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Abstract

Automatic filtering goggle for welding is protective goggle, which can be used to
protect eyes of welder from sharp light rays while welding specially in electrical arc
welding. This goggle becomes black when actual welding procedure takes place and
as soon as welding is stopped it gets transparent. It is a original design through
operator can see the job directly without removing goggle. The arcs associated with
arc welding emit high levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), and this often causes
acute injuries in the workplace, particularly photo era to conjunctivitis. It is important
to know the level of UVR emitted by arc welding under various conditions, as this
information will help in evaluating potential UVR hazards in welding workplaces and
taking protective measures against it. In this study, the ACGIH effective irradiance
for UVR was measured experimentally for CO2 arc welding in order to evaluate its
UVR hazards. A welding robot was used in the experiment in order to realize
reproducible and consistent welding operations. The UVR from CO2 arc welding is
actually hazardous for the eye and skin. It was found that the effective irradiance is
inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the arc is strongly dependent
on the direction of emission from the arc with a maximum at 50–60° from the plate
surface, and tends to increase with welding current.

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1. Introduction

In practices two type of concepts generation research occurs. First is termed as need
research. In need research emphasis is upon identifying sufficed needs that exist in
market. Second is termed concept identification ion is to be carried
Automatic filtering goggle for welding can be termed as needs research. In industries,
worker has to remove goggles when inspection is to be carried out after welding has
taken place. It introduces fatigue both in hands and eyes. Also nonproductive time (like
removing goggles) increases, which reduces profit of industry. Thus need is to reduce
fatigue and minimization of non-productive time.
Skin cancer is linked to excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation(UVR). It is the
most common cancer, and the World Health Organization has reported that excessive
solar UVR exposure results in 60,000 premature deaths per year worldwide.
Exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is an occupational health and safety issue
for outdoor workers since excessive exposure is associated with negative health
outcomes, including eye conditions and skin cancers
The term ‘filter’ usually refers to glasses used in optical systems, to either
transistor prevent transmission of specific wavelengths. The term ‘absorber’ is usually
reserved for glasses which are used for controlling light to provide protection from
damage to humans, for example, for eye protection, as in sunglasses, or welder and laser
goggles, or to materials exposed to light.
In welding practice, welding goggles is essential from safety point of view.
Operators need to be protected from hazardous rays, spatters, hot slag particles. Also he
should protect himself from falling when welding at a height from ground. Also these
goggles increase the fatigue because operator has to remove goggles to inspect the job
after taking small cuts. This wearing and removing activities increases fatigue and non-
productive time, which is considerable, point for profit –orientated industries.

1.1 Existing arc welding equipments:-


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Arc welding power source i.e. AC & DC., Welding cable, Electrode holder Ground
clamp, Welding electrode ,Welding helmet, hand shield, Hand gloves.
Hand shield and helmets are protecting devices used in arc welding for shielding and
protecting the face and neck of the operator .A hand shield or helmet consist of Face
shield: which is made up of fiber and is formed in a shape of cover front half of head. An
opening at the level of eyes. To provide visibility. It contents three components The first
is expensive good grade of colored are welding filter lens that removes 99.5% of infrared
rays and 99.75% ultraviolet rays. Next to welding lens is another lance of double strength
glass and is used to protect the inner welding lens from metal spatter.
A clear lens is put on the face side of the helmet to protect welding lens.

1.2 About new product development:


Survival for fittest is now become important for organization. After carefully regimenting
the market, choosing target customers, identifying their needs and determining market
positioning, companies go for product development.
Generally new product is categorized into four categories.
• New – to the world products: These are new product, which create entirely new
market
• New product lines: These are new product, which allowed company to hit an
established market for first time.
• Addition to existing product lines: These products are added to list of already
existing products.
• Improvement and revision of exiting product performance: These are instrument
in providing an improved product performance.

1.3 Towards product development:


Idea generation:
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Searching for ideas is first step in the new product development process.
Customer’s scientists, competitors employees, channel members and top
management are the sources for new product ideas. According to traditional
marketing concepts customers are best choice to start the ideas search.

Idea screening:
Ideas are generally divided into three categories i.e. promising ideas, marginal
ideas and rejects. Among this marginal once are sent for full-scale screening. The
main objective of screening is to drop poor ideas as soon as possible.

Concept development:
A product idea can be defined as a possible product, which the company might
thin of the market. A product concept is an extended version of the ideas
expressed in meaningful consumer terms. Consumers do not by product ideas but
they only buy product concepts. An idea can be termed into several concepts.
Marketers need to know who end user of the product is. What value addition does
the product provide?

