Enter the following dimensions:

iv. Press Apply to resize and rename the object.


c. Create three more cabletrays.
i.

Right click CABLETRAYS in the Groups node and select Copy.

ii. In the Copy group panel, check Group name and enter CABLETRAYS.
iii. Check Translate and set the X offset to 6 ft.
iv. Press Apply and Done to copy the cabletray and close the panel.
v. Right click CABLETRAYS in the Groups node again and select Copy.
vi. In the Copy group panel, check Group name and enter CABLETRAYS.
vii. Check Translate and set the X offset to 14 ft.
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viii.Press Apply and Done to copy the cabletrays and close the panel.
Figure 25.24: The Completed Model

25.7. Step 4: Generate a Mesh


1. Click the Generate mesh button (

).

2. In the Mesh control panel, enter 2 ft, 0.5 ft, and 1 ft for the Max element size for x, y, and z, respectively.
Change the Minimum gap values to 1 in, 0.36 in, and 1 in for x, y and z, respectively.

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Step 5: Create Monitor Points


Figure 25.25: Mesh Control Panel

Note
The units for the Minimum gap values are in inches.

3. Click Generate.
4. Use the Display and Quality tabs to view the mesh and check the mesh quality.
5. Click Close to close the panel once you have finished viewing the mesh.

25.8. Step 5: Create Monitor Points


Create two temperature monitor points for the CRAC fans exhaust fans by dragging crac_exhaust
and crac_exhaust.1 from the Model node to the Points node. ANSYS Icepak will automatically
monitor values at the centers of these objects. The default setting is to monitor Temperature. You can
also monitor Pressure and/or Velocity by double clicking the monitor point in the Points folder and
choosing which variables to monitor at that location.

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Figure 25.26: Creating Monitor Points

25.9. Step 6: Physical and Numerical Settings


1. Go to

Problem setup

Basic parameters.

a. In the General setup tab:


i.

Turn Off the Radiation.

ii. Select Turbulent and Zero equation for the Flow regime.
iii. Enable the Gravity vector.
b. In the Defaults tab:
i.

Select Mica-Typical from the Insulators section of the Default solid drop-down list.

ii. Select Paint-non-metallic from the Paint section of the Default surface drop-down list.
c. In the Transient setup tab:
i.

Set the initial Y velocity to be 0.5 ft/s (a non-zero initial velocity is recommended for problems
involving natural convection).

d. In the Advanced tab:


i.

Select the Ideal gas law (recommended for problems involving significant temperature differences).

ii. Check Operating density and keep the default value.


e. Press Accept to apply the settings and close the panel.
2. Go to

Solution settings

Basic settings.

a. Change the Number of iterations to 1000 and the Convergence criteria for Energy to 1e-6.
b. Click Accept to apply the settings and close the panel.
3. Go to

438

Solution settings

Advanced settings.

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Step 8: Calculate a Solution


a. Set the Discretization scheme for Pressure as Body Force Weighted.
b. Set the Under-relaxation to 0.2 for Momentum and to 0.1 for Body forces.
c. Click Accept to apply the settings and close the panel.

25.10. Step 7: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak will save the model for you automatically before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model (including the mesh) yourself as well. If you exit ANSYS Icepak before you start
the calculation, you will be able to open the project you saved and continue your analysis in a future
ANSYS Icepak session. (If you start the calculation in the current ANSYS Icepak session, ANSYS Icepak will
simply overwrite your project file when it saves the model.)
File Save project

25.11. Step 8: Calculate a Solution


1. Go to Solve Run solution.
2. In the Results tab, check Write CFD Post data.
3. Click Start solution.
ANSYS Icepak begins to calculate a solution for the model, and a separate window opens where the
solver prints the numerical values of the residuals. ANSYS Icepak also opens the Solution residuals
graphics display and control window, where it displays the convergence history for the calculation.
Upon completion of the calculation, your residual and monitor plots will look something like Figure 25.27: Solution Residuals (p. 440) and Figure 25.28: Temperature Point Monitors (p. 441). You can
zoom in the residual plot by using the left mouse.

Note
The actual values of the residuals may differ slightly on different machines, so your plots
may not look exactly the same as Figure 25.27: Solution Residuals (p. 440) and Figure 25.28: Temperature Point Monitors (p. 441).

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Figure 25.27: Solution Residuals

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Step 9: Examine the Results


Figure 25.28: Temperature Point Monitors

4. Click Done in the Solution residuals and Temperature Point monitors windows to close them.

25.12. Step 9: Examine the Results


The objective of this exercise is to consider the airflow patterns and identify problem areas such as hot
spots, stagnant zones, and recirculation zones through out the datacenter. You will accomplish this by
examining the solution using ANSYS Icepak's graphical postprocessing tools.
1. Display contours of temperature on the CRACs, Racks, and PDUs.
a. Click the Object face button (

).

b. Enter surface-temp-contours in the Name field.


c. In the Object drop-down list, expand the Groups node and Ctrl+left click CRACs, HDRACKs, PDUs,
and RACKs, and click Accept.

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d. Check Show contours and click Create.


e. Click Done to close the panel.
Figure 25.29: Object Face Temperature Contours

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Step 9: Examine the Results


2. Display animated contours of temperature on plane cuts in all 3 coordinate planes.
a. Right click surface-temp-contours under the Post-processing node in the Model manager
window, and make the object face inactive by unchecking Active in the context menu.
b. Click the Plane cut button (

).

c. Enter plane-temp-contours in the Name field.


d. Check Show contours and click Create to view a plane cut of the temperature contours.
Figure 25.30: Plane Cut Temperature Contours

e. Check the Loop mode option and click Animate to display a loop of the plane cut traversing from
the min z to the max z side of the datacenter.
f.

Click Interrupt on the progress bar to return to the Plane cut panel.

g. Repeat the above procedure for plane cuts in the Y-Z and X-Z planes by changing the Set position
to X plane through center and Y plane through center respectively.
h. Click Done to close the panel.
3. Display animated contours of temperature on an isosurface.
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a. Right click plane-temp-contours in the Model manager window and make the plane cut inactive
by unchecking Active in the context menu.
b. Click the Isosurface button (

).

c. Enter iso-temp in the Name field.


d. Enter 90 in the Value field.
e. Check Show contours and click Create to view the isosurface of 90F.
Figure 25.31: Isosurface of 90F

f.

To view an a loop of isosurfaces from 90F to 80F:


i.

In the Animation group box, enter 90 for Start, 80 for End, and 10 for Steps.

ii. Check the Loop mode option and click Animate.


iii. Click Interrupt on the progress bar to return to the Isosurface panel.
g. Click Done to close the panel.
4. Display airflow patterns in the datacenter.
a. Right click iso-temp in the Model manager window and make the isosurface inactive by unchecking
Active in the context menu.
b. Click the Object face button (

).

c. Enter airflow in the Name field.

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Step 9: Examine the Results


d. In the Object drop-down list, expand the Groups node and Ctrl+left click CEILING-RETURN,
HDRACKs, PDUs, RACKs, and TILEs, and click Accept.

e. Check Show particle traces and click Parameters.


f.

Set the Display options to Mesh points.

g. Set the End time under Particle options to 5.


h. Check Loop mode under Animation and set the Steps to 50.
i.

Click Apply to display the airflow patterns.

Note
ANSYS Icepak will take a few moments to generate the airflow patterns.

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Figure 25.32: Particle Traces

j.

Click Animate to visualize the airflow patterns in a transient manner.

k. View the animated airflow patterns from various angles from the Orient menu.
l.

Press Interrupt to stop the animation.

m. Click Done in the Object face particles and Object face panels to close them.
n. Right click airflow in the Model manager window and make the particle traces inactive by unchecking Active in the context menu.
5. Report the volumetric flow rate distribution at the perforated floor tiles.
a. Go to Report Summary report to open the Define summary report panel.
b. Click New to get a new field to define the Summary report.
c. In the Objects drop-down list, expand the Groups node and select TILEs, and click Accept.
d. Select Volume flow from the Value drop-down list and deselect Comb.

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Step 9: Examine the Results

e. Click Write to display the summary report.

f.

Click Done to close the Report summary data panel.

g. Click Close to close the Define summary report panel.


6. Save (

) the project and Close ANSYS Icepak.

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25.13. Step 10: Additional Exercise: Visualize and analyze the results in
ANSYS CFD-Post
In addition to using the postprocessing tools contained within ANSYS Icepak, you can also postprocess
using the advanced tools in ANSYS CFD-Post through ANSYS Workbench. See Postprocessing Using
ANSYS CFD-Post for details on how to use the features in ANSYS CFD-Post.

25.14. Step 11: Summary


In this tutorial, you learned how to model a datacenter using macros, and how to organize a model
using groups. You also learned how to use animated postprocessing objects to examine the results.

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Chapter 26: Design Modeler - Electronics


26.1. Introduction
This tutorial demonstrates how to use ANSYS DesignModeler to convert a model for analysis in ANSYS
Icepak.
In this tutorial, you will learn how to:
Use the Slice, Opening, Fan, and Simplify options in ANSYS DesignModeler.
Organize the model using Parts.

26.2. Prerequisites
Familiarity with the ANSYS Workbench interface
Familiarity with the ANSYS Icepak interface

26.3. Problem Description


You will convert an imported STEP file for use in ANSYS Icepak. Figure 26.1: Comparison of the Geometry
in ANSYS DesignModeler and ANSYS Icepak (p. 449) shows the geometry in ANSYS DesignModeler before
the conversion and in ANSYS Icepak after conversion.
Figure 26.1: Comparison of the Geometry in ANSYS DesignModeler and ANSYS Icepak

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Design Modeler - Electronics

26.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Open ANSYS DesignModeler through ANSYS Workbench.
a. Start a new ANSYS Workbench session.
b. Drag a Geometry (ANSYS DesignModeler) component module from the Toolbox and drop it on the
Project Schematic window as shown in Figure 26.2: Creating a Geometry Component Module (p. 450).
c. Rename the Geometry component module to STEP Import and DME to Icepak Translation. To rename the title, double click on the title Geometry or click the left mouse button on the
down arrow (

) and select the Rename option from the drop down list.

Figure 26.2: Creating a Geometry Component Module

d. Save the project (name the project as DME).


e. Double click cell A2 to open ANSYS DesignModeler.

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Step 2: Build the Model

26.5. Step 2: Build the Model


1. Once ANSYS DesignModeler opens, select Millimeter as the desired unit, and press OK.

2. Go to File Import External Geometry File and select DME.stp and press Open.

Note
DME.stp can be found at ICEPAK_ROOT /tutorials/DME/DME.stp. You must replace
ICEPAK_ROOT by the full path name of the directory where ANSYS Icepak is installed on
your computer system.

3. Click

to create the model.

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Figure 26.3: Imported Model

26.6. Step 3: Add Shortcuts to the Toolbar


1. Go to Tools Options
2. In the Options panel, go to DesignModeler Toolbars.
3. Set Slice, Freeze, and Electronics to Yes.

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Step 4: Edit the Model for ANSYS Icepak


Figure 26.4: Options Panel

4. Press OK to add the options to the toolbar.

Note
The Electronics drop down menu in the toolbar contains several options:

You can also access the


You can also access the

option from the Create menu.


and Electronics options from the Tools menu.

26.7. Step 4: Edit the Model for ANSYS Icepak


1. Check which bodies are already recognized as ANSYS Icepak objects.
a. Go to Electronics Show Ice Bodies. Only bodies with simple geometries recognized as ANSYS
Icepak objects will be visible.

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Figure 26.5: Bodies Recognized as ANSYS Icepak Objects

Note
We will not have to make modifications to export these bodies into ANSYS Icepak.
b. Go to Electronics Show CAD Bodies. Only bodies with complex geometries not recognized as
ANSYS Icepak will be visible.

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Step 4: Edit the Model for ANSYS Icepak


Figure 26.6: Bodies not Recognized as ANSYS Icepak Objects

Note
These are the bodies we will have to modify in order to export these bodies into
ANSYS Icepak.
c. Go to Electronics Revert View to return to the previous display.
2. Create a Slice for one set of fins.
a. In the Tree Outline, right click Housing and select Hide All Other Bodies.
b. Select

from the Shortcuts toolbar.

c. In the Details view, set the Slice name to FinsSlice1.


d. Select Slice by Surface for Slice Type.
e. Click on the field to the right of Target Face and select the one of faces at the base of the fins, as
shown in Figure 26.7: FinsSlice1 Face Selection (p. 456) and click Apply.

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Figure 26.7: FinsSlice1 Face Selection

Note
If you cannot select the face, try pressing the Model Faces selection filter ( ).

f.

Make sure Slice Targets is set to Selected Bodies.

g. Click the field to the right of Bodies and select the Housing body.
h. Click Apply and then

3. Likewise, create a Slice for the other set of fins.


a. Use the procedure described above on the other set of fins and name the second Slice FinsSlice2.

Note
Make sure that the Bodies selection is the larger section of the housing containing
the fins.

456

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Step 4: Edit the Model for ANSYS Icepak


Figure 26.8: FinsSlice2 Bodies Selection

4. Create Parts for the sliced fins.

Note
The Parts will become Assemblies in ANSYS Icepak.
a. Press +Y on the Triad (the axes) to get a clear view of the fins.
b. Select Box Select from the Shortcuts toolbar.

c. Select the Bodies selection filter ( ).


d. Drag the bounding box around one set of fins, and rotate the model to make sure that all the fins
are selected as shown in Figure 26.9: Selecting a Row of Fins (p. 458) (you should have 13 bodies selected).

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Figure 26.9: Selecting a Row of Fins

e. Right click anywhere in the Model View and select Form New Part.
f.

In the Details view, set the Part name to Fins1 and press enter on the keyboard.

g. Repeat steps a to f for the other set of fins, except name the part Fins2.
5. Create a Housing slice.
a. Select

from the Shortcuts toolbar.

b. In the Details view, set the Slice name to HousingSlice1.


c. Select Single Select from the Shortcuts toolbar.

458

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Step 4: Edit the Model for ANSYS Icepak

d. Click the field to the right of Target Face and select the inner face of bottom of the Housing as
shown in Figure 26.10: HousingSlice1 Selection (p. 459) and press Apply.
Figure 26.10: HousingSlice1 Selection

e. Make sure Slice Targets is set to Selected Bodies.


f.

Click the field to the right of Bodies and select the Housing object in between the fins.

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Figure 26.11: HousingSlice1 Bodies Selection

g. Click Apply and then

6. Create another Housing slice.


a. Select

from the Shortcuts toolbar.

b. In the Details view, set the Slice name to HousingSlice2.


c. Select the inner face of the top of the Housing as shown in Figure 26.12: HousingSlice2 Face Selection (p. 461) and press Apply.

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Step 4: Edit the Model for ANSYS Icepak


Figure 26.12: HousingSlice2 Face Selection

d. Click the field to the right of Bodies and select the top part of the Housing object in between the
fins.
e. Click Apply and then
f.

You should have ten Housing objects outside of the Fins parts in the Tree Outline.

7. Create Openings for the fan.


a. Show all bodies again by right clicking one of the objects in the Tree Outline and clicking Show All
Bodies
b. Go to the +Y view.
c. Go to Electronics Opening.
d. In the Details view, set the Opening name to FanOpenings.
e. Click the field to the right of Faces and select the face as shown in Figure 26.13: FanOpenings Face
Selection (p. 462) and press Apply and
.

