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1, JANUARY 2012 24

Adaptation of PID Controller using AI Techniques

for Speed Control of Isolated Steam Turbine

Mohamed .M. Ismail

AbstractI t is known that PI D controller is employed in

every facet of industrial automation. The application of PI D

controller span from small industry to high technology industry.

Tuning the parameters of a PI D controller is very important in

PI D control. Ziegler and Nichols proposed the well-known

Ziegler-Nichols method to tune the coefficients of a PI D

controller. This tuning method is very simple, but cannot

guarantee to be always effective. For this reason, this paper

investigates the design of self tuning for a PI D controller. For

this study, the model selected is of isolated turbine speed control

system. I solated turbine system means that the turbine is not

connected to the grid. The reason for this is that this model is

often encountered in refineries in a form of steam turbine that

uses hydraulic governor to control the speed of the turbine. The

PI D controller of the model will be designed using the adaptive

fuzzy control method and the results analyzed. The same model

will be redesigned using GA ,PSO and ANFI S methods. The

results of design methods will be compared, analyzed and

conclusion will be drawn out of the simulation made.

I ndex Terms PI D controller, Fuzzy logic control, Self tuning

controller, ANFI S, GA , PSO and steam turbine

I. INTRODUCTION

Since many industrial processes are of a complex nature, it

is difficult to develop a closed loop control model for this

high level process. Also the human operator is often

required to provide on line adjustment, which make the

process performance greatly dependent on the experience of

the individual operator. It would be extremely useful if

some kind of systematic methodology can be developed for

the process control model that is suited to kind of industrial

process. There are some variables in continuous DCS

(distributed control system) suffer from many unexpected

disturbance during operation (noise, parameter variation,

model uncertainties, etc.) so the human supervision

(adjustment) is necessary and frequently. If the operator has

a little experience the system may be damage or operated at

lower efficiency [1, 4]. One of these systems is the control

of turbine speed PI controller is the main controller used to

control the process variable.

Manuscript received January 13, 2001. Mohamed .M. Ismail is the author

of the paper. The author is a staff member in the faculty of Engineering,

Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt , E-mail : m_m_ismail@yahoo.com

Process is exposed to unexpected conditions and the

controller fail to maintain the process variable in satisfied

conditions and retune the controller is necessary. Adaptive

controller is one of the succeed controller used in the

process control in case of model uncertainties. But it may be

difficult to the adaptive controller to articulate the

accumulated knowledge to encompass all circumstance.

Hence, it is essential to provide a tuning capability [2, 3].

The Speed control of turbine unit construction and

operation will be described. Adaptive controller is

suggested here to adapt normalized PID controller. Fuzzy ,

GA , PSO and ANFIS techniques will be used in this paper

as an adaptation techniques The algorithm is tested on an

simulation model of a turbine speed control System. A

comparison between the Adaptive Fuzzy Controller and

other adaptation techniques are done.

II. BACKGROUND

In refineries, in chemical plants and other industries the gas

turbine is a well known tool to drive compressors. These

compressors are normally of centrifugal type. They

consume much power due to the fact that very large volume

flows are handled. The combination gas turbine-compressor

is highly reliable. Hence the turbine-compressor play

significant role in the operation of the plants. In the above

set up, the high pressure steam (HPS) is usually used to

drive the turbine. The turbine which is coupled to the

compressor will then drive the compressor. The hydraulic

governor which, acts as a control valve will be used to

throttle the amount of steam that is going to the turbine

section. The governor opening is being controlled by a PID

which is in the electronic governor control panel. In this

paper, it is proposed that the controller be tuned using the

Genetic Algorithm technique. Using genetic algorithms to

perform the tuning of the controller will result in the

optimum controller being evaluated for the system every

time. For this study, the model selected is of turbine speed

control system.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CONTROL, AUTOMATION AND SYSTEMS VOL. 1, NO. 1, JANUARY 2012 25

Figure 1 Turbine Speed Control

The reason for this is that this model is often encountered in

refineries in a form of steam turbine that uses hydraulic

governor to control the speed of the turbine as illustrated

above in figure 1. The complexities of the electronic

governor controller will not be taken into consideration in

this dissertation. The electronic governor controller is a big

subject by it and it is beyond the scope of this study.

