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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CONTROL, AUTOMATION AND SYSTEMS VOL. 1, NO.

1, JANUARY 2012 24
Adaptation of PID Controller using AI Techniques
for Speed Control of Isolated Steam Turbine

Mohamed .M. Ismail



AbstractI t is known that PI D controller is employed in
every facet of industrial automation. The application of PI D
controller span from small industry to high technology industry.
Tuning the parameters of a PI D controller is very important in
PI D control. Ziegler and Nichols proposed the well-known
Ziegler-Nichols method to tune the coefficients of a PI D
controller. This tuning method is very simple, but cannot
guarantee to be always effective. For this reason, this paper
investigates the design of self tuning for a PI D controller. For
this study, the model selected is of isolated turbine speed control
system. I solated turbine system means that the turbine is not
connected to the grid. The reason for this is that this model is
often encountered in refineries in a form of steam turbine that
uses hydraulic governor to control the speed of the turbine. The
PI D controller of the model will be designed using the adaptive
fuzzy control method and the results analyzed. The same model
will be redesigned using GA ,PSO and ANFI S methods. The
results of design methods will be compared, analyzed and
conclusion will be drawn out of the simulation made.

I ndex Terms PI D controller, Fuzzy logic control, Self tuning
controller, ANFI S, GA , PSO and steam turbine


I. INTRODUCTION

Since many industrial processes are of a complex nature, it
is difficult to develop a closed loop control model for this
high level process. Also the human operator is often
required to provide on line adjustment, which make the
process performance greatly dependent on the experience of
the individual operator. It would be extremely useful if
some kind of systematic methodology can be developed for
the process control model that is suited to kind of industrial
process. There are some variables in continuous DCS
(distributed control system) suffer from many unexpected
disturbance during operation (noise, parameter variation,
model uncertainties, etc.) so the human supervision
(adjustment) is necessary and frequently. If the operator has
a little experience the system may be damage or operated at
lower efficiency [1, 4]. One of these systems is the control
of turbine speed PI controller is the main controller used to
control the process variable.


Manuscript received January 13, 2001. Mohamed .M. Ismail is the author
of the paper. The author is a staff member in the faculty of Engineering,
Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt , E-mail : m_m_ismail@yahoo.com



Process is exposed to unexpected conditions and the
controller fail to maintain the process variable in satisfied
conditions and retune the controller is necessary. Adaptive
controller is one of the succeed controller used in the
process control in case of model uncertainties. But it may be
difficult to the adaptive controller to articulate the
accumulated knowledge to encompass all circumstance.
Hence, it is essential to provide a tuning capability [2, 3].
The Speed control of turbine unit construction and
operation will be described. Adaptive controller is
suggested here to adapt normalized PID controller. Fuzzy ,
GA , PSO and ANFIS techniques will be used in this paper
as an adaptation techniques The algorithm is tested on an
simulation model of a turbine speed control System. A
comparison between the Adaptive Fuzzy Controller and
other adaptation techniques are done.

II. BACKGROUND
In refineries, in chemical plants and other industries the gas
turbine is a well known tool to drive compressors. These
compressors are normally of centrifugal type. They
consume much power due to the fact that very large volume
flows are handled. The combination gas turbine-compressor
is highly reliable. Hence the turbine-compressor play
significant role in the operation of the plants. In the above
set up, the high pressure steam (HPS) is usually used to
drive the turbine. The turbine which is coupled to the
compressor will then drive the compressor. The hydraulic
governor which, acts as a control valve will be used to
throttle the amount of steam that is going to the turbine
section. The governor opening is being controlled by a PID
which is in the electronic governor control panel. In this
paper, it is proposed that the controller be tuned using the
Genetic Algorithm technique. Using genetic algorithms to
perform the tuning of the controller will result in the
optimum controller being evaluated for the system every
time. For this study, the model selected is of turbine speed
control system.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CONTROL, AUTOMATION AND SYSTEMS VOL. 1, NO. 1, JANUARY 2012 25

Figure 1 Turbine Speed Control

The reason for this is that this model is often encountered in
refineries in a form of steam turbine that uses hydraulic
governor to control the speed of the turbine as illustrated
above in figure 1. The complexities of the electronic
governor controller will not be taken into consideration in
this dissertation. The electronic governor controller is a big
subject by it and it is beyond the scope of this study.
Nevertheless this study will focus on the model that makes
up the steam turbine and the hydraulic governor to control
the speed of the turbine. In the context of refineries, you can
consider the steam turbine as the heart of the plant. This is
due to the fact that in the refineries, there are lots of high
capacities compressors running on steam turbine. Hence this
makes the control and the tuning optimization of the steam
turbine significant.

