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Joanne Collie Stephen Slater

LITERATURE IN THE LANGUAGE CLASSROOM


A resource book of ideas and activities
1
{iii}Contents
2
Page references to worksheets and figures v
Acknowledgements vi
Introduction 1
PART A AIMS AND
OBJ ECTIVES .
Reasons for including literature in the language classroom; an outline of our
approach; and some answers to general queries that teachers might have.
1 Teaching literature: why, what and how 3
2 In the classroom 11
PART B PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES IN
OUTLINE .
A resource ank of activities from which a teacher can choose and which can e
applied at different stages when using literar! works. "n most cases# an illustration is
given with the outline# from a range of novels# short stories# pla!s or poems. $Readers
can find descriptions of these works in Appendi% &.' Alternativel!# readers are given a
reference to the e%ample in Part (.
3 First encounters 1)
4 Maintaining momentum 3)
5 E!loiting highlights *+
" Endings +,
{iv}PART C WORKING WITH A COMPLETE
TEXT .
1
(amridge -niversit! Press# (amridge# 1,.+ "/01 2 *&1 31&&3 .
&
4he page numers are the same as in the ook 5 in the te%t !ou can find them in rackets {}
1
Particular works from four genres are e%amined in greater detail to show how the
activities outlined in Part 0 can e adapted. 4he novel chapter# on Lord of the Flies#
contains the most thorough arra! of activities# and readers might prefer to start with
this section.
# $ no%el: &ord o' the Flies (y )illiam *olding ,3
+ ,lays 1)3
- .hort stories 1,)
1/ ,oems &&)
$!!endi 1 )ith eaminations in mind &3+
A few hints and a simulation to help teachers prepare their students for e%aminations.
$!!endi 2 $ resource (an0 o' titles &*)
6uller details of works mentioned in the main od! of the ook and suggestions for
further reading.
.elect (i(liogra!hy &)3
"nde% &)3
{v},age re'erences to wor0sheets and 'igures
Worksheets
7orksheet 1 p. &2
7orksheet &A p. &&
7orksheet &0 p. &&
7orksheet 3 p. &)
7orksheet 3A p. 3,
7orksheet 30 p. 32
7orksheet * p. 3&
7orksheet ) p. 33
7orksheet + p. 3*
7orksheet . p. 3.
7orksheet , p. 3,
7orksheet 12 p. )2
7orksheet 11 p. +1
7orksheet 1& p. +3
7orksheet 13 p. .3
7orksheet 13 p. ,)
7orksheet 1* p. ,+
7orksheet 1) p. ,.
7orksheet 1+ p. ,,
7orksheet 1. p. ,,
7orksheet 1, p. 122
7orksheet &2 p. 123
7orksheet &1 p. 12)
7orksheet && p. 111
7orksheet &3 p. 113
7orksheet &3 p. 113
7orksheet &* p. 1&1
7orksheet &) p. 1&&
7orksheet &+ p. 1&*
7orksheet &. p. 132
7orksheet &, p. 133
7orksheet 32 p. 133
7orksheet 31A p. 13*
7orksheet 310 p. 13)
7orksheet 3& p. 13.
7orksheet 33 p. 13,
7orksheet 33 p. 131
7orksheet 3* p. 133
7orksheet 3) p. 13+
7orksheet 3+ p. 13.
7orksheet 3. p. 1*&
7orksheet 3, p. 1*3
7orksheet 32 p. 1*.
7orksheet 31 p. 1)2
7orksheet 3& p. 1+2
7orksheet 33 p. 1+&
7orksheet 33 p. 1+3
7orksheet 3* p. 1+3
&
7orksheet 3) p. 1+*
7orksheet 3+ p. 1++
7orksheet 3. p. 1+,
7orksheet 3, p. 1.2
7orksheet *2 p. 1.&
7orksheet *1 p. 1.3
7orksheet *& p. 1.,
7orksheet *3A p. 1,&
7orksheet *30 p. 1,3
7orksheet *3 p. 1,3
7orksheet ** p. 1,,
7orksheet *) p. &2&
7orksheet *+ p. &23
7orksheet *. p. &2*
7orksheet *, p. &2)
7orksheet )2 p. &2.
7orksheet )1A p. &12
7orksheet )10 p. &11
7orksheet )& p. &13
7orksheet )3 p. &1)
7orksheet )3 p. &1,
7orksheet )* p. &&3
7orksheet )) p. &&3
7orksheet )+ p. &3)
7orksheet ). p. &3,
7orksheet ), p. &32
Figures
6igure 1 p. 1+
6igure & p. &3
6igure 3 p. &*
6igure 3 p. )&
6igure * p. )3
6igure ) p. )*
6igure + p. .2
6igure . p. .&
6igure ,A p. 121
6igure ,0 p. 12&
6igure 12 p. 12+
6igure 11A p. 11+
6igure 110 p. 11.
6igure 11( p. 11,
6igure 1& p. 13&
6igure 13 p. 133
6igure 13 p. 13*
6igure 1* p. 1)&
6igure 1) p. 1)+
6igure 1+ p. 1),
6igure 1. p. 1.*
6igure 1, p. 1,.
6igure &2 p. &1&
6igure &1A p. &&1
6igure &10 p. &&&
6igure &&A p. &31
6igure &&0 p. &31
6igure &&( p. &3&
{vi}Acknowledgements
7e should like to thank 8ichael /wan for his continued advice and guidance#
0arara 4homas and Annemarie 9oung for their editorial help# and Peter :ucker who
designed the ook.
7e acknowledge with gratitude the students who have helped us e%plore these ideas
and techniques and who have allowed us to reproduce their work in this ook.
4he authors and pulishers are grateful to the following for permission to reproduce material;
<amish <amilton for the cover of When The Wind Blows on p. 1+; 7illiam <einemann =td and >iking
Penguin "nc.# 1ew 9ork for the e%tracts from The Talented Mr Ripley ! Patricia <ighsmith on pp. &2
and )2; 8ichael ?oseph =td# Penguin 0ooks =td and Alfred A. @nopf "nc. for the e%tracts from A4he
sound machineB in Someone Like You ! Roald :ahl on p. &.; 8ethuen# =ondon for the e%tracts from
The Applicant ! <arold Pinter on pp. &, and 32; ?onathan (ape =td for the e%tract on p. 31 from The
Magus ! ?ohn 6owles. Revised edition and 6oreword cop!right C 1,++ ! ?ohn 6owles =td. 0!
permission of =ittle# 0rown and (ompan!; 4he 0odle! <ead =td# =ondon and /imon and /chuster "nc.
of 1ew 9ork for the e%tract from The uman Factor ! Draham Dreene on p. 3&; 8rs /park and
<arold Eer Associates "nc.# 1ew 9ork for the e%tract from The Mandel!aum "ate ! 8uriel /park
on p. 3&; Radio Times for the e%tract on p. )3; 4he /ociet! of Authors on ehalf of the 0ernard /haw
Fstate for the e%tract from #ygmalion on p. ),; ?ohn <arve! and /ons =td for the illustrations on pp.
&&1 and &&&; :avid <igham Associates =td for the te%t of A4he @ing of (hinaBs daughterB ! Fdith
/itwell on pp. &32G1; A8! PapaBs 7altHB ! 4heodore Roethke on pp. &3&G3 is reprinted ! permission
of 6aer and 6aer =td from The $ollected #oems of Theodore Roethke and ! permission of
:ouleda! and (o. "nc.# 1ew 9ork C 1,3& <earst 8agaHines "nc.; A4elephone conversationB ! 7ole
/o!inka on pp. &3*G) first appeared in Reflections pulished ! African -niversities Press; E%ford
-niversit! Press for the te%t of A4he couple upstairsB on p. &32# C E-P 1,+2# reprinted from Sugar
%addy ! <ugo 7illiams $1,+2'; =aurence Pollinger =td# the estate of 8rs 6rieda =awrence Ravagli
3
and >iking Penguin "nc.# 1ew 9ork for the te%t of A4o women# as far as "Bm concernedB ! :.<.
=awrence on p. &&3; ?onathan (ape =td and A. :. Peters and (o. =td for the te%t of A9ou and "B !
Roger 8cDough on p. &3).
4he photograph on p. )* and photograph 1 on p. 1,. were taken ! 1igel =uckhurst and photographs
&# 3 and 3 on p. 1,. are reproduced ! permission of 0arna!Bs Picture =irar!.
4he photographs of /aki on p. &* were taken from Saki& A Life of ector ugo Munro ! A. ?.
=angguth# pulished ! <amish <amilton and Penguin 0ooks =td. 7e have een unale to trace the
cop!right owners of the photographs and would welcome information.
{1}Introducton
A corridor outside a classroom. A language teacher spots an intermediate student
propped up against a wall# his head in a ook.
A7hat are !ou reading# AlfredoI Eh# Animal Farm. 7hat do !ou think of itIB
A"tBs good. "Bm enJo!ing it# though itBs difficult for me. 0ut !ou know# " Just need to
read something more interesting than the te%took and " heard of this ook in m!
countr!. 7ould !ou have a moment to help me with these parts "Bve underlinedIB
Another corridor# another time. A language teacher# Just leaving the classroom# is
stopped ! a student;
A(ould !ou recommend a novel that " might read to improve m! FnglishI " need
more vocaular! and reading helps a lot.B
A8m# well# what sort of ooks do !ou like# 8artineIB
"nside a classroom# another time again. A language teacher is asking the studentsB
opinion;
A/everal students have suggested that we read a novel together. "Bm happ! to devote
one of our hours each week to doing that# if the maJorit! of !ou want it. 7hat do !ou
sa!IB
A chorus of replies;
A9es# that would e interesting. 7hat aout =ord of the 6liesI "Bve alwa!s wanted to
tr! it in Fnglish.B
AEh no# novels are much too difficult. " alwa!s have to look up so man! wordsKB
A0ut then at least !ou can feel !ouBve reall! done something.B
A1ovels are so long. ?ust imagine# the same ook# week after week# all term. 0oring.
<ow aout some short storiesIB
A" donBt like novels. " want to learn to speak Fnglish# not Just read it.B
4he germ for this ook sprang from man! conversations like these over the !ears with
speakers of other languages who were stud!ing Fnglish. 4hinking aout them# we
came to the conclusion that our classroom was something of a microcosm of the
Fnglish language teaching world generall!# reflecting a time when there is much
questioning of the relationship etween the stud! of language and literature.
/hould we e teaching literature in the foreign language classroom at a preG
universit! level# or notI 4his is a question which is certainl! in the {&}forefront of
deate toda!# !et it remains controversial and the attitude of man! teachers
amivalent. 1ot so man! !ears ago# there seemed to e a decisive swing against
literature in Fnglish as a foreign language. 4he emphasis in modern linguistics on the
primac! of the spoken language made man! distrust what was seen as essentiall! a
written# cr!stallised form. =iterature was thought of as emod!ing a static# convoluted
kind of language# far removed from the utterances of dail! communication. 0ecause
of this it was sometimes tarred with an AelitistB rush and reserved for the most
advanced level of stud!. Fven at that level# the need for an arsenal of critical terms#
3
the AmetalanguageB of literar! studies# convinced man! teachers that it could not e
studied satisfactoril! in the foreign language. 4here was dissatisfaction at the amount
of time devoted in the native language to appreciation of finer literar! points.
8oreover# in some cases literature was also seen as carr!ing an undesirale freight of
cultural connotations. 7hat was needed was a more neutral# more functional kind of
Fnglish# shorn of an! implication of cultural imperialism and relevant# in a wa! that
much of literature is not# to the demands of particular uses in usiness# trade# travel or
tourism# advertising# and so on.
@eeping literature off the s!llaus# however# has produced a certain amount of
unease as well. 4here is the awkward fact that man! learners want and love literar!
te%ts# as we have found time and time again. /imilarl!# the! often wish to ecome
more familiar with patterns of social interaction in the countr! which uses the target
language. 4he created world of fiction portra!s these in conte%tualised situations# and
this graduall! reveals the codes or assumptions which shape such interaction.
8oreover# from the teacherBs point of view# literature# which speaks to the heart as
much as to the mind# provides material with some emotional colour# that can make
fuller contact with the learnerBs own life# and can thus counteralance the more
fragmented effect of man! collections of te%ts used in the classroom.
7e have tried to devise wa!s of making literature a more significant part of a
language teaching programme and of using it in such a wa! as to further the learnerBs
master! in the four asic areas of listening# speaking# reading and writing. 7e elieve
our approach is most suited to adult or !oung adult learners# from the intermediate
level onwards# including the upper !ears at secondar! school. 8an! of the activities
and the ideas ehind them can e successfull! adapted across different levels of
language proficienc!. 7e wholeheartedl! encourage teachers to tr! them out at lower
levels. "n our view# the sooner learners can start to enJo! literature in their new
language# the etter.