Nevertheless this study will focus on the model that makes

up the steam turbine and the hydraulic governor to control

the speed of the turbine. In the context of refineries, you can

consider the steam turbine as the heart of the plant. This is

due to the fact that in the refineries, there are lots of high

capacities compressors running on steam turbine. Hence this

makes the control and the tuning optimization of the steam

turbine significant.

III. MODELING OF THE STEAM TURBINE AND

ITS GOVERNING SYSTEM

A simplified construction of the steam turbine and its

governing system is proposed in the figure 2 and 3

Figure 2 Modeling of the steam turbine

Figure 3 hydraulic governing schemes

Using matlab simulink model, the simulink model of the

speed governing system is indicated in the figure 4

Figure 4 Simulink model of the speed governing system

To obtain the mathematical model of the process i.e. to

identify the process parameters, the process is looked as a

black box; a step input is applied to the process to obtain

the open loop time response. From the time response, the

transfer function of the open loop system can be

approximated in the form of a third order transfer function:

) 5 )( 1 (

1

) 1 )( 1 (

S S S s T s T s

KK

Gs

t g

g

(1)

The identified model is approximated as a linear model that

used in [4] , but exactly the closed loop is nonlinear due to

the limitation in the control signal.

IV. ADAPTATION OF PID CONTROLLER USING

FUZZY LOGIC

The fuzzy logic programming have been become widely

used in industry. Extensive number of researches were

developed using fuzzy logic technique [5-13]. This paper

proposed two inputs-three outputs self tuning of a PID

controller. The controller design used the error and change

of error as inputs to the self tuning, and the gains (KP1,

KI1, KD1) as outputs The controller proposed also contain

a scaling gains inputs (Ke, Ke) as shown in fig.5

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CONTROL, AUTOMATION AND SYSTEMS VOL. 1, NO. 1, JANUARY 2012 26

Figure 5 Fuzzy self tuning proposed.

Now the control action of the PID controller after self

tuning can be describing as:

dt

t de

K edt K t e K U

d I P PID

) (

) ( *

2 2 2

(2)

Where KP2, KI2, and KD2 are the new gains of PID

controller and are equals to:

KP2=KP1 * KP, KI2=KI1 * KI, and KD2=KD1*KD

(3)

Where KP1, KI1, and KD1 are the gains outputs of fuzzy

control, that are varying online with the output of the system

under control. And KP, KI, and KD are the initial values of

the conventional PID. The membership functions for the

inputs and outputs for the fuzzy controller are shown in

figures 6 and 7

Figure 6 Member ships function of inputs (e, e).

Figure 7 Member ships functions of outputs (KP1, KI1, and KD1).

Tables (1), (2), and (3) show the control rules that used for

fuzzy self tuning of PID controller.

V. ADAPTATION OF PID CONTROLLER USING

GENETIC ALGORITHM

Genetic Algorithms (GA.s) are a stochastic global search

method [14-16] that mimics the process of natural

evolution. It is one of the methods used for optimization.

John Holland formally introduced this method in the United

States in the 1970 at the University of Michigan. The

continuing performance improvement of computational

systems has made them attractive for some types of

optimization. The genetic algorithm starts with no

knowledge of the correct solution and depends entirely on

responses from its environment and evolution operators

such as reproduction, crossover and mutation to arrive at the

best solution. By starting at several independent points and

searching in parallel, the algorithm avoids local minima and

converging to sub optimal solutions. In this way, GAs have

been shown to be capable of locating high performance

areas in complex domains without experiencing the

difficulties associated with high dimensionality, as may

occur with gradient decent techniques or methods that rely

on derivative information [17,18].The summary of the

process will be described below:

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CONTROL, AUTOMATION AND SYSTEMS VOL. 1, NO. 1, JANUARY 2012 27

Figure 8 Genetic Algorithm Process Flow chart

In this paper, we are defining the parameters to be used in

the GA optimization as followings:

