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Chapter 1 Static Force Analysis

When the inertia forces are neglected in comparison to the externally applied load, one may go for static
force analysis. If the body is under equilibrium condition, then this equilibrium is known as static
equilibrium and this condition is applicable in many machines where the movement is relatively slow.
These include clamps, latches, support linkages, and many hand operated tools, such as pliers and cutters.
In case of lifting cranes also, the bucket load and the static weight loads may be quite high relative to any
dynamic loads due to accelerating masses and hence one may go for static force analysis.

When the inertia effect due to the mass of the components is also considered, it is called dynamic force
analysis.
Applied and Constraint forces:
When two or more bodies are connected together to form a group or system, the pair of action
and reaction forces between any two of the connecting bodies is called constrained forces.
These forces constrain the connected bodies to behave in a specific manner defined by the nature
of the connection.
Forces acting on this system of bodies from outside the system are called applied forces.
Electric, Magnetic and gravitational forces are example of forces that may be applied without actual
physical contact. But most of the forces we are concerned in mechanical equipment occur through direct
physical or mechanical contact.






External force
Constraint forces
T
F
4
Figure 1: Four bar mechanism showing external and constraint forces
Constraint forces of action and reaction at a mechanical contact occur in pairs and thus have no net force
effect on the system of bodies being considered.
When a part of the body is considered in isolation the effect of such force is considered by using the
freebody diagram.

Characteristics of a force are its magnitude, its direction and its point of application

1
Two equal and opposite forces along two parallel but noncollinear straight lines in a body cannot
be combined to constitute a single force and they constitute a couple. The arm of the couple is the
perpendicular distance between their lines of action and the plane of the couple is the plane
containing the two lines of action.

The moment of the couple M is a vector directed normal to the plane of the couple and the sense
of M is in accordance to the right-hand rule for rotation.





The moment of couple
=
BA
M R F

The value of M is independent of the choice of the reference point about which the moments
are taken, because the vector is the same for all positions of the origin.
BA
R

As the moment vector M is independent of any particular origin or line of application, hence it is
a free vector.

Figure 2
B
A
F
F

Free-body diagram
A free body diagram is a sketch or drawing of the body, isolated from the rest of the machine and its
surroundings, upon which the forces and moments are shown in action. In case of the four bar mechanism
shown in figure 1 the free body diagram of link 3 is as shown below.


43
F
23
F
C
B

Free body diagram of link 3


2
When a link or body is subjected to only two forces it is called a two-force member and when it is
subjected to 3 forces it is called a three-force member. Similarly one may consider multi-force member
also.

Static equilibrium: A body is in static equilibrium if
the vector sum of the forces acting on the body is zero i.e.,

= 0 F
the vector sum of all the moments about any arbitrary point is zero i.e.,

= 0 M

Hence a two force member as shown in figure 3(a) will be in equilibrium if (i) both forces are equal and
opposite and (b) their line of action coincide. If the forces are equal and opposite but not collinear as
shown in Figure 3(b) they will form a couple and body will start to rotate. Hence these two forces should
be equal, opposite and collinear.








1
F
2
F
1
F
1
F
2
F
(c)
(b)
(a)
2
F




Figure 3. Equilibrium of a two force member
Similarly a three force member will be in equilibrium if the vector sum of all these forces equal to zero
and to satisfy the vector sum of all the moments about any arbitrary point equal to zero, their line of
action should meet at a point.
1
F
2
F
3
F
(b)
O


(a)
3
F
2
F
1
F
O

2
F
1
F
3
F








(c)


Figure 4: Equilibrium of three-force member

3
Figure 4(a) shows a body subjected to three forces Also the line of action of
coincide at point O. Hence the resultant of must pass through point O and it should
be equal and opposite to force . Hence for equilibrium, line of action of should pass through point
O as shown in Figure 4(b). In figure 4(c) the forces are shown to form a close polygon (triangle) and one
may use Lamis theorem (sine rule of tringle) to find the unknown forces if atleast one force is known
both in magnitude and direction and the line of action of one more force is known. According to this
theorem
1 2 3
, and . F F F
1
and F
2
F
2
F
1
and F
3
F
3
F
3 1 2
sin sin sin
F F F

= =
where , and are angle as shown in figure 4(c).

For more than three forces one may draw force vector polygon or resolve the forces and moments to get
the required force components.

To find the constraint forces in a mechanism one may either go for analytical or graphical method of
solution if the maximum number of forces in a member is limited to three and if the system has more than
three force members one should go for analytical methods.

Example 1: Find the bearing forces and the torque required for static equilibrium of the four bar
mechanism shown in fig 1.
Solution:
Analytical: For Planar mechanism , 0 =
X
F 0 =
Y
F and 0 =
Z
M .
Step1: Let us first write all the quantities in vector form

j AB i AB R
AB

sin

cos
2 2
+ =
K

23
F 43
F
C
B
j Bc i BC R
CB

sin

cos
3 3
+ =
K

j CD i CD R
DC

sin

cos
4 4
+ =
K

Free body diagram of link 3
j DQ i DQ R
QD

sin

cos
4 4
+ =
K

Similarly
j P i P P

sin

cos + =
G

4
Here link 3 is a two-force member and at this stage we know only the line of action of the forces
which should be along the line BC.
23 43
and F F

34
F
p
D
14
F
G

C






Free body diagram of
Link 4

Link 4 is a three-force member in whih force P is completely known and the line of action of force
which is equal and opposite to is known. Only the point of application of force , which is at point
D, is known. As link 4 is a three force member, taking moment about D,
34
F
43
F
14
F
0 =
Z
M 0
34
= + P R F R
QD CD
G G G G
As P is completely known one may obtain
34
F
G

One may note that link 3 is a two-force member, so
34 43 23
F F F
G G G
= =
Link 2 which is acted upon by two forces i.e.,
12
F
G
and
32
F
G
, and the external applied torque, will be in
equilibrium only if = -
12
F
G
32
F
G
, i.e., these forces are equal and opposite and the resulting moment of the
couple is equal to the applied torque.
Also one may find the torque by taking moment about point A.

Graphical method
As link 4 is a three force member, the line of action of
14
F
G
should pass through the intersection of the
line of action of P and
34
F
G
.
Taking proper scale and by drawing the force polygon one may obtain the magnitude of
34
F
G
and
14
F
G
.
Then considering equilibrium of link 3, force
23
F
G
can be determined.
Then determine the torque taking moment about A.

5

When multiple forces act on a mechanism, one may use superposition theory, which states that in a
linear system, the net effect (e.g., bearing forces or torque) due to all the forces taken simultaneously will
be equal to the summation of the effects due to individual forces taken one at a time.

If one wishes to find only the torque acting on the mechanism, the method of virtual work may be used. It
states the work performed during a virtual displacement from equilibrium is equal to zero. The
virtual displacement is defined as an imaginary infinitesimal displacement of the system that is consistent
with the constraints on the system. For example, the constraints on the slider-crank mechanism are that all
members including the frame are rigid and all joints maintain contact

Example 2. Calculate the torque required (assuming no friction in the bearing) for static equilibrium of an
in-line reciprocating engine in the position when crank angle = 45 deg (from inner dead center). The
dimensions are crank length r =30 mm, connecting rod length L = 70mm, and the piston force is P = 40
N.