III. MODELING OF THE STEAM TURBINE AND
ITS GOVERNING SYSTEM


A simplified construction of the steam turbine and its
governing system is proposed in the figure 2 and 3


Figure 2 Modeling of the steam turbine


Figure 3 hydraulic governing schemes

Using matlab simulink model, the simulink model of the
speed governing system is indicated in the figure 4


Figure 4 Simulink model of the speed governing system

To obtain the mathematical model of the process i.e. to
identify the process parameters, the process is looked as a
black box; a step input is applied to the process to obtain
the open loop time response. From the time response, the
transfer function of the open loop system can be
approximated in the form of a third order transfer function:

) 5 )( 1 (
1
) 1 )( 1 (

S S S s T s T s
KK
Gs
t g
g

(1)
The identified model is approximated as a linear model that
used in [4] , but exactly the closed loop is nonlinear due to
the limitation in the control signal.


IV. ADAPTATION OF PID CONTROLLER USING
FUZZY LOGIC

The fuzzy logic programming have been become widely
used in industry. Extensive number of researches were
developed using fuzzy logic technique [5-13]. This paper
proposed two inputs-three outputs self tuning of a PID
controller. The controller design used the error and change
of error as inputs to the self tuning, and the gains (KP1,
KI1, KD1) as outputs The controller proposed also contain
a scaling gains inputs (Ke, Ke) as shown in fig.5
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CONTROL, AUTOMATION AND SYSTEMS VOL. 1, NO. 1, JANUARY 2012 26

Figure 5 Fuzzy self tuning proposed.
Now the control action of the PID controller after self
tuning can be describing as:
dt
t de
K edt K t e K U
d I P PID
) (
) ( *
2 2 2

(2)
Where KP2, KI2, and KD2 are the new gains of PID
controller and are equals to:
KP2=KP1 * KP, KI2=KI1 * KI, and KD2=KD1*KD
(3)
Where KP1, KI1, and KD1 are the gains outputs of fuzzy
control, that are varying online with the output of the system
under control. And KP, KI, and KD are the initial values of
the conventional PID. The membership functions for the
inputs and outputs for the fuzzy controller are shown in
figures 6 and 7


Figure 6 Member ships function of inputs (e, e).


Figure 7 Member ships functions of outputs (KP1, KI1, and KD1).

Tables (1), (2), and (3) show the control rules that used for
fuzzy self tuning of PID controller.






V. ADAPTATION OF PID CONTROLLER USING
GENETIC ALGORITHM

Genetic Algorithms (GA.s) are a stochastic global search
method [14-16] that mimics the process of natural
evolution. It is one of the methods used for optimization.
John Holland formally introduced this method in the United
States in the 1970 at the University of Michigan. The
continuing performance improvement of computational
systems has made them attractive for some types of
optimization. The genetic algorithm starts with no
knowledge of the correct solution and depends entirely on
responses from its environment and evolution operators
such as reproduction, crossover and mutation to arrive at the
best solution. By starting at several independent points and
searching in parallel, the algorithm avoids local minima and
converging to sub optimal solutions. In this way, GAs have
been shown to be capable of locating high performance
areas in complex domains without experiencing the
difficulties associated with high dimensionality, as may
occur with gradient decent techniques or methods that rely
on derivative information [17,18].The summary of the
process will be described below:
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CONTROL, AUTOMATION AND SYSTEMS VOL. 1, NO. 1, JANUARY 2012 27

Figure 8 Genetic Algorithm Process Flow chart

In this paper, we are defining the parameters to be used in
the GA optimization as followings:
sys_overshoot=max(yout)-1 alpha=10;beta=10, The fitness
function ( to be minimized ) is defined as
F=(de/dt) beta+sys_overshoot*alpha
The yout in this research is the turbine speed , e is the speed
error and alpha and beta are constants the no of variables is
three (Kp , KI ,KD) , the population type is double vector ,
population size is 20 , the initial range of variable is (0.2
10) For the reproduction , the elite count is 2 and the
crossover friction is 0.8 , the mutation function is Gaussian ,
the crossover function is scattered , the stopping rules is the
no of generation is 100 , and the stall time limit is 200 sec.,