Concept testing
In this stage concept is presented to the relevant customers and their feedbacks is
sought. The closer the actual product is to the tested concepts, the more realistic
will be the feedback.

Development to Commercialization
After clearing the development stages company requires huge financial
investment for making the product. At this stage company has fair idea regarding
commercial feasibility of the product. Quality function deployment methods are
necessary to translate target customer requirement into a working prototype it is
useful to covert desired customer attributes into engineering attributes

2. MARKET SURVEY
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Generally market research has following objectives.
 It tells the future of existing products and the products yet to be introduced in to
the market.
 It studied market potential and market shear.
 It explores new market and help developing new product.
 It analysis user characteristics, attitudes and opinions with particular emphasis on
any shift in market composition or personal preferences.
 It provides technical information about its functional characteristics.

Market survey is the systematic design, collection and analysis and reporting of
data and finding that are relevant to different marketing situations. During new
product development process, a concept is formed but it cannot be developed fully
into a product. At this stage marketing survey is helpful to provide guidance. So as to
how concept might be improved and refine. The bead geometry that characterizes the
quality of the weld is dependent on a number of input process parameters. These
parameters are closely coupled in such a way that it is difficult to identify the extent
of contribution of these factors toward the desired output. An expert welder from his
experience of trial and error selects a set of parameters that may yield fairly good
results. However, the obtained result may not be the optimal one. The trial and error
of the welder can be avoided, if a suitable mathematical model can be developed,
which could forecast the output from a set of desired parameters or vice-versa.[2].

Define problems and


research objective

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Develop the research
plan

Collection the
information

Analyze the
information

Present the
information

Fig.1 Steps for Market Survey And Analysis

Need of Analysis:
Defining the problem and the research objective
It is first step toward finding a solution or launching a research study. Which focuses on
understanding the nature and limits of a question? The research objective is useful to state
what information is needed to solve the problem. To move to next step of designing the
research refinement of a board indefinite problem into a precise, researchable statement is
essential.
Developing the research plan:
Once a problem is identified and research objective is clearly stated, next step is to
prepare a plan for getting the information needed for research. Research technique is a
reliable one if it produces almost identical result in successive repeated tricks. It is valid
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if it measure what it is supposed to measure and not something else. Brainstorming is
generally used to develop the research plan. It is a conference technique by which a group
to attempts to find a solution for a specific problem by amassing all ideas. It is designed
to obtain the maximum number of ideas relating to specific areas of problem
.
Collection of data:
Marketing research depend on two kinds of data i.e. primary data and secondary data.
Gathered by observing phenomena or surveying respondent is known as primary data. It
is a lengthy and complex process then the collection of secondary data. While secondary
data includes previous research reports, seals, records, government publication and online
database. It marks the beginning of market research process .One of the important
sources for collection of data is Market survey. It includes interviews by telephones, e-
mail, personal interviews etc. Result of survey is user to describe and analyses consumer
survey on factors like the nature of problem.

Fact finding (data collection):


It is important step in market research in which all collected information is converted into
useful & understandable form. It helps to take decision and avoids confusion.

Facts presentations and top line report:


This is final step of market research in which all facts and figures are reported to top
management or decision markers. Presenting of facts should be lucid and short which
help to decision making process and ignorance of report.

Summery
From need of analysis we come to know that for developing any new concept or an idea
we have to go through some standard procedures. For that initially we have to find out
problem, once problem is identified, objectives get cleared. According to that, data is
colleted and from collected data we can come to know that what can be precise
technique to find the fact, and from fact we can come to know the line of work.

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3 Need Analysis: Safety Goggles of Welding

Problem Definition:
In welding practice, welding goggles is essential from safety point of view. Operators
need to be protected from hazardous rays, spatters, hot slag particles. Also he should
protect himself from falling when welding at a height from ground. Also these goggles
increase the fatigue because operator has to remove goggle to inspect the job after taking
small cuts. This wearing and removing activities increases fatigue and non-productive
time, which is considerable, point for profit-oriented industries. Hence the basic problem
is to minimize the fatigue and to increase productivity of operator.

.Development of plan:
After determining the research objective, brainstorming was carried out to develop the
research plan. During brainstorming session various aspects of welding were listed down.
In which various hazards faced by operator, variety of products, expected advancements
in product, economy of product were focused.

.Data collection
To collect the data related to welding goggles, various survey were carried for
multivariable analysis. As questionnaire is the most commonly used tool to collect
primary data, also it is simple and flexible. So it was used to collect the data.