sys_overshoot=max(yout)-1 alpha=10;beta=10, The fitness

function ( to be minimized ) is defined as

F=(de/dt) beta+sys_overshoot*alpha

The yout in this research is the turbine speed , e is the speed

error and alpha and beta are constants the no of variables is

three (Kp , KI ,KD) , the population type is double vector ,

population size is 20 , the initial range of variable is (0.2

10) For the reproduction , the elite count is 2 and the

crossover friction is 0.8 , the mutation function is Gaussian ,

the crossover function is scattered , the stopping rules is the

no of generation is 100 , and the stall time limit is 200 sec.,

VI. ADAPTATION OF PID CONTROLLER USING

PSO

Optimization techniques using analogy of swarming

principle have been adopted to solve a variety of

engineering problems in the past decade. Swarm

Intelligence (SI) is an innovative distributed intelligent

paradigm for solving optimization problems that originally

took its inspiration from the biological examples by

swarming, In the earlier PSO algorithms, each particle of

the swarm is accelerated by its best previous position and

towards the best particle in the entire swarm. Here, the

underlying assumption is that each particle in the swarm

remembers the best position already visited and also it is

informed about the best particle position. After letting the

particles to search adequate number of times in the solution

space independently for the best possible positions, they are

attracted to the basin containing the best particle by

establishing proper communication among them about the

search environment [19], [20] and [21]. Let the

th

i

particle

of the swarm is represented by the Ddimensional vector

1 2

( , ,..., )

i i i iD

x x x x

and the best particle in the

swarm, i.e. the particle with the smallest function value, is

denoted by the index g. The best previous position (the

position giving the best function value) of the

th

i

particle is

recorded and represented as

1 2

( , ,..., )

i i i iD

p p p p

,

and the position change (velocity)

1 2

( , ,..., )

i i i iD

v v v v

of the

th

i

particle is. The

particles are manipulated according to the equations

1 1 2 2

. . .( - ) . .( - )

id id id id gd id

v w v c r p x c r p x

(4)

id id id

x x v

(5)

where d = 1, 2, . . . , D; i = 1, 2, . . . , N and N is the size of

population; w is the inertia weight;

1 2

c and c

are two

positive constants;

1 2

r and r

are two random values in the

range {0,1}. The first equation is used to calculate

th

i

particles new velocity by taking into consideration

three terms: the particles previous velocity, the distance

between the particles best previous and current position,

and, finally, the distance between swarms best experience

(the position of the best particle in the swarm) and

th

i

particles current position. Then, following the second

equation, the

th

i

particle flies toward a new position. The

main steps of the PSO algorithm are shown in Figure 9

Figure 9 PSO Process Flow chart

VII. BACTERIAL PARTICLE SWARM

OPTIMIZATION

(BPSO) is a modified method for the classical optimization

method of PSO algorithm the velocity updating and position

updating rules of particles are reinforced by two bacterial

behaviors, i.e. reproduction and elimination-dispersal.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CONTROL, AUTOMATION AND SYSTEMS VOL. 1, NO. 1, JANUARY 2012 28

Reproduction is applied to speed up the convergence rate,

and elimination-dispersal provides diversity to overcome

premature problem and escape from local optima.

Particle swarm may lead to a stagnation phenomenon. If a

particle's current position coincides with gbest, the particle

will not move if its inertia weight and previous velocity are

very close to zero. Once other particles have gathered

around gbest, they will stop moving if their previous

velocities are very close to zero. The whole swarm may not

move further more and this stagnation could induce a

premature convergence. In fact, the current gbest is the best

position searched so far, which may not be the global

optima. Therefore, particles fail to find the best position in

search space. In order to solve this problem, researchers

have proposed some strategies, e:g., adding a new

parameter and an Additional equation, introducing a

breeding and subpopulation strategy, and incorporating the

mutation process used in GA into PSO [22] to solve the

premature problem appears in the PSO optimization

algorithm . BPSO reserves searching behavior of PSO and

is reinforced by two bacterial behaviors. The pseudo code

of evolution strategy in BPSO is listed in Algorithm 2. The

bacterial behaviors are applied to particles after a number of

Nud update behaviors. Reproduction behavior is performed

if rd1 locates in the range of [0; Pre); and elimination-

dispersal behavior is per- formed if rd1 locates in the range

of [Pre; 1]. Therefore, Pre determines which bacterial

behaviors would be applied to the optimization. In case of

elimination-dispersal behavior is performed, the probability

Pd is offered to determine which particles and how many

particles will be selected to disperse. A random number rd2

is generated for each particle. Whether a particle will be

dispersed or remained depends on the comparison result

between rd2 and Pd. It can be concluded that, for each

particle, the probability of reproduction behavior to be

performed is Pre and the probability of elimination-

dispersal behavior is Ped * Pd. , the algorithm of BPSO will

be performed as followings :

for 1 to Nbc do

for 1 to Nud do

Update velocity according to Eq.(7);

