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Acid
Acids are compounds that contain Hydrogen (Hydrochloric,
HCl; Sulphuric, H
2
SO4; Nitric, HNO
3
). However, not all
compounds that contain Hydrogen are acids (Water, H
2
O;
Methane, CH
4
). Acids are usually compounds of non metals
with Hydrogen and sometimes Oxygen.
Acids can be classified in various ways, depending on the
factors mentioned below:

1. Classification Based on the Strength of the acid.
2. Classification Based on the Basicity of the Acid.
3. Classification Based on the Concentration of the acid.
4. Classification Based on the presence of Oxygen.
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Bases and Alkalis
A Base is a substance that gives OH- ions when dissolved in
water. Bases are usually metal hydroxides (MOH). Examples
include Sodium Hydroxide, NaOH, Calcium Hydroxide,
Ca(OH)
2
. The solution of a base in water is called an alkali.
The strength of a base depends on the concentration of the
hydroxyl ions when it is dissolved in water.
1. Strong Base: A base that dissociates completely or almost
completely in water is classified as a strong base. The greater
the number of hydroxyl ions the base produces, the stronger
is the base. Examples: Sodium hydroxide: NaOH, Potassium
hydroxide: KOH, Calcium hydroxide: Ca(OH)
2
.
2. Weak Base: A base that dissociates in water only partially is
known as a weak base. Examples: Magnesium hydroxide:
Mg(OH)
2
, Ammonium hydroxide: NH
4
OH.
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pH
A scale for measuring hydrogen ion concentration in a
solution, called pH scale has been developed. The p in pH
stands for potenz in German, meaning power. On the pH
scale we can measure pH from 0 (very acidic) to 14 (very
alkaline). pH should be thought of simply as a number
which indicates the acidic or basic nature of a solution.
Higher the hydronium ion concentration, lower is the pH
value. The pH of a neutral solution is 7. Values less than 7
on the pH scale represent an acidic solution. As the pH
value increases from 7 to 14, it represents an increase in
OH ion concentration in the solution, that is, increase in
the strength of alkali.
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Salts
A Salt results when an acid reacts with a base. Both are
neutralised. The H+ and OH- ions combine to form water.
The non metallic ions of the acid and the metal ions of the
base form the salt.
Important salts used in everyday life and industrial
applications are Sodium chloride (NaCl), Sodium carbonate,
(Na
2
CO
3
), Sodium Bicarbonate, (NaHCO
3
), Sodium Hydroxide
(NaOH)
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Chemical bonds are what hold atoms together to form the
more complicated aggregates that we know as molecules
and extended solids. The forces that hold bonded atoms
together are basically just the same kinds of electrostatic
attractions that bind the electrons of an atom to its
positively-charged nucleus. chemical bonding occurs when
one or more electrons are simultaneously attracted to two
nuclei.

