Resistance of rivets
Resistance of pins
Resistance of welds
Resistance of plates in bearing
16
Slip resistance
 for hybrid connections or connections under fatigue loading
 for other design situations
3 M
3 M
Bearing resistance of an injection bolt
4 M
Resistance of joints in hollow section lattice girder
5 M
Resistance of pins at serviceability limit state
6 M
Preload of high strength bolts
7 M
Resistance of concrete
0 M
see EN 1992
Recommended values are as follows:
M2
= 1,25;
M3
= 1,25 for hybrid connections or
connections under fatigue loading and
M3
=1,1 for other design situations;
M4
=1,0;
M5
=1,0 ;
M6
=1,0 ;
M7
=1,1.
J oints subject to fatigue should also satisfy the principles given in EN 199319.
The forces and moments applied to joints at the ultimate limit state shall be determined
according to the principles in EN 199311.The resistance of a joint shall be determined on the
basis of the resistances of its basic components. In terms of tensile strength, breaking combining
should take place outside the typical areas.
Frequently, in the design of joints, linearelastic or elasticplastic analysis may be used.
Where fasteners with different stiffnesses are used to carry a shear load the fasteners with the
highest stiffness should be designed to carry the design load. However there may be some
cases.
J oints shall be designed on the basis of a realistic assumption of the distribution of internal
forces and moments. The following assumptions should be used to determine the distribution of
forces:
(a) the internal forces and moments assumed in the analysis are in equilibrium with the forces
and moments applied to the joints,
(b) each element in the joint is capable of resisting the internal forces and moments,
(c) the deformations implied by this distribution do not exceed the deformation capacity of
the fasteners or welds and the connected parts,
(d) the assumed distribution of internal forces shall be realistic with regard to relative
stiffnesses within the joint,
(e) the deformations assumed in any design model based on elasticplastic analysis are
based on rigid body rotations and/or inplane deformations which are physically possible, and
(f) any model used is in compliance with the evaluation of test results (see EN 1990).
Where a joint loaded in shear is subject to impact or significant vibration one of the following
jointing methods should be used:
welding
bolts with locking devic
preloaded bolts
injection bolts
other types of bolt which effectively prevent movement of the connected parts
rivets.
Where slip is not acceptable in a joint (because it is subject to reversal of shear load or for
any other reason), preloaded bolts in a Category B or C connection, fit bolts rivets or
welding should be used.
For wind and/or stability bracings, bolts in Category A connections may be used.
Where there is eccentricity at intersections, the joints and members should be designed
for the resulting moments and forces, except in the case of particular types of structures
where it has been demonstrated that it is not necessary.
In the case of joints of angles or tees attached by either a single line of bolts or two lines of
bolts any possible eccentricity should be taken into account in accordance with set design. In
plane and outofplane eccentricities should be determined by considering the relative
positions of the centroidal axis of the member and of the setting out line in the plane of the
connection (figure 4.2.2). For a single angle in tension connected by bolts on one leg the
simplified design method given in set design, may be used.
The effect of eccentricity on angles used as web members in compression is given in EN
17
199311, Annex BB 1.2, special attention is to be treated as.
Figure 4.2.2 Setting out lines
4.2.3. Welded connections
General
Conforming to EN 199311, apply to weldable structural steels and to material thicknesses of
4 mm and over. Also apply to joints in which the mechanical properties of the weld metal are
compatible with those of the parent metal.
For welds in thinner material reference should be made to EN 1993 part 1.3 and for welds in
structural hollow sections in material thicknesses of 2.5 mm and over guidance is given
section 7 of EN 1993.
For stud welding reference should be made to EN 199411. Further guidance on stud welding
can be found in EN ISO 14555 and EN ISO 13918.
Quality level C according to EN ISO 5817 is usually required, if not otherwise specified. The
frequency of inspection of welds should be specified in accordance with the rules in set design.
Lamellar tearing shall be avoided. Guidance on lamellar tearing is given in EN 1993110.
The specified yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, elongation at failure and minimum
Charpy Vnotch energy value of the filler metal, should be equivalent to, or better than that
specified for the parent material. Generally, it is safe to use electrodes that are overmatched
related to the steel grades being used.
Global analysis
The effects of the behaviour of the joints on the distribution of internal forces and moments within
a structure, and on the overall deformations of the structure, should generally be taken into
account, but where these effects are sufficiently small they may be neglected.
To identify whether the effects of joint behaviour on the analysis need be taken into account, a
distinction may be made between three simplified joint models as follows:
simple, in which the joint may be assumed not to transmit bending moments;
continuous, in which the behaviour of the joint may be assumed to have no effect on the
analysis;
semicontinuous, in which the behaviour of the joint needs to be taken into account in the
analysis.
The appropriate type of joint model should be determined from table 4.2.2, depending on the
classification of the joint and on the chosen method of analysis.
The design momentrotation characteristic of a joint used in the analysis may be simplified by
adopting any appropriate curve, including a linearised approximation (e.g. bilinear or trilinear),
provided that the approximate curve lies wholly below the design momentrotation characteristic.
18
Table 4.2.2 Type of joint model
Method of global
analysis
Classification of joint
Elastic Nominally pinned Rigid Semi rigid
Rigid  Plastic Nominally pinned Full  strength Partial  strength
Elastic Plastic Nominally pinned
Rigid and full 
strength
Semi rigid and partial strength
Semi rigid and full strength
Rigid and partial  strength
Type of joint
model
Simple Continuous Semi  continuous
Loading actions
All types of fluctuating load acting on the component and the resulting stresses at potential sites
for static and variable loading have to be considered. Stresses or stress intensity factors then
have to be determined according to the assessment procedure applied.
Frecvently, a fatigue load is a more common type of load, and it is applied several times in a
cyclic manner. Fatigue test is exclusively used to determine mechanical properties under cyclic
loading condition. As impoprtant as is the fracture toughness.
The actions originate from live loads, dead weights, snow, wind, waves, pressure, accelerations,
dynamic response, etc. Actions due to transient temperature changes should be considered.
Improper knowledge of fatigue actions is one of the major sources of fatigue damage.
4.2.4. Basic principles
Calculation of welded joints
Weld load capacity is affected by:
 joint geometry,
 corss section effective aria
 fracture resistance of used materials.
Fracture resistance depends on:
 structural heterogeneity of weld zones (BM, HAZ, WM),
 biaxiality effect of the stress state.