{3}
P ART A AIMS AND OBJECTIVES .
1 Teaching literature: why, what and how
Eur aim is to provide oth new and e%perienced teachers with ver! practical help 5
ideas# approaches and techniques that have worked in our classrooms. 4o show how
we came to e using these# however# we should first like to look riefl! at some of the
issues which underlie our own attitudes to language learning and its relation to the
stud! of literature. 7h! is literature eneficial in the language learning processI 7hat
works are appropriate in the foreignGlanguage classroomI <ow can we rethink the
wa! we present and use literature in order to develop a roader range of activities
which are more involving for our studentsI
)hy
6irstl!# wh! should a language teacher use literar! te%ts with classes# especiall! if
there is no specific e%amination requirement to do so and little e%tra time availaleI
>A=-A0=F A-4<F14"( 8A4FR"A=
Ene of the main reasons might e that literature offers a ountiful and e%tremel!
varied od! of written material which is AimportantB in the sense that it sa!s
*
something aout fundamental human issues# and which is enduring rather than
ephemeral. "ts relevance moves with the passing of time# ut seldom disappears
completel!; the /hakespearean pla!s whose endings were rewritten to conform to late
seventeenthGcentur! taste# and which were later staged to give ma%imum prominence
to their Romantic hero figures# are now e%plored for their ps!choanal!tic or
dialectical import. "n this wa!# though its meaning does not remain static# a literar!
work can transcend oth time and culture to speak directl! to a reader in another
countr! or a different period of histor!.
=iterature is AauthenticB material. 0! that we simpl! mean that most works of
literature are not fashioned for the specific purpose of teaching a language. Recent
course materials have quite rightl! incorporated man! AauthenticB samples of language
5 for e%ample# travel timetales# cit! plans# forms# pamphlets# cartoons#
advertisements# newspaper or magaHine articles. =earners are thus e%posed to
language that is as genuine and undistorted as can e managed in the classroom
conte%t. {3}=iterature is a valuale complement to such materials# especiall! once the
initial AsurvivalB level has een passed. "n reading literar! te%ts# students have also to
cope with language intended for native speakers and thus the! gain additional
familiarit! with man! different linguistic uses# forms and conventions of the written
mode; with iron!# e%position# argument# narration# and so on. And# although it ma!
not e confined within a specific social network in the same wa! that a us ticket or
an advertisement might e# literature can none the less incorporate a great deal of
cultural information.
(-=4-RA= F1R"(<8F14
6or man! language learners# the ideal wa! to deepen their understanding of life in the
countr! where that language is spoken 5 a visit or an e%tended sta! 5 is Just not
possile. /ome ma! start learning a language knowing that the! are unlikel! ever to
set foot in an area where it is spoken ! the maJorit! of inhaitants. 6or all such
learners# more indirect routes to this form of understanding must e adopted so that
the! gain an understanding of the wa! of life of the countr!; radio programmes# films
or videos# newspapers# and# last ut not least# literar! works. "t is true of course that
the AworldB of a novel# pla!# or short stor! is a created one# !et it offers a full and
vivid conte%t in which characters from man! social ackgrounds can e depicted. A
reader can discover their thoughts# feelings# customs# possessions; what the! u!#
elieve in# fear# enJo!; how the! speak and ehave ehind closed doors. 4his vivid
imagined world can quickl! give the foreign reader a feel for the codes and
preoccupations that structure a real societ!. Reading the literature of a historical
period is# after all# one of the wa!s we have to help us imagine what life was like in
that other foreign territor!; our own countr!Bs past. =iterature is perhaps est seen as a
complement to other materials used to increase the foreign learnerBs insight into the
countr! whose language is eing learnt.
=A1D-ADF F1R"(<8F14
7e have said that reading literar! works e%poses the student to man! functions of the
written language# ut what aout other linguistic advantagesI =anguage enrichment is
one enefit often sought through literature. 7hile there is little dout that e%tensive
reading increases a learnerBs receptive vocaular! and facilitates transfer to a more
active form of knowledge# it is sometimes oJected that literature does not give
learners the kind of vocaular! the! reall! need. "t ma! e AauthenticB in the sense
alread! mentioned# ut the language of literar! works is# on the whole# not t!pical of
)
the language of dail! life# nor is it like the language used in learnersB te%tooks. 7e
would not wish students to think that FliHaeth 0arrett 0rowningBs A<ow do " love
theeIB is the kind of utterance normall! whispered into a loverBs ear nowada!sK 4he
oJection to literature on the {*} grounds of le%ical appropriac! thus has some
validit!# ut it need not e an overriding one if teachers make a Judicious choice of the
te%t to e read# considering it as a counterpoise and supplement to other materials.
En the positive side# literature provides a rich conte%t in which individual le%ical or
s!ntactical items are made more memorale. Reading a sustantial and conte%tualised
od! of te%t# students gain familiarit! with man! features of the written language 5
the formation and function of sentences# the variet! of possile structures# the
different wa!s of connecting ideas 5 which roaden and enrich their own writing
skills. 4he e%tensive reading required in tackling a novel or long pla! develops the
studentsB ailit! to make inferences from linguistic clues# and to deduce weaning from
conte%t# oth useful tools in reading other sorts of material as well. As we shall
suggest through man! activities in this ook# a literar! te%t can serve as an e%cellent
prompt for oral work. "n all these wa!s# a student working with literature is helped
with the asic skills of language learning. 8oreover# literature helps e%tend the
intermediate or advanced learnerBs awareness of the range of language itself. =iterar!
language is not alwa!s that of dail! communication# as we have mentioned# ut it is
special in its wa!. "t is heightened; sometimes elaorate# sometimes marvellousl!
simple !et# somehow# asolutel! ArightB. 4he compressed qualit! of much literar!
language produces une%pected densit! of meaning. 6igurative language !okes levels
of e%perience that were previousl! distinct# casting new light on familiar sensations
and opening up new dimensions of perception in a wa! that can e e%hilarating ut
also startling and even unsettling.
6or these features of literar! language to e appreciated# a considerale effort is
required on the part of the reader who is tackling the te%t in a foreign language. 0ut
with wellGchosen works# the investment of effort can e immensel! rewarding# the
resulting sense of achievement highl! satisf!ing. At a productive level# students of
literature will# we hope# ecome more creative and adventurous as the! egin to
appreciate the richness and variet! of the language the! are tr!ing to master and egin
to use some of that potential themselves.
PFR/E1A= "1>E=>F8F14
Aove all# literature can e helpful in the language learning process ecause of the
personal involvement it fosters in readers. (ore language teaching materials must
concentrate on how a language operates oth as a ruleGased s!stem and as a socioG
semantic s!stem. >er! often# the process of learning is essentiall! anal!tic# piecemeal#
and# at the level of the personalit!# fairl! superficial. Fngaging imaginativel! with
literature enales learners to shift the focus of their attention e!ond the more
mechanical aspects of the foreign language s!stem. 7hen a novel# pla! or short stor!
is e%plored over a period of time# the result is that the reader {)} egins to AinhaitB the
te%t. <e or she is drawn into the ook. Pinpointing what individual words or phrases
ma! mean ecomes less important than pursuing the development of the stor!. 4he
reader is eager to find out what happens as events unfold; he or she feels close to
certain characters and shares their emotional responses. 4he language ecomes
AtransparentB 5 the fiction summons the whole person into its own world.
7e elieve that this can happen# and can have eneficial effects upon the whole
language learning process# as long as the reader is wellGmotivated# and as long as the
e%perience of engaging with literature is kept sufficientl! interesting# varied and nonG
+
directive to let the reader feel that he or she is taking possession of a previousl!
unknown territor!. Eviousl!# the choice of a particular literar! work will e
important in facilitating this creative relationship which the reader estalishes with the
te%t. "t is this question we should like to consider ne%t.
)hat
7hat sort of literature is suitale for use with language learnersI 4he criteria of
suitailit! clearl! depend ultimatel! on each particular group of students# their needs#
interests# cultural ackground and language level. <owever# one primar! factor to
consider is# we suggest# whether a particular work is ale to stimulate the kind of
personal involvement we have Just descried# ! arousing the learnersB interest and
provoking strong# positive reactions from them. "f it is meaningful and enJo!ale#
reading is more likel! to have a lasting and eneficial effect upon the learnersB
linguistic and cultural knowledge. "t is important to choose ooks# therefore# which
are relevant to the life e%periences# emotions# or dreams of the learner. =anguage
difficult! has# of course# to e considered as well. 0ecause the! have oth a linguistic
and a cultural gap to ridge# foreign students ma! not e ale to identif! with or enJo!
a te%t which the! perceive as eing fraught with difficult! ever! step of the wa!. "n
the asence of curriculum or e%am constraints# it is much etter to choose a work that
is not too much aove the studentsB normal reading proficienc!.
"f the language of the literar! work is quite straightforward and simple# this ma! e
helpful ut is not in itself the most crucial !ardstick. "nterest# appeal and relevance are
all more important. "n order for us to Justif! the additional time and effort which will
undoutedl! e needed for learners to come to grips with a work of literature in a
language not their own# there must e some special incentive involved. FnJo!ment;
suspense; a fresh insight into issues which are felt to e close to the heart of peopleBs
concerns; the delight of encountering oneBs own thoughts or situations encapsulated
vividl! in a work of art; the other# equal delight of finding {+} those same thoughts or
situations illuminated ! a totall! new# une%pected light or perspective; all these are
incentives which can lead learners to overcome enthusiasticall! the linguistic
ostacles that might e considered too great in less involving material.
"t is therefore well worth the time spent in tr!ing to achieve a good watch etween a
particular group of learners and the literar! work the! will e asked to read.
Luestionnaires on tastes and interests can e useful. Another wa! of proceeding is to
give the class a rief summar! of three or Mour possiilities# perhaps with short
e%tracts from the te%t# and let them choose the one the! find the most appealing. A
close runnerGup can alwa!s ecome the te%t the class works with ne%t.
1ow
Ence a novel or pla! has een chosen# how est can the teacher and students work
with itI Particular answers to this question will emerge later as our activities are
descried. "n this section we should like to e%amine more general principles. 6irst we
shall descrie some of the approaches that are often used when literature is taught.
4hen we shall outline some of the aims that have guided our quest for wa!s of
supplementing or even# in some cases# replacing these approaches.
Some commonly used approaches to teaching literature
.
4he perennial prolem of how to teach languages has in recent !ears ecome
increasingl! guided ! the dominant aim of promoting the learnerBs communicative
competence. 7hen# however# the teacher introduces students to the literature of the
foreign language# this communicative ideal too often vanishes. 4he wa! literature is
presented often has a numer of t!pical features.
/ometimes the teacher falls ack upon a more traditional classroom role in which he
or she sees him or herself as imparting information aout the author# the ackground
to the work# the particular literar! conventions that inform the te%t and so on. =earners
are somehow e%pected to have the ailit! to take all this in and make it their own.
Eften the sheer difficulties of detailed comprehension posed ! the intricac! or
linguistic sutlet! of the language turn the teaching of literature into a massive
process of e%planation ! the teacher or even of translation# with the greater
proportion of availale classroom time devoted to a step ! step e%egetical e%ercise
led ! the teacher.
At more advanced levels of work with literature# the teacher ma! resort to the
metalanguage of criticism and this ma! oth distance learners from {.} their own
response and cause them to undervalue it# whatever the gain in anal!tical terms.
Fven if the teacher hopes to do more to sharpen studentsB own response to the
literar! work# there is often little guidance on how to do so. 4he timeGhonoured
technique of questionGandGanswer can provide some help. 0ut# unless questions are
genuinel! openGended# there is often a feeling on the part of the students that the
teacher is slowl! ut surel! edging them to particular answers that he or she has in
mind. 4here is little room for either their own responses or their involvement during
such sessions. "n short# personal investment is minimal.
All these teacherGcentred approaches ma! foster detailed comprehension ut
students will proal! not have made the te%t their own. 1or will the classroom
process have encouraged them to share their own views with each other# and the! ma!
not have used the target language ver! much.
Aims that underlie our approach
"n general terms# our aim is to complement more conventional approaches and so
diversif! the repertoire of classroom procedures. 7e hope in this wa! to put fresh
momentum into the teaching of literature# to stimulate studentsB desire to read# and to
encourage their response. 8ore particularl!# the following aims have provided a
rationale for the kind of activities we outline in later chapters.
8A"14A"1"1D "14FRF/4 A1: "1>E=>F8F14 09 -/"1D A >AR"F49 E6
/4-:F14G(F14RF: A(4">"4"F/
"n estalishing a numer of wa!s in which a te%t could e e%plored# we have tried to
ear in mind that an! approach used e%clusivel! can turn to tedium in the classroom.