B
A
O
L
r
P







X
Solution
Here OB is link 1, crank OA is the 2
nd
link, connecting rod AB is the 3
rd
link and the piston is the 4
th
link.
Crank radius r =30 mm, Length of connecting rod =70 mm
Letting <ABO =
1 0
sin sin
30sin 45
Hence, sin 17.64
70
r L

=

= =



Taking the positive X axis as shown in the figure

30 45 30cos 45 30sin 45 21.213 21.213
AO
R i j i = = + = +

i j

70 342.35 70cos342.35 70sin342.35 66.70 21.213
BA
R i j = = + =
6
It may be observed that link 3 is a two force member and subjected to forces
23
F
The free-body diagram of link 4, i.e., that of piston is shown below. For the present case, it is a three-
force member subjected to a force due to gas pressure, vertical reaction force and force of
connecting rod on piston ( ) at the gudgeon pin. Force is known completely both in magnitude and
direction and the line of action and point of application of force is known. Now drawing the force
polygon as shown in Figure (b) one will be able to find the unknown forces and .
P
14
F
34
F P
34
F
14
F
34
F


P
14
F
34
F


14
F
34
F
P



Figure 5 (a) Free-body diagram of link 4 (b) force polygon


Now one may use a vector method or use simple algebraic calculation using Lamis theorem to find the
forces. Also one may use graphical method to fid the same. All these methods are described briefly below

Vector method
As ,
14 34
0, hence, 0 F P F F = + +

=
=
34 14

So, (0.953 0.303 ) 0 i j F Pi F j +
Equating the ith and jth compoment of the forces one may obtain

34
14 34
40
41.973N
0.953
0.304 12.72N
F
F F
= =
= =

Hence and
34
41.973 342.35 N F =
14
12.72 90 N F = .

Using Lamis formula from the force diagram shown in Figure (b)
34 14
sin90 sin sin(90 )
F F P

= =


7
Hence
34
40
41.974 N
sin(90 17.64)
F = =

and
8

14
40sin(17.64)
12.72 N
sin(90 17.64)
F = =

.

23 43
F F =
23
F
B
A
43
F

Now considering free-body diagram of link 3
But,
43 34
41.974 342.35 F F = =
So
23 43
41.974 342.35 F F = =

Considering equilibrium of link 2
Link 2 is subjected to forces . For equilibrium these two forces must be equal and opposite.
But as they are acting at A and O respectively they will form a couple which will try to rotate the link OA
in anti-clock wise direction. Hence for static equilibrium a torque T must be applied in clockwise
direction whose magnitude should be equal to the couple formed by these forces.
32 12
and F F
32
F
12
F
T
Now
32 23

41.974 342.35 40 12.7265 F F i = = = + j

j
32

( ) (21.213 21.213 ) ( 40 12.73 )

= -1118.56
AO
T R F i j i
k
= = + +


Negative sign indicate the applied torque should be applied in clock-wise direction.

Static force analysis with friction
As we are considering only simple mechanisms with prismatic and revolute joints, the effect due to dry or
Coulomb friction and greasy friction at the journals are discussed. Consider a pair of sliding surfaces as
shown in figure **. When a force is applied on the block to move it towards right, a friction force is
generated which oppose this motion. According to Coulombs law, the magnitude of this force for
impending motion is
F
R , where R is the reaction force due to weight . W
W
F
R
R




Figure 6


Greasy friction at a journal

Generally greasy or boundary lubrication type friction force occurs in heavily loaded, slow running
bearings. Figure 7 (a) shows a journal inside a bearing during static condition. Here A is the contact point
and the weight of the journal W and the reaction force R act in the vertical directions as shown in the
figure. Now let us consider a torque T is applied to the journal in the clockwise direction. The friction
force will now oppose this motion and so the contact point between the bearing and the journal shifts to
point B as shown in figure (b). The resultant ( R) of the normal reaction force (
n
R ) and the friction force
(
n
R ) at B should be equal and opposite to the weight as the journal is under static equilibrium
condition. These two forces will form a couple in anticlockwise direction, which will oppose the applied
torque.
Let OC be the perpendicular distance between . If one draw a circle with radius OC and center
at O, the reaction force will be tangent to that circle. This circle is known as friction circle. Now to find
the radius of the friction circle, consider the triangle OBC. Here OC = OB sin
and W R
where is the angle
between the resultant and normal reaction force. Also the coefficient of friction tan = . Hence radius
of the friction circle =
2
/( (1 )).
f
r r = + where r is the radius of the journal. For small value of ,
.
f
r r = Friction couple =
2
1
f
Wr
r W Wr

=
+
.
A
W
T
C
r
n
R
R
B

R
W
n
(a)
O
O
Lubricant
Journal
Bearing
R











(b)


Figure 7 (a) Journal in static condition (b) Journal when a torque is applied to start the motion.
9

Example 3: Determine the torque required at the crank and also bearing forces in a slider-crank
mechanism when the inertia forces are neglected. Also develop a matlab code for the same.

User Specified Parameters
Crank Length = R
1
Connecting Rod Length = L
1
Radius of Journal = R
Coefficient of friction =
Piston Force = P
Angle of the crank =
Calculations:
Radius of friction circle = R
2
=
2
/ (1 ) R +
To find angle that connecting rod makes with horizontal
3

L
1
/ sin=R
1
/sin(180-
3
)
Performing Force analysis on the connecting rod :
10

Free body diagram of crank:



Free Body diagram of slider:
Force of reaction by connecting rod on slider = F (Combination of forces F5 & F6)
Reaction force because of friction between ground and slider = Rxn (combination of Normal reaction NN
and friction f)
The following figures show the forces acting on the connecting rod, a combination of forces F5 and F6

11




Out of these only the figure 1 shows the correct direction of forces. This can be understood by consulting
the initial figure. The tendency of the friction in the bearing is to increase
3
.the tendency of the friction
in bearing connecting crank and connecting rod would be to increase
2
.thus the force direction of the
link reaction force can be found out. The angle made by reaction force with connecting rod can be
found out using friction circle radius.
tan = R
2
/(L
1
/2)
Angle made by reaction force with horizontal =
3
-
Force on bearing connecting crank and connecting rod F (Vector)
From the code we find the magnitude of the link force and its direction.
Torque due to this force = R
1
x F (Vector Product)
Matlab code:
R1=0;
while (R1<=0)
R1 = input ('Enter the crank length=');
if (R1<=0) fprintf ('not acceptable value,enter agn')
else break
12
end
end;
L1=R1;
while (L1<=R1)
L1=input ('Enter the Connecting Rod Length=');
if (L1<=R1) fprintf ('not acceptable value,enter agn')
else break
end
end;
R=R1;
while (R>=(R1/10))
R=input ('enter the radius of journal=');
if (R>=(R1/10)) fprintf ('not acceptable value, enter agn')
else break
end
end;
C=1
while (C>=1)
C=input ('enter the coefficient of friction=');
if (C>=1) fprintf ('not acceptable value, enter agn')
else break
end
end;
P=input ('enter the piston force=');
Tht= input ('Enter the value of angle considered(degrees)=');
%R2=radius of journal bearing
Tht = Tht*pi/180;
R2= (C*R)/ sqrt (1+C^2)
A= atan ( (2*R2)/L1)
Tht3= asin ((R1/L1)*sin(Tht))
%Angle made with horizontal B
fprintf('the angle made by rxn force with horizontal')
B= 180*(Tht3-A)/pi
fprintf('the value of link rxn force=')
13
F=P/(cos(B)+sin(B)*C)
Rxn = (F*sin (Tht))/cos (atan(C));
fprintf('the value of torque=')
T= F*R1*sin (Tht + B)

Example 4. Calculate the torque required (assuming no friction in the bearing) for the static
equilibrium of an in-line slider crank mechanism in the position when crank angle (from
the inner dead center). The dimensions are, Crank length =30 cm, Connecting rod length=70 cm
and the piston force = 40N. Also find the torque required assuming that the co-efficient for all
bearing is 0.1. The three journal bearings all have radii of 10 mm, and the crank is rotating in the
clockwise.
0
45 =

Solutions:
Given data:--
0
45 =
Crank length (link OA) =30 cm.
Connecting rod length (link AB)=70 cm.
And the piston force (P)= 40N.