In the absence of defects, ability to weld butt load applied perpendicularly on the seam axes is:
 when fracture occurs in base metal F
rMB
=R
rMB
. A
o
(4.2.1)
 when fracture occurs in weld F
rSUD
=R
rSUD
. A
S
(4.2.2)
where A
o ,
A
S
are cros section areas, withpot defects in BM, WELD, respectively, and R
rMB
.
R
rSUD
fracture resistences of the BM, WELD, respectively /N/mm2/.
Load capacity of the material deposited when welding, with defects is expressed by relation:
F
rdSUD
=R
rdSUD
. A
S
=R
rdSUD
ef( A
S
 A
d
) (4.2.3)
where R
rdSUD
is the fracfture nominal resistance of the deposited material with defects, R
rdSUD
ef
effective fracture resistance relative to net area ( A
S
 A
d
), A
d
 defects affected area.
The global resistance of the weld depends on the effective fracture resistance of the weld
containing defects and a linear variation factor relative to the size of the defect:
R
rdSUD
=R
rdSUD
ef.[1  (A
d/
A
S
)] (4.2.4)
Defects induce the change of the stress state by its concentration in the defect section expressed
by trhe concentration coefficient:
k
S
=R
rdSUD
ef / R
rSUD
>1 (4.2.5)
Figure 4.2.3 presents the evolution of the bearing capacity of the weld with the defect area.
19
Figure 4.2.3 Change of the bearing capacity of weld with defect area.
The weld must provide superior bearing capacity to the base material:
F
rSUD
=F
rMB
sau F
rdSUD
= F
rMB
(4.2.6)
In the previous figure there are two domains:
 I where F
rdSUD
=R
rdSUD
. A
S
>F
rMB
= R
rMB
. A
o
(4.2.7)
the bearing capacity is attributed to R
rMB
, and fracture produces in BM,
 II where F
rdSUD
=R
rdSUD
. A
S
< F
rMB
= R
rMB
. A
o
(4.2.8)
the bearing capacity is attributed to R
rdSUD
, and fracture produces in SUD
Switching between the two areas is defined by the relation:
R
rMB
. A
o
=k
S .
R
rdSUD
ef (A
S

d
) (4.2.9)
Where it is explained:
d
=A
o
[ (A
S
/ A
o
)  (R
rMB
/ k
S
R
rSUD
)] (4.2.10)
Addmitting that (A
S
/ A
o
) =1, there results:
d
=A
o
[ 1  (R
rMB
/ k
S
R
rSUD
)] (4.2.11)
The previous relation is valid when the selection of the base material is made on the criterion
R
rdSUD
>R
rMB
. If this criterion refers to the yield limit, the ratio R
0.2
/ R
r is
considered. This ratio is
statistically situated at:
 0.60 for nonalloy steel base materials heat resistant alloy
 0.80 for nonalloy filler materials,
 0.85 for alloy filler materials.
Defects with round shapes (suphlurs, inclusionsi, cavities) respect the mentioned considerations.
Defects with great acuity, such as cracks, lack of penetration, are not subjected to the mentioned
considerations. The weld behaviour is controlled by the material capacity to inhibit the
propagation of the defect.
As regards the calculus dimensions for welds, in EC318 limits are stipulated that are also to be
found in other norms, but different limits, too. For example, for the thickness of fillet welds the
condition: 3 mm a 0.7 t
min
has to be respected and values a checked by preliminary probes,
in the case of deep penetration fillet welds, of partial penetration deep welds completed with fillet
welds, respectively.
For the minimum weld length, EC 3 stipulates 30 mm, but keeps the prescription: l
min
6a.
In EC 3 is provided the acceptance of fillet welds with constant thickness on their whole length, if
this can be practically accomplished, not taking into account the existence of final craters from th
end of welds.
Otherwize is maintained the requirement related to the reduction of the weld length with 2a. In
addition, the return of welds is acceptable, in the same plane, after the corner of the overlapping
parts, a return to be taken into account in calculating the length of weld, if the thickness is the
same.
20
When stress distribution along the weld angle is significantly influenced by the rigidity of
components or joined parts, uniformity of this distribution is taken into account by using a
reduced effective length b
eff
and when the weld length exceeds 150 a, the weld strength is
reduced with a factor
Lw
< 1.
EC 318 also provides special restrictions to use one side fillet welds and one side partial
penetration deep welds, when subjected to bending and tensile stresses. Calculation of weld
strength is determined according to EC 3 as function of fracture tensile nominal strength tensile
of the steel used in joining f
u
and not as a function of its yeald limit f
y
.
The design resistance of a fillet weld should be determined using:
 directional method,
 simplified method.
a). In directional method, the forces transmitted by a unit length of weld are resolved into
components parallel and transverse to the longitudinal axis of the weld and normal and
transverse to the plane of its throat.
The design throat area Aw should be taken as Aw = a. leff.
The location of the design throat area should be assumed to be concentrated in the root. A
uniform distribution of stress is assumed on the throat section of the weld, leading to the normal
stresses and shear stresses (figure 4.2.4), as follows:
 is the shear stress (in the plane of the throat) perpendicular to the axis of the weld

 is the shear stress (in the plane of the throat) parallel to the axis of the weld.
Figure 4.2.4 Stresses on the throat section of a fillet weld
The normal stress parallel to the axis is not considered when verifying the design resistance of
the weld.
The design resistance of the fillet weld will be sufficient if the following are both satisfied:
( )   ( )
2
5 , 0
2 2 2
/ 3
M W u
f s + + and
2
/
M u
f s (4.2.12)
where:
 fu is the nominal ultimate tensile strength of the weaker part joined;
 w is the appropriate correlation factor taken from table 4.2.3.
Welds between parts with different material strength grades should be designed using the
properties of the material with the lower strength grade.
Table 4.2.3 Correlation factor w for fillet welds.
Standard and steel grade
Correlation factor
w
EN 10025 EN 10210 EN 10219
S 235
S 235 W
S 235 H S 235 H 0.8
S 275
S 275 N/NL
S 275 H
S 275 NH/NLH
S 275 H
S 275 NH/NLH
0.85
21
S 275 M/ML S 275 MH/MLH
S 355
S 355 N/NL
S 355 M/ML
S 355 W
S 355 H
S 355 NH/NLH
S 355 H
S 355 NH/NLH
S 355 MH/MLH
0.9
S 420 N/NL
S 420 M/ML
S 420 MH/MLH 1.0
S 460 N/NL
S 420 M/ML
S 420 Q/Ql/QL1
S 460 NH/NLH
S 460 NH/NLH
S 460 MH/MLH
1.0
b) The simplified method, the design resistance of a fillet weld may be assumed to be adequate
if, at every point along its length, the resultant of all the forces per unit length transmitted by the
weld satisfy the following criterion:
F.
w,Ed
F
w,Rd
(4.2.13)
where:
F.w,Ed is the design value of the weld force per unit length;
F.w,Rd is the design weld resistance per unit length.