7e have found that role pla!# improvisation# creative writing# discussions#
questionnaires# visuals and man! other activities which we use successfull! to var!
our language classes can serve a similar purpose when we teach literature. An arra! of
enJo!ale studentGcentred activities is particularl! important when working with
students who are not literature specialists and who ma! not as !et have developed a
wish to read literature in the target language on their own initiative. 8oreover# the
availailit! of a variet! of activities enales the teacher to concentrate on meeting
studentsB weaknesses in particular skill areas G in speaking or listening# for e%ample.
,
/-PP=F8F14"1D 4<F PR"14F: PADF
"n devising activities for integrating language and literature we have orne in mind the
notion that learning is promoted ! involving as man! of the studentsB faculties as
possile. 0! itself# the printed page can e a {,} fairl! cold# distancing medium
appealing to a restricted part of the readerBs visual sense and to the intellect. And !et#
of course# the words that make up that printed page can create a whole new world
inside the readerBs imagination# a world full of warmth and colour. As teachers we tr!
to e%ploit as full! as possile the emotional dimension that is a ver! integral part of
literature# though it is so often lacking in more neutral language learning te%ts.
4APP"1D 4<F RF/E-R(F/ E6 @1E7=F:DF A1: FNPFR"F1(F 7"4<"1
4<F DRE-P
Pair and group work are now well estalished as a means oth of increasing learnersB
confidence within the foreign language and also of personalising their contact with it.
Although it ma! seem parado%ical we have found that shared activit! can e
especiall! fruitful in helping the learner find a wa! into what is usuall! an intensel!
personal and private e%perience# that of coming to terms with and inhaiting an
authorBs universe. "n the creative endeavour of interpreting this new universe# a group
with its various sets of life e%periences can act as a rich marshalling device to enhance
the individualBs awareness oth of his or her own responses and of the world created
! the literar! work.
En a more practical level# working with a group can lessen the difficulties presented
! the numer of unknowns on a page of literar! te%t. >er! often someone else in a
group will e ale to suppl! the missing link or fill in an appropriate meaning of a
crucial word# or if not# the task of doing so will ecome a shared one. /hifting
attention awa! from the te%t itself to such shared activit! is often conducive to the
creation of a riskGtaking atmosphere. 7ith the groupBs support and control# the
individual has greater freedom to e%plore his or her own reactions and interpretations.
Aove all# we hope that the group will stimulate learners to reread and ponder the te%t
on their own.
<F=P"1D /4-:F14/ FNP=ERF 4<F"R E71 RF/PE1/F/ 4E ="4FRA4-RF
4his aim has een strongl! hinted at within those alread! discussed. Eur activities tr!
to help students to acquire the confidence to develop# e%press and value their own
response. 4hrough this process# we hope that the! will ecome less dependent on
received opinion and therefore more interested in and more ale to assess other
perspectives.
/tudents who have had to accomplish a range of tasks and activities centred on a
literar! te%t# often as a shared activit! in groups# ma! come to e more personall!
familiar with that te%t. 4he effort the! have rought to it and the personal investment
the! have made in it will sharpen their own response# making it more likel! that the!
will want to e%tend their understanding of it ! personal reading at home.
{12}-/"1D 4<F 4ARDF4 =A1D-ADF
Ene of the principles which fashions our classroom approach to literature is that of
using the target language with the range of activities chosen. 7e want to give learners
the ma%imum chance of entering the universe of an! selected ook. 4his will e
facilitated if# instead of tr!ing to transpose it into their own language and cultural
e%perience# the! tr! to put themselves imaginativel! into the target situation. 4he
main difficult! with this approach is# of course# that some learners ma! not !et
12
possess the richness and sutlet! of vocaular! and structure in which to couch their
response in the target language. 7e feel that there are a numer of wa!s in which
students can e helped to e%press this response either nonGverall! or ! making a
limited linguistic repertoire go a long wa!.
"f# however# in the discussion following a shared activit! there is a reversion to the
native language# in groups which have a common first language# then we feel that this
is not a disaster. 6irst of all# it usuall! indicates that the learners are enJo!ing the task
and are engrossed in it; then# too# it shows that learners are ringing their knowledge
and e%perience to ear on the new language# thus identif!ing with it and personalising
it.
6inall!# in order to achieve this aim of using the target language as much as possile
and framing our approach to the literar! te%t consistentl! within its own language# we
have tried hard to avoid the metalanguage of critical discussion. 7e feel that
concentration on this kind of language can undermine studentsB confidence in their
own response# especiall! when the! are working in the target language.
"14FDRA4"1D =A1D-ADF A1: ="4FRA4-RF
4he overall aim# then# of our approach to the teaching of literature is to let the student
derive the enefits of communicative and other activities for language improvement
within the conte%t of suitale works of literature. /haring literature with students is a
spur to their acquiring these enefits# providing the teacher makes a alanced
selection of activities and presents them with confidence. <owever# efore we turn to
a description of some activities and techniques that ma! e helpful# we would like to
answer a few of the more detailed practical queries and douts that practising teachers
might still have.
2 In the classroom
"n (hapter 1# we argued that shared classroom activities can help learners overcome
the difficulties of approaching a work of literature in a foreign language# ! giving
them new insights and sufficient confidence to stimulate their own rereading at home.
<owever# man! teachers who are convinced of the value of literature for their
students nevertheless encounter considerale prolems when the! tr! to present a
particular work to their classes. "n our discussions with language teachers# some of
these prolems surfaced time and again as recurring questions# which we would now
like to consider in some detail.
!I"d #$% to u&% #t%r'tur% n () non*&+%c'#&t #'n,u',% c#'&&%&- .ut ' /0o#% no1%#
&%%(& too (uc0 to t'c$#%- 'nd %2tr'ct& don"t &+'r$ (uc0 nt%r%&t n () &tud%nt&.
W0't &0ou#d I do3"
4here is no dout that the sheer length of some works is daunting. Reading or
translating a work in class# hour after hour# week after week# can e such a drear!
e%perience that man! students never want to open a foreignGlanguage ook again.
F%tracts provide one t!pe of solution. 4he advantages are ovious; reading a series
of passages from different works produces more variet! in the classroom# so that the
teacher has a greater chance of avoiding monoton!# while still giving learners a taste
at least of an authorBs special flavour.
En the other hand# a student who is onl! e%posed to AiteGsiHed chunksB will never
have the satisfaction of knowing the overall pattern of a ook# which is after all the
11
satisfaction most of us seek when we read something in our own language. 8oreover#
there are some literar! features that cannot e adequatel! illustrated ! a short
e%cerpt; the development of plot or character# for instance# with the gradual
involvement of the reader that this implies; or the unfolding of a comple% theme
through the Ju%taposition of contrasting views.
"n later chapters# we illustrate an alternative solution# which consists of selecting
from a long work a series of e%tracts which provide the asis for classroom activities.
Reading a novel or pla! thus ecomes a comination of classwork and sustantial
private reading. 4he entire te%t need not e read ! the teacher and students together;
working on carefull! chosen {1&} selections will maintain momentum and a sense of
the whole in class# while the learnersB complementar! reading at home allows them to
form a personal relationship with the te%t and to feel# at the end# that the! have coped
satisfactoril! with the challenge of a complete ook.
!Ho/ c'n I &%#%ct t0% r,0t +'&&',%& to /or$ /t0 n c#'&&3"
4he criteria we have found most useful in choosing e%cerpts for classwork are the
following; e%tracts should e interesting in themselves# and if possile close to the
studentsB own interests; the! should e an important part of the ookBs overall pattern;
and the! should provide good potential for a variet! of classroom activities.
Eviousl!# there is no single solution which will fit all ooks and all classroom
situations. A teacherBs selection of passages must var! as he or she attempts to draw
upon the different resources within each te%t# and it will have to take into account the
nature and length of the course as well as factors to do with the learners themselves#
the level of their linguistic proficienc!# for instance# and their own needs and desires.
7e hope that the novels and pla!s we use as illustrations in later chapters will
provide e%amples of how passages can e selected to good effect# so that similar ideas
and techniques can e applied to a variet! of other works of literature.
!W0't '.out t0% &%cton& not r%'d n c#'&&3"
Ene of our aims in teaching literature is to encourage learners to feel that the! can
read and enJo! ooks on their own. 7e therefore ask them to read specified sections
at home# often with the support of worksheets which provide either particular help
with points of difficult!# or more general help in formulating a response to the
passage the! are reading. F%amples are given in (hapter 3. "t is timeGconsuming to
prepare such supportive worksheets when a teacher first works with a ook# ut well
worth the effort# since the! can provide a real stimulus to e%tensive reading. 4he! are
also a longGterm investment; works of literature do not date ver! rapidl! and can e
taught !ear after !ear.
"t is most important that the parts of a ook which are to e read ! students on their
own should e related to the ongoing pattern of activities in the classroom. 6ollowGup
tasks can e used that depend upon prior home reading# or some aspect of the passage
read can e incorporated into the ne%t classroom activit! designed to present an
unread section. 7hat is essential is to link class and home work# to help maintain an
overview of the whole ook as we go through it. "f this is done# it is no longer
necessar! to proceed in a strictl! linear# chronological fashion. "n some cases# for
e%ample# parts of a novel might e e%tracted to provide material for a roleGpla!
e%ercise in the classroom. /tudents would tater e asked to {13} read# as homework#
the sections which led up to this situation in the novel. 4he creative counterpoint
1&
which we estalish etween private reading and group tasks gives us as teachers a
much greater freedom in our approach to the long te%t; in particular# it enales us to
reak the often tedious linearit! of the traditional lockGstep process ! which a whole
class is taken from eginning to end of an! work.
!But 4 /% don"t r%'d t0% /0o#% .oo$ to,%t0%r- 0o/ c'n I .% &ur% () &tud%nt&
r%'##) $no/ t /%##3"
"t is true that concentrating on some selected highlights constitutes a form of sampling
that does not guarantee an overall grasp of the whole work. 0ut then does an! method
ever do thatI Fven if teachers read through and e%plain ever! single word of a shorter
te%t in class# can the! e sure that what has undoutedl! een taught has also een
learntI
7e feel that if we choose e%tracts carefull! and present them through enJo!ale
group activities# our students have more chance of gaining true familiarit! with an!
work as a whole. After all# such an approach replicates the e%perience of reading a
long te%t in our own language. 7e ma! well read it from eginning to end# ut it will
not e%ist as a chronological entit! in our minds. Eur memor! will impose its own
overview# lingering upon some aspects rather than others# telescoping events#
organising new configurations. "t is natural to think and talk aout a comple% ook in
terms of its highlights for us as readers# and this is in effect what we are asking our
students to do. 1evertheless# we hope that the kind of tasks we have suggested# and
especiall! perhaps in (hapter ) $AFndingsB'# will help learners draw together the man!
strands that constitute their awareness of what an author has achieved in an! particular
ook.
!W0't c'n I do '.out &tud%nt& /0o 'r% &o $%%n t0't t0%) r'c% '0%'d 'nd 4n&0
t0% .oo$ out o4 &t%+ /t0 t0% ,%n%r'# +'c% o4 t0% c#'&&3"
6rom our e%perience# this is inevitale if ooks are distriuted in sets. "t should not e
discouraged# given that one of our aims is to stimulate reading haits.
7hat it does mean# however# is that the teacher will have to select classroom
activities# and worksheets for home reading# that offer some challenge to this student#
perhaps dispensing with activities of prediction or those that would e marred !
knowledge of the whole stor!.
:epending on the t!pe of ook read# it is not alwa!s a ad thing if students know
the ending efore the ook has een completed. 4his sometimes frees them to look
more closel! at each individual part that is eing highlighted in class. Droup activities
or task sheets also make the ArapidB student reread# sometimes with a new focus of
attention# and this is usuall! ver! eneficial from oth a linguistic and a literar! point
of view.
{13} !W0't '.out ot0%r t)+%& o4 #t%r'tur% /0c0 do not +r%&%nt ' +ro.#%( o4
#%n,t05 &0ort &tor%&- 4or %2'(+#%- on%*'ct +#')&- or +o%(&3"
"n the foreignGlanguage classroom# poems offer a special kind of reward as well as a
challenge all of their own. 6or this reason# we have discussed possile wa!s of
presenting them in a separate chapter# even though man! of the activities outlined for
other genres can e adapted to poetr!. /hort prose works also enefit from the various
activities descried in Part 0. 7e hope that teachers will e ale to use some of these
13
ideas to e%ploit the particular qualities which make a short te%t so suitale for less
advanced learners. 4he fact that an entire work of literature can e presented within
one or two classroom lessons is e%tremel! rewarding and motivating for such
students.
!I don"t $no/ /0%t0%r t0% (%t0od& +ro+o&%d r%'##) d%'# /t0 () +ro.#%(- /0c0
& t0't () &tud%nt& 4nd t0% 'ctu'# #'n,u',% o4 #t%r'tur% &o d44cu#t t0't t0%) do
not ,%t (uc0 out o4 t."