VI. ADAPTATION OF PID CONTROLLER USING
PSO

Optimization techniques using analogy of swarming
principle have been adopted to solve a variety of
engineering problems in the past decade. Swarm
Intelligence (SI) is an innovative distributed intelligent
paradigm for solving optimization problems that originally
took its inspiration from the biological examples by
swarming, In the earlier PSO algorithms, each particle of
the swarm is accelerated by its best previous position and
towards the best particle in the entire swarm. Here, the
underlying assumption is that each particle in the swarm
remembers the best position already visited and also it is
informed about the best particle position. After letting the
particles to search adequate number of times in the solution
space independently for the best possible positions, they are
attracted to the basin containing the best particle by
establishing proper communication among them about the
search environment [19], [20] and [21]. Let the
th
i
particle
of the swarm is represented by the Ddimensional vector
1 2
( , ,..., )
i i i iD
x x x x
and the best particle in the
swarm, i.e. the particle with the smallest function value, is
denoted by the index g. The best previous position (the
position giving the best function value) of the
th
i
particle is
recorded and represented as
1 2
( , ,..., )
i i i iD
p p p p
,
and the position change (velocity)
1 2
( , ,..., )
i i i iD
v v v v
of the
th
i
particle is. The
particles are manipulated according to the equations
1 1 2 2
. . .( - ) . .( - )
id id id id gd id
v w v c r p x c r p x
(4)


id id id
x x v

(5)
where d = 1, 2, . . . , D; i = 1, 2, . . . , N and N is the size of
population; w is the inertia weight;
1 2
c and c
are two
positive constants;
1 2
r and r
are two random values in the
range {0,1}. The first equation is used to calculate
th
i
particles new velocity by taking into consideration
three terms: the particles previous velocity, the distance
between the particles best previous and current position,
and, finally, the distance between swarms best experience
(the position of the best particle in the swarm) and
th
i
particles current position. Then, following the second
equation, the
th
i
particle flies toward a new position. The
main steps of the PSO algorithm are shown in Figure 9