Independent of the orientation of the weld throat plane to the applied force, the design resistance
per unit length Fw,Rd should be determined from:
F
w,Rd
=fvw.d a (4.2.14)
where:
fvw.d is the design shear strength of the weld.
The design shear strength fvw.d of the weld should be determined from:
2
,
3 /
M w
u
d vw
f
f
= (4.2.15)
where:
fu and w are defined previous.
The design resistance of a full penetration butt weld should be taken as equal to the design
resistance of the weaker of the parts connected, provided that the weld is made with a suitable
consumable which will produce allweld tensile specimens having both a minimum yield strength
and a minimum tensile strength not less than those specified for the parent metal.
The design resistance of a partial penetration butt weld should be determined using the method
for a deep penetration fillet weld. The throat thickness of a partial penetration butt weld should
not be greater than the depth of penetration that can be consistently achieved.
The design resistance of a Tbutt joint, consisting of a pair of partial penetration butt welds
reinforced by superimposed fillet welds, may be determined as for a full penetration butt weld if
the total nominal throat thickness, exclusive of the unwelded gap, is not less than the thickness
t of the part forming the stem of the tee joint, provided that the unwelded gap is not more than (t
/ 5) or 3 mm, whichever is less (figure 4.2.5).
The design resistance of a Tbutt joint which does not meet the requirements should be
determined using the method for a fillet weld or a deep penetration fillet weld, depending on the
amount of penetration. The throat thickness should be determined in conformity with the
provisions for both fillet welds and partial penetration butt welds.
22
Figure 4.2.5 Effective penetration of Tbutt welds.
The design resistance F
w,Rd
of a plug weld should be taken as:
F
w,Rd
=f
vw.d
.A
w
(4.2.16)
where
f
vw.d
is the design shear strength of a weld,
A
w
is the design throat area and should be taken as the area of the hole.
The distribution of forces in a welded connection may be calculated on the assumption of either
elastic or plastic behaviour. It is acceptable to assume a simplified load distribution within the
welds.
Residual stresses and stresses not subjected to transfer of load need not be included when
checking the resistance of a weld. This applies specifically to the normal stress parallel to the
axis of a weld.
Welded joints should be designed to have adequate deformation capacity. However, ductility of
the welds should not be relied upon.
In joints where plastic hinges may form, the welds should be designed to provide at least the
same design resistance as the weakest of the connected parts.
In other joints where deformation capacity for joint rotation is required due to the possibility of
excessive straining, the welds require sufficient strength not to rupture before general yielding in
the adjacent parent material.
If the design resistance of an intermittent weld is determined by using the total length ltot, the
weld shear force per unit length F
w,Ed
should be multiplied by the factor (e +l/l)(figure 4.2.6).
Figure 4.2.6 Calculation of the weld forces for intermittent welds
Resistance calculation of welds
a) with full penetration
Resistance calculation of deep full penetrated welds is taken as equal with the resistancxe of the
weakest joined part, provided that welding is done by filler materials that will ensure in all tensile
tests, yeald limit (f
y
) and fracture resistance (f
u
) greater than or equal to the basic material. As for
deep welds, the calculation area of weld is equal with the cross section area of the base material,
as accepting the equality of the weld resistance calculation with that of the base material,
practically the weld verification is identical with that of the base material and effectively it is not
necessary any more.
23
b) with partial penetration
Proceed as for fillet welds with deep penetration. Thicknesses of welds with partial penetration
"a" that can effectively be determined by preliminary tests, within the certification action of the
welding technology.
c) with partial penetration completed with fillet welds
The procedure is similar with that for deep welds with full penetration provided that
requirements in corelation between characteristics, limits and geometrical conditions are met.
When the aforementioned conditions are not met, proceed as for fillet welds or deep penetration
welds.
Plug welds may be used:
to transmit shear,
to prevent the buckling or separation of lapped parts, and
to interconnect the components of builtup members but should not be used to resist externally
applied tension.
The diameter of a circular hole, or width of an elongated hole, for a plug weld should be at least 8
mm more than the thickness of the part containing it.
The ends of elongated holes should either be semicircular or else should have corners which
are rounded to a radius of not less than the thickness of the part containing the slot, except for
those ends which extend to the edge of the part concerned.
The thickness of a plug weld in parent material up to 16 mm thick should be equal to the
thickness of the parent material. The thickness of a plug weld in parent material over 16 mm thick
should be at least half the thickness of the parent material and not less than 16 mm.
In the case of welds with packing, the packing should be trimmed flush with the edge of the part
that is to be welded.
Where two parts connected by welding are separated by packing having a thickness less than
the leg length of weld necessary to transmit the force, the required leg length should be
increased by the thickness of the packing.
Where two parts connected by welding are separated by packing having a thickness
equal to, or greater than, the leg length of weld necessary to transmit the force, each of
the parts should be connected to the packing by a weld capable of transmitting the design
force.
The effective length of a fillet weld should be taken as the length over which the fillet is full
size. This may be taken as the overall length of the weld reduced by twice the effective throat
thickness a. Provided that the weld is full size throughout its length including starts and
terminations, no reduction in effective length need be made for either the start or the termination
of the weld. A fillet weld with an effective length less than 30 mm or less than 6 times its
throat thickness, whichever is larger, should not be designed to carry load.
The effective throat thickness, a, of a fillet weld should be taken as the height of the largest
triangle (with equal or unequal legs) that can be inscribed within the fusion faces and the
weld surface, measured perpendicular to the outer side of this triangle(figure 4.2.7). The
effective throat thickness of a fillet weld should not be less than 3 mm.
Figure 4.2.7 Throat thickness of a fillet weld.
In determining the design resistance of a deep penetration fillet weld, account may be
taken of its additional throat thickness (figure 4.2.8), provided that preliminary tests show
that the required penetration can consistently be achieved.
24
Figure 4.2.8 Throat thickness of a deep penetration fillet weld.
For solid bars the design throat thickness of flare groove welds, when fitted flush to the surface of
the solid section of the bars, is defined in figure 4.2.9. The definition of the design throat
thickness of flare groove welds in rectangular hollow sections.
Figure 4.2.9 Effective throat thickness of flare groove welds in solid sections.
