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StephenLowe

ASHRAEHamptonRoadsChapterPastPresident
AECOMDesign MechanicalEngineeringDiscipline
Manager,VirginiaBeachDivision
ProfessionalEngineer CommonwealthofVirginia ProfessionalEngineer CommonwealthofVirginia,
NCEES
BSME UniversityofVirginia,2002
Sheetmetalfabricator,equipmentinstaller,refrigeration
servicetechnicianduringhighschoolandcollege
C l i E i f P ConsultingEngineerfrom2003 Present
Overview Overview
Introduction
CoolingTowerBasics
PrinciplesofOperation
TypesofCoolingTowers
CommonApplications
DesignConsiderations
SelectionCriteria SelectionCriteria
OpenPipingandPumpingSystems
WaterQuality
TowerLocation
AncillarySystems AncillarySystems
ConstructionIssues
Constructability,QualityControlandStartup
RatingandCertification
L L d LessonsLearned
Conclusion
Resources
QuestionsandDiscussion
CoolingTowerBasics
PrinciplesofOperation
CoolingViaEvaporation dependsonWetBulb
Temperature Temperature
DesignDryBulbTemperaturescommonlyexceed95deg
F:poordeltaTforcoolingprocesses
D i W b lb hl d F DesignWetbulbmuchless:~80degF
UseaprocessthatdependsonWBtotakeadvantageof
greaterdeltaT g
Evaporativeeffectisachangeofstateandthusalarge
transferofenergyoccursrelativetotherequiredmass
flow flow
Cl dCi i
OpenCoolingTower
ClosedCircuit
CoolingTower
CrossFlowArrangement CounterFlowArrangement
CoolingTowerBasics
CommonApplications
PowerPlantSteamCondensation
ProcessCooling
HVACHeatRejection
ChillerCondenserHeat ChillerCondenserHeat
WSHPLoopHeat
*Wewillbefocusingonopen,crossflowcoolingtowersfor
chillercondenserheatrejectionfortheremainderofthe j
presentation.
BasicHVACCoolingTo erApplication BasicHVACCoolingTowerApplication
DesignConsiderations
DesignConsiderations
SelectionCriteria
OpenPipingandPumpingSystems
WaterQuality
TowerLocation TowerLocation
AncillarySystems
DesignConsiderations
SelectionCriteria
Process(ChillerCondenser)TemperatureRequirements
HotWaterTemperature(HWT):Temperatureofwaterenteringthe p ( ) p g
tower
ColdWaterTemperature(CWT):Temperatureofwaterleavingthe
tower
TowerRange:HWT CWT
LowerCWTgenerallyresultsinhigherChillerEfficiency
FlowRateorCapacity
AmbientConditions
Evaporation(orEntering)DesignWetBulb(EWB)
Approach:CWT EWB
Lowerapproachgenerallyresultsinalargertower
Design Conditions DesignConditions
Design Conditions DesignConditions
YES
NO
YES
DesignConditions
UseEvaporationDesignWBforselectionof
evaporativeequipment
U f % % % di i i h d i Useof0.4%,1%,or2%conditionisuptothedesigner
basedonspecificapplicationanddesignfirmpractice
A2degreeFmarginofsafetyisrecommendedto A2degreeFmarginofsafetyisrecommendedto
accountforrecirculation(ruleofthumb further
analysisisrequiredforthespecificapplication) y q p pp
CondenserwaterdeltaTdependsonmanyfactors
suchastheprocessthatiscooledandoptimizationof
h i thepumpingsystem
DesignConsiderations
OpenPipingandPumpingSystems
Coolingtowerpumpingapplicationtroublesare
ll l d f h f ll i i generallyrelatedtooneofthefollowingissues:
IncorrectPumpHeadEstimation
PumpCavitation PumpCavitation
AirIntroductiontoPumpSuction
ImproperBypassConfiguration/Control ImproperBypassConfiguration/Control
DesignConsiderations
OpenPipingandPumpingSystems
PumpHeadEstimation
l l f h h Determineactualstaticliftheight
Determineimpactofsiphondraw:eitherbreakthesiphonor
designtomaintainit.
Determinefrictionhead
Pipe
Equipment(condenser towerspraynozzle etc ) Equipment(condenser,towerspraynozzle,etc.)
Components(valves,strainers,etc.)
DesignConsiderations
OpenPipingandPumpingSystems
Pumpheadestimationerrorscancause:
bl Unstablepumpoperation
Unstablecondenserflowatthechiller
Admissionofairintothepumpinlet p p
Energywasteduetoneedforextensivethrottling
Manywastedhoursandheadachesfindingtheproblem!