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Figure 26.13: FanOpenings Face Selection

8. Create Openings for the back panel.


a. Go to the -Y view.
b. Go to Electronics Opening.
c. In the Details view, set the Opening name to BackOpenings.
d. Click the field to the right of Faces and select the face as shown in Figure 26.14: BackOpenings Face
Selection (p. 462) and press Apply and
.
Figure 26.14: BackOpenings Face Selection

9. Create a Fan.

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Step 4: Edit the Model for ANSYS Icepak


a. Right click the Fan body in the Tree Outline and select Hide All Other Bodies.

Note
If you cannot view the object correctly, press Zoom to Fit ( ).
b. Go to Electronics Fan.
c. In the Details view, set the Fan name to FanGeom.
d. Click the field to the right of Body To Extract Fan Data, select the entire fan body and press Apply.
e. Click the field to the right of Hub/Casing Faces and select the faces as shown in Figure 26.15: Hub/Casing Faces Selection (p. 463).
Figure 26.15: Hub/Casing Faces Selection

Note
You can select multiple faces by holding down Ctrl and left clicking the objects.

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f.

Click Apply and

Note
Although it may seem like there was no change, this step creates a fan object in ANSYS
Icepak. To confirm this, you can go to Electronics Show Ice Bodies and check if
the fan is present.

g. Add the fan to the Front-Panel part.


i.

In the Tree Outline, select the Front-Panel part and then Ctrl and left click the Fan object.

ii. Right click the Fan object and select Form New Part.
iii. In the Details view, rename the Front-Panel Part to Front-Panel-Fan.
10. Perform a Simplify operation on the Housing.
a. Show all bodies again by right clicking one of the objects in the Tree Outline and clicking Show All
Bodies
b. Go to Electronics Simplify.
c. In the Details view, set the Simplify name to HousingFrontBack.
d. In the field to the right of Simplification Type, select Level 1.
e. Click the field to the right of Select Bodies and select the front and the rear panels of the Housing
as shown in Figure 26.16: HousingFrontBack Bodies Selection (p. 464).
Figure 26.16: HousingFrontBack Bodies Selection

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Step 4: Edit the Model for ANSYS Icepak


f.

Click Apply and

11. Perform a Simplify operation on the PWB and the T0220 objects.
a. Select all the Housing, Fin, Panel, Opening, and Fan objects from the bottom of the Tree Outline
by holding down Shift and using the left mouse button.
b. Right click one of the selected objects and select Hide Body to view just the internal components.
c. Go to Electronics Simplify.
d. In the Details view, set the Simplify name to PWB_T0220.
e. In the field to the right of Simplification Type, select Level 1.
f.

Click the field to the right of Select Bodies and select the PWB and all the HS_AF0 and T0220_Case
objects.
i.

Go to the +Z view.

ii. Make sure the Select Mode is Single Select.


iii. Hold down Ctrl and select the objects as shown in Figure 26.17: PWB_T0220 Bodies Selection (p. 466).

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Figure 26.17: PWB_T0220 Bodies Selection

iv. Using this method, only the 13 correct bodies will be selected.
g. Click Apply and

12. Add all the package objects to the Parts.


a. Change the Selection Mode to Box Select and make sure the selection filter is set to Bodies.
b. Select a package object as shown in Figure 26.18: Package Object Selection (p. 467). There should be
6 bodies selected.

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Step 4: Edit the Model for ANSYS Icepak


Figure 26.18: Package Object Selection

c. Right click the model and select Form New Part. All the bodies will be added to the part.
d. Name the part T0220_Case1.
e. Repeat steps a to e for the rest of the packages, except naming the parts T0220_Case2,
T0220_Case3, etc.
13. Perform a Simplify on the Coil.
a. Go to Electronics Simplify.
b. In the Details view, set the Simplify name to CoilAssembly.
c. In the field to the right of Simplification Type, select Level 1.
d. Click the field to the right of Select Bodies and select the bodies as shown in Figure 26.19: Coil
Bodies Selection (p. 468). There should be 4 bodies selected.

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Figure 26.19: Coil Bodies Selection

e. Click Apply and

14. Add the rest of the Coil bodies to the part.


a. Make sure the selection filter is set to Bodies.
b. Make the same selection as in the simplify operation. Notice that there are now 8 bodies instead of
4.
c. Right click the model and select Form New Part.
d. In the Details view, set the Part name to CoilAssembly2.
15. Perform a Simplify on the Capacitors.
a. Go to Electronics Simplify.
b. In the Details view, set the Simplify name to Capacitors.

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Step 4: Edit the Model for ANSYS Icepak


c. In the field to the right of Simplification Type, select Level 3.
d. Click the field to the right of Select Bodies and select the bodies as shown in Figure 26.20: Capacitors
Bodies Selection (p. 469). There should be 3 bodies.
Figure 26.20: Capacitors Bodies Selection

e. Click Apply.
f.

Set the Face Quality to Medium

g. Click

16. Form a part for the Capacitors.


a. Make sure the selection filter is set to Bodies.
b. Make the same selection as the simplify operation. There should still be 3 selected bodies.
c. Right click the model and select Form New Part.
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Design Modeler - Electronics


d. In the Details view, set the Part name to Capacitors.
17. Form parts for the Heat Sink and Components.
a. Make sure the selection filter is set to Bodies.
b. Follow the same steps as before to create a part called BGAHS for the Heat Sink and Components
for the Components:
Figure 26.21: BGAHS and Components Parts Selections

18. Right click a body in the Tree Outline and select Show All Bodies. Your model should look like Figure 26.22: Final Model in ANSYS DesignModeler (p. 471) and your Tree Outline should look like Figure 26.23: Final Tree Outline (p. 472).

470

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Step 4: Edit the Model for ANSYS Icepak


Figure 26.22: Final Model in ANSYS DesignModeler

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Design Modeler - Electronics


Figure 26.23: Final Tree Outline

Note
Some of your parts and bodies may be in a different order than what is shown in Figure 26.23: Final Tree Outline (p. 472).

19. Check if all the bodies have been converted to ANSYS Icepak objects.
a. Go to Electronics Show CAD Bodies.
b. Confirm that the view contains no bodies. This means all the bodies have been recognized by ANSYS
Icepak.
20. The model is now ready to use in ANSYS Icepak.

26.8. Step 5: Opening the Model in ANSYS Icepak


1. Go to File Save Project and then File Close DesignModeler.
2. In ANSYS Workbench, drag an ANSYS Icepak component to cell A2 to create an ANSYS Icepak component
module.

472

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Step 5: Opening the Model in ANSYS Icepak


Figure 26.24: Creating an ANSYS Icepak Component Module

3. Double click the Setup cell (B2) to open the model in ANSYS Icepak.
4. In the model manager window, right click the Model node and select Expand all to view the geometry
inside the assemblies.
5. Notice that the bodies have been successfully transferred into ANSYS Icepak.

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Design Modeler - Electronics


Figure 26.25: Final Model

26.9. Step 6: Summary


In this tutorial, you learned how to get a CAD model ready for ANSYS Icepak using ANSYS DesignModeler.
You used the slice, simplify, openings, and fan operations to convert the model.

474

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Chapter 27: CFD Modeling and Analysis of an Avionics Box


27.1. Introduction
This tutorial describes the procedure for setting up and running a CFD analysis for the ANSYS Icepak
geometry that was created as a part of the Design Modeler - Electronics tutorial located in the Icepak
Tutorial Guide.

27.2. Prerequisites
Introductory ANSYS Icepak training
Familiarity with the Design Modeler - Electronics tutorial which is located in the Icepak Tutorial Guide
Familiarity with the ANSYS Icepak interface

27.3. Create a New ANSYS Icepak Project


Open a new (standalone) Icepak session and click Unpack.
Figure 27.1: Options Available for a New Icepak Session

In the file selection panel, select the packed project file tut26-Icepak.tzr and click Open.

Note
tut26-Icepak.tzr can be found at ICEPAK_ROOT /tutorials/Avionics/tut26-Icepak.zip. You must replace ICEPAK_ROOT by the full path name of the directory where
ANSYS Icepak is installed on your computer system and unzip the file before importing
the tzr file.

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CFD Modeling and Analysis of an Avionics Box


Figure 27.2: File Selection Panel

In the location for the unpacked project file selection dialog, select a location where you would like to
create the new Icepak project and click Unpack.
Note that the cabinet extents match the extents of the geometry.
Figure 27.3: Icepak Interface

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Create a Support for the Box and Resize Cabinet

27.4. Create a Support for the Box and Resize Cabinet


Click

to create a new block.

From the Model tree, double click block.1 to open the edit panel.
Using the Info tab, rename the block as Support and click Update.
In the Properties tab, set the block type to Hollow as shown below.
Figure 27.4: Block Type

In the Geometry tab, switch to Start/length, update the coordinates for the block as shown below and
click Done.

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CFD Modeling and Analysis of an Avionics Box


Figure 27.5: Block Dimensions

Note
The zL dimension is in feet.

A warning message (see below) comes up indicating that the support block is outside the cabinet.
Click Resize cabinet to allow the cabinet to resize to include the support block within its extents.

478

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Create a Support for the Box and Resize Cabinet


Figure 27.6: Warning Message

From the Model tree, double click Cabinet and open the Cabinet edit panel.
In the Geometry tab, modify the cabinet dimensions as shown below and click Update.

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CFD Modeling and Analysis of an Avionics Box


Figure 27.7: Updated Cabinet Dimensions

Using the Properties tab, set the Wall type for the cabinet sides as shown below and click Done.

Note
This setup will be used for a forced convection and a natural convection (fan failure) based
analysis.
Figure 27.8: Updated Properties Tab for Cabinet

480

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Set Up the Model for Non-conformal Meshing


Go to Orient menu, select Scale to Fit to resize the view in the graphics window.
Save using the File menu and click Save project.

27.5. Set Up the Model for Non-conformal Meshing


Go to Orient menu and click Orient Positive Y.
Keeping the Shift key pressed, left click and drag the mouse to draw a window around the box as shown
below. Release the left click or Shift button to select the geometry fully enclosed within the box.
Figure 27.9: Select the Box Geometry

Right click on the selected items (on the Model tree) and select Create assembly from the menu items
as shown below.

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CFD Modeling and Analysis of an Avionics Box


Figure 27.10: Create an Assembly for the Box Geometry

On the Model tree, expand assembly.1 by clicking on the assembly node (

).

Note on the Model tree that the Fan is listed outside the Front-Panel-Fan assembly node.
Using left click, select the Fan from the Model tree and drag it to the Front-Panel-Fan assembly as shown
below.
Figure 27.11: Move the Fan to the Front-Panel-Fan Assembly

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Set Up the Model for Non-conformal Meshing


The updated Model tree is shown below.
Figure 27.12: Updated Model Tree

On the Model tree, double click assembly.1 to open the edit panel for assembly.1.
Go to the Meshing tab, modify the Slack settings and Max element size inputs as shown below and
click Done.

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CFD Modeling and Analysis of an Avionics Box


Figure 27.13: Slack Settings and Max Element Size Inputs for assembly.1

Similarly, modify the slack values for the other assemblies as shown in Table 27.1: Slack Values for Assemblies (p. 484).
Table 27.1: Slack Values for Assemblies
Assemblies/Slack

MAX X

MIN Y

MAX Y

MIN Z

MAX Z

assembly.1

Front-Panel-Fan

Rear-Panel

TO220_Case3

2.23

T0220_Case2

T0220_Case1

T0220_Case4

2.23

T0220_Case5

T0220_Case6

Coil

4.175

Components

4.175

Capacitors

2.271

4.175

BGAHS

4.175

Fins1

484

MIN X

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Generate the Mesh


Fins2

Note
The Housing assembly is not selected for being meshed separately. This is to avoid any
assembly-assembly intersections.

Note
Some slack values are set to 0 for some assemblies. This is also to avoid any assembly-assembly intersections.

Save using the File menu and click Save project.

27.6. Generate the Mesh


Go to the Model menu and click Generate mesh and set the Mesh type to Mesher-HD.
Set the Max element size in the X, Y, Z axial directions to 10 mm.
Set the Minimum gap in the X, Y, Z axial directions to 0.0001 m.

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CFD Modeling and Analysis of an Avionics Box


Figure 27.14: Mesh Parameters

Click Generate.... The resulting mesh size should be ~ 550k cells.


Save the meshing parameters using the File menu, click Save project.
Right click on the Model node from the Model tree and select Sort Meshing Priority.

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Generate the Mesh


Figure 27.15: Sort the Model Tree by Meshing Priority

From the Model tree, expand the node for assembly TO_220_Case3.
Note that DIE_AF0 is at the top of the list indicating that it has the least meshing priority.
Shift + select TO_220_Case_0 and TO_220_Case_1 from the Model tree. Drag (using left click) and drop
these over DIE_AF0 as shown below. This will automatically change the respective mesh priority settings
such that DIE_AF0 will now have a higher meshing priority than the TO_220_Case blocks.
Figure 27.16: Modify Mesh Priority for DIE_AF0

Similarly, update the mesh priority settings of the DIE_AF0 blocks for all the TO_220* assemblies.
Go to the Model menu and click Generate mesh and generate the mesh again to confirm that the
warning messages are not repeated.

Note
From the messages printed in the message window, remeshing is limited to the TO_220*
assemblies only.

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CFD Modeling and Analysis of an Avionics Box


Use Display and Quality tabs to visualize mesh refinement and assess mesh quality.
Save using the File menu, click Save project.

27.7. Power and Material Inputs


Using the Properties tab of the edit panel, update the solid material and power inputs for the blocks as
listed in Table 27.2: Material and Power Inputs (p. 488).
The default settings are good for all the blocks that are not included on this list.
Table 27.2: Material and Power Inputs
Object name

Material

Power ( W)

DIE_AF0

Ceramic_material

DIE_AF0.1

Ceramic_material

DIE_AF0.2

Ceramic_material

DIE_AF0.3

Ceramic_material

DIE_AF0.4

Ceramic_material

DIE_AF0.5

Ceramic_material

Coil-2

Cu-Brass

Component

Mold_material

Component.1

Mold_material

Component.2

Mold_material

Component.3

Mold_material

Capacitor

Mold_material

Capacitor.1

Mold_material

Capacitor.2

Mold_material

BGA

Ceramic_material

27.8. Fan Inputs


Specify the fan curve and swirl inputs for the Fan object as shown below.

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Fan Inputs
Figure 27.17: Fan Curve and Swirl Inputs for the Fan Object

Problem Setup
Modify the General setup tab for the Basic parameters (under the Problem setup node) as shown below.

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Figure 27.18: Basic parameters/General setup

Set the options for discrete ordinates radiation model as below and click Accept.
Figure 27.19: DO Radiation Settings

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Fan Inputs
Go to the Defaults tab and update the Ambient conditions as shown below.
Figure 27.20: Basic parameters/Defaults

Go to the Advanced tab, enable Solar loading and update the options for solar loading as shown below.
Click Accept.
Figure 27.21: Basic parameters/Advanced

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CFD Modeling and Analysis of an Avionics Box


Save using the File menu and click Save project.