Where a transverse plate (or beam flange) is welded to a supporting unstiffened flange of an I, H
or other section, figure 4.2.10, and provided that the design condition given is met, the applied
force perpendicular to the unstiffened flange should not exceed any of the relevant design
resistances as follows:
that of the web of the supporting member of I or H sections ,
those for a transverse plate on a RHS member,
that of the supporting flange as given by formules, calculated assuming the applied force is
concentrated over an effective width, beff, of the flange as given as relevant.
Figure 4.2.10 Effective width of an unstiffened T joint
For an unstiffened I or H section the effective width b
eff
should be obtained from:
b
eff
=tw 2s 7k.tf (4.2.17)
where:
k =(t
f
/t
p
) ( f
y, f
/f
y,p
) for k 1 (4.2.18)
f y,f is the yield strength of the flange of the I or H section;
f y,p is the yield strength of the plate welded to the I or H section.
The dimension s should be obtained from:
25
for a rolled I or H section: s=r
for a welded I or H section: s=2 . a
In lap joints the design resistance of a fillet weld should be reduced by multiplying it by a
reduction factor
Lw
to allow for the effects of nonuniform distribution of stress along its length.
The provisions do not apply when the stress distribution along the weld corresponds to the stress
distribution in the adjacent base metal, as, for example, in the case of a weld connecting the
flange and the web of a plate girder.
Generally in lap joints longer than 150a the reduction factor
Lw
should be taken as
Lw.1
given by:
Lw.1
=1,2 L
j
/(150a) but
Lw.1
1 (4.2.19)
where:
L
j
is the overall length of the lap in the direction of the force transfer.
For fillet welds longer than 1,7 metres connecting transverse stiffeners in plated members, the
reduction factor
Lw
may be taken as
Lw.2
given by:
Lw.2 =1,1 w /17 but 0,6 Lw.2 1 (4.2.20)
where:
w is the length of the weld (in metres).
Local eccentricity should be avoided whenever it is possible.
Local eccentricity (relative to the line of action of the force to be resisted) should be taken into
account in the following cases:
 where a bending moment transmitted about the longitudinal axis of the weld produces tension
at the root of the weld (figure 4.2.11.a),
 where a tensile force transmitted perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the weld produces
a bending moment, resulting in a tension force at the root of the weld (figure 4.2.11.b).
Local eccentricity need not be taken into account if a weld is used as part of a weld group around
the perimeter of a structural hollow section.
a) Bending moment produces tension at the b) Tensile force produces tension at
the root of the weld root of the weld
Figure 4.2.11 Local eccentricity
Local eccentricity need not be taken into account if a weld is used as part of a weld group
around the perimeter of a structural hollow section.
In angles connected by one leg, the eccentricity of welded lap joint end connections may be
allowed for by adopting an effective crosssectional area and then treating the member as
concentrically loaded.
For an equalleg angle, or an unequalleg angle connected by its larger leg, the effective area
may be taken as equal to the gross area.
For an unequalleg angle connected by its smaller leg, the effective area should be taken as
equal to the gross crosssectional area of an equivalent equalleg angle of leg size equal to
that of the smaller leg, when determining the design resistance of the crosssection, see EN
199311. When determining the design buckling resistance of a compression member, the
actual gross crosssectional area should be used.
In angles connected by one leg, the eccentricity of welded lap joint end connections may be
allowed for by adopting an effective crosssectional area and then treating the member as
concentrically loaded.
Welding may be carried out within a length 5t either side of a coldformed zone ( table
4.2.4), provided that one of the following conditions is fulfilled:
the coldformed zones are normalized after coldforming but before welding;
26
the r/t ratio satisfy the relevant value obtained from table 4.2.4.
Table 4.2.4 Conditions for welding coldformed zone and adiacent material
r/t
Strain due to cold
forming (%)
Maximum thickness (mm)
Generally Fully killed
Aluminium
killed steel (Al
0,02%)
Predominantly
static loading
Where fatigue
predominates
25
10
3.0
2.0
1.5
1.0
2
5
14
20
25
33
any
any
24
12
8
4
any
16
12
10
8
4
any
any
24
12
10
6
B. Calculating resistance of welds in filled holes
Calculating resistance of a filled hole is taken equal to:
F
w,Rd
=f
vw,d
A
w
(4.2.21)
where f
vw.d
is shear calculating resistance of the weld,
A
w
hole area where the weld is performed (Circular or elongated).
In conclusion, calculation of welds is made reducing the effect of loading in relation to the
centre weight of the weld area calculation. In simple loading, this leads to one type of stress ( or
) in this area, stresses that must not exceed the calculating resistance of welds
In the case of fillet welds it is acceptable to rebate the calculating area of weld in the
cathetes plan and carrying out the verification in relation to the rebated area. In the case of
compound loading an equivqlent stress is determined on the bases of the Huber Mises concept
R
ech
s + =
2 2
3 (4.2.22)
where has the value 1,1, and R is the calculating resistance of the base material.
As it results from the EC 3 norm, analytical relations are expressly provided to check the
weld strength only for fillet welds and welds in filled holes and two methods to check fillet welds.
4.2.5. Types of stress raisers and notch effects
Different types of stress raisers and notch effects lead to the calculation of different types of
stress. The choice of stress depends on the fatigue assessment procedure used (table 4.2.5,
figure 4.2.12, 4.2.13).
27
Table 4.2.5 Stress raisers and notch effects
Type Stress raisers Stress determined Assessment procedure
A
General analysis of sectional forces
using general theories e.g. beam
theory, no stress risers considered
Gross average
stress from
sectional forces
not applicable for fatigue
analysis, only component
testing
B
A +macrogeometrical effects due to
the design of the component, but
excluding stress risers due to the
welded joint itself.
Range of nominal
stress (also modi
fied or local nomi
nal stress)
Nominal stress approach
C
A +B +structural discontinuities due
to the structural detail of the welded
joint, but excluding the notch effect of
the weld toe transition
Range of structural
Structural Stress
(hot spot stress)
Structural Stress (hot spot
stress) approach
D A + B + C + notch stress
concentration due to the weld bead
notches a) actual notch stress b)
effective notch stress
Range of elastic
notch stress (total
stress)
a) Fracture mechanics
approach b) effective
notch stress approach
Figure 4.2.12 Modified or local nominal stress Figure 4.2.13 Notch stress and
structural stress
Besides the usual corner welds, the thickness "a" is considered equal to the height of the triangle
in cross section of weld recordable, lowered from its roots on the outer side, EC May 3 provides
deep penetration welds corner with a thickness depends on technology and equipment required
for execution and check the preliminary tests (table 4.2.6).