<ere the answer must lie in selection of an appropriate ook. At earlier levels of
proficienc!# simplified te%ts ma! help initiate learners into e%tensive reading.
Activities intended for unaridged te%ts could e applied to simplified te%ts and used
! students working in groups. 4his ma! stimulate interest in literature as well as
contriuting to language improvement. 0ut although Agraded readersB retain the stor!
line of the original te%t# much else is lost. At the more advanced level# therefore# it
seems to us preferale to choose# whenever possile# ooks which do not present
formidale linguistic difficulties. 4here are man! e%cellent short works where the
st!le remains fairl! simple or uncluttered. 7e hope that the list of possile titles
included in Appendi% & will prove useful in this respect.
"n some cases# choice ma! e restricted ! the availailit! of ooks# or ! the
constraints of a set curriculum. 6or teachers faced with an imposed ook# detecting
particular linguistic prolems and devising wa!s of overcoming them will ecome
part of the normal screening activities# the preliminar! spade work which is alwa!s
necessar! efore we egin to teach a te%t. "t ma! e that a greater numer of
linguisticall!Gased activities have to e used for that kind of ook; or perhaps more
ackground work will e needed to fill in cultural gaps.
6or these ooks as for others# however# we must tr! to find some alance etween
ApureB language work and other# more creative approaches designed to foster a
studentBs involvement in the te%t. Luite often# group activities serve to shift a readerBs
attention awa! from the minute# intensive attack on a single corner of the te%t# to a
more e%tensive concern for gist and overall theme. 4his will prove lierating in the
long run for the student previousl! unale to see the wood for the trees. "t is {1*}
surel! motivating to realise that a te%t can e meaningful and that working with it can
e enJo!ale# even when there are still quite a few unknowns within it.
{1)}PART B PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES IN
OUTLINE .
3 First encounters
6or students aout to e%plore the unknown territor! of a new literar! work# the first
encounter with it ma! well e crucial. 6irst impressions can colour their feelings
aout the whole enterprise the! find themselves engaged in. 4he! are likel! to e
approaching the e%perience with a mi%ture of curiosit!# e%citement and apprehension.
4he teacherBs role must e to pla! up the sense of adventure while providing a
supportive atmosphere that will e reassuring to the students.
4he first imperative is usuall! to tr! and draw the learners quickl! AintoB the te%t# so
that the! find it interesting and want to continue reading it on their own. 4his is much
easier to do if the teacher genuinel! enJo!s the ook and can communicate his or her
13
enthusiasm for it; it is worthwhile# therefore# choosing congenial te%ts if at all
possile.
1e%t# students need to e convinced that the task ahead is not an impossile one;
that# even if there are difficult passages to negotiate# it can e done with success and
tangile rewards. 8an! learners fail to persevere with a ook ecause the! find the
initial encounter simpl! too daunting. "t ma! e that the first page is ristling with
difficult words; or perhaps the territor! the! have wandered into seems so totall!
different from their own surroundings that the! never quite succeed in identif!ing
with it.
4hat is wh! it seems to us well worth spending e%tra time on orientation and warmG
up sessions# either efore the ook is egun or along with the first reading period. "n
these sessions# possile le%ical difficulties can e incorporated and preGtaught. 7hen
the student gets to the te%t itself# much of the vocaular! will thus e familiar# so that
the first reading e%perience can e easier and more rewarding. "t is also useful to
e%plore main themes with students# independentl! of the wa! the! are articulated in
the particular work aout to e approached. Ene of the purposes here is to elicit
studentsB own thoughts and feelings on the issues. 7hen the! later turn to the te%t
itself# the preceding discussion or activit! will act as a familiar landmark in their new
surroundings. "t is important for learners to feel that their knowledge and life
e%perience can still provide valuale guidance.
6inall!# a warmGup can e designed to set the mood# create interest# or spark
curiosit!. /ometimes it leads students not to the eginning of the ook# ut to the first
significant or dramatic passage# to whet the appetite. {1+} "n some cases# we have
devoted the entire class period to activities which# we hope# will make learners want
to read the te%t 5 and we have then left them to get on with the short stor! or first
section of a novel or pla!# on their own. Fven if students do not understand ever!thing
perfectl!# the fact of reading a foreign work in this wa! appro%imates more closel! to
their e%perience of reading in their own language. =iterature is in a sense taken out of
the classroom conte%t and replaced into what we feel is its more AnaturalB setting.
4he eginning activities suggested in this chapter tend therefore to e rather timeG
consuming. 7e hope that teachers will find# as we have# that the! are nevertheless
worthwhile ecause the! uild on motivation and foster a love of reading.
Using the title and cover design
4he teacher sets the scene and kindles studentsB curiosit! ! showing them an
intriguing cover design and asking them to speculate aout the ook# its stor! and
mood.
An e%ample is Ra!mond 0riggBs ook When the Wind Blows# which portra!s the
effects upon an elderl! Fnglish couple of a nuclear attack near their home. 4he
teacher shows the class the cartoon cover design of the ook $6igure 1'. 6or easier
viewing ! the whole class# the drawing {1.} can e transferred to an overhead
proJector transparenc!. 4he title is withheld or covered up in this first stage.
7orking with the whole class# the teacher asks them to descrie the couple. 7hat
kind of people do the! seem to eI -ran or countr! folkI /imple or sophisticatedI
RichI 7orking classI <onestI PatrioticI =awGaidingI AffectionateI =ovingI Alike
or different from each otherI All suggestions are accepted and written up on the
oard. /tudents are then asked to speculate on the light ehind the couple. 7hat could
it eI 7hat feeling do students get aout itI "s it something goodI <app!I EminousI
:angerousI 7hat is its relation to the coupleI
1*
"n a second stage# the teacher e%plains that the title of the ook is taken from a ver!
wellGknown Fnglish lulla! or nurser! rh!me $a song to rock small children to sleep'.
<e or she recites# or if possile sings# the lulla! to the class;
<ushGaG!e a!# on the tree top
7hen the wind lows# the cradle will rock
7hen the ough reaks# the cradle will fall
:own will come a!# cradle and all.
4he students are asked to guess which four words constitute the pla!Bs title. 7hat do
the! feel aout this lulla!I "s its mood peacefulI <app!I EminousI <ow could it
relate to the elderl! couple on the coverI
4he ook is now handed out and reading can egin. "t is useful to keep a record of
the speculations made aout the title as these later help to e%emplif! the iron! of the
pla!.
1)
Figure '{from p. 1+}
Getting in the mood
4his is a guided fantas!. 4he teacher asks students to uild up a picture of the
eginning of the literar! work ! first setting the scene# and then inviting the class to
inhait this scene in their minds. Ence the! have done this# the! make a note of what
the! feel# see# sa!# and so on.
At the end of this Apainting in the mindB# students are put into small groups and each
group memer descries his or her scene to the others. After a rief discussion# the
1+
teacher calls the class together. Ene or two students retell their versions for the enefit
of the whole class.
4his activit! provides an e%cellent wa! into DoldingBs novel Lord of the Flies; it is
illustrated in detail on p. ,3.
Visual prompts
Photos or magaHine pictures are often useful in eliciting the response of students to
the central situation or theme the! are going to meet in a literar! work.
{1,}0efore reading A4he hitchhikerB $in More Tales of the (ne)pected# ! Roald
:ahl'# for e%ample# students are shown photos of quite different people and asked to
sa! which ones the! would e prepared to give a lift to. 4his makes them more aware
of their own attitudes to hitchhikers# and to a personBs appearance $see 6igure 1, and
7orksheet **'.
As a warmGup to A4he war in the athroomB $in %ancing "irls and *ther Stories# !
8argaret Atwood'# magaHine pictures are used to get students talking aout one of the
main themes in this short stor!; the e%perience of moving and adJusting to new
surroundings $see 6igures &1A and &10'.
Using the theme
4he teacher takes a maJor theme from the te%t and e%plores it with the class.
6or e%ample# in /omerset 8aughamBs novel The Moon and Si)pence# the main
character suddenl! walks out on his wife# children# home and Jo. /tudents are asked
to imagine that the! have suddenl! decided to aandon their own current life
situation. <ow would the! do itI 7ould the! plan it in advanceI 7hat preparations
would the! makeI 7ould the! tell an!oneI 7hat would the! takeI 7here would the!
goI 7hat kind of new life would the! tr! to uildI
4he teacher asks students to write the note that the! would leave. 4he! are to
imagine that the! have time to write a short note onl! 5 not more than *2 words 5 and
to rememer that the! ma! never see the receiver of the note again.
7hen this is done# the teacher collects the notes and puts them straight into the
ruish in 5 and then# of course# invites each student to take one $not their own' out.
<e or she suggests that the note students are aout to read is from the most important
person in their lives. 4he! are to tr! to identif! how the! feel aout what the! are
reading and Jot down their thoughts immediatel!. 4he teacher should participate full!
! also writing a note and choosing one to read.
4his is followed ! general discussion aout how people felt when the! were
writing# and reading# the notes.
/tudents are then given the ook to start reading the first section at home.
Key words/sentences
4he teacher selects a small numer of ke! words from the first part of the te%t. "n
groups# students rainstorm for possile narrative links etween the words. 7hen
each group has decided on a preferred pattern of connection# a stor! is uilt up orall!
or in written form.
{&2}As a variation# ke! sentences are e%tracted from the te%t ! the teacher 5 these
produce a somewhat more conte%tualised framework for the imagination to work on.
1.
A@e! wordsB is illustrated on p. &1. using /akiBs A/redni >ashtarB# and Ake!
sentencesB in 7orksheet )3 using /akiBs A4he open windowB $oth stories from The
#enguin $omplete Saki'.
"nstead of eing used to create a stor!# the ke! e%tracts can provide the asis upon
which students attempt to uild up a first image of a central character# his or her
personalit!# haits# etc. 4he sentences in 7orksheet 1 were drawn from Patricia
<ighsmithBs The Talented Mr Ripley and were used in this wa!# to spark studentsB
interest in Riple!# efore eginning to read the novel in class.
Worksheet '
Questionnaires
=earners are given a questionnaire to fill in# to determine their attitude to the issues
raised ! the ookBs central theme. An e%ample is given for A4he war in the
athroomB $see 7orksheet )*'.
{&1}A Ap!ramidingB technique is often useful with questionnaires. 4hat is to sa!;
each student fills in their own# then compares results with one other partner. 4hrough
discussion# the! are to tr! to arrive at the same set of answers. 4he two then compare
their new set of answers with that of another pair# and so on.
istening!in
4his is a listening activit! for teachers who have eas! access to recording facilities.
7ith a friend or other native speaker# the teacher makes a recording of two people
discussing their reaction to a particular literar! work. 8an! different conte%ts can e
imagined; friends discussing a novel the! have oth read or a television adaptation#
1,
/tud! the following e%tracts from 4he 4alented 8r Riple!. 7hat do the! reveal
aout 4om Riple!# the central character in the ookI
<is oredom had slipped into another gear. 4om knew the sensations... 1ow he could e
maniacall! polite for perhaps another whole hour# if he had to e# efore something in him
e%ploded and sent him running out of the door.
And now 8r Dreenleaf had turned up. /omething alwa!s turned up. 4hat was 4omBs philosoph!.
<e wouldnBt let 8r Dreenleaf down. <eBd do his ver! est with :ickie.
/lowl! he took off his Jacket and untied his tie# watching ever! move he made as if it were
someod! elseBs movements he was watching.
4hat had een the onl! time tonight when he had felt uncomfortale# unreal# the wa! he might have
felt if he had een l!ing# !et it had een practicall! the onl! thing he had said that was true; m!
parents died when " was ver! small. " was raised ! m! aunt in 0oston.
8r Dreenleaf came into the room. <is figure seemed to pulsate and grow larger and larger. 4om
linked his e!es# feeling a sudden terror of him# an impulse to attack him efore he was attacked.
4om wanted to get out of the apartment. And !et he still wanted to go to Furope# and wanted 8r
Dreenleaf to approve of him.
two people coming out of the theatre# an interview for the class or school Journal# etc.
6or advanced classes# recording a fairl! spontaneous# unscripted conversation would
e ideal 5 ut this is not often possile# and# in an! case# using trul! unscripted
material often presents quite a lot of difficult! when it comes to devising the
accompan!ing tasks.
4he e%ample given is a compromise# using scripted material in the semiGformal
situation of an interview for a school newspaper# with nonGnative ut fluent speakers
of Fnglish. "t was used to present Animal Farm ! Deorge Erwell to a Alower
advancedB multilingual class $Just post (amridge 6irst (ertificate'.
/tudents listen to the recording once# without taking notes. 4he! are then paired#
one given 7orksheet &A# the other 7orksheet &0. 4he! are given a few minutes to
fill in an! details the! rememer# then the! hear the recording again in sections# with a
few minutes to fill in more details at each pause. After the! have heard the recording
once again# the pair together completes oth worksheets# then compares their answers
with a neighouring pair. Deneral feedack completes the activit!.