Solver Setup
Go to the Solve menu and click Settings Basic. Increase the Number of iterations to 500 and click
Accept.
Retain the defaults for the Parallel and the Advanced settings.
Create a monitor point at the centroid of the BGA. There are two ways to do so.
Strategy 1:
Drag and drop the BGA block from the Model tree/BGAHS assembly node to the Points node (on the
Model tree) as shown below.
Double click the newly created monitor point and accept the default settings.
Figure 27.22: Creating a Point Monitor (Temperature) for the BGA Block -Strategy 1

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Fan Inputs
Strategy 2:
From the model tree, as shown below, right click on the BGA block and click Add to Clipboard.
Right click on the Points node (see below) and select Paste from Clipboard.
The BGA point monitor will be added to the Points node.
Figure 27.23: Creating a Point Monitor (Temperature) for the BGA Block -Strategy 2

Similarly, create monitor points for the Openings Rear_Panel_18 and Rear_Panel_4. Modify the corresponding monitor point panels to set up Velocity and Temperature monitoring during the solution process.

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CFD Modeling and Analysis of an Avionics Box


Figure 27.24: Point Monitors (Temperature and Velocity) for the Openings Rear_Panel_18 and
Rear_Panel_4

Running the Solution


Go to the Solve menu and click Run solution to launch the Solve panel as shown below.
Click Start solution.

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Fan Inputs
Figure 27.25: Run Solution

The solution should converge in ~170 iterations.

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CFD Modeling and Analysis of an Avionics Box


Figure 27.26: Convergence and Point Monitor Plots

Post-Processing
Temperature contours on PWB and components
Go to the Orient menu and click Orient Negative Z and then click Zoom in in the Orient menu to zoomin on the graphical display on the box.
As shown below, keeping the Shift key pressed, left click and drag to draw a window that includes the
PWB and all the components on the board.
The selection will also include the support block and some of the Housing blocks (cylinder blocks at
the base of the housing).

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Fan Inputs
Figure 27.27: Selection for Postprocessing

Right click on the selection on the Model tree and choose Create Object Face(s) Combined to
create contours of temperature (default) on the faces of the selected objects.
Click Done on the Object face panel.
Review the contours display.
Note that the hot spots are located on the capacitors and the components.
The max Y side (West) of the support block is directly exposed to solar radiation. This is confirmed by
the results. This side is warmer than the other sides of the support block.
Right click on face.1 from the Post node (on the Model tree) and turn off Active to deactivate face.1.

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Figure 27.28: Display Contours of Temperature on Selected Objects

Figure 27.29: Contours of Temperature on Selected Objects

Temperature contours on a clipped Plane Cut


Go to the Post menu and click Postprocessing units and set the units for Length to mm.
Go to the Post menu and click Plane cut.
In the Plane cut panel, Set position to Point and normal.
Check Enable clipping and enter the extents for clipping as below and click Update.
You can also snap the extents of the clipping zone from the graphics window.
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Fan Inputs
Review the contours display
Use the scroll bar on the Plane cut panel and/or the Animate button to traverse the plane cut across the
box.
Update the point and normal settings to visualize the contours in different orientations.
Click Parameters (adjacent to Show contours) to change the variable, color level settings etc.
Figure 27.30: Contours on a Clipped Plane Cut

Velocity Vectors on a clipped Plane Cut


Go to the Orient menu and select Orient Negative Z and then click Zoom in in the Orient menu to
zoom-in on the graphical display on the box.
Turn off Show contours and turn on Show vectors for cut.1.
Update the point and normal settings for Plane cut cut.1 as below.
Figure 27.31: Updated Edit Panel for cut.1

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Click Parameters (adjacent to Show Vectors), switch the Display options to Uniform(10000), check the
Project to plane option and click Update.
Figure 27.32: Updated Vector Parameters Panel and Graphics Display

Review the vectors display.


Use the scroll bar on the Plane cut panel and/or the Animate button to traverse the plane cut across the
box.
Update the point and normal settings to visualize the vectors in different orientations.
Right click on cut.1 from the Post node and turn off Active to deactivate cut.1.
Streamlines from the Fan
Expand the Inactive node on the Model tree, right click on face.1 and click Active to reactivate face.1.
Go to the Post menu and click Object face.
In the Object face panel (for face.2), using the drop-down menu select the Fan as the object.
Check Show particle traces and click on Parameters.
Update the Parameters panel for the particle traces as below and click Apply.

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Fan Inputs
Figure 27.33: Updated Settings for face.2

Review the streamlines display.


Figure 27.34: Updated Graphical Display

Use the Animate button to visualize a dynamic 3D representation of the air flow beginning from the fan
and exiting out of the openings on the rear panel.

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Adjust the steps input to modify the number of frames included in the animation.
Deactivate face.1 and face.2.
Power and Temperature Values
Go to the Post menu and select Power and temperature values to identify (and display) the objects
which fail for specified maximum temperature criteria.
Let us assume that the maximum temperature rating for the components in this setup is 90 C.
In the Power and temperature limit setup panel, set the Default temperature limit to 90 C and click
All to default.
Click Show too hot to report (in the message window) and display (on the graphics window) the objects
that fail this criterion.
The graphical display will update for standard shape Icepak objects only. CAD objects will not be
highlighted in the graphics window, but will be listed in the message window.
Figure 27.35: Updated Graphical Display

Close the Power and temperature limit setup panel.


Save using the File menu and click Save project.

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Additional Exercises

27.9. Additional Exercises


Setup for natural convection (fan failure)
From the Model tree, double click on the Fan to open its edit panel.
In the Properties tab, go to the Options sub-tab and check the Failed option.
Set the Free area ratio to 0.5 and click Done.
Figure 27.36: Updated Fan Setup for Failure Mode

Go to the Solve menu and select Settings Advanced and update the under-relaxation settings for
Pressure and Momentum to 0.7 and 0.3 respectively.
Go to the Solve menu and click Run solution, enter a unique Solution ID and click Start solution.
icepakcfd-tut2600 should not be used for the Solution ID as it has already been used for the forced
convection, steady state simulation setup.

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Postprocess the results.

27.10. Setup for Transient Analysis Forced Convection Mode


Note
This exercise considers a transient period of 24 hrs for CFD analysis and hence will be a highly
intensive undertaking from a computational standpoint. For the sake of understanding, you
may choose to run the transient solution for a shorter time period.
Go to the Post menu and select Load solution ID, select icepakcfd-tut2600 and click Okay.
Go to the Problem setup menu and click Basic parameters Transient setup and set the Time variation
to Transient.
Set the Start time to 0 s and the End time to 86400 s (24 hrs).
Click Edit parameters for Transient, set the Time step to 60 s and the Solution save interval to 30.
Based on this setting, the solver will write out the results every 1800 s (30 mins) during the computational stage.
Click Accept to close the Transient parameters panel.

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Setup for Transient Analysis Forced Convection Mode


Figure 27.37: Basic Parameters/Transient Setup Inputs

Go to the Defaults tab.


Set the Ambient conditions for Temperature to 1 C.
Check the Transient option for Temperature and click Edit to open the Transient temperature panel.
Switch to the Piecewise linear type for specifying the time dependant variation of Ambient temperature.
Click the Text editor button and enter the Time (s) vs. Ambient temperature (C) inputs as shown below.

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Figure 27.38: Time Dependant Variation for Ambient Temperature

Click Accept, Done, and Accept to close the Curve specification, Transient temperature and Basic
parameters panels respectively.
Go to Solve Settings Basic and set the Iterations/timestep to 200.
Go to the Solve menu and click Run solution, enter a unique Solution ID.
As shown below, set the Type to Restart and select the ID for the forced convection, steady state simulation
(icepakcfd-tut2600) with the Full data option.
Having an established flow field from the steady state analysis as a starting point will aid convergence
during the transient simulation.

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Setup for Transient Analysis Forced Convection Mode


Figure 27.39: Use of Steady State Simulation as the Starting Point for the Transient Simulation

Click Start solution.


Postprocess the transient simulation.
Use the Post menu and click Transient settings to march Forward/Backward in time (by Timesteps
or by increments of time) to get a time based variation for postprocessing objects such as Plane cut,
Object face and Isosurface. The marching can be done manually using the Forward/Backward buttons
(see below) or using the Animate option.
Figure 27.40: Post/Transient Settings

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Use the Post menu and click History plot to create a Time vs Variable value plot for a specified point
location within the computational domain.
Refer to the Transient Simulation tutorial located in the Icepak Tutorial Guide for more information on set
up and postprocessing of transient simulations using ANSYS Icepak.

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Chapter 28: Translation of MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native


Geometry Using ANSYS DesignModeler
28.1. Introduction
This tutorial will help familiarize the user with the ANSYS Workbench (WB) and the ANSYS DesignModeler
(DM) interfaces. This tutorial uses a heat sink geometry to illustrate the various options that are available
with the simplify feature of the ANSYS DesignModeler - Electronics utility.

28.2. Prerequisites
Integration of ANSYS Icepak into ANSYS Workbench (Lecture 6 from introductory training course for ANSYS
Icepak).
Quick reference notes - Introduction to ANSYS DesignModeler

28.3. Tutorial Outline


Part 1: General Topics
Model Description
WB Project Schematic
DesignModeler
Import CAD model
Part 2: Model Conversion from CAD to Icepak:
Summary of Simplification
Simplification into Icepak objects - Level 0
Simplification into Icepak objects - Level 1
Simplification into Icepak objects - Level 2
Simplification into Icepak objects - Level 3

28.4. Part 1: General Topics


Model Description
Figure 28.1: Customized Heat Sink with all Detailed Features (p. 510) shows a customized heat sink which
cools multiple components of different heights. This CAD model contains many detailed features which
may not significantly affect the fluid flow and heat transfer behavior of the heat sink, such as throughRelease 14.5 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
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Translation of MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS DesignModeler


holes for screws to mount on the PCB. Hence, for CFD analysis using Icepak, it is useful to remove such
thermally unimportant features at the beginning of the project.
This defeaturing into simpler CAD shapes offers the following benefits:
It is easy to observe the CAD model features
Users can readily identify the features in the part that must be held constant, and the portions where they
have freedom to conduct parametric trials or design of experiment studies to improve the thermal and
flow design.
It reduces the amount of CAD-Icepak conversion work
It results in a better mesh with lower mesh count
Hence, we shall work with the defeatured CAD part shown in Figure 28.2: Defeatured customized heat
sink (p. 510)

Note
If there is a plan to do subsequent thermal stress analysis using the temperature field from
Icepak results, features that affect the stress analysis should be retained.
Figure 28.1: Customized Heat Sink with all Detailed Features

Figure 28.2: Defeatured customized heat sink

28.5. ANSYS Workbench Project Schematic


Start a new ANSYS Workbench session. For Windows, this can be done by going to Start > All Programs
> ANSYS 14.5 > Workbench 14.5.

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ANSYS Workbench Project Schematic


Go to File Save and save the project as cust-hs
.
Drag a Geometry component module from the toolbox and drop it on the project schematic window as
shown in Figure 28.3: Create the Geometry Component (p. 511) below.
Figure 28.3: Create the Geometry Component

Rename the Geometry component module to STEP Import To rename the title, double click on the title
.
Geometry or click the left mouse button on the down arrow and select the Rename option from the dropdown menu (highlighted in Figure 28.4: Rename the Geometry Component (p. 511) below).
Figure 28.4: Rename the Geometry Component

Next, as shown in Figure 28.5: Create the Icepak Component (p. 512), select the Icepak component module
from the toolbox and drop it on cell A2 of the geometry component to establish the link between Geometry
(ANSYS DesignModeler) and ANSYS Icepak.

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Translation of MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS DesignModeler


Figure 28.5: Create the Icepak Component

This completes the schematic representation of the project workflow. The updated project schematic is
shown in Figure 28.6: Updated Project Schematic (p. 512) below.
Figure 28.6: Updated Project Schematic

Save the project using File Save.

28.6. DesignModeler
In the project schematic, double click on cell A2 (Geometry) to open DM.
Select Millimeter as the desired length unit and click OK.
Go to Tools Options.
In the Options panel, go to DesignModeler/Toolbars.
Set Slice, Freeze, and Electronics to Yes.

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CAD Model Import

28.7. CAD Model Import


Go to File Import External Geometry File, set file type to STEP, select custom-heat_sink-simplified.stp and click Open.

Note
custom-heat_sink-simplified.stp can be found at ICEPAK_ROOT /tutorials/MCAD_heatsink/custom-heat_sink-simplified.zip. You must replace ICEPAK_ROOT by
the full path name of the directory where ANSYS Icepak is installed on your computer
system and unzip the file before importing.

This creates a new import operation in the tree outline.


Click Generate to complete the import operation.

Note
F5 is the keyboard shortcut for Generate.
Figure 28.7: Import Operation

Rotate the model and observe the various geometric features in the imported CAD body.

Note
The Generate model step is needed to implement the last operation performed on the
model. The graphics window displays the changes.

Note the updated status of the individual cells (A2 and B2) on the Workbench project schematic.

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Translation of MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS DesignModeler


Figure 28.8: Project Schematic Updated Cell Status

Save the project using File Save.

28.8. PART 2: Model Conversion From CAD to Icepak


Summary of Simplification
The process of converting a CAD part into a geometric fit with Icepak primitives is called simplification.
Table 28.1: Simplification Types in DM for CAD-to-Icepak Conversion (p. 514) summarizes the four simplify
choices available in the DM Electronics utility. In addition to the simplification of CAD parts, we will
work with other DM tools that will be helpful in capturing the design intent in the Icepak model.
Table 28.1: Simplification Types in DM for CAD-to-Icepak Conversion
Simplification Type

Description

Level 0

A single bounding box block is created for each part.


All features and internal faces are ignored.

Level 1

Internal faces are recognized - Part is split at these faces.


Resulting bodies are approximated as cuboids or cylindrical blocks.

Level 2

Similar to Level 1, except that the resulting block shapes are polygonal extrusions wherever applicable.

Level 3

The CAD part is transferred as is.


Results in a stl/tessellated representation as a Icepak CAD block or CAD
plate.
Options for refinement of tessellation

28.9. ANSYS DesignModeler- Electronics


As shown in Figure 28.9: Accessing DesignModeler Electronics (p. 515) below, the electronics utility can
be accessed from the main menu as well as from the shortcuts toolbar (recommended).

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Simplify - Level 0
Figure 28.9: Accessing DesignModeler Electronics

Go to Electronics Show Ice bodies. The graphics window will go blank. Now, go to Electronics
Show CAD bodies. The graphics window will show the heat sink geometry.

Note
Regular Icepak shapes (rectangular prisms, cylinders, uniform polygons) are recognized as
valid Icepak bodies automatically. The CAD bodies need to be translated to valid Icepak
bodies using the Electronics utility.

28.10. Simplify - Level 0


Steps in DM:
From the shortcuts toolbar, change the geometry selection filter to bodies.
Select the heat sink body from either tree outline/parts, bodies, or from the graphics window (left click
on heat sink geometry).

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Translation of MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS DesignModeler


Figure 28.10: Tree Outline

Go to Electronics Simplify.
Note that Simplify1 shows up on the tree outline and the Details view is populated with the simplify
form. Go to the Details view.
Click Apply in the Select Bodies row.
Go to the Simplify row, and add the prefix LO_ to the existing name (i.e. LO_Simplify1) and press Enter.
Set the Simplification Type to Level 0 using the pull down menu.
Click

to generate the model.