Update velocity according to Eq.(8);

Evaluate tness value of each particle;

Update pbest and gbest;

end for

Generate a random number rd1 in the range of

[0; 1];

If rd1 < Pre then

Sort particles in desc ending order according to

fittness value;

Select rst Ni=2 particles as group1;

Select second Ni=2 particles as group2;

for 1 to Ni=2 do

Eliminate particle in group1;

Reproduce particle in group2;

end for

else

for 1 to Ni do

Generate a random number rd2 in the range of

[0, 1];

if rd2 < Pd then

Initialize position of particle randomly in search

space;

Initialize velocity of particle randomly in

velocity range;

else

Remain position and velocity of particle;

end if

end for

end if

end for

VIII. Neuro Fuzzy Controller (ANFIS)

An adaptive neuro -Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) is a

cross between an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and a

fuzzy inference system (FIS). An artificial neural network is

designed to simulate the characteristics of the human brain

and consists of a collection of artificial neurons. An

adaptive network is a multi-layer feed-forward network in

which each node (neuron) performs a particular function on

incoming signals. The form of the node functions may vary

from node to node. In an adaptive network, there are two

types of nodes, adaptive and fixed. The function and the

grouping of the neurons are dependent on the overall

function of the network. Based on the ability of an ANFIS

to learn from training data, it is possible to create an ANFIS

structure from an extremely limited mathematical

representation of the system. In sequel, the ANFIS

architecture can identify the near-optimal membership

functions of FLC for achieving desired input-output

mappings. The network applies a combination of the least

squares method and the back propagation gradient descent

method for training FIS membership function parameters to

emulate a given training data set. The system converges

when the training and checking errors are within an

acceptable bound. The ANFIS system generated by the

fuzzy toolbox available in MATLAB allows for the

generation of a standard Sugeno style fuzzy inference

system or a fuzzy inference system based on sub-clustering

of the data. Figure 10 shows a simple two-input ANFIS

architecture. The above ANFIS architecture is based on a

Sugeno fuzzy inference system. The Sugeno FIS is similar

to Mamadani format except the output memberships are

singleton spikes rather than a distributed fuzzy set. Using

singleton output simplifies the defuzzification step. The

flow chart that including the steps of ANFIS procedure is

included in figure 11.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CONTROL, AUTOMATION AND SYSTEMS VOL. 1, NO. 1, JANUARY 2012 29

Figure (10): ANFIS Architecture for a Two-Input System

Figure (11): Basic Diagram Of ANFIS Computation

The main purpose of using ANFIS controller in this paper

is for tuning the PID parameter based on GA and PSO

optimization techniques . There are two ANFIS controller

structure one is based on PID tuning using GA and the other

is based on PSO will be shown in Figures (12) and (13)

respectively . The fuzzy logic PID parameters are turned

using neural network method which is well known in

MATLAB program as ANFIS structure. The parameters are

selected such that, optimization method is hybrid, the

membership function is gbellmf , the membership function

output is linear , error tolerance was chosen to be 0. 01 , the

no of epochs are 1000 , grid partitions , the inputs of the

grid partitions are the number MFS are 3 , MF type is

gbellmf , the outputs is MF type defined to be constant .

Figure 12 PID tuning using ANFIS based on GA optimization technique

Figure 13 PID tuning using ANFIS based on PSO optimization technique

IX. SIMULATION RESULTS

The simulations have performed using MATLAB simulink

program for tuning of the PID controller that is used for

speed control of the steam turbine governed system with an

approximate transfer function in equation (1) . The

simulation is done first by using adaptive fuzzy controller

for PID tuning , next we will use optimization techniques

using GA and PSO , then the performance of the PSO will

be improved using BPSO and finally the tuning is

performed using ANFIS based on GA and PSO for

adaptation of the fuzzy rules . The input speed reference

used will be step and the turbine speed output response will

be indicated using figures (14) to (22). A complete

comparison between the output speed responses for the

different AI techniques is indicated in figures (23) and (24).