0
45 =



From the figure, and using the sine rule.
We can write,
0
0
sin sin
30
sin sin 45 0.303
70
17.64
AB OA

=
= =
=

Case (I):----
14


Without friction
Considering the link4, and using static force analysis,
34
34 14
34 14
cos 40
& sin
,
41.97 , & 12.12
F P
F F
Therefore
F N F N

= =
=
= =

Also,
34 43
F F = (equal and opposite reaction)
43 43
41.97 F N = = F
Considering the link 3.

Since link 3 is a 2-force member,
23 43
23
,
41.97
Therefore
F F
F N
=
=

And also, we can write,(By equal and opposite reaction)
15
32 23
32
41.97
F F
F N
=
=

Considering link 2.

Now the torque due to reaction force is given by,
32
0 0

0.03(cos 45 sin 45 ) 41.97( cos sin )

1.112
T r F
T i j i
T kN m

j
=
= + +
=


Case (II):--
With friction,


Consediring the link 4.
Radius of friction circle, is given by
2
1
f
r
r

=
+

Where, r= 10, and =0.1

2
0.1 10
0.99
1 (0.1)
f
r

=
+

the angle is given the angle by which the reaction force hift and is determined by =tan
-
1
=5.71
Now,
Since the rotation of the crank is clockwise direction, thus the angle r will decreased and
simultaneously, angle , angle will increased and deceased. Also the piston (link 4)
16
Will move toward the X-axis (to the right). Thus the direction will be towards left & thus
=+5.71(according to the figure)
Also the force F
34
can act in two ways shown in below.

Since the angle is the decreasing and friction will tends to oppose it. Thus force F
34
will act in
the orientation (i).

Considering the link (3)
Since the link 3 is a 2-force member, then this link can be showed the four possible force
situations.


Same way as above, the forces F
43
and F
23
will act in the orientation (iii).
Similarly, we can write for the link 2.

A
D

B
Now we have to find


17
1 1
0
0.99
17.64 tan ( ) 17.64 tan ( ) 16
35
16
f
r
DB
0


=
= = = =
=

Now considering link .4.
34 14
34 14
34
14
cos sin
&
sin cos
,
42.84
11.87
F P F
F F
Therefore
F N
F N


= +
=
=
=

34 43 23 32
42.84 F F F F = = = = N as in case (I) considering no friction.
Considering link.2.

Torque
32
0 0 0

0.03(cos 45 sin 45 ) 42.84 ( cos16 sin16 )

1.124
T r F
T i j i
T kN m
=
= + +
=
0


Example 5: Determine the driving torque available on the crank of a slider-crank mechanism, if
a force of 2000 N pointing towards the main bearing is applied horizontally to the piston. Length
of the crank and the connecting rod are 10 and 30 cm respectively. At the instant considered the
crank has rotated 60 degree (CCW) from the inner dead center. Take coefficient of friction
between all the pairing surfaces as 0.13. The diameter of the main bearing, crank pin and piston
pin are respectively 10, 6 and 6 cm. Also find the driving torque in the absence of friction using
virtual work principle.
Solution:
Considering the friction in all turning and sliding joints:
18
l
=
3
0
0

m
m
r
=
1
0
0

m
m
A
B
2000 N
Impending motion

3
2
4
2
O

Figure 1
Now angle of friction in joints, = tan
-1
() = tan
-1
(0.13) = 7.407
o
.
Radius of friction circle, sin h r
f
=
For the crank pin and gudgeon pin, r
f
= 60 sin = 7.735 mm
For the main bearing of diameter 100 mm, r
f
= 12.89 mm.

figure 2

Figure 3
mm r
f
735 . 7 =
34
F
o
72 . 19
d
N 2000
23
F
43
F
mm l 300 =

13
F
Consider the link 2 (figure 2),
300/(sin) = 100/(sin)
= 16.778
o
.
Now, from the figure, d= tan-1(7.735/150) = 2.95
o
Now the Free body diagram of the piston is shown in figure 3,
The force equations are (F
14
can be divided into their frictional and normal components),
0.13 N +F
34
cos19.72
o
= 2000 where N is the normal force acting
and F
34
sin19.72
o
= N
F
34
=2030 N
19
We know, = 180-(+) = 103.23
o
.
(103.23+2.95)
From the figure 4,
Now the resisting couple, equal to F
32
d having
a clockwise direction.
Torque = F
32
d = 2030 0.10355
= 210.21 Nm.
103.55 mm
3
100 mm
12.89
mm

Figure 4
32
F
12
F


In the absence of friction using virtual work principle:

o
d 23 =
o
60
F
According to principle of virtual work,
F dx = T d
T = (F dx) / d
From the figure, dx= 42.93 mm and d= 23
o
= 23/180 rad.
Now, T = (20000.042) / (23/180)
= 209.254 Nm. (answer)
20
Example 6: Determine the required input torque T
1
for the static equilibrium of the four bar
mechanism shown in the figure. Forces F
2
and F
3
have magnitudes of 50 N and 75 N,
respectively. Forces F
2
acts in the horizontal direction. Use both graphical and analytical
methods. AB=30 cm, BC=40 cm, CD=50 cm and the fixed link AD=75 cm and CE=15 and CF=
20cm.







D
C
E
A
B F
45
0
45
0





Solution:
Given data: --
AB=30 cm, F
2
=50 N, F
3
=75 N, BC=40 cm, CD=50 cm, AD=75 cm, CE=15 and CF= 20cm

Let link AB is rotating in counterclockwise with rad/s
Then, V
b
=30 cm/s. One may obtain the velocity of different points on the mechanism by
using , graphical method, vector method, complex number methods etc. Here,
0
0
2
0
3
13.33 28
4.28 26

50
75 45
E
c
V
V
F i
F

=
=
=
=

Resolving the velocities at E and F, parallel and perpendicular to the applied forces at these
positions respectively.
1
11.67 ,
e
V = Parallel to the F
2
1
3.81 ,
f
V = Parallel to the F
3
.
Assuming T to be counter clockwise and applying principle of virtual work
3 3
3 3
3.81 3.81 0
3.81 3.81
297.75 297.75Nm
T F F
T F F
T Nm
+ =
=
= =

Alternatively, one may use dot product to find the virtual work done as follows.