A single block (corresponding to extents of the Heat Sink geometry) should appear in the graphics window.
Figure 28.11: Simplification Type = Level 0

Steps in Workbench
Go to the Workbench project schematic.
Change the title below the Icepak module to Icepak-Simplify-Level0 To do so, double click on the title,
.
or select the Rename option using the drop down menu.
Double click cell B2 (Setup for the Icepak module) to open Icepak.

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Simplify - Level 0
Figure 28.12: Updated Project Schematic

Steps in Icepak
Observe that the Icepak model contains one Icepak block (default object type for the DM Electronics
utility).
Figure 28.13: Icepak Interface for Icepak-Simplify-Level0

Close the Icepak session.

Steps in Workbench
Go back to the Workbench project schematic. Select the link from STEP Import to Icepak-Simplify-Level0
module. Hit the Delete key on the keyboard to delete the link (accept the warning message that pops
up).

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Translation of MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS DesignModeler


Figure 28.14: Updated Project Schematic

Save the project using File Save.

28.11. Slice Tool in DM


Go to DM. On the tree outline, right click on the L0_Simplify1 operation and click Suppress. This will get
us back to the original heat sink CAD geometry.
Change the graphics window orientation to +Z by clicking the +Z arrow in the global coordinate axes, as
in Figure 28.15: Heat sink (p. 518) (a).
Observe that the fins on the left side are polygonal profiles extruded through the heat sink length.
Now rotate the model so that the top is just visible, as in Figure 28.15: Heat sink (p. 518) (b). Notice that
the right side contains rectangular pockets. To capture the heat sink features accurately, we will model
the left half with polygonal fit, and the right half with cuboidal fit.
Figure 28.15: Heat sink

From the shortcuts toolbar, click on slice.


In the Details view, set the Slice type to Slice by Surface.
Re-orient the model to expose the heat sink bottom as in Figure 28.16: Selection of Slice Surface (p. 519).
Note that the geometry selection filter is automatically set to Model faces.
Select the median face (highlighted in green on the graphics window) as in Figure 28.16: Selection of Slice
Surface (p. 519).
Click Apply on the Details view to confirm this selection as the target face for the slice operation.

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Slice Tool in DM
Figure 28.16: Selection of Slice Surface

Set the Slice Targets field to Selected Bodies (left click the All Bodies box to access the drop-down
menu). Select the yellow bodies field (right box). The selection filter is automatically set to bodies. Select
the heat sink body. Click the Apply button to complete the selection.
Figure 28.17: Details View for Slice Operation

Generate the model.


Observe that the original heat sink is sliced into two bodies as in Figure 28.18: Updated Tree Outline and
Graphics Window (p. 519).
Figure 28.18: Updated Tree Outline and Graphics Window

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Translation of MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS DesignModeler


Confirm that the left side of the heat sink is recognized as a valid Icepak body by going to Electronics
Show Ice Bodies. The right side of the heat sink becomes invisible with this selection.

Note
On the tree outline, the icon for a valid Icepak body (left half of heat sink) is similar to the
icon used for the corresponding primitive (block in this case) in Icepak.
Figure 28.19: Show Ice Bodies, Updated Tree Outline and Graphics Window

Next, go to Electronics Show CAD Bodies and confirm that only the right hand side of the heat sink
is visible with this selection.
Figure 28.20: Show CAD Bodies, Updated Tree Outline and Graphics Window

Go to Electronics Revert View to make both bodies visible.


Or select Show All Bodies from any of the context menus (tree outline or graphics window) to also
make both bodies visible.

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Simplify - Level 1
Figure 28.21: Revert View, Context Menus

As shown in Figure 28.22: Rename the Bodies After the Slice Operation (p. 521), right click on the names
of the bodies and rename the two bodies as CUSTOM-HEAT_SINK-SIMPLIFIED-LEFT and CUSTOMHEAT_SINK-SIMPLIFIED-RIGHT
.
F2 can also be used for renaming the bodies.
Figure 28.22: Rename the Bodies After the Slice Operation

In the next section, we shall use different simplify operations on the child bodies (created as a result of
the Slice operation).

28.12. Simplify - Level 1


Steps in DM
In DM, set the geometry selection filter to bodies.
Select CUSTOM-HEAT_SINK-SIMPLIFIED-RIGHT.
Start a new simplify operation using Electronics Simplify.
In the Details view, click Apply in the Select Bodies field.
Rename the Simplify field as L1_Simplify2
.

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Translation of MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS DesignModeler


Set Simplification Type to Level 1.
Generate the model.
Observe the changes in CUSTOM-HEAT_SINK-SIMPLIFIED-RIGHT (see figure below). The original body is
replaced with several cuboidal child bodies.
A new part named CUSTOM-HEAT_SINK-SIMPLIFIED-RIGHT, containing the above cuboid bodies, is created
in the tree outline/parts, bodies. This occurs whenever a body is fitted with multiple child bodies.
Figure 28.23: Updated Tree Outline and Graphics window

Steps in Workbench:
Go to the Workbench project schematic.
Create a new Icepak component as shown below. Rename the Icepak component to Icepak-Simplify-Level1
and establish a link between STEP Import (A2) and Icepak-Simplify-Level1 (C2).
Figure 28.24: Updated Project Schematic

Save the project using File Save.


Double click cell C2 (Setup for the Icepak module Icepak-Simplify-Level1) to open Icepak.

Steps in Icepak:
Observe the Icepak model.

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Simplify - Level 1
Notice that CUSTOM-HEAT_SINK-SIMPLIED-LEFT is automatically translated to a corresponding polygonal
block shape in Icepak.
Recall that Simplify operation is not required for regular Icepak shapes such as prisms, cylinders, uniform
polygons etc.
If the user does not wish to apply the automatically recognized shape, DM can be used to simplify the
CAD geometry as required.
It is a safe practice to use simplification operations for all bodies that must be transferred to Icepak.
The part CUSTOM-HEAT_SINK-SIMPLIED-RIGHT shows up as an Icepak assembly with the same name. Expand
the assembly to view the contents on the model tree and the graphics window as shown in Figure 28.25: Icepak interface for Icepak-Simplify-Level1 (p. 523).
Figure 28.25: Icepak interface for Icepak-Simplify-Level1

Close Icepak.

Steps in Workbench
Go back to the Workbench project schematic. Select the link from STEP Import to Icepak-Simplify-Level1
module. Hit the Delete key in the keyboard to delete the link (accept the warning message that pops
up).

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Translation of MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS DesignModeler


Figure 28.26: Updated Project Schematic

Save the project using File Save.

28.13. Simplify - Level 2


Recall that the Simplify - Level 2 feature is similar to Simplify - Level 1, except that the resulting block
shapes are polygonal extrusions whenever applicable.
The procedure for Simplify - Level 2 is identical to the procedures discussed above for Simplify - Level 0
or Simplify - Level 1, with the exception of the Simplification Type field, which must be set to Level 2.
For this project, only the body at the left of Figure 28.18: Updated Tree Outline and Graphics Window (p. 519)
has a meaningful polygonal shape. Since this shape is recognized automatically as a polygon block (default)
in Icepak, we do not need to explicitly define the simplification for this body.

28.14. Simplification into Icepak Objects Level 3


Go to DM. Suppress the slice and L1_Simplify operations. This should bring back the original heat sink
geometry.
Rename the heat sink part as CUSTOM-HEAT_SINK_SIMPLIFIED.
Figure 28.27: Updated Tree Outline

Set the geometry selection filter to bodies.


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Simplification into Icepak Objects Level 3


Select the heat sink body and start a new simplify operation.
In the details view, click Apply in the select bodies field.
Rename the Simplify field as L3_Simplify3.
Set Simplification Type to Level 3.
Observe that the facet quality is set to Very coarse. Retain this selection.
Generate the model.
Toggle between Electronics Show Ice Bodies and Electronics Show CAD Bodies to confirm that
the entire heat sink geometry has been converted to a valid Icepak body.
Figure 28.28: Updated Tree Outline and Details View for L3_Simplify3

Steps in Workbench
Go to the Workbench project schematic.
Create a new Icepak component as shown below. Rename the Icepak component to Icepak-SimplifyLevel3 and establish a link between STEP Import (A2) and Icepak-Simplify-Level3 (D2).

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Figure 28.29: Updated Project Schematic

Save the project using File Save.


Double click cell D2 (Setup for the Icepak module Icepak-Simplify-Level3) to open Icepak.

Steps in Icepak
Examine the Icepak model.
Notice that the model is identical to the original CAD import.
Check the Icepak geometry information of the only block- note that the shape is set to CAD. This is an
Icepak CAD block.

Note
Since all the sides of this part were planar, the facet quality of very coarse was sufficient.
On the other hand, if the original CAD part contained more complex surfaces, such as bspline, torous, or partial or toroid cylinders, a finer resolution option might be required.

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What did we learn in this tutorial?


Figure 28.30: Icepak Interface for Icepak-Simplify-Level3

Close Icepak.

Steps in Workbench
Go back to Workbench and save the project using File Save.

28.15. What did we learn in this tutorial?


We learned how to use DM to convert a CAD part into an Icepak model.
We are better acquainted with the different levels of simplification available within the DM electronics
utility.
We became acquainted with the slice tool in DM.

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Chapter 29: Translation of System Level MCAD Geometry to Icepak


Native Geometry Using ANSYS DesignModeler
29.1. Introduction
This tutorial describes procedures in ANSYS DesignModeler (DM) that enable the user to work efficiently
with assembly level CAD models. The tutorial will discuss various aspects of model organization in DM
as well as illustrate the use of DM towards conversion of the CAD geometry to a native ANSYS Icepak
representation.

29.2. Prerequisites
Introductory training for ANSYS Icepak (lectures discussing ANSYS Workbench and ANSYS DesignModeler)
Tutorial: Translation of MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry using ANSYS DesignModeler
Tutorial: Converting MCAD to ANSYS Icepak geometry using ANSYS DesignModeler
Familiarity with ANSYS Workbench (WB) and DM interface
Familiarity with conversion of CAD parts into Icepak blocks - DM Electronics Simplification Levels

29.3. Tutorial Outline


This tutorial covers the following topics:
Model description
CAD model import
Study the CAD model
Organize and simplify the imported CAD model

29.4. Model Description


This tutorial will consider a system level electronics box (see figure below) for efficient conversion/translation to Icepak native geometry. The box consists of several parts such as the Chassis, Motherboard,
CPU Box, Fan System, Memory etc.

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Translation of System Level MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS
DesignModeler
Figure 29.1: Electronics Box Model

29.5. Getting Started ANSYS Workbench, Project Schematic


Start a new ANSYS Workbench session. For Windows, this can be done by going to Start > All Programs
> ANSYS 14.5 > Workbench 14.5.
Go to File Save and save the project as DME-Icepak-SystemLevel
.
Go to Tools Options Appearance. Scroll down and turn on Beta Options.
This tutorial requires the use of the Solid Extension feature, which is currently available as a beta feature
in DM.
Figure 29.2: Turning On Beta Options

Drag a Geometry component module from the Toolbox and drop it on the project schematic window as
shown in Figure 29.3: Create the Geometry Component (p. 531).

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Getting Started - ANSYS DesignModeler


Figure 29.3: Create the Geometry Component

Rename the Geometry component module to MCAD


.
Select the Icepak component module from the Toolbox and drop it on cell A2 of MCAD to establish the
link between Geometry (ANSYS DesignModeler) and ANSYS Icepak.
Rename the Icepak component module to CFD
.
This completes the schematic representation of the project workflow. The updated project schematic is
shown below.
Figure 29.4: Updated Project Schematic

Save the project using File Save.

29.6. Getting Started - ANSYS DesignModeler


In the project schematic, double click on cell A2 (Geometry cell for MCAD) to open DM.
Select Millimeter as the desired length unit and click OK.
Go to Tools Options DesignModeler/Toolbars and set Slice, Freeze, Electronics, Analysis Tools,
Repair, Face Delete and Concept Modeling to Yes to make these utilities available on the Shortcuts Toolbar
as shown below.

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Figure 29.5: Sample Layout for DM Shortcuts Toolbar

29.7. Import of CAD Geometry


In DM, go to File Import External Geometry File, set file type to STEP, select generic-electronic-box.stp
and click Open.

Note
generic-electronic-box.stp can be found at ICEPAK_ROOT /tutorials/MCAD_board/generic-electronic-box.zip. You must replace ICEPAK_ROOT by the full path name
of the directory where ANSYS Icepak is installed on your computer system and unzip the
file before importing.

This creates a new import operation in the Tree Outline.


On the Shortcuts Toolbar, click Generate to complete the import operation.
Figure 29.6: Updated Tree Outline and Graphics Window

29.8. Initial Model Review


Observe the various geometric features in the imported CAD geometry.
Use mouse movements, and context menu options (Hide Body, Hide All Other Bodies, Show Body, Show
All Bodies) as needed.
In the Tree Outline, go to the Parts, Bodies node.
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CAD Geometry Information and Repair Utilities


The description indicates that there are 69 Parts and 69 Bodies in this setup.
Expand the Parts, Bodies node and observe that although the Parts, Bodies branch shows 69 Parts, these
are not multi-body parts.
For all practical purposes, the DM geometry, at this point, does not contain any parts. With DM, this is
true for any newly imported CAD geometry.

Note
As a part of the import operation in DM, all the CAD parts from the original CAD model
are retained in the correct locations as DM Bodies. However, the organization of the
CAD assemblies (irrespective of the import source) cannot be preserved in DM.
Figure 29.7: Tree Outline

29.9. CAD Geometry Information and Repair Utilities


Key Question: Is there a need to repair the imported MCAD geometry?
CAD-to-DM translation can return incomplete, corrupt, or disconnected geometry.
As shown below, the Analysis Tools and Repair utilities in DM can be used to fix incomplete/corrupt
geometry and connect disconnected geometry.

Note
The geometry used in this tutorial does not need any repair.

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Figure 29.8: Repair and Analysis Tools Utilities in DM

29.10. Suppress Non-Essential Bodies


Key Question: Is it necessary to model all the bodies present in the CAD setup?
Objects like screws, bolts, nuts, washers, springs, etc. have negligible influence on the heat transfer
physics of a given problem and hence can be completely ignored for the CFD analysis.
From the Tree Outline, using Ctrl + left click, select all the screws, bolts, nuts, and washers.
Right click on the selection and click on Form New Part.
Rename the newly formed part to Fasteners
.
Right click Fasteners and click Suppress Part to deactivate the geometry for the rest of the analysis.
Figure 29.9: Create and Suppress Fasteners, Updated Graphical Display

Note
Generally, fasteners are expected to be non-essential for the CFD analysis. However, care
must be taken to include any heat spreading objects. Also, if combined thermo-mechanical

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Functionality Based Grouping


analysis with ANSYS Icepak - ANSYS Mechanical is planned, it is possible that some of the
fasteners are required for the Mechanical analysis. In this case, these fasteners should be
included in both ANSYS Icepak and ANSYS Mechanical.