DesignConsiderations
OpenPipingandPumpingSystems
Pumpcavitation istheflashing(boiling)oftheworking
fluid(water)intoavaporduetoexcessivelylowsuction
di ft f d ith i i t d ti i t th pressureandisoftenconfusedwithairintroductionintothe
pumpsuction.
NetPositiveSuctionHead(NPSH)isthemeasureofsuction
pressure pressure.
Therequired suctionpressureforaparticularpumpis
indicatedNPSHR andispublishedasacurveonthepump
selectionchart.
Thesuctionpressureavailable tothepumpinaparticular
systemisindicatedNPSHA andmustbecalculatedbythe
engineer.
IfNPSHA NPSHR it ti ill IfNPSHA<NPSHR,cavitation will occur.
NPSHAExampleCalculation
DesignConsiderations
OpenPipingandPumpingSystems
B&GCoolingTowerPumpingandPipingManualhas4
l i th ti i i rulesconcerningthepumpsuctionpiping:
1. LeavethesuctionLineAlone!
2. Placethepumpbelowtowerpanwaterlevel p p p
3. Avoidabovethepumpairtrapsinthesuctionline
4. Avoidfinemesh,highpressuredropstrainersinthesuction
line line
DesignConsiderations
OpenPipingandPumpingSystems
Airadmittancetothepumpinletistypicallycausedby:
Towerpanvortexing
Towerpandraindown
Incorrectbypassarrangement yp g
DesignConsiderations
OpenPipingandPumpingSystems
Towerpanvortexing iscausedbyexcessivevelocityin
th t it i i d b t ll db thetowerexitpipingandcanbecontrolledby:
Donotexcessivelyoversizethepump
Maintainingtowerexitpipesizeforaminimumof10pipe g p p p p
diameters
Increasepandepth
Provideavortexbreakerinthetowerpan Provideavortexbreakerinthetowerpan
Installtowerontheequator
DesignConsiderations
OpenPipingandPumpingSystems
Towerpandraindowniscausedbyinsufficientwater
d tht fl dth t it i i d b id d depthtofloodthetowerexitpipingandcanbeavoided
by:
Correctlysizingthemakeupwaterline y g p
EvaporationRate
Blowdown Rate
Providingacheckvalvetokeepthepipingsystemfloodedon Providingacheckvalvetokeepthepipingsystemfloodedon
pumpshutdown
Properlyisolatingtowercellsinmultiplecellinstallations
WRONG WRONG
Condenserandasignificant
portionofthepipingsystemwill
drainpacktopanonpump
shutdown.Panmayfloodand shutdown.Panmayfloodand
chillercouldstartwithadry
condenser.
CORRECT CORRECT
Condenserwillremainflooded
onpumpshutdown.Minimal
systemvolumewilldraintopan
onshutdown,thereforepan p
shouldnotflood.
WRONG
Bypassconnectedtopump
i i i i suctionpipingcancauseair
introductiontopumpinletand
unstablepumpoperation.
CORRECT
B di h i t b i ith Bypassdischargingtobasinwith
balancingvalvesetequalto
dischargenozzlepressuredrop
willresultinconstantpump
headandfloodedpumpsuction. p p
CORRECT
Separateoperatorsallowvalvestomaintain
WRONG
Linkedvalveswillresultinunstableflow.
aconstanttotalflowasbothvalves
modulate.
BypassConfigurationExample
DesignConsiderations
WaterQuality
RemovalofSolids
ChemicalTreatment
Consultachemicaltreatmentprofessionalforyourspecific
application pp
BiologicalContamination
Minimizedrift
Sitetowersawayfromairintakes
Avoidpipingdesignsthatresultinstagnantwater
Chemicallytreat y
DesignConsiderations
WaterQuality
RemovalofSolids
Whatsthatfloatinginthebasin???? g
Whateveritis,ithasagoodshotatendingupinsideyourchiller!!!!