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A change in which one or more new substances are formed
is called a chemical change. A chemical change is also
called a chemical reaction. The change may conveniently be
represented by a chemical equation.
Chemical reactions occur when different atoms and
molecules combine together and split apart. For example, if
Carbon (C) is burnt in Oxygen (O
2
) to form Carbon Dioxide,
a Chemical Reaction occurs. This reaction can be written: C
+ O
2
> C O
2
. This is called a Chemical Equation. The
substances on the left hand side of the equation are called
the Reactants. The substances on the right hand side are
called the Products.
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A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more
substances. The major component of a solution is called the
solvent, and the minor, the solute. Lemonade, soda water
etc. are all examples of solutions. We can also have solid
solutions (alloys) and gaseous solutions (air).
The particles of a solution are smaller than 1 nm (10-
9 metre) in diameter. So, they cannot be seen by naked
eyes. The solute particles cannot be separated from the
mixture by the process of filtration. The solute particles do
not settle down when left undisturbed, that is, a solution is
stable.
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Alloys are homogeneous mixtures of metals and cannot be
separated into their components by physical methods. But
still, an alloy is considered as a mixture because it shows
the properties of its constituents and can have variable
composition. For example, brass is a mixture of
approximately 30% zinc and 70% copper.
Non-homogeneous systems, in which solids are dispersed
in liquids, are called suspensions. A suspension is a
heterogeneous mixture in which the solute particles do not
dissolve but remain suspended throughout the bulk of the
medium. Particles of a suspension are visible to the naked
eye.
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Organic chemistry is that branch of chemistry which deals with
the study of compounds of carbon with hydrogen
(hydrocarbons), and their derivatives.
Organic Chemistry is essentially the chemistry of Carbon.
Carbon compounds are classified according to how the
Carbon atoms are arranged and what other groups of
atoms are attached.
Hydrocarbons: The simplest Organic compounds are
made up of only Carbon and Hydrogen atoms only. Even
these run into thousands! Compounds of Carbon and
Hydrogen only are called Hydrocarbons.
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First, we know that a gas has no definite volume or shape; a
gas will fill whatever volume is available to it. Contrast this
to the behavior of a liquid, which always has a distinct
upper surface when its volume is less than that of the space
it occupies.
The other outstanding characteristic of gases is their low
densities, compared with those of liquids and solids. The
most remarkable property of gases, however, is that to a
very good approximation, they all behave the same way in
response to changes in temperature and pressure,
expanding or contracting by predictable amounts. This is
very different from the behavior of liquids or solids, in
which the properties of each particular substance must be
determined individually.
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All gases expand equally due to equally due to equal
temperature difference.
Diffusion of gases: The phenomenon in which a substance
mixes with another because of molecular motion, even
against gravity- is called diffusion.
The pressure of a gas: The molecules of a gas, being in
continuous motion, frequently strike the inner walls of their
container. As they do so, they immediately bounce off
without loss of kinetic energy, but the reversal of direction
(acceleration) imparts a force to the container walls. This
force, divided by the total surface area on which it acts, is
the pressure of the gas.
The unit of pressure in the SI system is the pascal (Pa),
defined as a force of one newton per square metre (1 Nm
2 = 1 kg m1 s2.)

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Temperature scale: A reference scale with respect to which the
temperatures can be measured is known as scale of
temperature. Various scales of temperatures are in use.
Important scales of temperature are:
Celsius scale
Kelvin scale
Fahrenheit scale
Celsius scale: In this scale the lowest fixed point is the freezing
temperature of pure substance. The upper fixed point is the
boiling point of water. The interval is divided into 100 divisions
all are at equal distance. Every division being denoted as one
degree Celsius (
o
C). The Celsius scale is also called as
centigrade scale because the range of temperature is divided
into 100 equal divisions.
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Kelvin scale: Another type of scale which is used to define
the measure of temperature is Kelvin scale. The Kelvin scale
is also known as absolute scale of temperature. The lowest
fixed point is taken from the lowest temperature to which a
substance to be cooled such as -273
o
C. According to the
scale, a temperature is denoted by simply K .
Absolute zero: The temperature at which a given mass of
gas does not occupy any volume or does not exert pressure
is called the absolute zero. Absolute zero i.e., 0K or -
273
o
C is the lowest possible temperature that can be
reached. At this temperature the gas has a theoretical
volume of zero. In the Kelvin scale, the lowest possible
temperature is taken as zero. This temperature is called as
absolute zero. At the point absolute zero there is no
molecular motion and there is no heat energy. At absolute-
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zero all atomic and molecular motions stop. Hence the
absolute zero is the lowest possible temperature which is
denoted by 0K or -273
o
C.
Fahrenheit Scale of Temperature: The lower and upper fixed
points in this scale are considered as 32
o
F and 212
o
F
respectively. The interval of 180
o
F is divided into 180 equal
parts. Each part is known as 1
o
F. This is widely used by
doctors.

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All gases, irrespective of their chemical composition, obey
certain laws that govern the relationship between the volume,
temperature and pressure of the gases. A given mass of a gas,
under definite conditions of temperature and pressure,
occupies a definite volume. When any of the three variables is
altered, then the other variables get altered. Thus these Gas
laws establish relationships between the three variables of
volume, pressure and temperature of a gas.
Boyles Law: Robert Boyle (1627 - 1691) discovered this law in
1662 and it was named after him. It can be restated as The
product of the volume and pressure of a given mass of dry gas
is constant, at constant temperature. P 1/ V( at constant
temperature) or PXV= K (where K is constant).
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Charles Law: At constant pressure, the volume of a given
mass of gas increases or decreases by 1/273 of its original
volume at 32
o
F, for each degree centigrade rise or lowering in
temperature. Assume a given mass of gas has a volume of V1
at a temperature T1 Kelvin at a constant pressure, then,
according to Charles Law we can write: V T or VT=K
(Constant).
Avogadros Law: This is quite intuitive: the volume of a gas
confined by a fixed pressure varies directly with the quantity of
gas. Equal volumes of gases, measured at the same
temperature and pressure, contain equal numbers of
molecules. Avogadros law thus predicts a directly proportional
relation between the number of moles of a gas and its volume.