2 3
. .

( 50 ).(13.33 cos 28 13.33 sin 28 )

(75 4.28 )(cos 45 sin 45 ).(cos 26 sin 26 )
E c
T F V F V
i i j
i j i

= +
= +
+ + +

21
588.484 303.51
284.97Nm
T
T
=
=


Analytical Method:---

0 0 0
23 43 2

cos 20 sin 20 cos 64 sin 64 0 F i j F i j F i + +

=
F

Equating the i component of the equations, we have,
0 0
23 43 2
cos 20 cos 64 F F + =
Equating the j part of the equations:-
0 0
23 43
sin 20 sin 64 F F =
0 0 0
23
23
cos 20 sin 20 cot 64 50
45.187
F
F
+ =

=

1 1

2 2
r i

= +


j
23 a
T r F =

( )
0 0
0 0
30

45.187( cos 20 sin 20 )
2
30 30
( 45.187sin 20 ) 45.187cos 20
2 2
572.9055
i j i j = +
= +
=




0 0 0 0
34 3 14

cos33 sin33 cos 45 sin 45 cos58.5 sin58.5 0 F i j F i j F i j + + +

=



0 0 3
34 14
0 0 3
34 14
0 0 0
34 14
14 34
cos33 cos58.5
2
sin33 sin58.5
2
(cos33 sin33 ) (sin58.5 cos58.5 )
,
0.8906
F
F F
F
F F
F F
Therefore
F F
=
=
=
=
0


0 0
34
34 32
,
75
cos33 0.8906cos58.5
2
40.6689 40
Therefore
F
F N F
+ =

= =


We know that,
22
0 0
32
0 0
30

( )
2
,
30

( ) 40.7 cos33 sin33
2
30
40.7 sin33 cos33 253.86
2
b
b
r i j
Therefore
T r F i j
T N
= +
= = + +

= =


By superposition principle,
( ) 572.9055 253.68 319.04
a b
Total T T T = + = = , Ans.

Gear force Analysis

The fundamental law of gearing states that in order to obtain a constant velocity ratio, the
common normal to the tooth profile at the point of contact should always pass through a fixed
point, called the pitch point. Thus the point of contact of the two gears has the same velocity.
Applying Newtons third law, the force exerted by one gear to the other at the point of contact is
same in magnitude but opposite in direction. In this section the forces in spur and helical gears
are discussed.
Spur Gear In figure 8(a) shows the pitch circles of a pair of spur gears with center at a and b
and rotating with angular velocities
2
and
3
. The line of action and pressure angle are
clearly shown in this figure. In figure 8(b) the pair of constraint forces (
23
F d
32
F cting at the
pitch point along the line of action are shown. Considering the freebody diagram of gear 2 as
shown in figure 8(c), the force is balanced by the reaction force acing at the bearing. As
these two forces are equal and opposite, they will form a couple. To overcome this reaction
couple, the prime mover (say motor) should provide a torque equal in magnitude but opposite in
direction, which is represented by in the figure.
an a )
32
F
12
F
a2
T
23


(a) (c )
(b)
Figure 8 : Force analysis of Spur gear

One may resolve these forces in tangential and radial direction. Clearly, the tangential force is
responsible for rotating the gear.
Now let us derive an expression for the gear forces form the given power and speed of operation.
Let be the speed of rotation (in rpm) of the gear with module m and number of teeth z.
The value of the pressure angle(in degrees) is and the power (in KW) it transmits be P. The
diameter D of the gear can be calculated as
D = m z (a)
and the torque T transmitted by the gears is

6
60 10
2
P
T

= (b)
From Figure 8(c), we see that the force that is responsible for transmitting the torque T is the
tangential component (F
t
32
=F
t
23
=F
t
). The radial component (F
r
32
=F
r
23
=F
r
) is the separating
force, which always acts towards the center of the gear. Thus we get

t t
D 2T
=T, or, F
2 D
= F (c)

So, using equation (c) one may obtain the tangential force F
t
from known value of D and T.
From Figure 8(c) the radial component can be obtained as
F
r
= F
t
tan (d)
Hence the resultant force acting on the gear or on the bearing equals to
2 2
t r
F = (F F ) +
Also one may note that
t r
F =Fcos and F Fsin =

24
Thus the net force F can be easily calculated using the above expressions. This analysis of the
gear tooth force is based on certain assumptions which are as follows
1. As the point of contact moves, the value of the resultant force F changes, which is
neglected in the above analysis.
2. It is assumed that only one pair of teeth take the entire load. At times there are two pairs
which simultaneously are in contact and share the load. This aspect is also neglected in
this case.
3. The analysis is valid under static conditions, when the gears are running at very low
velocities. In practice there are dynamic forces also due to the power transmission. The
effect of these dynamic forces are neglected in the analysis.
Helical gears
Like the spur gears, the helical gears also connect parallel shafts. But a major difference between
a helical gear and a spur gear is that the teeth in case of a helical gear are cut in the form of a
helix on the pitch cylinder. In these types of gears the contact between the meshing teeth begins
with a point on the leading edge of the tooth and gradually extends along the diagonal line across
the tooth. There is a gradual pick up of the load by the tooth resulting in a smooth engagement
and a quiet operation even at very high speeds.

n
F
t
F
r
F
a
F
n




In a helical gear
n
=normal pressure angle
=helix angle



Figure 9: Force analysis of helical gear

In helical gear the normal force consists of three components viz., tangential component ,
radial component and the axial or thrust component as shown in the figure 9. They are
related as follows.
n
F
t
F
r
F
a
F
Tangential force cos cos
t n n
F F = (a)
Radial force sin
r n
F F
n
= (b)
25
Thrust or axial force = cos sin tan
a n n t
F F F = = (c)
Let N be the speed of rotation in rpm of the gear with module m and number of teeth z, is the
transverse pressure angle and is the helix angle. Now the diameter D of the gear can be
determined from the relation
D = m z (d)
The angular velocity of the gear =
2
60
N
= (e)
The torque T transmitted by the gears can be calculated from the power P from the relation
P T = (f)
From Figure 9, we see that the force that is responsible for transmitting the torque T is the
tangential component F
t
. The radial component F
r
is the separating force, which always acts
towards the center of the gear, and F
a
is the axial or thrust component. The direction of this axial
component depends upon whether the gear is left or right handed, the direction of rotation and on
whether the driving or driven gear is under consideration. Thus we get
2
t
D
T F = or
2
t
T
F
D
= (g)
It may be recalled that the normal pressure angle
n
, helix angle and transverse pressure angle
are related by

tan
cos
tan
n

= (h)
Once we have calculated the value of the normal pressure angle from (h), we can calculate the
tangential force from equations (f and g), axial or the thrust force using equation (c) and radial
component from expression (b). The resultant force on the helical gear can now be calculated
using the three components as
2 2 2
( )
n t r
F F F F = + +
a
(i)
The following guidelines should be followed while calculating the axial or thrust component F
a

1. Select the driving gear from the pair.
2. Use right hand for right-handed helix and left hand for left handed helix.
3. Keep the fingers in the direction of rotation of the gear and the thumb will indicate the
direction of the thrust component of the driving gear.
26
4. The direction of the thrust component of the driven gear will be the opposite to that for
the driving gear.