/(R"P4 6ER A="/4F1"1DG"1B
/ven# a /wedish doctor# is on a stud! visit to =ondon. :uring his sta!# he visits a
friendBs son who is stud!ing Fnglish at a language school. Another student at the
school interviews /ven aout his trip to the theatre to see a stage adaptation of Deorge
ErwellBs Animal Farm.
@arin; 7hat did !ou think of the pla!I
/ven; "t was reall! good . . . er . . . the actors were ver! good and looked Just like animals. 4he hens
Jerked their heads ver! real . . . realisticall! and the horses clipGclopped all over the
stage. 4he cat was good too# slinking ! so quietl!.
@arin; "t sounds rather unusual. ?ust how man! more animals were thereI
/ven; 7ell . . . er . . . there was 8uriel# the goat who could read . . . and some dancing sheep who
interrupted meetings singing A6our legs good# two {&3} legs adB and lindl!
repeated an!thing the! were told. Eh !es# and the pigs . . . the! took over the farm
and led the revolt . . .
@arin; 7hat e%actl! is the stor! aoutI "t all sounds rather confusing.
/ven; Frm . . . well . . . the animals take over the farm. /nowall# their first leader# wants the animals
to e equal and happ! ut he doesnBt last long . . a more powerful pig# 1apoleon#
takes over using dogs . . . trained dogs. <eBs not ver! nice ut ver! clever . . . he . . .
er . . . tricks the other animals and uses them. 4he poor horse called 0o%er . . . he kept
repeating that 1apoleon was alwa!s right# ut he suffered for it.
@arin; :o the animals turn against 1apoleonI
/ven; Ah . . . that would e telling . . . !ou must go to see it with !our colleagues.
@arin; E@. ?ust one more question. "s there a moral to the stor!I "t sounds like a sort of . . . fa . . .
fale to me.
/ven; A moralI . . . 9es# " suppose there are man! if !ou think deepl! aout it . . . er . . . the old
donke! in the stor! is proal! right when he sa!s that things never change# never
reall! change# " mean.
@arin; "Bm afraid " must stop the interview now . . . 4hank !ou ver! much for talking to me.
/ven; "t was a pleasure. " look forward to reading aout the interview in !our school magaHine.
&2
Worksheet +A {from p. &&}
Worksheet +B
{&3}"iographical montage
/ome teachers prefer to talk aout the author efore starting the te%t# using this
ackground knowledge as a wa! in to the work. 4here are various activities which can
e used if this approach is retained. 4he! are also useful after the ook has een read#
as followGup material.
0iograph! montage is one such activit! and others follow. 4he teacher collects
some photos# oJects# place names; an!thing which is relevant to the authorBs life $see
6igure &'. 4hese are mounted on to a large piece of poster card $or pinned to a wall or
noticeGoard'. 4he class is invited to speculate aout the meaning of the items in the
montage# either in groups or as a whole class.
6ollowGup writing activities could include; reconstructing missing entries from the
authorBs diaries# using the visual prompts on the montage; writing $or completing'
suGtitles or a short te%t aout each of the items# so that the montage ecomes an
Listen to Karin interviewing Sven about the animal characters in Animal Farm.
Then try to fill in as many details as you can in the boxes below.
Kind of animal Name What do we know about this animal? . !. ". #. $. %. &. '.
Kind of animalNameWhat do we know about this animal?
K
.
!.
".
#.
$.
%.
&.
'.
''
Listen to Karin interviewing Sven. Then try to com(lete the following sentences so
that they tell the story of what ha((ens in Animal Farm.
)nce u(on a time there were some animals that decided to revolt against their human
masters. They were led by the cleverest animals ......................................... They
succeeded in taking over the farm and running it. Their first leader was
......................................... *e wanted .........................................
+ut although he was clever and kind, he was not strong enough. - more (owerful
animal called ........................................ managed to take his (lace as leader. *e did
this by ..................................... .. The animals were convinced by this new leader and
followed him faithfully even though he behaved ......................................... +oxer, the
horse, worked es(ecially hard. *is motto was ......................................... +ut when he
got old and tired, ......................................... The donkey, on the other hand, was not
at all im(ressed by what the animals had achieved because he said
that .........................................
&1
illustrated iograph!; or# for less advanced classes# matching short te%ts of this kind
$perhaps gapped' with the items on the montage.
#reating a sketch o$ the author
4he teacher shows a photograph of the author $or several taken at different periods of
his or her life' and asks the class to uild up an intuitive character portra!al $see
6igure 3 which shows photographs of /aki'. 4his {&3} could e done in groups#
allowing time at the end for the resulting sketches to e compared.
Figure +
&&
Figure , {&*}
&3
{&)}Guessing at missing in$ormation
4he teacher gives some iographical information ut omits certain important facts or
aspects of the authorBs life. 4he class speculates aout the missing parts $for e%ample#
education# married life# political eliefs'. "n groups# learners can fill in missing details#
then compare their guesses with those of other groups.
"t is hoped that this activit! will spur studentsB curiosit! aout the author and make
them want to know more.
7orksheet 3 is an e%ample for this activit!. "t is ased on the life of <ector <ugh
8unro. A similar activit! can also usefull! follow the reading of a particular work.
Worksheet ,
Answers; <is mother was charged ! a runawa! cow in a field# and died. O <e
had severe rain fever. O the militar! police O foreign correspondent for
a newspaper O writing fiction O get married O in attle.
{&+}"iographical lie!detecting
4he teacher gives a rief and truthful introduction to an authorBs life $oral or written
te%t# slides# video# etc.'. 4hen one written sentence is given to each memer of a
group of four students. Fach sentence adds a new detail aout the authorBs life# ut
one of the four is not true. Fach group compares their four sentences and nominates
the false one. 4he teacher asks each group for its choice and the reasons for it. <e or
she then reveals the lie# offering additional iographical details as a te%t for
homework reading.
.ake guesses to fill in the details about *. *. .unro.
*. *. .unro was born on ' /ecember, '&0 in +urma, where his father
was an officer in the +ritish military (olice. 1n '&!, the family went back to
2ngland where a tragedy occurred3 .........................................
The father returned to +urma, and *ector and his brother and sister were
brought u( by their grandmother and two maiden aunts. *ector was a frail
but rather mischievous child. When he was nine, something ha((ened
which disru(ted his schooling3 .........................................
*e was sent to +edford 4rammar School but remained there only four
terms. *is education continued to be interru(ted by ill health. *is first 5ob
was with ........................................ in +urma. +ut he fell ill and had to
return to 2ngland.
*e worked as a ........................................ from 60! until 606. /uring this
time he was sent to the +alkan States, then to St 7etersburg. *e then
abandoned a regular salaried 5ob to devote himself
to ..................................... in London. *e was an extremely (atriotic man
and when war was declared in 6# immediately enlisted as a troo(er in
the army.
There was one thing he never did in his life3 ....................................... The
way he died in 6% was3 ........................................
&3
6or e%ample# students are given some iographical details aout Deorge 0ernard
/haw;
+orn '$% 8 father a corn miller who was a heavy drinker 8 his (arents9 marriage was
an unha((y one 8 mother left the family home in /ublin and moved to London with
Shaw9s two sisters 8 Shaw 5oined them in '&% 8 Shaw had various 5obs : assistant to
a land agent, book reviewer, music critic 8 married a rich 1rishwoman at the age of
#! 8 Nobel 7ri;e for Literature 6!$ 8 wrote more (lays than Shakes(eare 8 died in
*ertfordshire in 6$0.
1e%t students are asked to consider the following additional facts and tr! to spot the
false oneP
. Shaw made (rovision in his will for over <"$0,000 to be given to the
cam(aign for s(elling reform.
!. Shaw was a su((orter of the fascist ideology.
". Shaw never had any children.
#. Shaw was a lifelong teetotaller.
"f preferred# the teacher can compile more sets of iographical facts and pla! a version
of A(all m! luffB. /tudents are divided into groups of four and given sets of four
facts aout /hawBs life. "n each set# one fact is incorrect. Fach memer of the group
reads out his or her one AfactB and another group guesses which fact is the false one. "t
is essential for the students to have some iographical information aout the author
efore this game is pla!ed# otherwise guesses are completel! lind.
P 4he second statement is false.
Star diagrams
4his activit! and the ones that follow are to e used when students egin to read the
work.
Assuming ke! words have not een listed and used as a warmGup activit! prior to
reading# the teacher asks learners to e%tract important words from the first section of
the te%t used. "n groups# students skim {&.} through the first passage and e%tract words
or e%pressions to e listed under a numer of headings; colour words# words that
indicate mood or movement# words that e%press feelings# etc. 4he oJect of the
e%ercise is partl! linguistic $to e%pand vocaular!' and partl! literar! $to sensitise
students to the wa! an author presents a description or a theme# to make them aware
of the le%ical patterning that structures a work of literature'.
An e%ample of this activit!# using a fiveGpoint star diagram# is given for Lord of the
Flies $see 6igures ,A and ,0'.
Sentence whispers
4his activit! is especiall! suitale for large classes. 4he class is put into four or five
lines of students $each line having a minimum of four students'. 4he teacher cuts up
into four sections the first passage to e read and gives the first section to line A# the
second to line 0# the third to line ( and the fourth to line :. 4he student at the front of
each line reads his or her section. <e or she then whispers it $once or twice onl!' from
memor! into the ear of the student ne%t in the line# who passes it on similarl! until the
&*
student at the end receives the whispered message. 4hen the students at the end of the
line retell the sequence# starting with line A. "mmediatel! afterwards# the teacher asks
the front students to read their sentences consecutivel!. :ifferences etween versions
are discussed and then the class is asked to predict what will happen ne%t# or to
discuss the title# from the information gathered up to this point.
=earners usuall! find the activit! amusing; the aim is simpl! to get them AintoB the
stor! quickl! and painlessl!. Roald :ahlBs short stor! A4he sound machineB $in
Someone Like You' works well with this technique. 4he opening passage could e cut
up in the following wa!;
Section given to line -3
1t was a warm summer evening and Klausner walked =uickly through the front gate
and around the side of the house and into the garden at the back.
Section given to line +3
*e went on down the garden until he came to a wooden shed and he unlocked the
door, went inside and closed the door behind him.
Section given to line >3
The interior of the shed was an un(ainted room. -gainst one wall on the left there
was a long wooden workbench.
Section given to line /3
?and@ on it, among a littering of wires and batteries and small shar( tools there stood
a black box about three feet long.
{&,}%oint o$ order
4his AJigsawB ordering activit! is especiall! suitale for eginning pla!s. "t usuall!
whets the curiosit! of the students# as well as providing valuale phonological
practice in stress and intonation patterns.
4he teacher places si% chairs at the front of the class# and asks for si% volunteers to
come and sit on them. Fach one is given a card on which has een t!ped one
e%change from the eginning of the pla!. 4hese are not given in order. Fach student in
turn reads his or her card out loud to the class. 4he class must then place the si%
readers in the right order# so that starting from one end# the! read the speeches in an
order which makes sense and corresponds to the eginning of the pla!. 7hen this has
een done to their satisfaction# the teacher asks the class to situate what is happening#
and make predictions aout the pla!Bs development. 4he procedure can then e
repeated with the ne%t si% lines of the pla!# with si% new volunteers.
7e have used this technique ver! successfull! to present <arold PinterBs short
sketch Applicant $in Redamond and 4enn!sonBs $ontemporary *ne-Act #lays'. 4he
si% students are given a slip of paper each# on which is t!ped;
. 1 am, actually, yes.
!. -h, good morning.
". Aes. Aou9re a((lying for this vacant (ost, aren9t you?
#. -re you .r Lamb?
&)
$. )h, good morning, miss.
%. That9s right.
4he teacher asks the class to find the right order. "t is usuall! necessar! to help
students with the language the! will need to give orders to reshuffle the seated
students; for e%ample# A8ove up two places# @ariB# A?uan# change places with 8ariaB#
A/tand up and wait a minute# AnnetteB# A/it on the third chair# 4sungB# ARead !our part
again# >asilikiB. 7hen the class is satisfied that the! have got the right order# the
teacher asks all si% to read their parts again# consecutivel!. $4he right order in this
case is &# *# 3# )# 3# 1.' <e or she then asks the class; <ow man! characters are there
in this pla!I 7ho are the!I 8anI 7omanI 7hat are the! doingI 7here are the!I
8ost classes will have guessed that the scene is set at a Jo interview. 4he teacher
then asks them to suggest how each one of the two characters feels. <ave an! of the
students ever een to an interview of an! kindI <ow did the! feelI 1ervousI <app!I
F%pectantI etc.
<aving thus set the scene# the teacher asks for five more volunteers to come forward
and do the ne%t it of the pla! in the same wa!. 4he correct order in this case is;
{32}
. -re you a (hysicist?