Questionnaires:
To collect the data related to welding goggles various questionnaire were prepared. In
questionnaires for pre-design users study, various observations like workers standard
practices, any vision aspect due to welding, efficient use of welding equipments etc. were
studies.
Fact finding:
After collecting information with the help of suitable questionnaires following facts
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are found.

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Fig-6 Market Shear Of Different Types Of Goggle

Fig.7 Hazards Faced By Operator

Type 1: Full Dark Type 3 : White Glass


Type 2: Medium Dark Type 4 : Screen.

Fig. 8

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Summery :
After analyzing various facts and recording information following results concluded.
In section is done by frequently removing goggles.
Most of the operator use type 3 goggles, as they are low in cost.
Through type 3 goggles are not safe it covers major shares of market.
Also new product has grater market potential, as it reduces fatigue level of operator.

4 Automatic Filtering Safety Goggles

4.1 Electrode Holder:


It is used to hold the electrode and direct it for welding in a few designed electrode holder
one adaptive pressure switch is installed to control the action of LCD glass in goggle. The
switch is mounted on the holder in lower side related to position of four fingers. It will
operate with nominal pressure of finger.

Fig. 9 Electrode Holder

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4.2 Adaptive Pressure Switch
Adaptive Pressure Switch is mounted on electrode holder considering ergonomics. These
switches are used while welding to control just the on and off function of Goggle LCD.
The fig shows adaptive pressure switch.

Fig. 10 Adaptive Pressure Switch

Feature of Adaptive Pressure switch:


 Accommodate wide range of action and can be categorized to the physical action
required to activate to activate them.
 Responsive across their entire surface.
 They provide clear tactile.
 Available in various sizes.

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4.3 LCD Glass:
This is filtering glass when we supply electronic signal (3v) then liquid molecules in
glass are arranged in such a way that they can make resistance for light passing through
it. When electric current is disconnected the liquid molecules in glass again comes to
original position and light can pass through it duty i.e. glass become transparent.
Single-domain Nematic liquid crystal (LC) devices based on either the
polarization-rotation or the bi re fringent effect or both are investigated for reflective
spatial light modulators (SLMs). We evaluate each LC mode in terms of its contrast ratio,
optical efficiency, operating voltage and its tolerance in cell-gap. We study the hybrid-
aligned, the 0-, 45- and 63.6°-twisted Nematic LC modes which can be operated in either
normally white (NW) or normally black (NB) mode. We also include the mixed twisted
Nematic and self-compensated Twist Nematic modes for NW and the tilted home tropic
mode for NB. Two-dimensional simulations have been carried out to compare with
experimental observation for one of the NB modes implemented in active matrix
reflective SLMs to elucidate the effect of fringe-fields. To improve the optical efficiency,
we also study polarization-independent LC phase gratings using patterned alignment for
reflective SLMs. The basic equations for the diffracted and non-diffracted intensities for
both the reverse-twist and orthogonal-twist two-domain LC phase gratings have been
derived. The device parameters, the operating voltage and the optical diffraction
efficiency are given for various cases with a twist angle equal to or less than 900.

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FIG.11 Operation of LCD 900 twisted

FIG.12 L.C. Aligns with Electric Field

Basic of LCD Operation:


LCDs use a type of liquid called Twisted Nematic (TN). Super Twisted
Nematic(STN)Liquid Crystal material offers a highest twist angle (>=2000 vs
900 ) that provide higher contrast and a better viewing angle. The most recent advance has
been the introduction of Film to compensated Super Twisted Nematic(FSTN) displays.
This adds a relation film to the STN display that compensates for color added by the
birefringence effect. This allows a black and white display to be produced.
See fig . Below to see a visual of the molecules alignment

Fig.13 Liquid Crystal Molecules

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4.4 RECHARAGEBLE BATTERY:
LITHIUM –Manganese Lithium Rechargeable
These super compact lithium secondary batteries feature a new configuration in which a
manganese compound oxide is used for the positive electrode, and a lithium/ aluminum
alloy for the electrode. (MT Type).

Fig. 14 Rechargeable Battery

Technical data table:

Technical data –Type 1- Manganese Lithium Rechargeable (ML)

Nominal Nominal Dimension Basic Continuous


Modal No. Voltage Capacity (mm) Battery Drain
(V) (mAh) Weight (Ma)
External Height (g)
Diameter

ML2020 3 200.0 20.2 2.0 2.2. 0.10

* Nominal capacity shown is based on standard drain and cut off voltage drawn to 2.0V
at 200C

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Features of battery:
 Charge at voltages even under 3v
 Larger capacity for hour- after-hour back up
 Excellent withstand voltage, overcharge and over discharge withstanding
characteristics.

