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Dr. M. C.

Saxena Institute of Technology and

Management, Lucknow
1. Obtain the relativistic formula for the addition of velocities. Hence,
show that the velocity of light is an absolute constant independent of
the frame of reference and that the addition of any velocity to the
velocity of light merely reproduces velocity of light.

2. Derive the formula for the variation of the mass of a particle with its
velocity. Mention an expression which verifies it. Hence, show that no
particle can move with a velocity greater than the velocity of light in an
inertial frame.

3. Deduce Einstein’s mass – energy relation E = mc2 and discuss it. Give
some evidence showing its validity.

4. State the fundamental postulates of the special theory of relativity and

deduce from them the Lorentz transformation equations.

5. How fast must an electron move in order that its mass equals the rest
mass of the proton? [v
= 2.99 x 108 m/s]

6. Calculate the percentage contraction in the length of a rod in a frame

of reference moving with velocity 0.8c in a direction (i) parallel to its
own length (ii) inclined at 600 to its own length.
[(i) 40% (ii) 8.4%]

7. Discuss the formation of interference fringes due to a thin wedge-

shaped film seen by normally reflected sodium light.

8. Calculate the displacement of the fringes when a thin transparent

lamina is introduced in the path of one of the interfering beams in

9. White light is incident on a soap film at an angle sin-1(4/5) and the

refracted light is observed with a spectroscope. It is found that two
consecutive dark bands correspond to wavelengths 6.1 x 10-7 cm and
6.0 x 10-7cm. If the refractive index of the film be (4/3). Calculate the
thickness. [t = 0.0017cm]

10. Two plane rectangular pieces of glass are in contact at one edge and
separated by a hair at opposite edge so that a wedge is formed. When
light of wavelength 6000Ǻ falls normaly on the wedge, nine
interference fringes are observed. What is the thickness of hair?
[ t = 27000 Ǻ]

11. What is Resolving power?Explain Rayleigh’s criteria for just resolution.

Derive expression for resolving power for grating.
12. How many orders will be visible if the wavelength of incident radiation
is 5000 Ǻ and the number of lines on the grating is 2620 to an inch.
[ n = 19.4]

13. Describe the construction of a Nicol’s prism. Explain how it can be used
as a polarizer and as an analyzer.

14. Describe the phenomenon of double refraction in uniaxial crystals.

Distinguish between negative and positive crystals. How is double
refraction explained by Huygen’s theory?

15. What is optical activity? Explain Fresnel’s theory of optical activity.

16. The value of μe and μo for quartz are 1.5508 and 1.5418 respectively.
Calculate the phase retardation for λ = 5000 Ǻ when the plate
thickness is 0.032mm. [ θ = 3.617 rad]

17. A 20cm long tube containing 48 cm3 of sugar solution rotates the
plane of polarization by 110. If the specific rotation of sugar is 66o.
Calculate the mass of sugar in the solution.
[mass of sugar = 4gm]

18. Explain construction and working of Ruby laser.

19. Describe He-Ne laser. How is it superior to a ruby laser?

20. Write a short notes on Holography.

21. What do you mean by single mode and multimode optical fibre? What
are various advantages of multimode fibres?

22. Calculate the numerical aperature, acceptance angle and the critical
angle of the fibre for μcore = 1.50 and μcladding = 1.45. [ NA=
0.385, θi =22.630, θc = 75.30]