29.11. Functionality Based Grouping


Key Question: What functionality does the object perform? Can bodies be grouped by functionality?
The overall design of a product is usually conducted in terms of the different modules in the product,
each performing a unique task. In the lifetime of a product, changes in design are likely to be conducted
in terms of the various functional modules.
For a system level setup, models can be quickly organized in terms of the functionality of the various
bodies.
Since ANSYS Icepak addresses the thermal and flow design aspects of the overall product design, it is
adequate to form DM parts that approximately correspond to the different functional modules. Often, a
functional module can be modeled by itself for detailed analysis.
Based on this understanding, create additional parts as shown below.

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Figure 29.10: Collapsed and Expanded Views for Newly Created Parts

Note
During the creation of parts, in case any objects are missed, create a separate part out of
those and then merge this part with the intended part. While merging multiple parts (can
be a combination of suppressed and unsuppressed parts), use Ctrl + left click to select
the parts that need to be merged, right click on the selection and click Form New Part
to complete the merging of the parts. Rename the newly formed part as appropriate.

This completes the initial review and organization of the CAD model for efficient translation to native
ANSYS Icepak geometry.
Save the project using File Save Project in DM.

29.12. Simple Shapes vs. Complex Shapes


Key Question: Are all the bodies simple shapes? Are there any complex shapes?
Icepak primitive shapes are recognized as simple shapes for the DM-Icepak translation.
Level 0, 1 or 2 from the Electronics Simplify tool in DM can be used for translation of simple shapes
to Icepak native geometry.
Simple shapes such as rectangular prisms, cylinders, uniform polygons are automatically translated over
to Icepak (the solid block Icepak primitive is used by default).

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Simple Shapes vs. Complex Shapes


Go to Electronics Show Ice Bodies. This feature displays only those CAD bodies that have been recognized by DM as valid for translation to Icepak.
Since no simplify operations have been performed yet, only the simple shape bodies are recognized as
valid for translation to Icepak at this instance.
Go to WB and double click on cell B2 (Setup cell from CFD module) to open the Icepak interface.
In Icepak, right click on the Model node (from the Model Tree) and select Expand All.
In Icepak, go to the Orient menu and select the Isometric view and then Scale to fit to reorient the
graphics display.
Observe that the valid Ice bodies have been successfully translated to Icepak blocks.
Figure 29.11: Show Ice Bodies Updated Graphics Display for DM and Icepak

Save the project using File Save project in Icepak.


Go back to the DM interface.
Go to Electronics Show CAD Bodies. This feature displays only those CAD bodies that need additional
work (modification of CAD geometry and/or defeaturing of CAD geometry and/or use of Electronics/Simplify utility in DM).
Figure 29.12: Show CAD Bodies Updated Graphics Display for DM

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Level 3 Simplify tool is used only for complex shapes (cannot be modeled as Icepak primitive shapes).
The Mesher-HD meshing algorithm must be used for meshing these shapes in Icepak.
Typically, complex shapes require more meshing effort. It is useful to investigate the possibility of approximating a complex shape CAD body by a simple shape, without noticeably affecting the heat
transfer physics.
Figure 29.13: Examples of Complex Shapes from Tutorial Geometry - Sheet Metal Heat Sink for
QFP1 Package and Flow Guide for Fan System

29.13. Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak


In DM, on the Tree Outline, collapse all part nodes as shown below.
Figure 29.14: Updated Tree Outline/Parts, Bodies View

For the sake of clarity, it is useful to display only the part that is currently of interest, and hide all other
parts and bodies.
A Periphery to Center Marching strategy will be employed to progressively target the easily visible CAD
bodies for translation to Icepak native geometry.

T
ranslating

the Chassis geometry

In the Tree Outline, right click on the Chassis part and select Hide All Other Bodies so that only the
Chassis geometry is visible in the graphics display.

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Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak


Figure 29.15: Retain Only the Chassis Geometry in the Graphics Display Window

Chassis: DM Electronics/Opening

Observe the circular through-hole at the top of the Chassis, and the two grilles made of rectangular
and circular hole patterns on the side walls of the Chassis. These will be represented as free openings
in Icepak.
Go to Electronics Opening.
From the graphical display, select the three Chassis faces as shown below.
Figure 29.16: Opening Operation for Chassis Selection of Candidate Faces

In the Details view for the opening operation, click Apply to accept this selection.
Click Generate.
Observe the new entries at the bottom of the Bodies, Parts node of the Tree Outline. One new surface
body and two new parts are created.
From the Tree Outline, right click on each of these newly created parts and surface body listings to
rename them as shown below.

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Figure 29.17: Newly Created Parts and Surface Body

Merge Cover_Inlet, Housing_Circ_Openings and Housing_Rect_Openings with the Chassis part.


To merge the parts, select all three parts, Cover_Inlet, HOUSING_Circ_Openings, and HOUSING_Rect_Openings, right click and select Form New Part. Rename the part as Chassis
.
Figure 29.18: Updated Tree Outline/Parts, Bodies View

Chassis: DM Electronics/Simplify

On the Shortcuts Toolbar, set the Selection Filter to Bodies.


From the graphics display area, use Shift + left click to select the two Chassis bodies as shown below.
The same selection can also be made by expanding the node corresponding to the Chassis part
listing on the Tree Outline and selecting the bodies (use Shift + left click) Cover and Housing.
Figure 29.19: Selecting Chassis Cover and Housing

Go to Electronics Simplify and click Apply in the Details view to accept this selection.

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Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak


In the Details view, set the Simplification Type to Level0
Click Generate.
Observe the simplified representation of the Chassis on the graphics display.
Figure 29.20: Updated Graphical Display in DM

Chassis: DM Suppress All Other Parts

Collapse the Chassis node on the Tree Outline.


From the Tree Outline, as shown below, select all the parts other than Chassis and Fasteners, right
click on the selection and click Suppress Body. The Fasteners part need not be selected as it is already
in a suppressed state.
The suppressing of all other parts allows the selective transfer of the (simplified) Chassis geometry
to Icepak.
Figure 29.21: Suppressing All Parts Other Than Chassis and Updated Tree Outline View

Chassis: Icepak Chassis Import

Switch to the Icepak interface.


Go to File Refresh Input Data and click Replace model on the Refresh input data pop-up screen
(see below) to replace the existing Icepak model.

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Also, since the earlier version of the Icepak geometry was meant for understanding purposes only,
at the prompt, do not save the current Icepak geometry (click on Dont Save on the pop-up screen).
Figure 29.22: Replace the Existing Icepak Model

In Icepak, verify that only the Chassis assembly shows up in the Model Tree.
From the Model Tree, expand the Chassis assembly node to view the contents.
Verify (from the Model Tree and from the graphics display) that all the Chassis bodies (surface bodies
and solid bodies) have been correctly translated to corresponding opening and block objects in Icepak.
The isometric view of the Chassis representation in Icepak is shown below.
Figure 29.23: Updated Icepak Graphics Display

Save the Project using the File menu and select Save project in Icepak.
Go to File Close Icepak to close the Icepak interface.

Chassis: WB Update Project Schematic

Switch to the WB interface and delete the link between the MCAD and the CFD modules as shown
below.
Doing so preserves the simplified Chassis geometry representation in Icepak for separate analysis.

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Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak


Figure 29.24: Delete Link Between MCAD and CFD Modules

Rename the CFD module as CFD-Chassis.


Drag a new Icepak component from the WB Toolbox and drop on cell A2 of the MCAD module to
create a new DM-Icepak link.
Rename the newly created Icepak module as CFD-Motherboard
.
This new link will be used to process the Motherboard Part in DM for translation to native Icepak
geometry.
Save the project using File Save in WB.
Figure 29.25: Updated WB Project Schematic

Switch to the DM Interface.


In the Tree Outline, right click on the Chassis part and select Suppress Part.
Next, as shown below right click on the Motherboard part and select Unsuppress Part to make
only the Motherboard part geometry visible on the graphics display and available for further processing.

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Figure 29.26: Unsuppress Motherboard Part and Updated Graphics Display

Motherboard: DM Electronics/Simplify

On the Shortcuts Toolbar, set the Selection Filter to Bodies.


Also, as shown below, on the Shortcuts Toolbar, set the Select Mode to Box Select. Note the change
in the cursor display.
Figure 29.27: Set Select Mode to Box Select

Draw a box to include all the Motherboard part geometry. As shown below, the selected geometry
will be shaded solid (zero transparency).
Figure 29.28: Use Box Select to Select All the Geometry From the Motherboard Part

Go to Electronics Simplify and click Apply in the Details view to accept this selection.
In the Details view, set the Simplification Type to Level0.

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Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak


Click Generate.
Observe the simplified representation of the Motherboard part geometry on the graphics display.
All the bodies from the Motherboard part have been successfully converted to valid Ice bodies.
Go to Electronics Show CAD Bodies and confirm that the corresponding graphics display is blank.
Go back to Electronics Show Ice Bodies.
Figure 29.29: Simplified Representation of Motherboard Part Geometry

Motherboard: Icepak Import Motherboard Geometry

Switch to the WB Interface


Double click on cell C2 (Setup cell for CFD-Motherboard module) to open Icepak.
In Icepak, verify that only the Motherboard assembly is listed on the Model Tree.
From the Model Tree, expand the Motherboard assembly node to view the contents.
Verify that all the bodies from the Motherboard part in DM have been correctly converted to corresponding block objects in Icepak.
The isometric view of the Motherboard representation in Icepak is shown below.
Figure 29.30: Updated Icepak Graphics Display

Go to File menu and select Close Icepak to close the Icepak interface.
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Motherboard: WB Update Project Schematic

Switch to the WB interface and delete the link between the MCAD and the CFD-Motherboard modules.
Drag a new Icepak component from the WB Toolbox and drop on cell A2 of the MCAD module to
create a new DM-Icepak link.
Rename the newly created Icepak module as CFD-QFP1
.
This new link will be used to process the QFP-1 Part in DM for translation to native Icepak geometry.
Save the project using File Save in WB.
Figure 29.31: Updated WB Project Schematic

T
ranslating the QFP-1 Part Geometry
Switch to the DM Interface.
In the Tree Outline, Suppress the Motherboard part and unsuppress the QFP-1 part.

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Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak


Figure 29.32: Updated Graphics Display in DM

QFP-1: DM Electronics/Simplify

From the Tree Outline, expand the node corresponding to the QFP-1 part.
Observe that there are two bodies (SM-HEATSINK and QFP-1) listed under this part. Here, SM-HEATSINK
represents the sheet metal heatsink and QFP-1 represents the IC package.
Using Electronics/Simplify - Level 3, simplify the SM-HEATSINK body.
In the Details view for this Simplify operation, set the Facet quality to Fine. Click Generate to
complete the simplify operation.
Using Electronics/Simplify - Level 0, simplify the QFP-1 body. Click Generate to complete the simplify
operation.
Figure 29.33: Updated Tree Outline Listing and Simplified Representation for QFP-1 Part

Using cell D2 (Setup cell for CFD-QFP1 module) from the WB Project Schematic, open Icepak.
Verify that all the bodies from the QFP-1 part in DM have been correctly converted to corresponding
block objects in Icepak.
Double click SM-HEATSINK from the Model Tree to access the edit panel for this block. Go to the Geometry tab and note that the Geometry shape is set to CAD.

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This will always be the case when the level for simplification in DM Electronics/Simplify is set to
Level3.
Click Done to close the edit panel for SM-HEATSINK.
The isometric view of the QFP-1 representation in Icepak is shown below.
Figure 29.34: Updated Icepak Graphics Display

Go to the File menu and select Close Icepak to close the Icepak interface.

QFP-1: WB Update Project Schematic


As before, delete the link between the MCAD and the CFD-QFP1 modules.
Link a new Icepak module named CFD-CPU-Box to MCAD.
Save the project using File Save in WB.

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Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak


Figure 29.35: Updated WB Project Schematic

T
ranslating the CPU-Box Part Geometry
Switch to the DM interface.
In the tree outline, suppress the QFP-1 part and unsuppress the CPU-Box part.
Review the CPU-Box part geometry
From the tree outline, expand the node corresponding to the CPU-Box part.
As shown below, the CPU-Box part consists of four bodies.
Figure 29.36: Updated Tree Outline View and Graphics Display in DM (Iso and +Z views)

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Display one body at a time using the Hide function. Since the bodies contain geometric features that
are important for thermal analysis, it is a good practice to examine them and determine how to
capture the features in the CFD model.
CPU_Socket: Observe that the CPU_Socket contains a cavity in the center. When the CPU is mounted,
the air pocket in this cavity reduces the heat flow from the CPU to the PCB. It is important to capture
the effect of this air pocket. Simplification using Level 1 will not recognize this cavity automatically.
A new volume body will be created to explicitly model the cavity.
Figure 29.37: CPU_Socket Body

TIM: Note the small thickness of the TIM between the heat sink base and the CPU case. To avoid
unnecessary mesh refinement due to this small thickness, the TIM will be set up as a contact resistance
plate in Icepak.

CPU-Box: DM - Filling the Cavity Within CPU_SOCKET


Use the Hide function so that only the CPU_SOCKET body is visible on the graphics display.
Set the selection filter to Faces.
Using Ctrl + left click, select all the inside faces that correspond to the cavity. The selected faces are
highlighted in green (see below) in the graphics display.
Figure 29.38: CPU_Socket Body Select Cavity Faces

Go to Tools Fill and click Apply in the corresponding Details view (see below) to accept the selection.

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Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak


Click Generate.
Figure 29.39: Details View for Fill Operation

On the tree outline, left click to select the newly generate body named Solid and verify that it accurately represents the cavity within the CPU_SOCKET.
Rename the body Solid to Socket Cavity
.
Figure 29.40: Body Representing Cavity in CPU_SOCKET

Merge the body Socket_Cavity with the CPU-Box part.


Figure 29.41: Updated Tree Outline View

CPU-Box: DM -TIM as a Surface Body in DM (plate in Icepak)

Hide CPU_SOCKET, Socket_Cavity and unhide CPU, TIM.

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Figure 29.42: Updated Graphics Display

Select the Selection Filter to Edges.


Select any one of the short edges (corresponding to thickness) of the body TIM.
Go to Tools Analysis Tools Entity Information to report the detailed information for the selected
edge in the Details view.
Note that the length of the edge (TIM thickness) is 0.254 mm.
Suppress the TIM body.
Figure 29.43: Use of Analysis Tools to Find Out TIM Thickness

Reducing the TIM into a 2D representation (Surface Body in DM and plate in Icepak) will leave a 0.254
mm gap, which must be filled by one of the neighboring objects (HEAT_SINK or CPU).
Hence, placement of the 2D TIM surface body on the CPU body will require extension of the HEAT_SINK
base by 0.254 mm.
The additional 0.254 mm of Aluminum ( HEAT_SINK material) only marginally increases the overall
thermal resistance and hence is an acceptable approximation.
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Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak


Alternatively, the placement of the 2D TIM on the HEAT_SINK body (requires extension of CPU) or
somewhere in-between (requires extension of both CPU and HEAT_SINK) can also be considered.
Select the CPU and Hide All Other Bodies.
Go to the main menu, select Concept Surface from Faces.
Select the top side of the CPU body (as shown below).
Click Apply in the Details view to accept this selection.
Click Generate.
Figure 29.44: Creation of Surface Body for TIM

Note that a new surface body named CPU shows up within the CPU-Box part on the tree outline.
Rename the new surface body as TIM_plate.
Figure 29.45: Updated Tree Outline View

CPU-Box: DM - Extend Heat_Sink Body

Select the Heat_Sink body and hide all other bodies.