Figure 9 PSO Process Flow chart

VII. BACTERIAL PARTICLE SWARM
OPTIMIZATION

(BPSO) is a modified method for the classical optimization
method of PSO algorithm the velocity updating and position
updating rules of particles are reinforced by two bacterial
behaviors, i.e. reproduction and elimination-dispersal.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CONTROL, AUTOMATION AND SYSTEMS VOL. 1, NO. 1, JANUARY 2012 28
Reproduction is applied to speed up the convergence rate,
and elimination-dispersal provides diversity to overcome
premature problem and escape from local optima.
Particle swarm may lead to a stagnation phenomenon. If a
particle's current position coincides with gbest, the particle
will not move if its inertia weight and previous velocity are
very close to zero. Once other particles have gathered
around gbest, they will stop moving if their previous
velocities are very close to zero. The whole swarm may not
move further more and this stagnation could induce a
premature convergence. In fact, the current gbest is the best
position searched so far, which may not be the global
optima. Therefore, particles fail to find the best position in
search space. In order to solve this problem, researchers
have proposed some strategies, e:g., adding a new
parameter and an Additional equation, introducing a
breeding and subpopulation strategy, and incorporating the
mutation process used in GA into PSO [22] to solve the
premature problem appears in the PSO optimization
algorithm . BPSO reserves searching behavior of PSO and
is reinforced by two bacterial behaviors. The pseudo code
of evolution strategy in BPSO is listed in Algorithm 2. The
bacterial behaviors are applied to particles after a number of
Nud update behaviors. Reproduction behavior is performed
if rd1 locates in the range of [0; Pre); and elimination-
dispersal behavior is per- formed if rd1 locates in the range
of [Pre; 1]. Therefore, Pre determines which bacterial
behaviors would be applied to the optimization. In case of
elimination-dispersal behavior is performed, the probability
Pd is offered to determine which particles and how many
particles will be selected to disperse. A random number rd2
is generated for each particle. Whether a particle will be
dispersed or remained depends on the comparison result
between rd2 and Pd. It can be concluded that, for each
particle, the probability of reproduction behavior to be
performed is Pre and the probability of elimination-
dispersal behavior is Ped * Pd. , the algorithm of BPSO will
be performed as followings :
for 1 to Nbc do
for 1 to Nud do
Update velocity according to Eq.(7);
Update velocity according to Eq.(8);
Evaluate tness value of each particle;
Update pbest and gbest;
end for
Generate a random number rd1 in the range of
[0; 1];
If rd1 < Pre then
Sort particles in desc ending order according to
fittness value;
Select rst Ni=2 particles as group1;
Select second Ni=2 particles as group2;
for 1 to Ni=2 do
Eliminate particle in group1;
Reproduce particle in group2;
end for
else
for 1 to Ni do
Generate a random number rd2 in the range of
[0, 1];
if rd2 < Pd then
Initialize position of particle randomly in search
space;
Initialize velocity of particle randomly in
velocity range;
else
Remain position and velocity of particle;
end if
end for
end if
end for
VIII. Neuro Fuzzy Controller (ANFIS)
An adaptive neuro -Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) is a
cross between an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and a
fuzzy inference system (FIS). An artificial neural network is
designed to simulate the characteristics of the human brain
and consists of a collection of artificial neurons. An
adaptive network is a multi-layer feed-forward network in
which each node (neuron) performs a particular function on
incoming signals. The form of the node functions may vary
from node to node. In an adaptive network, there are two
types of nodes, adaptive and fixed. The function and the
grouping of the neurons are dependent on the overall
function of the network. Based on the ability of an ANFIS
to learn from training data, it is possible to create an ANFIS
structure from an extremely limited mathematical
representation of the system. In sequel, the ANFIS
architecture can identify the near-optimal membership
functions of FLC for achieving desired input-output
mappings. The network applies a combination of the least
squares method and the back propagation gradient descent
method for training FIS membership function parameters to
emulate a given training data set. The system converges
when the training and checking errors are within an
acceptable bound. The ANFIS system generated by the
fuzzy toolbox available in MATLAB allows for the
generation of a standard Sugeno style fuzzy inference
system or a fuzzy inference system based on sub-clustering
of the data. Figure 10 shows a simple two-input ANFIS
architecture. The above ANFIS architecture is based on a
Sugeno fuzzy inference system. The Sugeno FIS is similar
to Mamadani format except the output memberships are
singleton spikes rather than a distributed fuzzy set. Using
singleton output simplifies the defuzzification step. The
flow chart that including the steps of ANFIS procedure is
included in figure 11.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CONTROL, AUTOMATION AND SYSTEMS VOL. 1, NO. 1, JANUARY 2012 29

Figure (10): ANFIS Architecture for a Two-Input System



Figure (11): Basic Diagram Of ANFIS Computation

The main purpose of using ANFIS controller in this paper
is for tuning the PID parameter based on GA and PSO
optimization techniques . There are two ANFIS controller
structure one is based on PID tuning using GA and the other
is based on PSO will be shown in Figures (12) and (13)
respectively . The fuzzy logic PID parameters are turned
using neural network method which is well known in
MATLAB program as ANFIS structure. The parameters are
selected such that, optimization method is hybrid, the
membership function is gbellmf , the membership function
output is linear , error tolerance was chosen to be 0. 01 , the
no of epochs are 1000 , grid partitions , the inputs of the
grid partitions are the number MFS are 3 , MF type is
gbellmf , the outputs is MF type defined to be constant .


Figure 12 PID tuning using ANFIS based on GA optimization technique

Figure 13 PID tuning using ANFIS based on PSO optimization technique

IX. SIMULATION RESULTS


The simulations have performed using MATLAB simulink
program for tuning of the PID controller that is used for
speed control of the steam turbine governed system with an
approximate transfer function in equation (1) . The
simulation is done first by using adaptive fuzzy controller
for PID tuning , next we will use optimization techniques
using GA and PSO , then the performance of the PSO will
be improved using BPSO and finally the tuning is
performed using ANFIS based on GA and PSO for
adaptation of the fuzzy rules . The input speed reference
used will be step and the turbine speed output response will
be indicated using figures (14) to (22). A complete
comparison between the output speed responses for the
different AI techniques is indicated in figures (23) and (24).