28
Table 4.2.6 Characteristics, limitations and conditions related to the type of welding.
J oint
type
Weld type
Characteristics, limitations and
conditions
0 1 2
i
n
T
,
i
n
a
n
g
l
e
FILLET WELDS
1. continuous 60 120
< 60 are considered to be
deep welds with partial
penetration
< 120 their strength is
determined by tests
The return of welds is imposed
to the ends with 2a and
notation on drawings
+ =
SI S
l l returns (for a =
constant) =
min
S
l min (30 mm
or 6a); 150
max
=
S
l a
For
> 150a weld strength is
reduced with
LW
3 mm a 0.7 t
min
=
eff w
l a A
i
n
T
,
i
n
a
n
g
l
e
2. interrupted
Not to be used in corrosive
environments.
At the ends of parts both side
welds are used.
max. L
we
0.75b and 0.75b
1
min. L
1
16t and 16t
1
or
200 mm
min. L
2
12t and 16t
1
and
0.25b sau 200 mm
Standard EN 1993, part 18, covers the design of fillet welds, fillet welds all round, butt welds,
plug welds and flare groove welds. Butt welds may be either full penetration butt welds or partial
penetration butt welds.
Both fillet welds all round and plug welds may be either in circular holes or in elongated holes.
The most common types of joints and welds are illustrated in EN 12345.
Fillet welds may be used for connecting parts where the fusion faces form an angle of between
60 and 120.
Angles smaller than 60 are also permitted. However, in such cases the weld should be
considered to be a partial penetration butt weld.
29
For angles greater than 120 the resistance of fillet welds should be determined by testing in
accordance with EN 1990 Annex D: Design by testing.
Fillet welds finishing at the ends or sides of parts should be returned continuously, full size,
around the corner for a distance of at least twice the leg length of the weld, unless access or the
configuration of the joint renders this impracticable. In the case of intermittent welds this rule
applies only to the last intermittent fillet weld at corners.
End returns should be indicated on the drawings.
Intermittent fillet welds shall not be used in corrosive conditions.
In an intermittent fillet weld, the gaps (L1 or L2) between the ends of each length of weld Lw
should fulfil the requirement given in figure 4.2.14. In an intermittent fillet weld, the gap (L1 or L2)
should be taken as the smaller of the distances between the ends of the welds on opposite sides
and the distance between the ends of the welds on the same side. Corelated with previous
figure, to remember:
Figure 4.2.14 Geometric elements of intermittent fillet weld
The larger of L
we
0.75 b and 0.75 b
1
For buildup members in tension:
The smallest of L
1
16 t and 16 t
1
and 200 mm
For buildup members in compression or shear:
The smallest of L2 12 t and 12 t
1
and 0.25 b and 200 mm
30
In any run of intermittent fillet weld there should always be a length of weld at each end of the
part connected.
In a builtup member where plates are connected by means of intermittent fillet welds, a
continuous fillet weld should be provided on each side of the plate for a length at each end equal
to at least threequarters of the width of the narrower plate concerned (figure 4.2.14).
Fillet welds all round, comprising fillet welds in circular or elongated holes, may be used only to
transmit shear or to prevent the buckling or separation of lapped parts. The diameter of a circular
hole, or width of an elongated hole, for a fillet weld all round should not be less than four times
the thickness of the part containing it. The ends of elongated holes should be semicircular,
except for those ends which extend to the edge of the part concerned.
The centre to centre spacing of fillet welds all round should not exceed the value necessary to
prevent local buckling, show in table 4.2.7.
A full penetration butt weld is defined as a weld that has complete penetration and fusion of weld
and parent metal throughout the thickness of the joint.
A partial penetration butt weld is defined as a weld that has joint penetration which is less than
the full thickness of the parent material.
Intermittent butt welds should not be used.
Table 4.2.7 The centre to centre spacing of fillet welds all round
Distances and
spacings, see
Figure 3.1
Minimum
Maximum
1) 2) 3)
Structures made from steels
conforming to EN 10025 except steels
conforming to EN 100255
Structures made
from steels
conforming to EN
10025
Steel exposed to
the weather or
other corrosive
influences
Steel not exposed
to the weather or
other corrosive
influences
Steel used
unprotected
End distance e
1
1.2 d
o
4t+40 mm
The larger of 8t or
125 mm
Edge distance e
2
1.2 d
o
4t+40 mm
The larger of 8t or
125 mm
Distance e
3
in
slotted holes
1.5 d
o
4)
Distance e
4
in
slotted holes
1.5 d
o
4)
Spacing p
1
2.2 d
o
The smaller of 14t
or 200 mm
The smaller of 14t
or 200 mm
The smaller of
14t
min
or 175 mm
Spacing p
1,0
The smaller of 14t
or 200 mm
Spacing p
1,i
The smaller of 28t
or 400 mm
Spacing p
2
5)
2.4 d
o
The smaller of 14t
or 200 mm
The smaller of 14t
or 200 mm
The smaller of
14t
min
or 175 mm
1)
Maximum values for spacings, edge and end distances are unlimited, except in the following
cases:
for compression members in order to avoid local buckling and to prevent corrosion in exposed
members and;
for exposed tension members to prevent corrosion.
2)
The local buckling resistance of the plate in compression between the fasteners should be
calculated according to EN 199311 using 0.6 p
i
as buckling length. Local buckling between the
fasteners need not to be checked if p
1
/t is smaller than 9. The edge distance should not exceed
the local buckling requirements for an outstand element in the compression members; see EN
199311. The end distance is not affected by this requirement.
3)
t is the thickness of the thinner outer connected part.
4)
The dimensional limits for slotted holes are given in 2.8 Reference Standards: Group 7.
31
5)
For staggered rows of fasteners a minimum line spacing of p
2
=1.2d
0
may be used, provided
that the minimum distance, L, between any two fasteners is greater than 2.4d
0
,
4.2.6. Determination of stress and stress intensity factors
Definition of Stress Components
The stress distribution over the plate thickness is nonlinear in the vicinity of notches. The stress
components of the notch stress
ln
are (figure 4.2.15):
mem
membrane stress,
ben
shell bending stress,
nlp
nonlinear stress peak
Figure 4.2.15 The stress distribution over the plate thickness.
If a refined stress analysis method is used, which gives a nonlinear stress distribution, the stress
components can be separated by the following method:
 the membrane stress
mem
is equal to the average stress calculated through the thickness of the
plate, and it is constant through the thickness,
 the shell bending stress
ben
is linearly distributed through the thickness of the plate, and tt is
found by drawing a straight line through the point 0 where the membrane stress intersects the
midplane of the plate. The gradient of the shell bending stress is chosen such that the remaining
nonlinearly distributed component is in equilibrium.
 the nonlinear stress peak
nlp
is the remaining component of the stress.