!. )h yes, indeed, it9s my whole life.
". 4ood. Now our (rocedure is, that before we discuss the a((licant9s
=ualifications, we like to sub5ect him to a little test to determine his
(sychological suitability. Aou9ve no ob5ection?
#. )h, good heavens, no.
$. Bolly good.
7hen a satisfactor! order has een achieved# the teacher asks students what new
information the! have learned aout the characters. 7hat kind of test is aout to e
given# do the! thinkI <ow will the applicant reactI :o the! think this is a good idea
during a Jo interviewI
4he class can then proceed to the role pla! descried in the ne%t activit!# or to a
reading of the pla!. "f the class has enJo!ed the ordering activit!# it can even e
repeated a third time# ecause the ne%t part of the pla! egins to seem distinctl!
iHarre;
. 7lease sit down. >an 1 fit these to your (alms?
!. What are they?
". 2lectrodes.
#. )h yes, of course, funny little things.
$. Now the ear(hones.
%. 1 say how amusing.
&. Now 1 (lug in.
/tudents are once again invited to speculate on what kind of test is going to e
administered. /tudents are usuall! intrigued enough to e willing to act out a role pla!
of the interview as the! predict it from this point. 4he! are then amaHed and amused
when the! read the remaining section of this short sketch# which does not conform to
their e%pectationsK
#hoose the prediction
&+
<aving read the first section of a te%t# students are asked to stud! a range of possile
continuations of the stor! line. 4hen the! choose the one the! consider the author
would have used. 4he list of predictions can# alternativel!# e arranged in order of
suitailit!. "n groups# choices are compared and Justified.
0ernard 8alamudBs stor! A4he modelB $in Selected Stories' makes an e%cellent te%t
for this activit!. "t is aout an elderl! man who is an amateur painter. <e hires a
model who dul! arrives at his house and poses while he paints her. /uddenl! she gets
up and comes towards him . . .
/tudents are offered the following predictions of what is to come;
. The model wee(s on the man9s shoulder and tells him that she needs money
to (ay for her mother9s o(eration. *e finds out that he knows the girl9s
mother . .
{31}
!. The model is actually an artist. She is convinced that the man is not a
genuine artist, merely a voyeur. She (unishes him by making him (ose while
she (aints him . . .
". She confesses that she is wanted by the (olice for murdering an elderly man
because he resembled an uncle of hers who had brutally tortured her as a
child. She tells the man that his face looks familiar . . .
#. The model sei;es his (ainting and ri(s it u(. She accuses him of ex(loiting
women and demands to be com(ensated. When he refuses to coCo(erate,
she tele(hones some feminist friends and invites them to come to the man9s
house . . .
Sealing the time capsule
Assuming that all students have read the opening section of the work together# this is
another activit! to follow that reading. Fach learner is given a small piece of card on
which to record his or her predictions aout likel! events that will occur as the stor!#
unfolds. 4he teacher can prompt with questions if necessar!# or individual writing can
follow a general rainstorming session when as man! possiilities as can e imagined
are quickl! reviewed. 4he cards are then collected# to e sealed in a Atime capsuleB
envelope where the! will remain until the class reaches the end of the ook. 6ollowG
up at that point is descried in (hapter ) $AFndingsB'.
#omparing &eginnings
4he teacher takes three or four opening paragraphs from novels or short stories with
fairl! similar eginnings# and asks the class to respond to the contrasts. 4his is
especiall! fruitful with novels in which the main character is descried in the first
paragraph. =ists or grids can e completed showing ph!sical and ps!chological
attriutes# to act as a asis for prediction of future development. 4he e%ercise makes
students more aware of the particular features of an authorBs prose st!le# and ma! e
used to foster studentsB own powers of description in Fnglish.
4he first e%ample shows e%tremel! rief ut vivid first paragraphs taken from
twentiethGcentur! novels; the second e%ample is of lengthier nineteenthGcentur!
descriptions opening a novel.
&.
<ere are the eginning paragraphs of three modern novels# in which a main
character is presented;
. 1 was born in 6!&, the only child of middleCclass (arents, both 2nglish, and
themselves born in the grotes=uely elongated shadow, which they never rose
sufficiently above history to leave, of that monstrous dwarf Dueen Eictoria. 1
was sent to a (ublic school, 1 wasted two years doing my national service, 1
went to )xfordF and there 1 began to discover 1 was not the (erson 1 wanted to
be.
?from 'he (agus by Bohn Gowles@
{3&}
!. >astle, ever since he had 5oined the firm as a young recruit more than thirty
years ago, had taken his lunch in a (ublic house behind St Bames9s Street,
not far from the office. 1f he had been asked why he lunched there, he would
have referred to the excellent =uality of the sausagesF he might have
(referred a different bitter from Watney9s, but the =uality of the sausages
outweighed that. *e was always (re(ared to account for his actions, even the
most innocent, and he was always strictly on time.
?from 'he )uman Factor by 4raham 4reene@
". Sometimes, instead of a letter to thank his hostess, Greddy *amilton would
com(ose a set of formal verses : rondeaux redoubles, villanelles, rondels or
Sicilian octaves : to ex(ress his thanks neatly. 1t was (art of his modest
nature to do this. *e always felt he had (erha(s been boring during his stay,
and it was one9s duty in life to be agreeable. Not so much at the time as
afterwards, he felt it keenly on his conscience that he had said no word
between the sou( and the fish when the bright talk beganF he felt at
fault in retros(ect of the cocktail hours when he had contributed nothing but
the smile for which he had been renowned in his (ram and, in the following
fifty years, elsewhere.
?from 'he (andel&aum Gate by .uriel S(ark@
<ere are three similar opening passages from nineteenthGcentur! novels;
. 1t was admitted by all her friends, and also by her enemies : who were in
truth the more numerous and active body of the two : that Li;;ie 4reystock
had done very well with herself. We will tell the story of Li;;ie 4reystock from
the beginning, but we will not dwell over it at great length, as we might do if
we loved her. She was the only child of old -dmiral 4reystock who in the
latter years of his life was much (er(lexed by the (ossession of a daughter.
The admiral was a man who liked whist, wine : and wickedness in general we
may (erha(s say, and whose ambition it was to live every day of his life u( to
the end of it. 7eo(le say that he succeeded, and that the whist, wine and
wickedness were there, at the side even of his dying bed. *e had no
(articular fortune, and yet his daughter, when she was little more than a child,
went about everywhere with 5ewels on her fingers, and red gems hanging
round her neck, and yellow gems (endent from her ears, and white gems
shining in her black hair. She was hardly nineteen when her father died and
she was taken home by that dreadful old termagant, her aunt Lady Linlithgow.
Li;;ie would have sooner gone to any other friend or relative, had there been
any other friend or relative to take her (ossessed of a house in town.
&,
?from 'he Fustace *iamonds by -nthony Trollo(e@
!. H2dithI9said .argaret, gently, 92dithI9
+ut as .argaret half sus(ected, 2dith had fallen aslee(. She lay curled u(
on the sofa in the back drawingCroom in *arley Street, looking very lovely in
her white muslin and blue ribbons. 1f Titania had ever been dressed in {33}
white muslin and blue ribbons, and had fallen aslee( on a crimson damask
sofa in a back drawingCroom, 2dith might have been taken for her. .argaret
was struck afresh by her cousin9s beauty. They had grown u( together from
childhood, and all along 2dith had been remarked u(on by every one, exce(t
.argaret, for her (rettinessF but .argaret had never thought about it until the
last few days, when the (ros(ect of soon losing her com(anion seemed to
give force to every sweet =uality and charm which 2dith (ossessed. They had
been talking about wedding dresses, and wedding ceremoniesF and >a(tain
Lennox, and what he had told 2dith about her future life at >orfu, where his
regiment was stationedF and the difficulty of kee(ing a (iano in good tune ?a
difficulty which 2dith seemed to consider as one of the most formidable that
could befall her in her married life@, and what gowns she should want in the
visits to Scotland, which would immediately succeed her marriageF but the
whis(ered tone had latterly become more drowsyF and .argaret, after a
(ause of a few minutes, found, as she fancied, that in s(ite of the bu;; in the
next room, 2dith had rolled herself u( into a soft ball of muslin and ribbon,
and silken curls, and gone off into a (eaceful little afterCdinner na(.
?from +orth and South by 2li;abeth 4askell@
". .y godmother lived in a handsome house in the clean and ancient town of
+retton. *er husband9s family had been residents there for generations, and
bore, indeed, the name of their birth(lace : +retton of +retton3 whether by
coincidence, or because some remote ancestor had been a (ersonage of
sufficient im(ortance to leave his name to his neighbourhood, 1 know not.
When 1 was a girl 1 went to +retton twice a year, and well 1 liked the visit.
The house and its inmates s(ecially suited me. The large (eaceful rooms, the
wellCarranged furniture, the clear wide windows, the balcony outside, looking
down on a fine anti=ue street, where Sundays and holidays seemed always to
abide : so =uiet was its atmos(here, so clean its (avement : these things
(leased me well.
?from Villette by >harlotte +rontJ @
What happens ne,t-
4his activit! can take the form of a role pla!. /tudents# in groups# discuss possile
continuations# then either improvise them and act them# or prepare# script and act
them out. 4his is an ideal followGup for the AorderingB activit! descried earlier and is
suitale for the same sketch AApplicantB.
An alternative activit! is predictive writing. After the students have read $or listened
to' the first section of te%t# the teacher asks them to write the stor! O dialogue O letter O
note O telegram that follows from the situation in the first passage. 6or less proficient
learners# writing activities should involve something simpler such as formGfilling or
completion of one of the aove forms of writing.
32
{33}>. /. PritchettBs short stor! AA famil! manB $in $ollected Stories' can serve here
as an illustration of the technique. 4he first section of the stor! informs the reader that
0erenice is a college lecturer who is having an affair with a married man# 7illiam
(ork. A knock at the door announces the une%pected arrival of a large woman. "t is
8rs (ork.
/tudents are asked to write the ensuing dialogue# either as homework or in pairs#
each taking the role of one of the ladies. 0efore dialogues are created# the teacher
speculates with the class aout the likel! form of the conversation# level of politeness#
whether 8rs (ork knows of the affair# etc.
4he aim is oviousl! to make learners want to read the continuation on their own.
4he form the piece of writing takes depends entirel! on the particular te%t. "n <. D.
7ellsB short stor! A4he man who could work miraclesB $in Selected Short Stories'# for
e%ample# a man who did not previousl! elieve in miracles suddenl! finds himself
performing them to his own amaHement and ever!one elseBs in the local inn. An
appropriate writing task to follow the first section of this stor! would e the report the
constale writes on the curious happenings down at the pu.
Writing #hapter .
/tudents are asked to write the paragraphs that come immediatel! efore the first
section of the work which the! have Just encountered. 4his is descried in more detail
for Lord of the Flies on p. ,*.
Signpost /uestions
4he teacher e%amines the first significant passage in the te%t in order to devise
comprehension questions which signpost aspects important to the work as a whole;
setting# character# or particular themes. 4he aim is to encourage students to attend to
these aspects as the reading progresses.
0ditorial suggestions
4his is a simulation in which the class is divided into groups. Fach group is to e the
editorial panel of a pulishing house. 4he first passage of the ook# which students
have now read# is the draft sent in ! the author. 4he panelBs task is to draw up
suggestions $concerning st!le# the unfolding of the plot# characterisation# etc.' for the
author. 8ore advanced learners can e asked to write the letter which the editors send;
intermediate students could e asked to tick appropriate responses from a
computerised list of suggestions normall! sent to all authors ! this pulishing house.
A possile second stage would e for students to form new groups. 4he {3*} groups
now represent the oard which considers the various editorial suggestions made# or
letters sent# and chooses the est one.
6or pla!s# students are the panel of selection for a national repertor! theatre
compan!# responsile for choosing the ne%t pla! to e put on.
4 Maintaining momentum
4he activities descried in this chapter and the ne%t can e used at almost an! point in
a literar! work# and can e applied to the various genres. "f the work chosen is not a
ver! long one $a short stor!# singleGact pla!# or short poem' the teacher can usuall!
31
present it with one activit!# carefull! selected amongst those outlined# to help learners
understand# enJo!# and appreciate the work.
6or lengthier pla!s# novels# or even longer short stories# however# the teacher will
have to section the te%t and work through it in some wa!. "t is in this situation that a
mi%ture of class activities and home reading can est e used. 4his will introduce
variet! into the classroom# maintain momentum and personalise the studentBs
response. "t is also most likel! to encourage e%tensive reading haits. Although long
works are sometimes read from eginning to end in class# we feel that this is not such
a satisfactor! procedure. "t leaves little time for an!thing ut the reading itself#
accompanied perhaps ! rapid comments or e%egesis ! the teacher. 8oreover# a
lockGstep pace is imposed on each memer of the class# there! undermining the
creation of a productive tension etween group and individual response.