Example 7 Two helical gears on the parallel shafts have a normal pressure angle of 20 degrees
and a normal module of 6 mm. The centre distance is 200 mm and the assembly has 20 and 40
teeth. The gear set transmits 50 KW at a pinion speed of 1200 rev/min. Determine the tangential,
radial and thrust loads on the gear teeth, and show these forces on the gears. The pinion is
handed and rotates clockwise.
Solution:
Given data: ---
Normal pressure angle =
n
=20
0
Normal module = =6mm. = =
2 1
m m
n
m
Center distance=C=200mm
No of teeth of the pinion=20,
No of the teeth of the gear=40.








2 1
2
1
2
2
1
40
20
r r
r
r
= = =
1 1 1 1
2
200
2 200 3 200. Hence, .
3
400
Therefore,
3
r r r r
r
+ = = =
=

Now as C=
2 1
r r +
27
1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2
0
1 1 1
( ) ( ) (
2 2 2 cos
So, cos 25.8419
n
m
c d d mT mT T T

= + = + = +
=
)


1 1 1
50kw,
1200
2 ( ) 125.6rad/sec
60
50 1000
398.089Nm
125.6
P
w
Tw P T

=
= =

= = =

21
1
398.089 1000
5971.335
(200/ 3)
T
T
F N
r

= = =
We know that
12 21 21 12
, Hence, 5971.335N
T T T T
F F F F = = =
cos , cos
sin , sin
T T
n n n n n
r n n a n
F F F F
F F F F
n


= =
= =


0
12 12
21 12
tan 5971.335 tan 25.8419 2892.04532N
,
a T
a a
F F
F F
= = =
=

0
12 12
sin 5971.335 tan 20 2173.388N
r T
n
F F = = = Ans.
Summery
The following points are learned in this chapter
Classification of forces: external and constraint forces
Determination of moments
Freebody diagram
Two and three force members
Static force analysis using graphical method
Static force analysis using analytical method (vector method)
Use of superposition theory for multiple external forces acting on a mechanism
Static force analysis with sliding and grease friction (concept of friction circle)
Application of virtual work principle for static force analysis.



28
Exercise Problems
1. Draw the constraint forces in all the six types of lower pairs, viz., (i) revolute or turning
pair (ii) prismatic or sliding pair, (iii) cylindrical pair, (iv) screw or helical pair, (v) planar
or flat pair, and (vi) globular or spherical pair.

2. Explain with neatly drawn free-body diagram the effect of friction in the bearings on the
torque required by the crankshaft in a slider-crank mechanism when the crank is rotating
in (i) clock wise direction (ii) anti-clock wise direction.


3. Calculate the torque required for static equilibrium of an in-line slider crank mechanism
in the position when crank angle = 60 deg (from inner dead center). The dimensions are
crank length r = 100 mm, connecting rod length L = 175 mm, and the piston force is P =
50 N. Assume crank to be rotating in anticlockwise direction. Use, graphical, analytical
and virtual work principle to find the result.

4. Taking same data as in problem 3, also find the torque required assuming that the
coefficient of friction for all bearings is 0.1. The three journal bearings all have radii of
20 mm, and the crank is rotating in the clockwise direction.

5. Figure below shows a mechanism used to crush rocks. The mechanism is moving slowly,
so the inertia forces may be neglected. In the position shown, determine the torque
required to drive the input link AB when the crushing force acting in the horizontal
direction is 5000N. Here, AB = 50 cm, BC=100 cm, CD=120 cm and the fixed link
AD=150 cm and CE=25 cm and the angle CED of the ternary link CED is 90
0.
Use (a)
graphical method, (b) analytical method and (c) virtual work principle to determine the
bearing forces and required torque.








5000 N
D A
B
E
45
0
C
F






29
CHAPTER 2 DYNAMIC FORCE ANALYSIS
Inertia force and couple





a
Equivalent off-set Inertia force
i
F
c
I
a
a
a
i
F
i
F
c
I
i
F
i
F
i
F
c
I
i
F
Dynamic force analysis of four bar mechanism










Dynamic Force Analysis of a Four bar Mechanism using Matrix Method






Solution procedure








The MATLAB code
%DYNAMIC FORCE ANALYSIS OF FOUR-BAR MECHANISM
%TAKING INPUTS FROM THE USER FOR THE FOUR-BAR MECHANISM
a = input('enter the length of the link AB : ');
b = input('enter the length of the link BC : ');
c = input('enter the length of the link CD : ');
d = input('enter the length of the link DA(fixed link) : ');
ma = input('enter the mass of link AB : ');
mb = input('enter the mass of link BC : ');
mc = input('enter the mass of link CD : ');
ka = input('enter the radius of gyration of link AB : ');
kb = input('enter the radius of gyration of link BC : ');
kc = input('enter the radius of gyration of link CD : ');
rga = input('enter the magnitude of the p.v. of the c.g. of link AB from the
fixed pivot A : ');
rgb = input('enter the magnitude of the p.v. of the c.g. of link BC from the
pivot B : ');
rgc = input('enter the magnitude of the p.v. of the c.g. of link CD from the
fixed pivot D : ');
deltaa = input('enter the deviation angle of the p.v. of the c.g. of AB from
the p.v. of pivot B : ');
deltab = input('enter the deviation angle of the p.v. of the c.g. of BC from
the p.v. of pivot C(wrt B) : ');
deltac = input('enter the deviation angle of the p.v. of the c.g. of CD from
the p.v. of pivot C(wrt D) : ');
thetaa = input('enter the input angle (angle between AB and AD) in degrees :
');
omegaa = input('enter the angular velocity of link AB : ');
alphaa = input('enter the angular acceleration of the link AB : ');
Tl = input('enter the load torque : ');

%CONVERTING DEGREES TO RADIANS AND CHECKING FOR FEASIBILITY
thetaa = 3.1415926*thetaa/180;
K = ((a*a) - (b*b) + (c*c) + (d*d))/2;
P = K - (a*(d-c)*cos(thetaa)) - (c*d) ;
Q = -2*a*c*sin(thetaa);
R = K - (a*(d+c)*cos(thetaa)) - (c*d);

flag=0;
if ((Q*Q - 4*P*R)<0) disp('wrong values of the link lengths'); flag=1;
end

%CALCULATION OF OTHER ANGLES
while(flag==0)
thetac1 = 2*atan( ((-1*Q) + sqrt(Q*Q - 4*P*R))/(2*P));
thetac2 = 2*atan( ((-1*Q) - sqrt(Q*Q - 4*P*R))/(2*P));
if(thetac1<=0)
thetac1 = 2*atan( ((-1*Q) + sqrt(Q*Q - 4*P*R))/(2*P)) + 3.1415926;
end
if(thetac2<=0)
thetac2 = 2*atan( ((-1*Q) - sqrt(Q*Q - 4*P*R))/(2*P)) + 3.1415926;
end

thetab1 = asin( ((c*sin(thetac1)) - (a*sin(thetaa)))/b) ;
thetab2 = asin( ((c*sin(thetac2)) - (a*sin(thetaa)))/b) ;