The stress components can be separated analytically for a given stress distribution (x) for x=0
at surface to x=t at through thickness.
Nominal stress
Nominal stress is the stress calculated in the sectional area under consideration, disregarding the
local stress raising effects of the welded joint, but including the stress raising effects of the
macrogeometric shape of the component in the vicinity of the joint, such as e.g. large cut outs
(figure 4.2.16). Overall elastic behaviour is assumed.
Figure 4.2.16 Nominal stress in a beamlike component
The nominal stress may vary over the section under consideration. E.g. at a beamlike
component, the modified (also local) nominal stress and the variation over the section can be
calculated using simple beam theory. Here, the effect of a welded on attachment is ignored.
The effects of macrogeometric features of the component as well as stress fields in the vicinity of
concentrated loads must be included in the nominal stress. Consequently, macrogeometric
effects may cause a significant redistribution of the membrane stresses across the section.
Similar effects occur in the vicinity of concentrated loads or reaction forces. Significant shell
bending stress may also be generated, as in curling of a flange, or distortion of a box section
32
(figure 4.2.17, 4.2.18).
The secondary bending stress caused by axial or angular misalignment needs to be considered if
the misalignment exceeds the amount which is already covered by fatigue resistance SN curves
for the structural detail (figure 4.2.19). This is done by the application of an additional stress
raising factor k
m,eff
.
Figure 4.2.17 Examples of macrogeometric effects
Figure 4.2.18 Modified (local) nominal stress near concentrated loads
Figure 4.2.19 Axial and angular misalignement
Intentional misalignment (e.g.allowable misalignment specified in the design stage) is considered
when assessing the fatigue actions (stress) by multiplying by the factor. If it is nonintentional, it
is regarded as a weld imperfection which affects the fatigue resistance and has to be considered
by dividing the fatigue resistance (stress) by the factor.
Calculation of nominal stress
In simple components the nominal stress can be determined using elementary theories of
structural mechanics based on linearelastic behaviour. In other cases, finite element method
(FEM) modelling may be used. This is primarily the case in:
a. complicated statically overdetermined (hyperstatic) structures,
b. structural components incorporating macrogeometric discontinuities, for which no
analytical solutions are available.
Using FEM, meshing can be simple and coarse. Care must be taken to ensure that all stress
raising effects of the structural detail of the welded joint are excluded when calculating the
modified (local) nominal stress.
33
If nominal stresses are calculated in fillet welds by a coarse finite element mesh, nodal forces
should be used in a section through the weld instead of element stresses in order to avoid stress
underestimation.
Measurement of nominal stress
The fatigue resistance SN curves of classified structural details are based on nominal stress,
disregarding the stress concentrations due to the welded joint. Therefore the measured nominal
stress must exclude the stress or strain concentration due to the corresponding discontinuity in
the structural component. Thus, strain gauges must be placed outside of the stress concentration
field of the welded joint. In practice, it may be necessary firstly to evaluate the extension and the
stress gradient of the field of stress concentration due to the welded joint. For further
measurements, simple strain gauge application outside this field is sufficient.
4.2.7 Structural hot spot stress
General
The structural or geometric stress F
hs
at the hot spot includes all stress raising effects of a
structural detail excluding all stress concentrations due to the local weld profile itself. So, the
nonlinear peak stress F
nlp
caused by the local notch, i.e. the weld toe, is excluded from the
structural stress. The structural stress is dependent on the global dimensional and loading para
meters of the component in the vicinity of the joint. It is determined on the surface at the hot spot
of the component which is to be assessed. Structural hot spot stresses F
hs
are generally defined
at plate, shell and tubular structures. Figure 4.2.20 shows examples of structural discontinuities
and details together with the structural stress distribution.
Figure 4.2.20 Structural details and structural stress
The structural hot spot stress approach is recommended for welded joints where there is no
clearly defined nominal stress due to complicated geometric effects, and where the structural
discontinuity is not comparable to a classified structural detail. Definition of structural hot spot
stress show in figure 4.2.21.
34
Figure 4.2.21 Definition of structural hot spot stress
The structural hot spot stress can be determined using reference points and extrapolation to the
weld toe at the considered hot spot. The method as defined here is limited to the assessment of
the weld toe, i.e. cases a to e in figure 4.2.22. It is not applicable in cases where crack will
grow from the weld root and propagate through the weld metal, i.e. cases f to I in figure
4.2.22.
Figure 4.2.22 Various locations of crack propagation in welded joints
The method of structural hot spot stress may be extended to the assessment of spots of the
welded joint suceptible to fatigue cracking other than on plate surface, e.g. on a fillet weld root. In
this case, structural hot spot stress on surface is used as an indication and estimation of the
stress for the spot in consideration. The SN curves or structural hot spot stress concentration
factors used for verification in this case depend largely on geometric and dimensional
parameters and are only valid within the range of these parameters.
In case of a biaxial stress state at the plate surface, it is recommeded to use the principal stress
which is approximately in line with the perpendicular to the weld toe, i.e. within a deviation of
60 (figure 4.2.23).
35
Figure 4.2.23 Biaxial stress at weld toe
The other principal stress may be analysed, if necessary, using the fatigue class for parallel
welds in the nominal stress approach.
Besides the definitions of structural hot spot stress as given above, two types of hot spots have
to be distiguished according to their location on the plate and their orientation to the weld toe
(table 4.2.8).
Determination of structural hot spot stress
Determination of structural hot spot stress can be done either by measurement or by calculation.
Here the nonlinear peak stress is eleminated by linearisation of the stress throughth plate
thickness or by extrapolation of the stress at the surface to the weld toe. The following
considerations focus on extrapolation procedures of the surface stress, which are nearly the
same in measurement and calculation.
Firstly the stresses at the reference points, i.e. extrapolation points, have to be determined;
secondly the structural hot spot stress has to be determined by extrapolation to the weld toe.
Table 4.2.8 Types of hot spots
Type Description Determination
a
Structural hot spot stress transverse to
weld toe on plate surface
Special FEA procedure or
measurement and extrapolation
b
Structural hot spot stress transverse to
weld toe at plate edge
Special FEA procedure or
measurement and extrapolation
The structural hot spot stress may be determined using two or three stress or strain values at
particular reference points apart from the weld toe in direction of stress. The closest position to
the weld toe must be chosen to avoid any influence of the notch due to the weld itself (which
leads to a nonlinear stress peak). This is practically the case at a distance of 0.4 t (t =plate
thickness) from the weld toe. The structural hot spot stress at the weld toe is then obtained by
extrapolation. Identification of the critical points (hot spots) can be made by:
a) measuring several different points,
b) analysing the results of a prior FEM analysis,
c) experience of existing components, which failed.