"f we assume# then# that a comination of home and class work is to e adopted# a
whole range of possiilities opens up for the teacher once a literar! work has een
started. 4eachers must ask themselves the following questions;
What scope does a particular literary work offer for furthering one or se.eral
language skills/
Fach novel# short stor! or pla! can spark off a wealth of different activities. 4asks and
e%ercises ased on a literar! te%t can provide valuale practice in listening# speaking
or writing# as well as improving reading skills. =iterar! works of all kinds are now
ecoming increasingl! availale in spoken form on cassettes. 4hese can e especiall!
useful in providing e%tensive listening practice. 4he chunks heard at one time can e
longer than would e possile with man! other t!pes of recorded passage# ecause
once a ook has een started# students are within a familiar conte%t and have a whole
set of e%pectations aout what the! are hearing. 4hese are two conditions which are
recognised as eing helpful to comprehension in a foreign language. /imilarl!# a
shared ook provides a network of familiar vocaular!# which means that it can e
used for {3+} oral or written work with a minimum of preGteaching of new words or
e%pressions.
Which parts of the work are to !e dealt with in class and which at home/
<ere# of course# the teacher will e guided ! the level of proficienc!# interest and
motivation in the class. /ome activities need more support in the wa! of vocaular!
preGteaching# some require a higher level of creativit! and imagination from the
students. 4he difficult! of the ook# or of an! particular passage in it# will also
influence the length of the section that can comfortal! e read at home. 4he same
approach cannot e used or recommended for all classes. As a general rule# however#
it is est to plan lesson activities around the ookBs highlights; a turning point in the
plot# for e%ample# or a scene that furthers the development of characterisation.
ow can the !est use !e made of limited classroom time/
"n timetaling lessons# a teacher will want to take into account the following four
aspects# an! or all of which ma! occur within class time.
1. 6ollowGup from home reading; /ome of the worksheets which learners are
using to help them with their individual work will lead to checking or
feedack in class. 4he first few minutes of a lesson ma! thus e taken up with
a quick review of the task set# to ensure that the section read at home has
indeed een understood# to correct or compare answers# to encourage
discussion on issues raised# etc. 4his is a wa! of allowing learners to pool their
3&
resources to overcome difficulties# or simpl! to find out how others have
responded to the te%t.
&. Engoing snowall activities; A point to ear in mind is that the method we are
proposing can make for a piecemeal set of e%periences from the learnerBs point
of view. "t is therefore most important for the teacher to plan some wa! of
helping students to retain an overview of all the parts read to date. A few
minutes can usefull! e set aside in each lesson for one of the snowall
activities descried later in this chapter.
3. Presenting the new section; 4he main part of the lesson will often focus on a
new passage in the ook# which need not follow immediatel! from the point
the students have reached in their own reading. A section Just a it further on
can e chosen for class treatment# leaving students quite often curious enough
to want to read the intervening part. At other times# class time is used to
introduce a new aspect or theme# using a passage students have read at home#
with the aim of deepening their insight into the ookBs literar! features.
3. =ooking forward; At the end of the class# a few minutes will usuall! e needed
so that the teacher can set the section to e read at home# distriute worksheets
to accompan! this home reading# and add whatever instructions or
e%planations are needed.
{3.}1ome reading with wor0sheets
Eur wa! of dealing with long te%ts means that learners will e e%pected to read quite
sustantial sections of the ook on their own. 7e would now like to look at how a
teacher can make that task easier for the students.
0asicall!# we suggest that# as often as possile# students e given worksheets to
accompan! home reading. 4hese can and should e varied in their format# and are
usuall! designed to help with comprehension of the passage set# on the level of
language# ideas# or characterisation. 7hen time is at a premium# the worksheet can e
planned to generate little or no class followGup. /elfGaccess answer sheets can e
provided. "n other cases# a worksheet might raise questions of response or
interpretation# and a shared feedack or discussion time in class ecomes a necessar!
followGup.
4he following suggestions indicate the range of possiilities open to the teacher.
Question!and!answer worksheets
"n man! wa!s these are the most familiar of all# and the easiest to prepare. (are must
e used# however# to avoid the kind of situation where the student merel! gives what
is oviousl! the desired ArightB answer; or questions that simpl! lead students to a
particular point in the te%t# where the answer is clearl! to e found.
4he following e%amples show two slightl! different approaches# for a class reading
4ennessee 7illiamsB The "lass Menagerie $in #enguin #lays'. "n this pla!# set in the
south of the -nited /tates# a famil! of three struggle on the edge of povert!. 4he
crippled daughter is sh! and withdrawn; the son# a frustrated writer# is forced to work
in a shoe factor! to support all three; while the mother# living on memories of her own
pampered !outh# pins all her hopes on somehow finding a husand for her daughter.
4he first two scenes have een presented in class. /tudents must now read /cene """
on their own. 4his scene consists of three parts; first# 4om# the son# tells the audience
aout his motherBs growing osession with finding a husand for =aura; ne%t# we see
33
Amanda# the mother# tr!ing to sell magaHine suscriptions over the phone to raise
mone! to u! what she imagines =aura will need for her courtship and marriage;
finall!# a violent quarrel reaks out etween Amanda and 4om. 4he questions on oth
worksheets focus mainl! on the first and third sections of the scene as these carr! plot
and theme; the middle part recurs as a kind of pattern which will e picked up later on
in the pla!.
7orksheet 3A consists of questions onl!# and is thus quite openGended. 7orksheet
30 uses the same questions ut gives students more guidance {3,} ! asking them to
choose from various possiilities. "n oth worksheets# however# the first four
questions require factual# rightGorGwrong answers# while the ne%t four ask for
interpretation and are therefore open to different answers.
"t is alwa!s useful to allow some time for students to compare the wa! the! have
answered the t!pe of questions set in the second half of these questionnaires. 4his can
act as a spark to discussion concerning characterisation in this scene. Asking students
to Justif! their choices can also make them more aware of the process of inference !
which readers or spectators arrive at conclusions aout the characters or the dramatic
situation. A slightl! different e%ample of openGended questions used to encourage
students to speculate# interpret# and proe eneath the surface te%t# is given for the
short stor! A4he edgeB $in Malgudi %ays ! R. @. 1ara!an' $see 7orksheet )2'.
Question worksheets leading to pair work in class
<alf the class is given one set of questions relating to the passage set as home reading#
the other half another set. $6or e%ample# a teacher working with 7orksheets 3A or 30
for The "lass Menagerie# could give half {31} the class the four evenGnumered
questions# and the other half the odd numers.' /tudents are told to prepare answers to
their questions as the! read through the set section# ut the! do not have to write them
out.
At the eginning of the ne%t lesson# each student is paired with someone who received
a different worksheet. "n turn# the! ask their questions and monitor the answers given
orall! ! the other student.
Worksheet 0A {3,}
Kead Scene 111 of 'he Glass (enagerie. /o not worry too much about words you
do not know. Try to get the general meaning if you (ossibly can without using a
dictionary. Then answer the following =uestions.
. -manda is very disa((ointed that Laura will not take lessons to
become a ty(ist. What (lan for Laura re(laces this one in her mother9s
mind?
!. -manda thinks she will need money to carry out her (lans for
Laura. What does she do to earn that money?
". Tom and -manda have a violent =uarrel. What did -manda do that
has made Tom so angry?
#. What has Tom been doing when -manda interru(ts him?
$. *ow would you describe the way -manda treats Tom?
%. Why does -manda not believe Tom when he says he is going to
the movies?
&. Why does -manda ob5ect to Tom9s going out?
'. What is Tom9s view of his relationshi( with his family?
33
Kead Scene 111 of 'he Glass (enagerie. /o not worry too much about words you do
not know. Try to get the general meaning if you (ossibly can without using a
dictionary. Then tick the right answer to the =uestions below. Gor =uestions $C', there
may be more than one a((ro(riate answer. 1n that case, tick all (ossible answers,
then number them according to how im(ortant they seem3 , !, ", etc. Gor these
=uestions, a line has been left for you to add other (ossibilities.
. -manda is very disa((ointed that Laura will not take lessons to become a
ty(ist. What (lan for Laura re(laces this one in her mother9s mind?
L Tom must work harder to su((ort Laura.
L She herself will find work to su((ort Laura.
L - husband must be found for Laura.
!. -manda thinks she will need money to carry out her (lans for Laura. What
does she do to earn that money?
L She works in a ro(e factory.
L She sells maga;ine subscri(tions over the (hone.
L She begins to write stories for a woman9s maga;ine.
". Tom and -manda have a violent =uarrel. What did -manda do that has made
Tom so angry?
L -manda would not let Tom read the novels of /. *. Lawrence.
L -manda scolded Tom for swearing in front of Laura.
L -manda scolded Tom for tracking mud and filth all over her clean
floors.
#. What has Tom been doing when -manda interru(ts him?
L Slee(ing.
L 4etting dressed to go out.
L Writing.
$. *ow would you describe the way -manda treats Tom?
L She treats him as though he were still a child.
L She is harsh and unfeeling.
L She scolds him because she is worried about the family9s future, and
es(ecially about Laura.
L She never sto(s nagging him.
L She is a caring mother, really, but she doesn9t realise the effect she is
having on her son.
L She is totally selfish and does not see him as a (erson.
L MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.........................................
%. Why does -manda not believe Tom when he says he is going to the movies?
3*
L She thinks this is im(ossible because she does not know anyone else
who goes to the cinema every night.
L She is trying to find any excuse to =uarrel with Tom.
L She wants to believe the worst of him. She wants to make him feel
guilty.
L She is trying to make him stay at home.
L MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.........................................
&. Why does -manda ob5ect to Tom9s going out?
L +ecause it makes him tired next day and she is afraid this may make
him lose his 5ob.
L +ecause she is lonely and would like him to stay with her in the
evenings.
L +ecause she does not want him to do anything on his own, away from
the family : she fears he will go away like his father.
L +ecause she is concerned for his health.
L +ecause she thinks he is Hu( to no good9 : she is concerned for his
moral health.
L MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.........................................
'. What is Tom9s view of his relationshi( with his family?
L *e feels he is a slave to his family.
L *e resents working so hard for them, and having nothing of his own in
return.
L *e resents sacrificing his own writing career for them.
L *e feels he is not free in his own home.
L *e hates his mother for treating him like a child.
L *e dearly loves his sister.
L *e (ities his sister.
L MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.........................................
Worksheet 0B {32G31}
1*o it yoursel$2 /uestionnaires
7hen students have worked once or twice with worksheets given to them ! the
teacher# the! often enJo! the challenge of devising such a questionnaire themselves.
4he class is set a passage to read# with the task of thinking up and writing two or three
questions on it. "n the ne%t lesson# students are paired and ask each other their
questions; or all the questions are put into a container and drawn out to e answered
! the class working as a whole.
Another successful procedure is to set each half of the class a different passage to
read. Fach student prepares a worksheet to accompan! his or her section 5 it is est to
indicate the numer of questions to e included# in the interests of overall fairness. At
the ne%t lesson# students e%change worksheets with someone from the other half of
3)
the class. 4he! now read their partnerBs section from the ook and answer the
questions on it. 4he ne%t lesson must oviousl! include some feedack time for the
pairs# and this often generates useful discussion on what each student considers
important in the passage# and Aworth! of a questionB.
4he same procedure can e used with the different t!pes of worksheet outlined ne%t.
#omplete the sentences
6or variet!# and for linguistic practice# a teacher can use the format of incomplete
sentences# instead of questions and answers. 7orksheet * is {33} an e%ample of an
e%tremel! simple worksheet to accompan! home reading# again of 4ennessee
7illiamsB The "lass Menagerie# ut this time from the eginning of /cene >.
/tudents are asked to provide fairl! straightforward answers to complete the
sentences# ut in so doing the! practise the second conditional forms; A"f he did . . . he
could . . . or he would . . . A. 6urther e%amples are given for =ord of the 6lies in
7orksheet &* and on p. 11).
Worksheet 1 {3&}
'rue or $alse
Ence again# this is an easil! devised t!pe of worksheet. "t provides help for students
! paraphrasing difficult sentences. 7orksheet ) is an e%ample from the eginning of
chapter 3 in 4he Dreat Dats! ! 6. /cott 6itHgerald# which descries the prodigious
parties given ! Dats! in his 1ew 9ork mansion.
Summaries with gaps
/ummaries can give rise to useful group work in class# as we shall see later. 6or the
moment# we would like to consider their use simpl! as a means of facilitating home
reading# either with selfGaccess answer sheets# or with time allowed for students to
compare and discuss their answers in class.
3+
Kead the beginning of Scene E from 'he Glass (enagerie. Then com(lete the
following sentences.