0 50 100 150

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

time (sec)

s

p

e

e

d

(

r

.

p

.

m

)

speed reference

steam turbine output speed

Figure 14 Speed control using fuzzy PID tuning algorithm

5 10 15 20 25 30 35

94

96

98

100

102

104

106

108

110

112

114

time (sec)

s

p

e

e

d

(

r

.

p

.

m

)

speed reference

steam turbine output speed

Figure 15 Speed control using fuzzy PID tuning algorithm

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CONTROL, AUTOMATION AND SYSTEMS VOL. 1, NO. 1, JANUARY 2012 30

0 50 100 150

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

time (sec)

s

p

e

e

d

(

r

.

p

.

m

)

speed reference

steam turbine output speed

Figure 16 Speed control using GA optimization algorithm for PID

parameters tuning

0 50 100 150

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

time (sec)

s

p

e

e

d

(

r

.

p

.

m

)

speed reference

steam turbine output speed

Figure 17 Speed control using ANFIS training based on GA

optimization algorithm for PID parameters tuning

0 50 100 150

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

s

p

e

e

d

(

r

.

p

.

m

)

time (sec)

speed reference

steam turbine output speed

Figure 18 Speed control using PSO optimization algorithm for PID

parameters tuning

5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55

40

60

80

100

120

140

time (sec)

s

p

e

e

d

(

r

.

p

.

m

)

speed reference

steam turbine output speed

Figure 19 Speed control using PSO optimization algorithm for PID

parameters tuning

0 50 100 150

0

50

100

150

200

250

time (sec)

s

p

e

e

d

(

r

.

p

.

m

)

speed reference

steam turbine output speed

Figure 20 Speed control using ANFIS training based on PSO

optimization algorithm for PID parameters tuning

0 50 100 150

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

time (sec)

s

p

e

e

d

(

r

.

p

.

m

)

speed reference

steam turbine output speed

Figure 21 Speed control using BPSO optimization algorithm for PID

parameters tuning

0 50 100 150

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

time (sec)

s

p

e

e

d

(

r

.

p

.

m

)

speed reference

steam turbine output speed

Figure 22 Speed control using ANFIS training based on BPSO

optimization algorithm for PID parameters tuning

0 50 100 150

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

time (sec)

s

p

e

e

d

(

r

.

p

.

m

)

speed reference

output speed using fuzzy

output speed using GA

output speed using PSO

output speed using BPSO

Figure 23 comparisons between the system response using different

classical AI techniques with the reference speed

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CONTROL, AUTOMATION AND SYSTEMS VOL. 1, NO. 1, JANUARY 2012 31

0 50 100 150

0

50

100

150

200

250

time (sec)

speed reference

output speed using ANFIS based on GA

output speed using ANFIS based on PSO

output speed using ANFIS based on BPSO

Figure 24 comparisons between the system response using ANFIS based

on different AI techniques with the reference speed

The speed reference used in simulation will be 100 r .p .m,

Figure 18 indicate the speed response of the steam turbine

by using the adaptive PID based on the fuzzy controller

with membership functions included in figure 6 and 7.

Amplification is done for the transient period of figure 14 is

indicated in figure 15. Figure 16 specify the system

response by using GA for tuning of PID controller. Figure

17 identify the system response base on ANFIS trained by

GA algorithm. Similarly figure 18 and 20 but by using PSO

algorithm. An amplification of the transient response

occurred in 18 is indicated in figure 19. An improvement in

the PSO algorithm is performed by BPSO which is pointed

out in figures 21 and 22.From the above figure we can point

out that the fuzzy PID tuning have the best performance for

the turbine speed governed system in comparison between

fuzzy and other AI techniques in the percentage overshoot

and settling time .GA have better performance than PSO in

this simulation but the BPSO have improved the

performance of PSO and become better in the response than

GA . Figure (23) give complete comparisons between the

fuzzy, GA, PSO and BPSO in the system output speed. By

training of the fuzzy rules using ANFIS, figure (24) signify

that the training of the fuzzy rules based on BPSO have the

best performance than the other methods.

X. CONCLUSION

This paper is considering the speed control of the isolated

steam turbine using self tuning of PID controller using

different artificial intelligent techniques. From the

simulation results, the response of the different techniques

indicate that the designed PID with Adaptive Fuzzy

Controller has much faster response than using the other AI

methods. The Adaptive Fuzzy designed PID is much better

in terms of the rise time and the settling time. BPSO have

better response than the classical PSO and the GA

optimization techniques. The training of the fuzzy

membership functions using ANFIS has better performance

in BPSO than other AI algorithms. In this article, some of

the new adaptation algorithms are applied for selecting the

optimum PID gains such that BPSO and ANFIS.

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