4.5 WORKING OF PRODUCT


While welding operator will hold electrode holder with his four fingers on adaptive
pressure switch. As soon as he start welding he will grip firmly and exert a little pressure
on switch and the switch will close the circuit and LCD become black, filtering the light
rays emitted from the arc. When operator stops welding and want to inspect the job he
will release his four finger and switch will get off. As current in circuit is off LCD glass
become transparent and operator can inspect the job through LCD glass. For welding he
will grip the electrode holder against and LCD glass will get black. In this way operator
can inspect the job without removing goggle. Following figure illustrate the above

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procedure.

Fig. 15 Before Welding Process

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Fig.16 After Welding Process

5. Conclusion:
This concept tell about need of analysis technique, to find out problem and line of
operation using proper technique. Problems of welding goggles, i.e. what are the different
problems during welding? Accordingly developing their plan from collected data. Which
is flexible using different component like Electrode Holder, Adaptive Pressure Switch,
LCD Glasses etc.
which gives :-
It reduces the fatigue of operator up to very high extend and provide comfort and safety.
It will reduce the non productive time of operator hence increases the speed of welding
procedure. As it reduces fatigue of operator productivity of operator will increase. It will
helpful to weld in night by adjusting darkness of goggle.

References:
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1.Gunaraj and Murugan, 2000b V. Gunaraj and N. Murugan, Prediction and
optimization of weld bead volume for the submerged arc process—Part 2,Welding
Journal 78 (2000),pp.331s–338s.(2)
2.Ignacio Moreno, Noureddine Bennis, Jeffrey A. Davis, Carlos Ferreira Twist angle
determination in liquid crystal displays by location of local adiabatic points Optics
Communications Volume 158, Issues 1-6, 15 December 1998, Pages 231-238 (4.3)
3. Forrest, K.Y., Cali, J.M., Cavill WJ, 2008. Use of protective eyewear inU.S. adults:
results from the 2002 national health interview survey. Ophthalmic. Epidemiol. 15.
37–41.
4. Fea, A., Bosone, A., Rolle, T., Grignolo, F.M., 2008. Eye injuries in an Italian
urban population: report of 10620 cases admitted to an eye emergency
department in Torino. 1. Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 246.

5.World Health Organization. Ultraviolet radiation: global solar UV index. An


educational tool to reduce risks of skin cancer and cataract. Fact sheet # 271.
Geneva: World Health Organization; 2002.

6.Statistics New Zealand. New Zealand population clock. Available from: www.
stats.govt.nz/people/population/default.htm. Gawkrodger DJ. Occupational skin cancers.
Occup Med 2004;54:458–63.
7.Agrawal GP (2002) Fiber Optic Communication Systems,3rd edn. New York: John
Wiley & Sons Inc.
8.Basch B, Gringeri S, Goudreault R and Ravinkumar S (2002) Evolution of the
photonic core within metropolitan and regional networks. NFOEC. Technical
Proceedings. Green PE (1993) Fiber Optic Networks. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice
Hall.
9.Ramaswami R and Sivarajan KN (2002) Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective,
2nd edn. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers

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Annex -I

GOGGLE MODEL

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Annex-II

Annex-III

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PRE-DESIGN----USER’S STUDY
Name of operator : __________________________________________________
Location of W/S : ___________________________________________________
Experience : ___________________________________________________
Types of worker
Average Slow Fast Qualified

Is he following standard practices?


Yes No

Is he using safety equipment effectively & adequately?


No If Yes Occasionally Regularly

Is he experiencing some strain on eyes welding?


No Yes If Yes Severe Sometimes Very little
Any eye problem or vision defect due to occupation of welding?

Is he uses any Eye-Drop or Medicine?


No Yes
Hand movement observed:________________________________________________
How he is gripping welding electrode holder:_________________________________
Length of Welding:______________________________________________________
Length of pause : ________________________________________________________

Date

Place Signature

Annex-IV

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PRODUCT SURVEY
Name of shop/ firm:___________________________________________________
Address:____________________________________________________________

Contents Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4

Specification
Color
Quality
Durability
Life
Safety
Standards
Who buy
Cost
Aesthetic
Degreeof
comfort
Manufacturer
More salable
Your
recommendation
Any more
reason

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