Set the Selection Filter to Faces.
Select the bottom face of the Heat_Sink body as shown below.
Go to Tools Solid Extension (Beta).
In the Details view, click Apply to accept the face selection.

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Set the FD1, Offset field to 0.254 mm.
Click Generate.
Figure 29.46: Use of Solid Extension

Switch to the +Z view.


Unhide the CPU body.
Note that the gap (introduced due to the suppressing of the original TIM body) is now filled with
HEAT_SINK body material.
Figure 29.47: Before and After Use of Solid Extension

CPU-Box: DM - Electronics/Simplify

From the tree outline, keeping the TIM body suppressed, unhide all other bodies from the CPU-Box
part.
Switch to the +Z view.
Using Box Select, select all the CPU-Part bodies from the graphical display.
Go to Electronics Simplify and click Apply to accept the selection.
Set the Simplification Level to Level 1.

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Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak


Click Generate.
Figure 29.48: Level 1 Simplification for CPU-Box Part

From the tree outline, note the newly created parts.


Merge the newly created parts with the CPU-Box part as shown below.
Figure 29.49: Merge Newly Created Parts into CPU-Box Part, Updated Tree Outline View

CPU-Box: Icepak - Import CPU-Box Part Geometry

Using cell E2 (Setup cell for CFD-CPU-Box module) from the WB project schematic, open Icepak.
Verify that all the bodies (except the TIM_plate body) from the CPU-Box part in DM have been correctly
converted to corresponding block objects in Icepak.

Note
The TIM_plate surface body is represented as a plate object in Icepak.

The isometric view of the CPU-Box part representation in Icepak is shown below.
The TIM_plate plate object has been highlighted using View Default shading Selected
solid feature in Icepak.

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Figure 29.50: Updated Icepak Graphics Display

Go to the File menu and select Close Icepak to close the Icepak interface.

CPU-Box: WB- Update Project Schematic

As before, delete the link between the MCAD and the CFD-CPU-Box modules.
Link a new Icepak module named CFD-Fan-System to MCAD.
Save the project using the File menu, click Save in WB.

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Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak


Figure 29.51: Updated WB Project Schematic

T
ranslating the Fan-System Part Geometry
Switch to the DM interface
In the tree outline, suppress the CPU-Box part and unsuppress the Fan-system part.
Review the Fan-system part geometry
From the tree outline, expand the node corresponding to the Fan-system part.
Observe that the Fan-system part consists of two bodies - FLOW_GUIDE and NIDEC_D34776 (the fan).

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Figure 29.52: Updated Tree Outline View and Graphics Display in DM (Iso view)

Fan-system: DM - Electronics/Fan

Go to Electronics Fan.
Note that the Selection Filter has automatically switched to Bodies.
Observe the Details view.
On the Shortcuts Toolbar, set the Select Mode to Single Select. Note the change in the cursor display.
For the Body to Extract Fan Data field, select the fan housing geometry from the graphics display
as shown below.
Figure 29.53: Electronics/Fan Selection of Body to Extract Fan Data

Click Apply to accept the selection.


In the Details view, go to Hub/Casing Faces. This corresponds to the cylindrical faces of the fan bore
and the hub. These will be converted into the fan radius and hub radius in the corresponding Icepak
Fan object.
Using Ctrl + left click, select the two faces as shown below. The order of face selection does not
matter.

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Figure 29.54: Electronics/Fan Selection of Hub/Casing Faces

Click Apply to accept the selection.


Click Generate.
Go to Electronics Show CAD Bodies.
Observe that the NIDEC fan geometry is no longer visible. This indicates that the DM-Icepak translation
of the fan geometry was successfully completed.
Figure 29.55: Updated Graphics Display in DM (Iso view)

Fan-system: DM - FLOW_GUIDE - Simplification Strategy

Review the FLOW-GUIDE geometry.


The FLOW_GUIDE is a thin body with a thickness of 1 mm or less.
The top is planar and has an opening. The sides expand non-uniformly and with a curvature. The
final base sides are also planar.
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To minimize the mesh, the FLOW-GUIDE body will be represented using zero thickness plate objects
in Icepak.
The planar sides and the top opening will be modeled as simple Icepak shapes.
The expansion has a complex shape which can only be modeled as a CAD plate.
To retain the exact flow volume within the FLOW_GUIDE, the plates will be constructed using inner
faces of the FLOW_GUIDE body.

Fan-system: DM - FLOW_GUIDE Top Side

In DM, set the Selection Filter to Faces.


Select the inner face of the top side of the FLOW_GUIDE body as shown below.
Figure 29.56: Inner Face of the Top side of the FLOW_GUIDE Body, Electronics/Opening

Go to Electronics Opening.
In the Details view, click Apply to accept the selection.
Click Generate.
Note that a new surface body named FLOW_GUIDE_1 has been created.
From the tree outline, merge this surface body with the Fan-system part.
Figure 29.57: Updated Tree Outline

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Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak


Set the Selection Filter to Edges.
As shown below, select the four outer edges (highlighted in green) of the inner face of the top side
of the FLOW_GUIDE body.
Figure 29.58: FLOW_GUIDE Selection of Outer Edges for Inner Face of Top Side

Go to the Concept menu and select Surfaces from Edges.


In the Details view, click Apply to accept the selection.
Click Generate.
Note that a new surface body named Surface body has been created.
Figure 29.59: FLOW_GUIDE New Surface Body Created Using Surfaces from Edges

Rename Surface body as FLOW_Guide_Top_Face


.
From the tree outline, merge Flow_Guide_Top_Face with the Fan-system part.

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Figure 29.60: Updated Tree Outline

Fan-system: DM - FLOW_GUIDE - Non-Uniform and Base Sides

Set the Selection Filter to Faces.


From the graphics display, as shown below, using Ctrl + left click, select the inner faces of the nonuniform sides of the FLOW_GUIDE body.
Figure 29.61: Inner Faces of Non-Uniform Sides of FLOW_GUIDE Body

Go to the Concept menu and select Surface from Faces.


In the Details view, click Apply to accept the selection.
Click Generate.
From the tree outline, note that a new surface body named FLOW_GUIDE was created within the
Fan-system part.
Rename this surface body to Flow_Guide_Non-Uniform-Face.
Go to the View menu and select Wireframe to better visualize the newly created surface body.

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Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak


Figure 29.62: Newly Created Surface Body Flow_Guide_Non-Uniform-Face

Using the same procedure, create surface bodies using the inner faces of the base sides of the
FLOW_GUIDE body.
Rename the resulting surface bodies as shown below.
Figure 29.63: FLOW_GUIDE Base Sides Newly Created Surface Bodies

Using Electronics/Simplify - Level 3, convert the Flow_Guide_Non-Uniform_Face surface body to a


CAD plate representation in Icepak.
Set the Facet Quality in the Details view to Very Fine for this simplify operation. Click Generate
to complete the simplify operation.
The surface bodies Flow_Guide_Base_Face1 and Flow_Guide_Base_Face2 are simple shapes and
hence are automatically recognized as plates in Icepak.
Go to Electronics Show CAD Bodies and note that only the original FLOW_GUIDE body is visible.
Suppress the FLOW_GUIDE body.
Go to Electronics Show Ice Bodies.
Switch back to the Shaded Exterior and Edges view using the View menu.

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Figure 29.64: Updated Tree Outline and Graphics Display

Fan-system: Icepak - Import Fan-system Part Geometry

Using cell F2 (Setup cell for CFD-Fan-System module) from the WB project schematic, open Icepak.
Verify that all the bodies from the Fan-system part in DM have been correctly converted to corresponding fan, opening, plate objects in Icepak.

Note
The Flow_Guide_Non-Uniform-Face plate has a CAD shape.

The isometric view of the Fan-system part representation in Icepak is shown below.
The View Default Shading Solid feature was used to show the solid rendering of the Icepak
geometry.
Figure 29.65: Updated Icepak Graphics Display

Go to the File menu and select Close Icepak to close the Icepak interface.

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Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak

Fan-system: WB - Update Project Schematic

As before, delete the link between the MCAD and the CFD-Fan_System modules.
Link a new Icepak module named CFD-Memory to MCAD.
Right click on the white space in the project schematic section and select the Fit option to resize the
project schematic display.
Save the project using File Save in WB.
Figure 29.66: Updated WB Project Schematic

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T
ranslating the Memory Part Geometry
Switch to the DM interface.
In the tree outline, suppress the Fan-system part and unsuppress the Memory part.
Review the Memory part geometry.
From the tree outline, expand the node corresponding to the Memory part.
As shown below, the Memory part consists of several bodies.
Figure 29.67: Updated Tree Outline View and Graphics Display in DM (Iso and +Z views)

The DIMM_SOCKET-1 surface bodies will not be used in the Icepak setup and hence can be suppressed.
Suppress the four DIMM_SOCKET-1 surface bodies.
Figure 29.68: Updated Tree Outline View

Memory: DM - Electronics/Simplify Level 1

From the tree outline, hide the DIMM_HS4 body and the two DIMM_TIMM bodies.
Use Electronics/Simplify Level 1 to simplify the DIMM body and the two DIMM_SOCKET bodies.

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Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak


Figure 29.69: Level 1 Simplification of DIMM, DIMM_SOCKET Bodies

From the tree outline, merge the newly created parts, as shown below, with the Memory Part.
Figure 29.70: Updated Tree Outline View

Rename the DIMM body as DIMM_PCB and the remaining DIMM parts as DIMM_IC.

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Memory: DM - Surface Bodies for DIMM_TIM

From the tree outline, expand the node corresponding to the memory part.
Using left click, select the two DIMM_TIM bodies.
Right click on the selection and click on Hide All Other Bodies.

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Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak


Figure 29.71: Updated Tree Outline and Graphics Display

The DIMM_TIMs will be modeled as contact resistance plates in Icepak and hence need to be represented as surface bodies in DM.
Set the Selection Filter to Faces.
Using Ctrl + left click, select the inner faces for the two DIMM_TIM bodies as shown below. The inner
surfaces are in contact with (a) casing tops of all the DIMM_ICs and (b) the opposite side of DIMM_PCB.
The design intent is to model the contact resistances at these locations; therefore it is important to
select the two inner faces for this feature operation.
Figure 29.72: Selection of Inner Faces for DIMM_TIM Bodies

Use the Concept menu and select Surfaces from Faces to create corresponding surface bodies.
Note that two new surface bodies named DIMM_TIMM are now listed within the memory part listing
on the tree outline.
Since the newly created surface bodies are simple shapes, they are automatically recognized as
valid Icepak bodies.
Rename these bodies to DIMM_TIMM_Plate1 and DIMM_TIMM_Plate2 respectively.
Suppress the two original DIMM_TIMM bodies.
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Figure 29.73: Updated Tree Outline and Graphics Display

Memory: DM - Recreate DIMM_HS4 and Simplify Using Electronics/Simplify

Level 3
Unhide the DIMM_HS4 body. Now the DIMM_HS4, DIMM_TIM_Plate1 and DIMM_TIM_Plate2 bodies
are visible.
Switch to the +Z view and zoom in as below.

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Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak


Figure 29.74: Updated Graphics Display and Zoom-in +Z View

Note that there is a small gap between the DIMM_TIM_Plate surface bodies and the DIMM_HS4 body.
This gap equals the thickness of the original DIMM_TIM body, which is 0.0776 mm.
This gap can be measured using Analysis Tools/Distance Finder or Analysis Tools/Entity Information.
This gap will be removed by re-creating the heatsink.
Pick any thin edge of the DIMM-HS4 body and find its thickness using Analysis Tools/Entity Information.
It is 0.5 mm thick. Thus the total thickness from the outer surface of DIMM_HS4 to the
DIMM_TIM_Plate (nearest to the selected surface) is 0.5776 mm.
Set the Selection Filter to Faces.
From the graphics display, as shown below, select any outer face of DIMM_HS4.
From the Shortcuts toolbar use the Extended Selection feature (see below) and select Extend to
Limits. This will select all the outer faces of Heat sink.
Go to the Create menu and select Thin/Surface.
In the Details view, set the Selection Type to Faces To keep.
Click Apply in the Details view to accept the face selection.
Make sure that 17 faces are selected.
Set the Direction field to Inward and the Thickness to 0.5776 mm.
Click Generate.

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Figure 29.75: Recreating the Heatsink Geometry

Observe that the gap between the DIMM_HS4 body and the DIMM_TIM_Plate surface bodies is removed.
Using Electronics/Simplify Level 3, simplify the DIMM_HS4 body for a CAD Block representation in
Icepak.
Set the Facet Quality in the Details view to Very Fine for this Simplify operation. Click Generate
to complete the simplify operation.

Memory: Icepak - Import Memory Part Geometry

Using cell G2 (Setup cell for CFD-Memory module) from the WB project schematic, open Icepak.
Verify that all the bodies from the memory part in DM have been correctly converted to corresponding
block, plate objects in Icepak.

Note
The DIMM_HS4 block has a CAD shape.

The isometric view of the memory part representation in Icepak is shown below.
The View Default shading Solid/Wire feature was used to display the solid rendering in
Icepak.
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Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak


Figure 29.76: Updated Icepak Graphics Display

Go to the File menu and select Close Icepak to close the Icepak interface.

Memory: WB Update Project Schematic

As before, delete the link between the MCAD and the CFD-Memory modules.
Link a new Icepak module named CFD-System to MCAD.
Right click on the white space in the project schematic section and select the Fit option to resize the
project schematic display.
Save the project using File Save in WB.

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Figure 29.77: Updated WB Project Schematic

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Summary

S
ystem Level Setup in Icepak
Switch back to the DM interface.
Unsuppress all but the Fasteners part.
Go to the WB interface.
Using cell H2 (Setup cell for CFD-System module) from the WB project schematic, open Icepak.
Verify that all the bodies from the DM setup have been correctly converted to corresponding block,
plate, fan, opening objects in Icepak.
Figure 29.78: Updated DM Tree Outline, DM Graphics Display, Icepak Graphics Display

Go to the File menu and select Close Icepak to close the Icepak interface.
Save the project using File Save in WB.
The MCAD-Icepak translation for this system level electronics box setup is now complete.
Exit out of WB using File Exit.

29.14. Summary
In this tutorial, the following features/capabilities have been discussed.
Use of ANSYS Workbench project schematic
Import and organization of assembly level CAD models in DM
Use of DM for modification/simplification of imported CAD geometry
Translation of CAD geometry to Icepak primitive objects using DM Electronics

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Chapter 30: MRF Tutorial


30.1. Introduction
The purpose of this tutorial is to provide guidelines and recommendations for the Moving Reference
Frame (MRF) fan modeling technique in ANSYS Icepak. These guidelines and recommendations concern
the areas of
Problem Setup
Meshing strategy, and
Solver settings

30.2. Prerequisites
Familiarity with Icepak interface, and having a good understanding of basic problem setup and solution
procedure.
An Icepak 3D fan object may sometimes behave differently from real fan behavior. Typically this is due
to flow features like swirl and centrifugal spread resultant from the spinning fan rotor as well as the
rotor blade geometry. In an Icepak fan based setup, this swirl is estimated and calculated off a 2D annular flow face rather than off the physical surfaces of the blade.
The MRF approach allows for a more accurate representation of the internal geometry of the fan and
therefore results in a better modeling of the flow features. In Icepak MRF simulations, the actual blade
geometry is modeled as a CAD block object and a fluid cylinder rotates into contact with the surfaces
to create a spinning flow.
In this tutorial, you will use a previously built Icepak model of fan blades (Figure 30.1: A 3D Icepak Fan
Object Assembly (p. 578)a) and create the rotating MRF fluid blocks to create flow in the model. You
will learn the proper problem setup and solution settings for an MRF model, as well as a good meshing
technique to insure good results.
As an added bonus, a 3D Icepak fan object assembly (Figure 30.1: A 3D Icepak Fan Object Assembly
(p. 578)b) can be activated and run to see the difference in flow patterns and results.