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Hydrogen: Symbol H, formula H2. The first element in the
periodic table and the most basic and common of all
elements in the universe. Over ninety percent of all the
atoms in the universe are hydrogen atoms and they are the
lightest of all elements. The name hydrogen comes from the
Latin word hydro which means water. Scientists use the
letter H to represent hydrogen in all chemical equations
and descriptions.
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Carbon: The sixth element in the periodic table. It is a very
stable element. Because it is stable, it can be found in many
naturally occurring compounds and by itself. Scientists
describe the three states of carbon as diamond, amorphous,
and graphite.
Nitrogen: It is the seventh element of the periodic table
located between carbon and oxygen. Almost eighty percent of
Earths atmosphere is made of nitrogen gas. Nitrogen is a clear
gas that has no smell when it is in its pure form. It is not very
reactive when it is in a pure molecule, but it can create very
reactive compounds when combined with other elements
including hydrogen (ammonia). There are 7 electrons in a
nitrogen atom.
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Oxygen: Symbol O, formula O
2
. Alone, oxygen is a colorless
and odorless compound that is a gas at room temperature.
Oxygen molecules are not the only form of oxygen in the
atmosphere; you will also find oxygen as ozone and carbon
dioxide. There are 8 electrons in an oxygen atom.
Oxygen is non-combustible but a good supporter of
combustion. An oxide is a compound of two elements, one of
which is oxygen. It can be liquefied and solidified. It is
employed in welding process and also used in hospitals for
artificial respiration. Oxygen shows a valency of -2.
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Water (H
2
O): Water is the only substance that can exist
simultaneously in all the three states of matter, i.e., solid,
liquid and gaseous on this earth.
Pure water is a colourless, odourless and tasteless liquid.
The density of water is 1 g cm-3 at 4
o
C.
The boiling point of water is 100oC at a pressure of 760 mm
of Hg. The melting point of ice is 0
o
C at a pressure of 1
atmosphere.
Ice has a relative density of 0.92. The specific heat capacity of
water is 1 cal/g at 15
o
C.
Water is called the Universal Solvent. Almost all substances
dissolve in water to a certain extent. Hence, it known as a
universal solvent. Because of this property, it is impossible to
get chemically pure water on the earth.
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2008
Q. What are Rubies and Sapphires chemically known as?
(a) Silicon dioxide (b) Aluminium oxide
(c) Lead tetroxide (d) Boron nitride
Q. Which one of the following is also called Stranger Gas?
(a) Argon (b) Neon
(c) Xenon (d) Nitrous oxide
Q. Mixture of which one of the following pairs of gases is the cause of
occurrence of most of the explosions in mines?
(a) Hydrogen and Oxygen (b) Oxygen and acetylene
(c) Methane and air (d) Carbon dioxide and methane
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Q. Which one of the following pairs of metals constitutes the lightest
metal and the heaviest metal, respectively?
(a) Lithium and mercury (b) Lithium and osmium
(c) Aluminium and osmium (d) Aluminium and mercury

2009
Q. Which one of the following is used as an explosive?
(a) Phosphorus trichloride (b) Mercuric oxide
(c) Graphite (d) Nitroglycerine
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2010
Q. Chlorination is a process used for water-purification. The
disinfecting action of chlorine is mainly due to
(a) The formation of hydrochloric acid when chlorine is added to water.
(b) The formation of hypochlorous acid when chlorine is added to water.
(c) The formation of nascent oxygen when chlorine is added to water.
(d) The formation of hydrogen when chlorine is added to water.
Q. Aspartame is an artificial sweetener sold in the market. It consists of
amino acids and provides calories like other amino acids. Yet, it is
used as a low-calorie sweetening agent in food items. What is the
basis of this use?
(a) Aspartame is as sweet as table sugar, but unlike table sugar, it is not readily
oxidized in human body due to lack of requisite enzymes
(b) When aspartame is used in food processing, the sweet taste remains, but it
becomes resistant to oxidation
(c) Aspartame is as sweet as sugar, but after ingestion into the body, it is
converted into metabolites that yield no calories
(d) Aspartame is several times sweeter than table sugar, hence food items
made with small quantities of aspartame yield fewer calories on oxidation

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