Calculation of structural hot spot Stress
In general, analysis of structural discontinuities and details to obtain the structural hot spot stress
is not possible using analytical methods. Parametric formulae are rarely available. Thus, finite
element (FEM) analysis is mostly applied.
Usually, structural hot spot stress is calculated on the basis of an idealized, perfectly aligned
36
welded joint. Consequently, any possible misalignment has to be taken explicitely into
consideration by the FEA model or by an appropriate stress magnification factor k
m
. This applies
particularly to butt welds, cruciform joints and onesided transverse fillet welds at free,
unsupported plates (figure 4.2.24).
Figure 4.2.24 Types of hot spots
The extent of the finite element model has to be chosen such that constraining boundary effects
of the structural detail analysed are comparable to the actual structure.
Models with thin plate or shell elements or alternatively with solid elements may be used. It
should be noted that on the one hand the arrangement and the type of the elements have to
allow for steep stress gradients as well as for the formation of plate bending, and on the other
hand, only the linear stress distribution in the plate thickness direction needs to be evaluated with
respect to the definition of the structural hot spot stress. The stresses should be determined at
the specified reference points.
For FEM analysis, sufficient expertise of the analyst is required. Guidance is given in [23]. In the
following, only some roughure (figure 4.2.25.a), the elements have to be arranged in the mid
plane of the structural components. 8noded elements are recommended particularly in case of
steep stress gradients. In simplified models, the welds are not modelled, except for cases where
the results are affected by local bending, e. g. due to an offset between plates or due to the small
distance between adjacent welds. Here, the welds may be included by vertical or inclined plate
elements having appropriate stiffness or by introducing constraint equations or rigid links to
couple node displacements.
a) b)
Figure 4.2.25 Typical meshes and stress evaluation parth for a welded detail
An alternative particularly for complex cases is recommended using prismatic solid elements
which have a displacement function allowing steep stress gradients as well as plate bending with
linear stress distribution in the plate thickness direction. This is offered, e. g., by isoparametric 20
37
node elements with midside nodes at the edges, which allow only one element to be arranged in
the plate thickness direction due to the quadratic displacement function and the linear stress
distribution. At a reduced integration, the linear part of the stresses can be directly evaluated.
Modelling of welds is generally recommended (figure 4.2.25.b).
The element lengths are determined by the reference points for the subsequent extrapolation. In
order to avoid an influence of the stress singularity, the stress closest to the hot spot is usually
evaluated at the first or second nodal point. Therefore, the length of the element at the hot spot
has to correspond at least to its distance from the first reference point. Coarser meshes are
possible with higherorder elements and fixed lengths, as further explained below.
Appropriate element widths are important particularly in cases with steep stress gradients. The
width of the solid element or the two shell elements in front of the attachment should not exceed
the attachment width w, i. e. the attachment thickness plus two weld leg lengths.
Usually, the structural hot spot stress components are evaluated on the plate surface or edge.
Typical extrapolation paths are shown by arrows in figure 4.2.21. If the weld is not modelled, it is
recommended to extrapolate the stress to the structural intersection point in order to avoid stress
underestimation due to the missing stiffness of the weld.
Type a hot spots:
The structural hot spot stress
hs
is determined using the reference points and extrapolation
equations as given below (figure 4.2.26).
Figure 4.2.26 Reference points at different types of meshing
1) Fine mesh with element length not more than 0.4 t at the hot spot: Evaluation of nodal
stresses at two reference points 0.4 t and 1.0 t, and linear extrapolation.
2) Fine mesh as defined above: Evaluation of nodal stresses at three reference points 0.4 t, 0.9 t
and 1.4 t, and quadratic extrapolation. This method is recommended in cases with pronounced
nonlinear structural stress increase to the hot spot.
3) Coarse mesh with higherorder elements having lengths equal to plate thickness at the hot
spot: Evaluation of stresses at midside points or surface centers respectively, i.e. at two
reference points 0.5 t and 1.5 t, and linear extrapolation.
t t hs
=
0 , 1 4 , 0
67 , 0 67 , 1 (4.2.23)
t t t hs
+ =
4 , 1 9 , 0 4 , 0
72 , 0 24 , 2 52 , 2 (4.2.24)
t t hs
=
5 , 1 5 , 0
50 . 0 50 , 1 (4.2.25)
38
Type b hot spots:
The stress distribution is not dependent of plate thickness. So, the reference points are given at
absolute distances from the weld toe or from the weld end if the weld does not continue around
the end of the attached plate.
4) Fine mesh with element length of not more than 4 mm at the hot spot: Evaluation of nodal
stresses at three reference points 4 mm, 8 mm and 12 mm and quadratic extrapolation (eq. 4).
5) Coarse mesh with higherorder elements having length of 10 mm at the hot spot: Evaluation of
stresses at the midside points of the first two elements and linear extrapolation (eq. 5).
mm mm mm hs 12 8 4
3 3 + = (4.2.26)
mm mm hs 15 5
5 , 0 5 , 1 = (4.2.27)
Corellation between relatively coase and fine models, to type of model and weld toe it is in table
4.2.9.
Table 4.2.9 Corellation between relatively coase and fine models, to type of model and weld toe
Type of model
and weld toe
Relatively coase models Relatively fine models
Type a Type b Type a Type b
Element
size
Shells
t x t max t x
w/2*)
10 x 10 mm
0.4 t x t or
0.4 t x w/2
4 x 4 mm
Solids
t x t max t x w
10 x 10 mm
0.4 t x t or
0.4 t x w/2
4 x 4 mm
Extrapo
lation
points
Shells
0.5 t and 1.5 t
midside
points**)
5 and 15 mm
midside points
0.4 t and 1.0 t
nodal points
4. 8 and 12 mm
nodal points
Solids
0.5 and 1.5 t
surface center
5 and 15 mm
surface center
0.4 t and 1.0 t
nodal points
4. 8 and 12 mm
nodal points
*)
w =longitudinal attachment thichness +2 weld leg lenths
**)
surface center at transversal
welds, if the weld below the plate is not modelled (see figure 4.2.24.a).