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Figure 30.1: A 3D Icepak Fan Object Assembly

30.3. Opening the Project


Start Icepak by either double clicking the shortcut on your desktop or by going to Start >> All programs
>> ANSYS 14.5 and selecting the independent ANSYS Icepak.
Once Icepak has launched, click on the Unpack button.

Note
In Icepak, models can be compressed into a specialized zip file with the extension tzr. This
is called packing a project. The essential files needed to properly re-build the model, including the mesh settings, are saved in this compressed file. A model has been previously
created to reduce the time needed to properly teach the MRF techniques in Icepak and
will be opened out of this packed file.

Download the file MRF_Tutorial.tzr and select this file to unpack. You will then be able to create a project
folder for this tutorial. Choose the location and name the project MRF_Practice
.

Note
MRF_Tutorial.tzr can be found at ICEPAK_ROOT /tutorials/MRF/MRF_Tutorial.tzr.
You must replace ICEPAK_ROOT by the full path name of the directory where ANSYS Icepak
is installed on your computer system.

Once the model has opened, go to the Model node. Perform a right mouse click and select, Expand All
to open all model nodes.
Next, go to the Model menu and select CAD data. Click None under Families to turn off the CAD display.
Set the orientation to the isometric view to display the model geometry as shown below.

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Modifying the Geometry


Figure 30.2: Unpacked Model Geometry

30.4. Modifying the Geometry


Under the Inactive node in the Model tree, there are four assemblies. Two are remnants of the openings
used to create the inlet and exhaust grilles. The others are the MRF fan and Icepak 3D fan assemblies.
Select the FANS_CAD.1 assembly and activate it.

Note
You can activate the assembly by selecting it and then using the Ctrl A shortcut or by
right clicking and selecting Active.

An assembly containing the CAD fan blades (rotors), fan casing blocks, and fan tray cutout blocks should
appear.
Expand the FANS_CAD.1 assembly node on the Model tree to view the fan blade geometry.

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Click on any object inside of the FANS_CAD.1 assembly and create two fluid blocks surrounding the fan
blades and cutting through the casing blocks using the information provided in Table 30.1: Fluid Block
Settings for MRF Setup (p. 580) below.
Table 30.1: Fluid Block Settings for MRF Setup
Name

Shape

Plane

Center

Height

Radius

Type

FluidA

Cylinder

Y-Z

xC:141.3 mm
yC:133.04 mm
zC:130.6 mm

20.0 mm

34.0 mm

Fluid

FluidB

Cylinder

Y-Z

xC:141.3 mm
yC:133.04 mm
zC:56.6 mm

20.0 mm

34.0 mm

Fluid

Note
If your current object selection is not inside of the assembly, the new fluid cylinders would
appear outside and have to be dragged into the assembly. This is saving this extra step.
Another time saver would be to create FluidA and then copy the object. You would just
need to change the name of the copy to FluidB and change the zC location.

As shown in Figure 30.3: Fluid Blocks Surrounding Fan Blade Geometry (p. 581), the fluid cylinder blocks
will be created at the bottom of the assembly list. This is because Icepak will, by default, give the newest
objects the highest meshing priority. The fluid blocks need to have a higher priority than the case blocks
but a LOWER priority than the fan rotor so that the rotor will be fully meshed. To automatically change
the meshing priority, highlight both these fluid cylinders in the Model tree, and drag them above the fan
blades (drop them on top of the upper most blade). The assembly should now look like Figure 30.4: Updated
Model Tree View (p. 581).
Double click on FluidA in the Model tree. Under the Properties tab, select Use rotation for MRF and set
a rotational speed of 6000 as seen in Figure 30.5: MRF Settings (p. 582). Repeat this for FluidB.

Important notes for MRF fan modeling technique:


Using the exact fan blade geometry is critical for the accuracy of the MRF fan modeling technique. If the
fan housing contains straightening vanes, these must also be modeled with their exact geometries.
The rotation rpm here refers to the rotation of the fan rotor and blades. The direction follows the right
hand thumb rule.

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Modifying the Geometry


Figure 30.3: Fluid Blocks Surrounding Fan Blade Geometry

Figure 30.4: Updated Model Tree View

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Figure 30.5: MRF Settings

30.5. Generating the Mesh


To start, go to the global mesh settings panel by clicking on the
from Hexa unstructured to Mesher-HD.

shortcut and change the mesh type

Set the Minimum gap values to 1 mm in all directions and update the dialog to look like Figure 30.6: Global
Mesh Settings (p. 583).

Note
HD meshing starts with a default hexa-unstructured mesh, and progressively uses other
element types (tetrahedral, etc.) in areas where geometric complexity does not allow for

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Generating the Mesh


a good mesh with hexa elements. This mesh mixing occurs automatically in the meshing
algorithm.

Note
Proper resolution of CAD objects requires more mesh. Resolving surfaces with curvatures
typically requires more mesh than planar faces.
Figure 30.6: Global Mesh Settings

Meshing the MRF Fans


To keep the mesh count as low as possible, change the Block type of the two rotor blocks (FAN70153_11.1
and FAN70152_11.1) to Hollow.
To restrict the finer mesh to the region immediately surrounding the fans, a non-conformal mesh should
be used. Double click the FANS_CAD.1 assembly and go to the Meshing tab. Select the Mesh separately

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option and fill out the slack and max element sizes as shown in Figure 30.7: Non-conformal Mesh Settings
for FANS_CAD.1 Assembly (p. 585).

Note
The positive slack values define the distance off the outermost surfaces of all objects in
the assembly. While ANSYS Icepak v13.0 does allow for zero slack specification, it is recommended to use a positive value in MRF cases to ensure good mesh transition from solid
surfaces into the fluid.

Turn on the Allow multi-level meshing option, and the Set uniform mesh params option.

Note
The Set uniform mesh params option will block off regions around complex geometries
and allow for a better mesh transition.

Click on the Edit button in the Multi-level tab and set the meshing levels as shown in Figure 30.8: Edit
Levels Settings for FANS_CAD.1 Assembly (p. 586).

Note
Multi-level meshing allows the user to control the mesh sizing near the surfaces of CAD
objects without filling the entire non-conformal region with small elements. It is also known
as a hanging node mesh where a cell edge is split into two smaller edges as the mesh
gets closer to the surface. Thus each face is split into four smaller faces, and each cell into
eight smaller cells.

Note
In Figure 30.7: Non-conformal Mesh Settings for FANS_CAD.1 Assembly (p. 585), the max
sizes in all three directions are the largest elements. The levels value set per object is the
number of times that element size will be split in half. For example, with 4 mm being the
largest element, 2 levels would correspond to a refinement of 4/2 = 2 mm for the first split
and 2/2 = 1 mm for the smallest element on that object.

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Generating the Mesh


Figure 30.7: Non-conformal Mesh Settings for FANS_CAD.1 Assembly

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Figure 30.8: Edit Levels Settings for FANS_CAD.1 Assembly

You are now ready to generate the mesh. Go back to the global settings and click on the Generate button
near the top of the pop-up window. There should be about 742,000 elements in the model.

30.6. Examine the Mesh


Display the surface mesh on the rotors by selecting them in the Model tree and going to the Display tab
of the Mesh panel. Here, select Display mesh, Surface, Wire and Solid fill (object) as options. This will
show the mesh on the surface of the fan rotor as a colored surface with lines showing the individual elements as seen in Figure 30.9: Surface Mesh of Fan Rotors (p. 587).

Note
It is especially important to check the surface meshes of CAD objects. If too large of an
element is being used near the surface, you may see bad elements protruding away from
or into the surface.

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Examine the Mesh


Figure 30.9: Surface Mesh of Fan Rotors

Next, create a plane cut of the mesh through the center of one of the fan rotors on the z axis. The mesh
display should look similar to Figure 30.10: Mesh Display - Cut Plane Through Rotor Center (p. 587) (Switch
off the previous surface display).

Note
To do this properly, hit Shift-x to look at the x axis, select the Cut plane option in the
Display tab under meshing, click on the drop down menu next to Set position, select
Vertical - screen select and click on the center of either fan hub. This will draw a vertical
line through the selected point. Hit Shift-z to look at the plane through that line.
Figure 30.10: Mesh Display - Cut Plane Through Rotor Center

Save the project.

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30.7. Solution Settings for MRF Fan Model


When running a MRF model, the zero equation turbulence model will not suffice as it does not properly
capture the swirl effects of the rotor blades. It is recommended that the Realizable two equation turbulence model be used.
Go to Problem setup Basic Parameters and under Flow regime change the turbulence model in the
drop down menu to Realizable two equation as shown in Figure 30.11: Modify Choice for Turbulence
Model (p. 588).
Figure 30.11: Modify Choice for Turbulence Model

Go to Solution settings Basic settings under the Model tree and set the Number of iterations to
1000 (adequate for this model).

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Solution Settings for MRF Fan Model


Also, set the flow convergence criteria to 1e-5 and input the changes as shown in Figure 30.12: Basic
Solution Settings (p. 589).

Note
When using MRF, the solver typically needs a larger number of iterations to completely
converge. When running the initial solution it is recommended that you set the number
of iterations to something on the order of 2000 or more to see where the convergence
finally occurs. You can lower the number of iterations in subsequent solutions with the
use of solution restart. It is also recommended to lower the convergence criteria to ensure
this convergence.
Figure 30.12: Basic Solution Settings

Point Monitors
When running any simulation you should also include a few temperature and a few velocity monitor
points to ensure that there is complete convergence. In a steady state problem, you can have greater
confidence in the solution convergence, when the monitor values do not change for an extended number
of iterations.
In an MRF problem, there should be multiple velocity point monitors between different blades and located
in the fluid. To do this, go the tree, right click the Points branch and select the Create at location option.
An easy method of creating such points is to first create a plane cut display of the mesh, as shown in
Figure 30.13: Easy Method to Snap Point Monitors to the Mesh Display (p. 590). Specify the monitor point
name and variable in the Create point panel. Finally use the Nearest option to snap the point to a grid
location. The location of point monitors used in this tutorial are presented in Table 30.2: Location of Point
Monitors (p. 589).
Table 30.2: Location of Point Monitors
Point Monitor

Location (X, Y, Z) mm

Monitor

163.3, 159.0, 62.41

Velocity

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Point Monitor

Location (X, Y, Z) mm

Monitor

172.7, 133.04, 93.6

Velocity

163.3, 133.04, 110

Velocity

mon_pt_1

172.7, 137.9, 135.3

Velocity

mon_pt_2

-232.6, 105.1, 98.5

Temperature

mon_pt_3

-232.6, 139.9, 79.99

Temperature

mon_pt_4

-219.5, 148.4, 26.85

Temperature

Solve the Model


Click on
in the shortcuts toolbar to bring up the Solve panel. Click on the Start solution button to
run the computations.
If the model is set up properly as per the instructions, then the residual plots and the monitor plots should
look like Figure 30.14: Residuals Plot (p. 591).-Figure 30.16: Velocity Monitors (p. 592)
Figure 30.13: Easy Method to Snap Point Monitors to the Mesh Display

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Solution Settings for MRF Fan Model


Figure 30.14: Residuals Plot

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MRF Tutorial
Figure 30.15: Temperature Monitors

Figure 30.16: Velocity Monitors

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Post-processing the Results

30.8. Post-processing the Results


Create an object face with the
shortcut. Select all of the solid objects (blocks) other than those in
the fan assembly and select Show contours. Click on the Parameters button, leave the default contours
of Temperature, and change the color levels to Calculated This object. The temperature contour should
look similar to Figure 30.17: Surface Temperature Contours (p. 593).
Deactivate the temperature object face (right click and click on Active) from the Post node on the Model
tree.

Create a plane cut with the shortcut


and leave it at the default z plane through center location.
Select Contours of speed and set the color levels to be specified from 0 to 3 (velocities higher than 3 m/s
will show up as red). The MRF speed contour display should look similar to Figure 30.18: Contour of Speed
at Center of Z with MRF (p. 594).
Figure 30.17: Surface Temperature Contours

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MRF Tutorial
Figure 30.18: Contour of Speed at Center of Z with MRF

30.9. BONUS SECTION: Comparing MRF to 3D Icepak Fans


Deactivate the FANS_CAD.1 assembly and activate the FANS_ICE3D assembly.
Go to Solution settings Basic settings and change the flow criteria to 1e-4.
Go to the Solve panel and make sure that the Solution ID is different than the once used for the MRF
run. It will take much less time to run this model. You can terminate the model once the residuals and
monitor points all level off.
Create the same speed contour as you did in the MRF run. The contour should resemble Figure 30.19: Contour of Speed at Center of Z with Icepak 3D Fan Object (p. 594). Compare this flow pattern to Figure 30.18: Contour of Speed at Center of Z with MRF (p. 594).
Figure 30.19: Contour of Speed at Center of Z with Icepak 3D Fan Object

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Chapter 31: Modeling an Airborne Electronics System at Altitude


Keywords- Avionics, Altitude, Parametrics, Non-conformal meshing, functions

31.1. Introduction
There are numerous methods for cooling electronics systems and the choice of technique is generally
a function of the design, application, reliability requirements and power dissipation. For avionic electronics, one common approach is to use ambient air, or chilled air, ducted over the sealed chassis of
the system in a cold wall. Heat from the components conducts through the PCB to the card guides that
are clamped to the chassis and removed via the cold wall.
This technique also removes any risk to the actual electronics arising from dust, moisture etc in the
air flow, and thus increases the operating reliability.
Operating conditions of such equipment vary considerably due to the density variation of air from sea
level to cruising altitude. As the altitude increases, the density decreases, and consequently the mass
flow rates of the fan(s) are also reduced.
In this exercise a cold-wall cooled avionics unit will be modeled and the cooling efficiency evaluated
at both sea level and altitude.
This exercise assumes the user has had already created some models in Icepak, and in particular has
experience in meshing assemblies separately, and also in setting up parametric simulations.

31.2. Opening the Project


Unpack and load the model called avionics_box.tzr.

Note
avionics_box.tzr can be found at ICEPAK_ROOT /tutorials/Altitude/avionics_box.tzr. You must replace ICEPAK_ROOT by the full path name of the directory where
ANSYS Icepak is installed on your computer system.
This is the basic cold wall geometry with two parametric runs defined. The first assumes a uniform
loading of 30 W per PCB, giving a total dissipation of 450 W for the cards. This is applied uniformly to
the card edges on both sides of the chassis.
An additional 30 W is applied to the front of the unit opposite the fan to represent any additional load
from additional equipment. The Total power can be viewed in the Power and temperature limit setup
panel as shown below.