%CALCULATION OF ANGULAR VELOCITIES
omegab1 = (-1*a*omegaa*sin(thetac1 - thetaa))/(b*sin(thetac1 - thetab1));
omegab2 = (-1*a*omegaa*sin(thetac2 - thetaa))/(b*sin(thetac2 - thetab2));
omegac1 = (-1*a*omegaa*sin(thetab1 - thetaa))/(c*sin(thetac1 - thetab1));
omegac2 = (-1*a*omegaa*sin(thetab2 - thetaa))/(c*sin(thetac2 - thetab2));

%CALCULATION OF ANGULAR ACCELERATIONS
alphab1 = ((-1*a*alphaa*sin(thetac1 - thetaa)) + (a*omegaa*omegaa*cos(thetac1
- thetaa)) + (b*omegab1*omegab1*cos(thetac1 - thetab1)) -
(c*omegac1*omegac1))/(b*sin(thetac1 - thetab1));
alphab2 = ((-1*a*alphaa*sin(thetac2 - thetaa)) + (a*omegaa*omegaa*cos(thetac2
- thetaa)) + (b*omegab2*omegab2*cos(thetac2 - thetab2)) -
(c*omegac2*omegac2))/(b*sin(thetac2 - thetab2));
alphac1 = ((-1*a*alphaa*sin(thetab1 - thetaa)) + (a*omegaa*omegaa*cos(thetab1
- thetaa)) + (b*omegab1*omegab1) - (c*omegac1*omegac1*cos(thetac1 -
thetab1)))/(c*sin(thetac1 - thetab1));
alphac2 = ((-1*a*alphaa*sin(thetab2 - thetaa)) + (a*omegaa*omegaa*cos(thetab2
- thetaa)) + (b*omegab2*omegab2) - (c*omegac2*omegac2*cos(thetac2 -
thetab2)))/(c*sin(thetac2 - thetab2));

%CALCULATION OF THE ELEMENTS OF THE 'b' MATRIX
b1 = -1*ma*rga*(alphaa*cos(thetaa + deltaa - (3.1415926/2)) +
omegaa*omegaa*cos(thetaa + deltaa));
b2 = ma*9.81 - ma*rga*(alphaa*sin(thetaa + deltaa - (3.1415926/2)) +
omegaa*omegaa*sin(thetaa + deltaa));
b3 = ma*ka*ka*alphaa;
b4 = -1*mb*rgb*(alphab1*cos(thetab1 + deltab - (3.1415926/2)) +
omegab1*omegab1*cos(thetab1 + deltab));
b5 = mb*9.81 - mb*rgb*(alphab1*sin(thetab1 + deltab - (3.1415926/2)) +
omegab1*omegab1*sin(thetab1 + deltab));
b6 = mb*kb*kb*alphab1;
b7 = -1*mc*rgc*(alphac1*cos(thetac1 + deltac - (3.1415926/2)) +
omegac1*omegac1*cos(thetac1 + deltac));
b8 = mc*9.81 - mc*rgc*(alphac1*sin(thetac1 + deltac - (3.1415926/2)) +
omegac1*omegac1*sin(thetac1 + deltac));
b9 = mc*kc*kc*alphac1 - Tl;

%CALCULATIONS OF THE ELEMENTS OF THE 'A' MATRIX
A31 = rga*sin(thetaa + deltaa);
A32 = -1*rga*cos(thetaa + deltaa);
A33 = a*sin(thetaa) - rga*cos(thetaa + deltaa);
A34 = rga*cos(thetaa + deltaa) - a*cos(thetaa);
A39 = 1;

A63 = rgb*sin(thetab1 + deltab);
A64 = -1*rga*cos(thetab1 + deltab);
A65 = b*sin(thetab1) - rgb*cos(thetab1 + deltab);
A66 = rgb*cos(thetab1 + deltab) - b*cos(thetab1);

A95 = rgc*cos(thetac1 + deltac) - c*sin(thetac1);
A96 = c*cos(thetac1) - rgc*cos(thetac1 + deltac);
A97 = rgc*sin(thetac1 + deltac);
A98 = -1*rgc*cos(thetac1 + deltac);

B = [b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7 b8 b9];
A = [1 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0;0 1 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0;A31 A32 A33 A34 0 0 0 0 1;0 0 1 0
-1 0 0 0 0;0 0 0 1 0 -1 0 0 0;0 0 A63 A64 A65 A66 0 0 0;0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0;0 0
0 0 0 1 0 1 0;0 0 0 0 A95 A96 A97 A98 0];

%CALCULATION OF THE FIRST SOLUTION
X = (inv(A))*B';
theta112 = (atan(X(2,1)/X(1,1)))*180/3.1415926; if(X(1,1)<0) theta112 =
(atan(X(2,1)/X(1,1)) + 3.1415926)*180/3.1415926; end
theta123 = (atan(X(4,1)/X(3,1)))*180/3.1415926; if(X(3,1)<0) theta123 =
(atan(X(4,1)/X(3,1)) + 3.1415926)*180/3.1415926; end
theta134 = (atan(X(6,1)/X(5,1)))*180/3.1415926; if(X(5,1)<0) theta134 =
(atan(X(6,1)/X(5,1)) + 3.1415926)*180/3.1415926; end
theta114 = (atan(X(8,1)/X(7,1)))*180/3.1415926; if(X(7,1)<0) theta114 =
(atan(X(8,1)/X(7,1)) + 3.1415926)*180/3.1415926; end


%CALCULATION OF THE ELEMENTS OF THE 'd' MATRIX
d1 = -1*ma*rga*(alphaa*cos(thetaa + deltaa - (3.1415926/2)) +
omegaa*omegaa*cos(thetaa + deltaa));
d2 = ma*9.81 - ma*rga*(alphaa*sin(thetaa + deltaa - (3.1415926/2)) +
omegaa*omegaa*sin(thetaa + deltaa));
d3 = ma*ka*ka*alphaa;
d4 = -1*mb*rgb*(alphab2*cos(thetab2 + deltab - (3.1415926/2)) +
omegab2*omegab2*cos(thetab2 + deltab));
d5 = mb*9.81 - mb*rgb*(alphab2*sin(thetab2 + deltab - (3.1415926/2)) +
omegab2*omegab2*sin(thetab2 + deltab));
d6 = mb*kb*kb*alphab2;
d7 = -1*mc*rgc*(alphac2*cos(thetac2 + deltac - (3.1415926/2)) +
omegac2*omegac2*cos(thetac2 + deltac));
d8 = mc*9.81 - mc*rgc*(alphac2*sin(thetac2 + deltac - (3.1415926/2)) +
omegac2*omegac2*sin(thetac2 + deltac));
d9 = mc*kc*kc*alphac2 - Tl;

%CALCULATIONS OF THE ELEMENTS OF THE 'C' MATRIX
C31 = rga*sin(thetaa + deltaa);
C32 = -1*rga*cos(thetaa + deltaa);
C33 = a*sin(thetaa) - rga*cos(thetaa + deltaa);
C34 = rga*cos(thetaa + deltaa) - a*cos(thetaa);
C39 = 1;

C63 = rgb*sin(thetab2 + deltab);
C64 = -1*rga*cos(thetab2 + deltab);
C65 = b*sin(thetab2) - rgb*cos(thetab2 + deltab);
C66 = rgb*cos(thetab2 + deltab) - b*cos(thetab2);