Measurement of structural hot spot stress
The recommended placement and number of strain gauges is dependent of the presence of
higher shell bending stresses, the wall thickness and the type of structural stress (figure 4.2.27).
Figure 4.2.27 Examples of strain gauges in plate structures
39
The center point of the first gauge should be placed at a distance of 0.4 t from the weld toe. The
gauge length should not exceed 0.2 t. If this is not possible due to a small plate thickness, the
leading edge of the gauge should be placed at a distance 0.3 t from the weld toe. The following
extrapolation procedure and number of gauges are recommended:
Type a hot spots:
a) Two gauges at reference points 0.4 t and 1.0 t and linear extrapolation (eq. 6).
t t hs
=
0 , 1 4 , 0
67 . 0 67 , 1 (4.2.28)
b) Three gauges at reference points 0.4 t, 0.9 t and 1.4 t, and quadratic extrapolation in
cases of pronounced nonlinear structural stress increase to the hot spot (eq. 7).
t t t ht
+ =
4 , 1 9 , 0 4 , 0
72 , 0 24 , 2 52 , 2 (4.2.29)
Often multigrid strip gauges are used with fixed distances between the gauges. Then the
gauges may not be located as recommended above. Then it is recommended to use e.g. four
gauges and fit a curve through the results.
Type b hot spots:
Strain gauges are attached at the plate edge at 4, 8 and 12 mm distant from the weld toe. The
hot spot strain is determined by quadratic extrapolation to the weld toe (eq. 8).
mm mm mm hs 12 8 4
3 3 + = (4.2.30)
Tubular joints:
For tubular joints, there exist recommendations which allow the use of linear extrapolation using
two strain gauges. Here, the measurement of simple uniaxial stress is sufficient.
Determination of stress:
If the stress state is close to uniaxial, the structural hot spot stress is obtained approximately
from eqn. (9).
hs hs
E = (4.2.31)
At biaxial stress states, the actual stress may be up to 10% higher than obtained from eqn. (3). In
this case, use of rosette strain gauges is recommended. If FEA results are available giving the
ratio between longitudinal and transverse strains
y
/
x
, the structural hot spot stress
hs
can then
be resolved assuming that this principal stress is about perpenticular to the weld toe.
2
1
1
v
v
E
x
y
x hs
+
=
(4.2.32)
Instead of absolute strains, strain ranges =
max
min
are usually measured and substituted in
the above equations, producing the range of structural hot spot stress
hs
.
Structural hot spot stress concentration factors and parametric formulae
For many joints between circular section tubes parametric formulae have been established for
the stress concentration factor k
hs
in terms of structural structural stress at the critical points (hot
spots). Hence the structural hot spot stress
hs
becomes:
40
nom hs hs
k = (4.2.33)
where
nom
is the nominal axial membrane stress in the braces, calculated by elementary stress
analysis.
4.2.8 Effective notch stress
Effective notch stress is the total stress at the root of a notch, obtained assuming linearelastic
material behaviour. To take account of the statistical nature and scatter of weld shape
parameters, as well as of the nonlinear material behaviour at the notch root, the real weld
contour is replaced by an effective one. For structural steels and aluminium an effective notch
root radius of r =1 mm has been verified to give consistent results.
The method is restricted to welded joints which are expected to fail from the weld toe or weld
root. Other causes of fatigue, e.g. from surface roughness or embedded defects, are not
covered. Also it is also not applicable where considerable stress components parallel to the weld
or parallel to the root gap exist.
The method is also restricted to assessment of naturally formed weld toes and roots. At
machined or ground welds, toes or roots shall be assessed using the notch stress and the fatigue
resistance value of a butt weld groud flush to plate.
The method is well suited to the comparison of alternative weld geometries. Unless otherwise
specified, flank angles of 30 for butt welds and 45 for fillet welds are suggested.
In cases where a mean geometrical notch root radius can be defined, e.g. after certain post weld
improvement procedures, this geometrical radius plus 1 mm may be used in the effective notch
stress analysis. The method is limited to thicknesses t 5 mm. For smaller wall thicknesses, the
method has not yet been verified.
Calculation of effective notch stress
Effective notch stresses or stress concentration factors can be calculated by parametric
formulae, taken from diagrams or calculated from finite element or boundary element models.
The effective notch radius is introduced such that the tip of the radius touches the root of the real
notch, e.g. the end of an unwelded root gap (figure 4.2.28).
Figure 4.2.28 Effective notch stress concentration factors
Possible misalignment has to be considered in the calculations.
Because the effective notch radius is an idealization, the effective notch stress cannot be
measured directly in the welded component. In contrast, the simple definition of the effective
notch can be used for photoelastic stress measurements in resin models.
Stress intensity factors
Fracture mechanics assumes the existence of an initial crack a
i
. It can be used to predict the
growth of the crack to a final size a
f
. Since for welds in structural metals, crack initiation occupies
only a small portion of the life, this method is suitable for assessment of fatigue life, inspection
intervals, cracklike weld imperfections and the effect of variable amplitude loading.
The parameter which describes the fatigue action at a crack tip in terms of crack propagation is
the stress intensity factor (SIF) K.
41
Fracture mechanics calculations generally have to be based on total stress at the notch root, e.g.
at the weld toe. For a variety of welded structural details, correction functions for the local notch
effect and the nonlinear stress peak of the structural detail have been established. Using these
correction functions, fracture mechanics analysis can be based on structural hot spot stress or
even on nominal stress. The correction function formulae may be based on different stress types.
The correction function and the stress type have to correspond.
Stress intensity factor determination methods are usually based on FEM analyses. They may be
directly calculated as described in the literature, or indirectly using the weight function approach.
Calculation of stress intensity factors by parametric formulae
First, the local nominal stress or the structural Structural hot spot stress at the location of the
crack has to be determined, assuming that no crack is present. The stress should be separated
into membrane and shell bending stresses. The stress intensity factor (SIF) K results as a
superposition of the effects of both stress components. The effect of the remaining stress raising
discontinuity or notch (nonlinear peak stress) has to be covered by additional factors M
k
.
( )
ben k ben ben mem k mem mem
M Y M Y a K
, ,
+ = (4.2.34)
where
mem
 membrane stress
ben
shell bending stress,
Y
mem
 correction function for membrane stress intensity factor,
Y
ben
 correction function for shell bending stress intensity factor,
M
k, mem
 correction for nonlinear stress peak in terms of membrane action,
M
k, ben
 correction for nonlinear stress peak in terms of shell bending.
The correction functions Y
mem
and Y
ben
, the formulae for stress intensity factors, M
k
factors can
be found in the literature.
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