DesignConsiderations
WaterQuality
RemovalofSolids
h h l d b k Guywithshovelandbucket
Inlinestrainers
Sidestreamfilters
Basinsweepingsystem
DesignConsiderations
TowerLocation
Visibility
Sound
Drift
GettingtheproperRealEstate
Location,location,location
CoolingTowersarehighlyvisibleduetophysicalsize
d l andplume
Needampleclearancetominimizerecirculationand
ensureproperperformance ensureproperperformance
Lowfrequencysoundemittedfromlargefanstravels
greatdistance greatdistance
Driftcanmarkwindowsandpaintjobs
DesignConsiderations
AncillarySystems
FreezeProtection
TowerSumpBasin
Electric
SteamInjection
Recirculation
Piping Piping
WaterTreatmentSystems
ChemicalSystems
SolidsFiltration SolidsFiltration
ControlSystems
Pneumaticoperators willrequirefreezeprotectioninsome
climates
Largevalvesrequirelotsoftorque electricoperatorsmayneedto
beindustrialgrade
ConstructionIssues
Constructability,Startup,QualityControl
Thereislotsoflargepipingunderneaththetower,make
sureyougetplentyofspaceforit sureyougetplentyofspaceforit
Considerlayingoutallofthepipingbasedona
manufacturersparticulartower
U h f h kli i Usethemanufacturersstartupchecklistonyoursite
visit
Readtheinstallationandoperationmanualduring p g
design;therearelotsofoptionsthataffectthecostof
thetower.Youneedtospecifythemifyourapplication
needsthem.
ConstructionIssues
RatingsandCertification
ManufacturersRatedPerformance
CTICertification
PerformanceBasedCommissioning
ConstructionIssues
LessonsLearned
TowerBasinFreezeProtection
l d l d l l Directsteaminjectionispopularinindustrialandlargescale
HVACapplications.
Chemicalusedforboilerfeedwater mayreactwithcondenser
waterchemicaltreatmentresultinginthereleaseofnoxious
gases.
Ahotwatercirculatorpumpcoupledtoaheatsourcecanbe p p p
usedinstead.
ConstructionIssues
LessonsLearned
VerticalLoopinSuctionPiping
d d d h l Towermountedongradeadjacenttomechanicalroom
Coldwaterpipeexitsbottomofbasinandpassesthrough
mechanicalroomwall
Pipeistherunupthewalltotheroofstructuretogetthepipe
acrosstheroomtothepump
Uponshutdown,thesystemequalizesandthepipingatthe Uponshutdown,thesystemequalizesandthepipingatthe
rooflevelbecomesairlocked
Thepumpwillrequiremanualpriminginordertostart
ConstructionIssues
LessonsLearned
FloodingToweronPumpShutdown
Towerismountedongradeadjacenttomechanicalroom Towerismountedongradeadjacenttomechanicalroom.
Thereisasignificantvolumeofwaterlocatedabovethetower
basinduetoalonghorizontalrunofhotcondenserwaterpipe
inthemechanicalroom inthemechanicalroom.
Thedivertingvalveisinstalledinthehorizontalwiththe
bypassconnectionfacingdown.
Wheneverthepumpshutsdown allofthewaterinthe Wheneverthepumpshutsdown,allofthewaterinthe
horizontalpiperunsthroughthedivertingvalveandbackto
thebasin.
Thebasinoverflowsintheparkinglotresultinginan p g g
unsightlypuddleandwastedchemicaltreatment
ConstructionIssues
LessonsLearned
Airintroducedtopumpsuctionviabypass
ConstructionIssues
LessonsLearned
Airintroducedtopumpsuctionviabypass
AIRCANBEDRAWNINTO
PUMPSUCTION
ConstructionIssues
LessonsLearned
Airintroducedtopumpsuctionviatowerdischarge
if ld manifold
ConstructionIssues
LessonsLearned
Airintroducedtopumpsuctionviatowerdischarge
if ld manifold
MUSTISOLATETOWER
DISCHARGE
ConstructionIssues
LessonsLearned
Floodinghotwaterpansonmanifolded towers
ConstructionIssues
LessonsLearned
Floodinghotwaterpansonmanifolded towers
AUTOFLOWVALVE
ConstructionIssues
LessonsLearned
Multipleconnectedtowersshouldhaveanequalization
li line.
Whenaddingorreplacingtowersconnectedthroughan
equalizationline,designthetowerandframingto q , g g
ensurethattheexistingoperatingwaterlevelis
matchedwiththenewtower.
If i i id ib i i l i f h If itisnecessarytoprovidevibrationisolationforthe
tower,thepipingsystemmust beisolatedfromthe
tower.
Resources
B&GCoolingTowerPumpingandPipingManual
MarleyCoolingTowerCompany CoolingTower
F d l Fundamentals
BaltimoreAirCoilProductandApplicationHandbook
E E i L M l Evapco EquipmentLayoutManual
www.CTI.org
ASHRAEH db k 8HVACS t d ASHRAEHandbook 2008HVACSystemsand
Equipment,Chapter39
Questions?