C95 = rgc*cos(thetac2 + deltac) - c*sin(thetac2);
C96 = c*cos(thetac2) - rgc*cos(thetac2 + deltac);
C97 = rgc*sin(thetac2 + deltac);
C98 = -1*rgc*cos(thetac2 + deltac);

D = [d1 d2 d3 d4 d5 d6 d7 d8 d9];
C = [1 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0;0 1 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0;C31 C32 C33 C34 0 0 0 0 1;0 0 1 0
-1 0 0 0 0;0 0 0 1 0 -1 0 0 0;0 0 C63 C64 C65 C66 0 0 0;0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0;0 0
0 0 0 1 0 1 0;0 0 0 0 C95 C96 C97 C98 0];

%CALCULATION OF THE SECOND SOLUTION
Y = (inv(C))*D';
theta212 = (atan(Y(2,1)/Y(1,1)))*180/3.1415926; if(Y(1,1)<0) theta212 =
(atan(Y(2,1)/Y(1,1)) + 3.1415926)*180/3.1415926; end
theta223 = (atan(Y(4,1)/Y(3,1)))*180/3.1415926; if(Y(3,1)<0) theta223 =
(atan(Y(4,1)/Y(3,1)) + 3.1415926)*180/3.1415926; end
theta234 = (atan(Y(6,1)/Y(5,1)))*180/3.1415926; if(Y(5,1)<0) theta234 =
(atan(Y(6,1)/Y(5,1)) + 3.1415926)*180/3.1415926; end
theta214 = (atan(Y(8,1)/Y(7,1)))*180/3.1415926; if(Y(7,1)<0) theta214 =
(atan(Y(8,1)/Y(7,1)) + 3.1415926)*180/3.1415926; end

%DISPLAY OF RESULTS
disp('There are two sets of solutions possible : ');
disp('Set I : ');
disp('X = [F12x F12y F23x F23y F34x F34y F14x F14y Ts] ');disp(X);
disp('F12 = ');disp(sqrt(X(1,1)^2 + X(2,1)^2));
disp('theta_F12 = ');disp(theta112);
disp('F23 = ');disp(sqrt(X(3,1)^2 + X(4,1)^2));
disp('theta_F23 = ');disp(theta123);
disp('F34 = ');disp(sqrt(X(5,1)^2 + X(6,1)^2));
disp('theta_F34 = ');disp(theta134);
disp('F14 = ');disp(sqrt(X(7,1)^2 + X(8,1)^2));
disp('theta_F14 = ');disp(theta114);

disp('Set II : ');
disp('Y = [F12x F12y F23x F23y F34x F34y F14x F14y Ts] ');disp(Y);
disp('F12 = ');disp(sqrt(Y(1,1)^2 + Y(2,1)^2));
disp('theta_F12 = ');disp(theta212);
disp('F12 = ');disp(sqrt(Y(3,1)^2 + Y(4,1)^2));
disp('theta_F23 = ');disp(theta223);
disp('F12 = ');disp(sqrt(Y(5,1)^2 + Y(6,1)^2));
disp('theta_F34 = ');disp(theta234);
disp('F12 = ');disp(sqrt(Y(7,1)^2 + Y(8,1)^2));
disp('theta_F14 = ');disp(theta214);

flag=flag+2;
end
%END OF CODE
Dynamic analysis of Slider Crank Mechanism




Example1:
Solution:
l
=
4
5
0
m
m
r
=
1
5
0

m
m
A
B
B
A
G
l
=
3
0
0
m
m
Inertia forces due to reciprocating masses:
Torque to consider the correction couple:
Torque due to mass at A:
Total torque on the crankshaft:
(answer)

Example 2:
Solution:

Inertia forces due to reciprocating mass:

l=2m
r=0.4 m
A
B
O
Torque to consider the correction couple:


Torque due to weight of mass at A:
Torque due to weight of mass at B:
Total inertia torque on the crankshaft:
Graphical method:

Inertia torque
Q
C
O
N
D
I
x
Y
Z
G
E
d g
K
L
P
2
0.4



Q
C
O
N
D
E
d g
K
L



Summery








Exercise Problems

1.





CAM DYNAMICS

Mechanism provides a non-linear I/O relationship. Different mechanism like single or multi-
degrees of freedom, intermittent motion mechanisms and linkages etc. have different I/O
relationship. When we can not obtain a certain functions from the well known mechanisms,
we use a cam mechanism. It is a one degree of freedom mechanism of two moving links. One
is cam and the other is follower.
There are limitations of its use. After some critical
speed the nett acceleration of the follower system may
be in a direction to separate it from the cam surface. So
the follower does not follow the surface profile any
more. We have to be able to calculate this critical
speed and must not operate the mechanism beyond it.

Critical speed depends on the profile of the cam, the stiffness and pretension of any restoring
spring if exist at all or the mass of the follower. So, a differential analysis requires for each
widely used cam profile. One example will be done here concerning an eccentric cam. An
eccentric cam has a circular profile, but rotates about an axis which is displaced from the cam
center by e amount, called the "eccentricity".

Follower displacement becomes;
cos e e y =
where t = , cam is rotating with constant angular velocity, .
taking first and second time derivative of follower displacement equation we will get velocity
and acceleration, respectively;
mass
x Slidingcam
Camprofile
Follower
y=f(x)
e
k
y
m
y
m
NA
NB
Fc Fs=k(y+d)
mg
t e y sin =

And t e y cos
2
=



There will be inertia forces acting onto the follower proportional to this acceleration.
Differential motion equation for the follower is;

=

y m F
From the free body diagram of the follower, nett force in y direction becomes;
) ( + = =

y k F F F F
c s c

Where,
c
F is contact force
is spring pre-compression
Substituting, y ,

y and

F into differential equation of motion yields;


) ( cos ) (
2
+ + = e k t k m e F
c

0 =
c
F is the critical condition. It must always have positive value. When 0 =
c
F , contact is
lost and hence cam and follower are no longer touching each other. It means that follower is
no more following the profile of the cam. It is free and floating in the air.


Example An uniform steel bar shown in the figure is used as an oscillating cam follower and
its mass moment of inertia is
CG
I as 0.65 kg.m. The cam follower is driven by an eccentric
cam to give a rise of 4 cm. Assuming that cam system is working on the horizontal plane and
there is no friction between the cam and follower.

k=2kN/m
2 cm
25 cm 50 cm 25 cm
5 cm
y
x
O


a) Draw the freebody diagram of the follower, showing all the forces,


O
CG
z
y,y,y
l/4
l/4
l/4 l/4
. ..
Fs=kz
Fc
man
Foy
Fox


b) Drive the cam contact force equation,

t e y and t e y t e e y cos , sin , cos
2
.. .
= = =

Tangential acceleration at cam contact point is equal to the
..
y , then

l
t e
t e
l
y a
t


cos 2
cos
2
*
2
2
..
= = =

Equation of motion of follower is;

=
o o
I M

=
4
* *
2
*
l
z k
l
F M
c o


Substituting angular acceleration, mass moment of inertia and moment equation into EQM,

+
=
l
t e w l
m
l
z k
l
F
c
cos * * * 2
*
48
4 7
*
4
* *
2
*
2 2 2


In this equation we need a relationship between y and z. This comes from similar triangles.
So,

2
cos
2
2 4
t e e
z
y
z
y
l
z
l

= = = ,

( ) t e e
l
k
l
t e w l
l
m
F
c


cos
cos * * * 2
*
24
4 7
*
2 2 2
+

+
=

c) Sketch a displacement diagram showing the follower motion for the entire

360 of the
cam rotation without computing the numerical values, superimpose graph of cam contact
force onto the same axis. Show where jump is most likely to begin,

/2 3/2
2
J ump is most likely occurs here
y
Fc

d) Calculate the jump speed,
When 0 = =
c
F and t

l
k e
l
e w l
l
m * * 2 * * 2
*
24
4 7
* 0
2 2 2
+

+
=


+
=
2 2
3 7
24 *
w l m
l k


e) List the things that can be done to increase the critical speed of this system.
In order to increase the speed;
k can be increased. Harder spring can be used.
m can be reduced. Smaller mass means smaller dimensions.