0 50 100 150
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
time (sec)

s
p
e
e
d

(
r
.
p
.
m
)


speed reference
steam turbine output speed

Figure 14 Speed control using fuzzy PID tuning algorithm
5 10 15 20 25 30 35
94
96
98
100
102
104
106
108
110
112
114
time (sec)

s
p
e
e
d

(
r
.
p
.
m
)


speed reference
steam turbine output speed

Figure 15 Speed control using fuzzy PID tuning algorithm
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CONTROL, AUTOMATION AND SYSTEMS VOL. 1, NO. 1, JANUARY 2012 30
0 50 100 150
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
time (sec)

s
p
e
e
d

(
r
.
p
.
m
)


speed reference
steam turbine output speed

Figure 16 Speed control using GA optimization algorithm for PID
parameters tuning
0 50 100 150
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
time (sec)

s
p
e
e
d

(
r
.
p
.
m
)


speed reference
steam turbine output speed

Figure 17 Speed control using ANFIS training based on GA
optimization algorithm for PID parameters tuning

0 50 100 150
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160

s
p
e
e
d

(
r
.
p
.
m
)
time (sec)


speed reference
steam turbine output speed

Figure 18 Speed control using PSO optimization algorithm for PID
parameters tuning
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55
40
60
80
100
120
140
time (sec)

s
p
e
e
d

(
r
.
p
.
m
)


speed reference
steam turbine output speed

Figure 19 Speed control using PSO optimization algorithm for PID
parameters tuning
0 50 100 150
0
50
100
150
200
250
time (sec)

s
p
e
e
d

(
r
.
p
.
m
)


speed reference
steam turbine output speed

Figure 20 Speed control using ANFIS training based on PSO
optimization algorithm for PID parameters tuning
0 50 100 150
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
time (sec)

s
p
e
e
d

(
r
.
p
.
m
)


speed reference
steam turbine output speed

Figure 21 Speed control using BPSO optimization algorithm for PID
parameters tuning
0 50 100 150
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
time (sec)

s
p
e
e
d

(
r
.
p
.
m
)


speed reference
steam turbine output speed

Figure 22 Speed control using ANFIS training based on BPSO
optimization algorithm for PID parameters tuning
0 50 100 150
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
time (sec)

s
p
e
e
d

(
r
.
p
.
m
)


speed reference
output speed using fuzzy
output speed using GA
output speed using PSO
output speed using BPSO


Figure 23 comparisons between the system response using different
classical AI techniques with the reference speed
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CONTROL, AUTOMATION AND SYSTEMS VOL. 1, NO. 1, JANUARY 2012 31
0 50 100 150
0
50
100
150
200
250
time (sec)


speed reference
output speed using ANFIS based on GA
output speed using ANFIS based on PSO
output speed using ANFIS based on BPSO

Figure 24 comparisons between the system response using ANFIS based
on different AI techniques with the reference speed
The speed reference used in simulation will be 100 r .p .m,
Figure 18 indicate the speed response of the steam turbine
by using the adaptive PID based on the fuzzy controller
with membership functions included in figure 6 and 7.
Amplification is done for the transient period of figure 14 is
indicated in figure 15. Figure 16 specify the system
response by using GA for tuning of PID controller. Figure
17 identify the system response base on ANFIS trained by
GA algorithm. Similarly figure 18 and 20 but by using PSO
algorithm. An amplification of the transient response
occurred in 18 is indicated in figure 19. An improvement in
the PSO algorithm is performed by BPSO which is pointed
out in figures 21 and 22.From the above figure we can point
out that the fuzzy PID tuning have the best performance for
the turbine speed governed system in comparison between
fuzzy and other AI techniques in the percentage overshoot
and settling time .GA have better performance than PSO in
this simulation but the BPSO have improved the
performance of PSO and become better in the response than
GA . Figure (23) give complete comparisons between the
fuzzy, GA, PSO and BPSO in the system output speed. By
training of the fuzzy rules using ANFIS, figure (24) signify
that the training of the fuzzy rules based on BPSO have the
best performance than the other methods.

X. CONCLUSION

This paper is considering the speed control of the isolated
steam turbine using self tuning of PID controller using
different artificial intelligent techniques. From the
simulation results, the response of the different techniques
indicate that the designed PID with Adaptive Fuzzy
Controller has much faster response than using the other AI
methods. The Adaptive Fuzzy designed PID is much better
in terms of the rise time and the settling time. BPSO have
better response than the classical PSO and the GA
optimization techniques. The training of the fuzzy
membership functions using ANFIS has better performance
in BPSO than other AI algorithms. In this article, some of
the new adaptation algorithms are applied for selecting the
optimum PID gains such that BPSO and ANFIS.

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