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Modeling an Airborne Electronics System at Altitude


Figure 31.1: Total Power

Heat can only be conducted out of the unit, so the interior air is not modeled, and replaced by a hollow
block. Recall that within a hollow block no equations are solved, and no mesh is generated, so this
methodology reduces the problem down to a worst case scenario.
It remains to add two heat sinks to represent the fining in the cold walls on the sides of the unit.

31.3. Adding the Fins


The easiest way to add the fins is to generate two heat sinks, one for each of the cold wall ducts. Create
the heat sink objects using the information in the panels below.

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Adding the Fins


Figure 31.2: Heat_sink_minx Object Geometry Edit Panel

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Modeling an Airborne Electronics System at Altitude


Figure 31.3: Heat_sink_minx Object Properties Edit Panel

598

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Adding the Fins


Figure 31.4: Heat_sink_maxx Object Geometry Edit Panel

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Modeling an Airborne Electronics System at Altitude


Figure 31.5: Heat_sink_maxx Object Properties Edit Panel

Place each heat sink into its own assembly and choose to mesh each assembly separately and apply
appropriate slack values. Slack values are displayed in Figure 31.6: Heatsink Assembly Slack Val-

ues (p. 601).

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Modeling the effects of Altitudes


Figure 31.6: Heatsink Assembly Slack Values

Note
The second heat sink could be made by copying the first and then using the alignment tools
to re-position it.

31.4. Modeling the effects of Altitudes


In the Basic parameters panel, click on the Defaults tab. Select Air as the Default fluid.

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Modeling an Airborne Electronics System at Altitude


Figure 31.7: Default Fluid

Click on the Advanced tab, enable the Altitude and Update fan curves options. Assign a variable for
altitude of 10 Km (remembering to prefix its name with a $ i.e. $Elevation). Change the units to meters.
,

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Modeling the effects of Altitudes


Figure 31.8: The Advanced Tab of the Basic parameters Panel

The Param value panel will appear upon opening the Parameters and optimization panel. Enter
10000 (m) in the text box.

Select the Design variables tab and the Elevation node, next to Discrete values, type 0, separated
by a space before 10000 as shown in Figure 31.9: Assigning Variable for Altitude (p. 604).

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Modeling an Airborne Electronics System at Altitude


Figure 31.9: Assigning Variable for Altitude

Now edit the Fan in the model. At altitude the inlet temperature will be very different from the same
flow rate at sea level. Assign a parameter for the inlet temperature. The temperature parameter should
take the values 20 and -5 C. Apply these settings, and reset the trials. Check that the correct combination
of parameters for sea level, and 10 Km for elevation have been assigned.

604

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Modeling the effects of Altitudes


Figure 31.10: Assigning Parameters for Inlet Temperature

Create three functions, one to report the global maximum temperature, and the other two to calculate
the pressure drop across each of the heat sinks.

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Modeling an Airborne Electronics System at Altitude


Figure 31.11: Primary Functions

Table 31.1: Functions


Function
name

Function
type

Value

Object, Variable, Direction

maxTemp

Global value

Global maximum temperature

DP-1

Difference

object heat_sink_minx, Pressure, Low Z- High


Z

DP-2

Difference

object heat_sink_maxx, Pressure, Low Z- High


Z

Finally run the trials and analyze the two simulations to compare results. Generate some particle tracks
from the fan through the system and display the object faces of the two heat sinks. Create a summary
report for both runs for the temperatures of the sources. Combine these into an HTML report.

606

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Modeling the effects of Altitudes


Figure 31.12: Parametric Trials

Create particle traces with the


shortcut. Select the fan object and enable the Show particle traces
option. Click on the Parameters button and leave the default settings. Change the color levels to Calculated This object. The particle traces should look similar to Figure 31.13: Particle Traces (p. 607).
Figure 31.13: Particle Traces

Deactivate the temperature object face (right click and click on Active) from the Post node on the
Model tree.
Create an object face to display temperature contours on the heat sink objects.

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Modeling an Airborne Electronics System at Altitude


Figure 31.14: Temperature Contours on heat_sink_minx and heat_sink_maxx

31.5. Summary
In this tutorial, you learned how to model the effects of altitude in ANSYS Icepak.

608

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Chapter 32: Maxwell to ANSYS Icepak Coupling Tutorial


32.1. Introduction
This tutorial demonstrates how heat loss data can be transferred from Maxwell to ANSYS Icepak in
ANSYS Workbench. This tutorial involves an eddy current solver of Maxwell to calculate heat losses
which are then applied to ANSYS Icepak to simulate natural convection.
In this tutorial, you will learn how to:
Create a Maxwell and ANSYS Icepak coupling analysis in ANSYS Workbench.
Transfer heat loss data from Maxwell to ANSYS Icepak.

32.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you have little experience with ANSYS Workbench and so each step will be
explicitly described. A Maxwell V16 license is needed to perform this tutorial.

32.3. Problem Description


A simple model is used in this tutorial to demonstrate multiphysics coupling. Heat flow is calculated
on the Stock object in Maxwell and is transferred to ANSYS Icepak.

32.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Start ANSYS Workbench.

Note
When ANSYS Workbench starts, the Toolbox and Project Schematic are displayed.

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Maxwell to ANSYS Icepak Coupling Tutorial

32.5. Step 2: Build the Model


You will import an existing Maxwell project into Workbench. To import a Maxwell file,
Specify a name for your project (i.e.,. maxwell2wb) and save the Workbench project file. File>Save As...
Select the menu item File>Import in Workbench.
Change the file type to Maxwell Project File (*.mxwl) and browse to the location of the tutorial input file.
Select the file Ex_12_2__Maxwell _Icepak_Coupling.mxwl and open it. The file Ex_12_2_Maxwell_Icepak_Coupling can be found at ICEPAK_ROOT/tutorials/Maxwell.
Double click the Setup cell of the Maxwell3DDesign1 system to launch Maxwell.
In this step you will set the conductivity of the aluminum plate as function of temperature. This will
enable you to get the temperature from Icepak and recalculate the losses based on temperature dependent properties. To set temperature dependent properties,
Select the Stock object from the history tree, right click and select Assign Material.

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Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 32.1: Assign Material for Stock Object

In the Select Definition panel, select View/Edit Material....


Figure 32.2: Select Definition Panel

In the View/Edit Material panel,


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Maxwell to ANSYS Icepak Coupling Tutorial


Enable Thermal Modifier

Go to the Thermal Modifier column for bulk conductivity and select Edit.
In the Edit Thermal Modifier panel,
Set modifier as: if (Temp <=22, 1, 1/(1+0.0039*(Temp-22)))
Press OK.

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Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 32.3: Edit Thermal Modifier

Press OK to close the View/Edit Material and the Select Definition panels.
In this step, you will enable the temperature feedback
Select the menu item Maxwell 3D>Set Object Temperature.
In the panel enable the option Include Temperature Dependence and Enable Feedback.
Press OK.

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Maxwell to ANSYS Icepak Coupling Tutorial


Figure 32.4: Temperature of Objects Panel

Verify Maxwell settings.


Expand the Project Manager tree to view Analysis.
Double click on the tab Setup1.
In the Solve Setup panel, update the following:
General tab, Percentage Error: 0.1
Convergence tab, Refinement Per Pass: 50%
Solver tab, Adaptive Frequency: 200Hz
Click the OK button.

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Step 2: Build the Model

Note
After entering the specifications, the Geometry and Setup cells in the Maxwell system
should appear as follows:
Figure 32.5: Maxwell 3D system

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Maxwell to ANSYS Icepak Coupling Tutorial


Validate the model.
Select the menu item Maxwell 3D> Validation Check.

Click the Close button.

Note
To view any errors or warning messages, use the message manager.

To start the solution process


Select the menu item Maxwell 3D> Analyze All

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Step 2: Build the Model

Calculate Ohmic losses in Stock.


Select the menu item Maxwell 3D> Fields>Calculator.

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Select Input>Quantity>OhmicLoss
Select Input>Geometry>Volume>Stock
Select Scalar>

integrate

Select Output>Eval
The Ohmic losses in Stock volume are around 8.73 Watts.

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Step 2: Build the Model

Click Done to exit.


Close Maxwell.

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Maxwell to ANSYS Icepak Coupling Tutorial


Select the menu item File>Close Desktop.

Note
After solving, the Maxwell3DDesign1 system should have green check mark in the
Solution cell. If not, select Update from the context menu of the Solution cell.

Save the project.


Return to Workbench project window.
Select the menu item File>Save.
In the project schematic, drag and drop a Geometry system on top of the Maxwell 3D Geometry cell.
Double click the Geometry cell to launch DesignModeler. Click Generate to create the objects.

Suppress Geometry
On the tree outline, right click on the coil_Section1 object and click Suppress Body.
Repeat this same procedure with the dummy object.
Figure 32.6: Suppress Bodies

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Step 2: Build the Model


Simplify Geometry
Set the geometry selection filter to bodies and select the Coil object. Go to the Tools menu. Select Electronics> Simplify. Note that Simplify1 shows up on the tree outline and the Details view is populated
with the simplify form. Go to the Details view.

Click Apply across from the Select Bodies field.


Change the Simplification Type to Level 3. Ensure Selected Bodies is selected for the Selection Filter
and choose Fine for Facet Quality.
Figure 32.7: Simplify1 Coil Object

Click Generate.

Note
The coil object has now been converted into a simple shape and hence is automatically
recognized as a CAD block object in Icepak.

Next, simplify the Stock object using Level 2 for the Simplification Type. See the figure below.

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Maxwell to ANSYS Icepak Coupling Tutorial


Figure 32.8: Simplify2 Stock Object

Save the project in ANSYS DesignModeler and close the application.


Drag and drop an Icepak system on top of the Geometry cell to transfer the geometry. If necessary, do
a right mouse click in the Maxwell 3D Solution cell and select Update before transferring to Icepak.
Then, connect the Maxwell 3D Solution cell to the Icepak Setup cell as shown below.

Double click the Icepak Setup cell to open Icepak. You will see that the geometry has been imported.

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Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 32.9: Imported Geometry in Icepak

Resize the cabinet as shown in the figure below.


Figure 32.10: Resize Cabinet

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Maxwell to ANSYS Icepak Coupling Tutorial


Each side of the cabinet contains an opening. In the Cabinet panel, click the Properties tab and assign
Openings. Change the Min z and Max z Wall type to Opening.
Figure 32.11: Cabinet Properties

Change the material of Coil object.


In the Properties tab, specify the Solid material as Copper.

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Step 3: Generate a Mesh


Figure 32.12: Coil Material

The material for the Stock object is Aluminum; therefore keep the selection of default for the Stock
object.

32.6. Step 3: Generate a Mesh


Open the Mesh control panel and enter the specifications as shown below, ensuring Multi-level
meshing is used. Keep the default settings for all other inputs.

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Maxwell to ANSYS Icepak Coupling Tutorial


Figure 32.13: Mesh control Panel

Click Generate to mesh the model. Visualize the mesh at plane cuts and surface displays from the
Display tab.

32.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings


Go to Problem setup
Basic parameters. In the General setup tab, enable the Ray tracing radiation model for Radiation and keep the default inputs.

Solution settings

Solution settings

Advanced settings.

1. Make sure the Precision for the solver is Double.


2. Click Accept in the Advanced solver setup panel.
Go to the File menu, select EM mapping and Volumetric heat losses.
Select Stock_0, Stock_1, and Stock_2.
Retain the default Solution ID and Frequency (Hz) inputs.

626

Basic settings, keep the Number of iterations as 100.

Click Accept and close the Basic settings panel.


Go to

Under

Enable the Gravity vector and make sure that gravity in the z-direction is -9.80665 m/

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Step 6: Calculate a Solution


Figure 32.14: Volumetric heat losses

Click Accept to close the panel.

32.8. Step 5: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak automatically saves the model for you before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model (including the mesh) yourself as well.
File Save project
ANSYS Workbench will close ANSYS Icepak to save the model, you will need to launch ANSYS Icepak
again to continue.

32.9. Step 6: Calculate a Solution


1. Go to Solve Run solution to display the Solve panel.
2. Keep the default settings in the Solve panel.
3. Click Start solution to start the solver.

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32.10. Step 7: Examine the Results


1. After calculating a solution in ANSYS Icepak, a green check mark will be displayed in the Icepak Solution
cell in the Project Schematic. The green check mark indicates that all data is up to date.

2. Go to the Solve menu and select Define report. In the Define summary report panel, keep the default
specifications. Select New and select the Stock objects in the Objects drop-down list. For the Value,
select Heat flow. Click Accept. Click Write to display the Report summary data panel shown in Figure 32.16: Report summary data Panel (p. 629).
Figure 32.15: Define summary report Panel

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Step 8: Summary
Figure 32.16: Report summary data Panel

32.11. Step 8: Summary


In this tutorial, heat losses are transferred from Maxwell to ANSYS Icepak using ANSYS Workbench. The
heat flow indicated in Figure 32.16: Report summary data Panel (p. 629) is 8.73 for the Stock which is
the same value calculated in Maxwell using the Fields calculator.

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629

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Index
A
Airborne Electronics System, 595
Avionics Box, 475

CAD file, 263


IDF, 251, 286
tcb file, 345
trace layer, 289, 355
individual side specification, 83

J
joule heating, 303

B
BGA-package, 169, 343

C
CAD
geometry, 261
import, 263
CFD Post, 373
CFD Post in Workbench, 373
cold-plate, 103, 107

D
Datacenter cooling
high density, 407
Design Modeler
electronics, 449
MCAD Geometry, 509
Dimensions tab, 344

E
Edit object panel, 6
Electronics
Design Modeler, 449

F
finned heat sink, 3, 17
Functions
compound, 192
objective, 192
primary, 192

loss coefficient, 153


loss coefficient vs Re, 166

M
Maxwell to Icepak, 609
MCAD Geometry
Design Modeler, 509
mesh exercise, 141
microelectronics, 317
modeling
model layers separately, 301
radiation, 211
monitor point, 330
mouse conventions, 2
MRF, 577
multi-level meshing, 333, 336

N
non-conformal
assembly, 107
mesh, 129, 136, 138
nested, 121

O
object parameters, 237
obtaining support, 2
optimization run, 196
orthotropic material properties, 118

H
heat pipe, 115, 121
heat sink, 51
finned, 3, 17
inline or staggered, 169
heat transfer coefficient, 348
help
obtaining support, 2
hex-dominant, 274

I
Icepak in Workbench, 361
import

P
param value, 189
parameterization, 75
parametric runs, 174
parametric trials, 157
multiple trials, 89

R
radiation model
discrete ordinates, 199, 212
ray tracing, 212
rf amplifier, 39, 55

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631

Index

S
search fan library, 52
summary report, 134
support
obtaining help, 2
System
Electronics, 595
System Level Geometry
Translation, 529

T
Thermal Resistance, 187
trace heating, 303
trace layer, 285
import, 289, 355
transient simulation, 217
Translation
MCAD Geometry, 529
typographical conventions, 1

W
Workbench
Icepak, 361
Maxwell to Icepak, 609

Z
zero slack, 144, 353, 358
zoom-in modeling, 233, 241

632

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