Example The cam-and-follower
system shown in figure has 2 = k
kN/m, 1 = m kg,
t cos y 15 15 = mm, and 50 =
rad/sec. The retaining spring is
assembled with a preload of 5 N.

a) Draw the freebody diagram of the follower.
y
FC
Fs=k(y+)
NA
NB
mg

b)What is the acceleration of the follower, when 1 = t sec.
2 2 2
186 36 22 36186 1 50 50 15 15
15
15 15
sec / m . sec / mm . ) * cos( * * t cos * * y
t sin * * y
t cos y
= = = =
=
=

D D
D

c) Drive conctact force equation between the cam and follower.
( )
C
C
C y
y
F
t cos
k ) t cos * * ( m
F ) y ( k y m ) y ( k y m
F ) y ( k F
y m F
=

+
= + + + =
+ + =
=

1000
15 15
1000
15
2
D D D D
D D


d) Compute the maximum and minimum values of the contact force.

( )
t sin ) m k ( * . t sin * * . * k t sin * . * m
) t ( d
t cos
k ) t cos * * ( m d
dt
dF
C


2 2
2
015 0 015 0 015 0 0
1000
15 15
1000
15
0
+ = =

+
= =
2 1 0 0
015 0 0
2
, , n where n t t sin
t sin ) m k ( * .
= = =
+ =


A B
y
k
C
F is maximum when 2 0 = = t or t and
C
F is minimum when = t .So,
N . ) cos ( * . * cos * * . ( * F
N . ) cos ( . * ) cos * * . ( * F
min C
max C
5 27 5 1 015 0 2000 50 015 0 1
5 42 5 0 1 015 0 2000 0 50 015 0 1
2
2
= + + =
= + + =



e) If the follower is found to jump off the cam, compute the angle t corresponding to the
very beginning of jump.

it is seen from previous answer
min C
F >0,so there is no jump.


Example A cam of linear displacement
profile is moving leftward with a constant
velocity to actuate the spring-mass system
shown.
a) Draw the freebody diagrams (mass and
spring)
b) Drive differential equation of motion of the follower.
c) Determine the natural frequency of the system in rad/sec
d) Determine the amplitude of the rise motion


a) Draw the freebody diagrams


b) Drive differential equation of motion of the body

= x m F
x
D D
m
x
F=k(x-y)
x
y
F=k(x-y)
F=k(x-y)

= ) y x ( k F
x
Then equation of motion becomes;
ky kx x m = + D D where t
a
b
y =

c) Determine the natural frequency of the system in rad/sec
Solution of this equation of motion is;

ky kx x m = + D D y
m
k
x
m
k
x = + D D

. sec / rad .
m
k
n
72 44
1
2000
= = =

d) Determine the amplitude of the motion
Complementary part of this equation of motion is;
t sin B t cos A x
n n c
+ =
Particular part of this equation of motion is;
t
a
b
x
n p
=
Overall solution is
t
a
b
t sin B t cos A x
n n n c
+ + =
2 2
B A X
amp
+ =
A and B is to be found from initial conditions.
0
0 0 0 0
0 0
=
+ + = + + =
= = =
A
a
b
sin B cos A t
a
b
t sin B t cos A x
m x x , t
n n n n n n
o

a
b
B
a
b
cos B sin A
a
b
t cos B t sin A x
x , t
n n n n n n n n n n
=
+ + = + + =
= =
0 0 0
0 0
D
D


m .
a
b
B A X
amp
66 0 0
2
2
2 2
= +

= + =

Example The mass m is driven up and down by the eccentric
cam as shown in figure. The eccentricity is 3 cm. Assume no
friction
a) Derive the equation for the contact force.
b) Find the cam velocity w corresponding to the beginning of
the jump.


t cos e e y =
t sin e y = D
t cos e y
2
= D D
FBD of the follower;


y m F D D =


mg F F
c
=


mg y m F y m mg F
c c
= = D D D D
mg t cos me F
c
+ =
2
(1)
J ump most probably occurs when 0 =
c
F
To obtain where
c
F is minimum;
t sin me
) t ( d
dF
c

2
0= =
,....... , , , , n , * n t where , t sin 4 3 2 1 0 0 = = =
obviously when = t ,
c
F is minimum. So, subsituting this into (1);
sec / rad .
.
.
e
g
mg cos me 083 18
03 0
81 9
0
2
= = = + =


m
y
Fc
m
y

e
Q-5 (20%) The cam-and-follower system shown in figure has
. sec / rad and mm e
, t cos e e y , kg m , m / kN k
50 15
2 2
= =
= = =


Mechanism is working on vertical plane. Assume that friction of the rollers at A
and Bs are negligible small.
a) Draw the freebody diagram of the follower.
y
FC
Fs=ky
NA
NB
mg

b) What is the acceleration of the follower, when 1 = t sec.
2 2 2
186 36 22 36186 1 50 50 15 15
15
15 15
sec / m . sec / mm . ) * cos( * * t cos * * y
t sin * * y
t cos y
= = = =
=
=

D D
D
c) Drive contact force equation between the cam and follower.
( )
C
C
C y
y
F mg
t cos
k ) t cos * * ( m
F mg ky y m mg ky y m
F mg ky F
y m F
= +


+
= + + =
+ =
=

1000
15 15
1000
15
2


D D D D
D D

d) Compute the maximum and minimum values of the contact force.
( )
t sin ) m k ( * . t sin * * . * k t sin * . * m
) t ( d
mg
t cos
k ) t cos * * ( m d
dt
dF
C


2 2
2
015 0 015 0 015 0 0
1000
15 15
1000
15
0
= + =


+
= =
2 1 0 0
015 0 0
2
, , n where n t t sin
t sin ) m k ( * .
= = =
=



C
F is maximum when 2 0 = = t or t and
C
F is minimum when = t .So,
N . . * ) cos ( * . * cos * * . ( * F
N . . * ) cos ( . * ) cos * * . ( * F
min C
max C
12 42 81 9 2 1 015 0 2000 50 015 0 1
12 57 81 9 2 0 1 015 0 2000 0 50 015 0 1
2
2
= + + =
= + + =


e) If the follower is found to jump off the cam, compute the angle t corresponding to the very beginning of
jump.
it is seen from previous answer
min C
F >0,so there is no jump.

A
B
y
k