. -manda would like Tom to comb his hair because if he did so
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
!. -manda says that if Tom sto((ed smoking, he
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
". Tom feels he is living a dull life. When he goes out on the fire esca(e, though,
he sees other (eo(le leading more exciting lives. *e thinks if only he
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
#. -manda makes a wish on the moon. 1f she could have her wish, she
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.
$. -manda says to Tom, as she has done many times before, that it would be
very nice for Laura if Tom
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
4he most straightforward t!pe of summar! e%ercise is the gapped summar!. 4his
helps readers ! providing them with an almost complete# and simpl! phrased#
description of the main points of the section the! are tackling. 4he gaps are usuall!
ke! words or e%pressions# which onl! a reading of the appropriate passage can reveal.
/elfGaccess answer sheets are useful here.
4he e%ample is taken from #ygmalion# the popular pla! ! Deorge 0ernard /haw#
aout a professor of phonetics who takes a poor flower girl from the slums of =ondon
and transforms her ! changing her clothes# her manners# and her speech. 4he gaps
are to e filled with factual statements# e%cept for the ver! last one# which asks for
interpretation $see 7orksheet +'.
Summaries with incomplete sentences
A slightl! more challenging variant consists of a summar! with incomplete sentences.
4he learner has a it more writing to do to complete the sentences and thus ensure a
fluent and accurate summar!. 4he teacher takes in the worksheets and marks them for
content and language proficienc!. An e%ample is given for Romeo and 2uliet $see
7orksheet 33'.
{33}
Read the first half of chapter 3 of The "reat "ats!y and decide whether the following
statements are true or false.
T G
. 4atsby9s (arties always started at dusk.
!. 4atsby stood at the door to greet guests as they arrived.
". 1t took six servants to s=uee;e the hundreds of oranges and
lemons used to make drinks for the (arties.
#. 1t took eight servants to clean u( afterwards.
$. The food was all made by 4atsby9s own cook in his kitchens.
%. - huge variety of food was s(read out on tables outdoors, under a
canvas to(.
&. 1n a bar in the hall, guests could hel( themselves to all kinds of
drinks, some familiar and some very strange.
'. -ll 4atsby9s guests knew each other before the (arty.
6. There was a very large orchestra to (lay music at the (arties.
0. The guests all arrived by train.
. -ll 4atsby9s guests had to show invitation cards at the door before
they were al lowed i n to the (arty.
!. The guests wore bright colours and the most fashionable clothes
and hairCdos.
3.
". The
guests
tended
to stay
in their
own
little
grou(s
all
evenin
g.
#. 2veryone knew the (arty had really started when girls started
dancing on the (latform.
$. The (arties became very noisy as the evenings wore on.
Worksheet 3
{3*}
Worksheet 4
Summary comparison
4he teacher writes two summaries of a section to e read at home. /tudents must
choose the est one# Justif!ing their choice. :ifferences etween the summaries can
e AfineGtunedB according to the level of the group. At the simplest level# one of the
summaries omits certain ke! points; at a more difficult level# oth summaries are
fairl! accurate ut me ma! contain incorrect inference or interpretation. At a still
3,
Kead the scene in -ct 11 of %ygmalion where Li;a9s father comes to see 7rofessor
*iggins. Then fill in the following summary, using an a((ro(riate word or
ex(ression.
1n this scene, -lfred /oolittle, a ........................................ by trade, comes to see
*enry *iggins. *is manner is that of a man who is ........................................ . *e
seems =uite used to saying what he thinks and feels. *aving heard that his
daughter Li;a has come to live with *iggins, he has decided to try to use the
situation to ........................................ . -t first, he tries
to ........................................ the 7rofessor, saying he wants his daughter back.
*iggins re(lies by insisting that /oolittle must ........................................
immediately. *iggins threatens to tell about /oolittle9s attem(t to blackmail him.
/oolittle ex(lains that he was not res(onsible for Li;a9s coming and only heard
about it from ......................................... . The 7rofessor rings for his housekee(er
and tells her to let /oolittle take Li;a away. +ut 5ust as he is about to leave,
defeated, /oolittle makes an a((eal to *iggins as a H.........................................9 .
1t is clear he thinks *iggins wants Li;a for (ur(oses that have little to do with
language trainingI /oolittle says *iggins can kee( Li;a if
he ......................................... . When *iggins is shocked, /oolittle says he is not
a moral (erson because ........................................ . -ll he wants
is ........................................ to com(ensate him for the loss of his daughter. When
*iggins offers him twice the sum re=uested, however, /oolittle refuses, saying
too much money is......................................... . 1n the end, *iggins gives in
and ....................................... because he is im(ressed by
/oolittle9s .........................,..............
more {3)} advanced level# the est summar! ma! e chosen for st!le# perhaps using
such criteria as;
: Which summary do you think the author himself would (refer?
: Which would be (referable for3 a literary maga;ine?
a (o(ular news(a(er?
a class of language learners at an elementary
level? etc.
4wo different t!pes of summar! comparisons are illustrated for Lord of the Flies $see
7orksheets && and &,'.
Key points $or summaries
6rom a section read at home# students are asked to list the five ke! points which
would form the asis for a continuousl! written summar!. @e! points can e related
to events or to character development. /ince the latter t!pe# especiall!# calls for
interpretation# it is useful to compare choice of ke! points in class# perhaps asking
each group to produce a common list# ! negotiation. 4he teacher supplies his or her
own list for comparison and discussion.
Alternativel!# the teacher provides the class with a list of ke! points for a section
the! are aout to read at home# and asks them to tick each one off as the! read. 4hen
the! have to suppl! one missing point# or delete one irrelevant point. 4he latter can e
checked ! selfGaccess answer sheets.
3um&led events
AErderingB worksheets offer a great deal of support to students as the! read# ecause
the! give most of the facts needed to make sense of the passage. All the! have to do is
find the right order or sequence. 4here is a puHHle element to them which appeals# and
e%tra elements of challenge can e added.
"n its simplest form# the student is given a Jumled list of a certain numer of events
that occur in the homeGreading passage# and asked to place them in their correct
sequence. A few incorrect events can e included which must e spotted and
discarded; or one or two ke! events ma! e left out# to e supplied ! the reader. An
e%ample of a Jumled list including some false choices is given for Lord of the Flies
$see 7orksheet 33'. Another e%ample# where the facts are all accurate ut# once
ordered# must e fitted into a flow diagram# is given for A4he edgeB $see 7orksheets
)1A and )10'.
(ontinuous summaries ma! e used instead of a list of happenings. 4here are
e%amples in oth the novel and pla! chapters.
{3+}#hoosing an interpretation
<ere# instead of events# students are given a series of different interpretations of
events in the passage the! are reading. 4he! can e asked to sort these into order of
importance# choose the one nearest to their own ideas# or write their own
interpretation# selecting if the! wish elements from those given. An e%ample is given
for Lord of the Flies $see 7orksheet 3&'.
32
Value 4udgment worksheets
8ost of the worksheets we have een discussing focus on helping learners understand
the literar! work. 4here are times# however# when a teacher will want the students to
go e!ond asic comprehension and consider some of the moral or aesthetic issues
raised ! a particular te%t. A worksheet to accompan! home reading can do much to
pave the wa! for fruitful class discussionGit is a means of drawing attention to the
special areas the teacher might wish to highlight. (omparing answers that require
interpretation and value Judgments can also provide a stimulus to anal!sis and e%tend
a readerBs range of literar! response.
7orksheet . is ased upon the scene in #ygmalion for which we have alread!
provided a gapped summar! $7orksheet +'. F%cept in advanced classes where it
would not e needed# 7orksheet + can e used as a preparator! e%ercise# so that the
teacher can ensure that ever!one has understood the asics of what happens in this
part of the pla!. 0ut the are summar! of events does not egin to pin down
ever!thing that is actuall! happening on stage. 4he scene is a crucial one for plot and
characterisation. :ramaticall!# it presents an amusing ut ver! powerful conflict in
wit and will etween two men who# despite the contrast in their social position# are
equall! clever# confident# ruthless# and determined to get their own wa!. 8orall!# the
scene is profoundl! amivalent# full of contradictions aout what constitutes honest!#
sincerit!# and AdecentB feelings aout oneBs famil! and oneBs fellow human eings.
4hese are some of the areas 7orksheet . encourages students to e%plore. 4he! are
asked to respond to a set of statements ! grouping them in order of importance or
preference# as the! read the scene at home. "n class# choices are compared# discussed#
Justified. 4his is est done in groups# with each group eing asked to estalish an
overall profile of the attitudes e%pressed ! the priorities most of them have chosen.
4he general class discussion which follows can e quite wideGranging and
illuminating.
{3.}
Kead the scene in -ct 11 of %ygmalion where Li;a9s father comes to see 7rofessor
*iggins. Then study the following sets of statements. Grom each set, choose the
three statements which seem to you most a((ro(riate, and (ut them in order of
im(ortance3 first, second and third. +e (re(ared to 5ustify your choice by reference to
the scene.
)enry )iggins
a@ *iggins is an exam(le of u((erCclass morality3 totally selfCcentred, caring for
no one else but himself.
b@ *iggins is a realist3 he acce(ts things as they are.
c@ *iggins is a ruthless mani(ulator who lets nothing stand in his way.
d@ *iggins is really =uite a kindly man beneath his crusty exterior.
e@ *iggins is a bully because he is unsure of himself and wants to hide his
insecurity.
f@ *iggins is a gentleman with a gentleman9s code of honour.
Al$red *oolittle
a@ /oolittle is an extraordinarily callous man, willing to sell his own daughter for
<$.
b@ /oolittle9s behaviour can be excused3 society has never given him anything,
and so he owes it nothing.
31
c@ /oolittle is com(letely selfish3 he thinks only of himself, and does not care
what is ha((ening to his daughter.
d@ /oolittle is refreshingly free from ordinary morality and social conventions.
e@ /oolittle is sincere3 he is remarkably o(en about his own shortcomings.
f@ /oolittle is not only Han old liar9, but he is a clever and (ersuasive liar at that.
'he morality that emerges $rom this scene
a@ 1f you are clever enough you can get away with anything.
b@ .orality is a luxury only the rich can afford.
c@ -((earance is all.
d@ +e true to your own self, nothing else matters.
e@ >ivilisation and its conventions constitute a straitC5acket that any thinking
(erson will want to avoid.
f@ -ny code of honour is a thin veneer disguising dishonesty.
g@ 1t is better not to have too much money3 it makes a man too (rudent.
h@ >leanliness is next to godliness.
i@ MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM... ?Write your
own.@
Worksheet 5
{3,}
#hess&oard
Another wa! of getting students to consider the implications of given elements in a
literar! work is to ask them to place statements from it on either the white squares $for
positive# AgoodB elements' or lack squares $for negative or AadB elements' of a
chessoardGshaped grid. 4his often serves to underline the amiguit! of the work of
art. An e%ample is given for Lord of the Flies $see 6igure 1&'.
#hoosing a moral
Diving a AmoralB for a short stor!# novel or poem is a traditional wa! of drawing out
the ideas or values that are implicit within it. /ometimes# however# simpl! asking a
class; A7hat would !ou sa! is the moral to this stor!IB produces rather disappointing
results. /tudents usuall! come up with etter ideas if the! have time to mull over the
question# and if the! are given something to spark their interest and get them started.
A worksheet to e done at home while the! read the last section of the te%t# with
results compared in the ne%t lesson# often generates etter discussion.
7orksheet , lists several alternative morals for the short stor! A4he man who could
work miraclesB# ! <. D. 7ells in Selected 6Short Stories. $A simplified version is
availale for intermediateGlevel students in *utstanding Short Stories ! D. (.
4hornle!.' 4his is a stor! aout an ordinar! man who suddenl! and unaccountal!
finds himself ale to do an! {*2} thing at all# Just ! wishing it. 4he village
clerg!man# consulted aout it# attempts to channel this new power for the good of
humanit!# ut his efforts are misguided and the world is onl! saved from total
catastrophe ! the miracle workerBs wish that he e relieved of his power and returned
to the moment efore he suddenl! acquired it. Another e%ample requiring more
interpretation is given in 7orksheet *+ for the stor! A4he spread of "an 1icholB $in
(nlikely Stories7 Mostly# ! Alasdair Dra!'.
3&
Kead to the end of HThe man who could work miracles9. Then choose the moral which
you think most a((ro(riate. 1f none seems suitable to you, write one of your own. +e
(re(ared to 5ustify your choice.
The moral of this short story is3
. H/on9t give the ordinary man (ower : he can9t use it sensibly.9
!. H/oCgooders only succeed in doing evil.9
". H1f you have a (ower or talent, trust your own ability to use it.9
#. H7eo(le who are su((osed to have su(erior wisdom often lack ordinary
common sense.9
$. H7osition and (ersonality are entirely different things.9
%. H7ower corru(ts.9
&. HThank goodness human beings are not allC(owerful.9
'. HLeave miracles to 4od.9
6. Aour own3 H.........................................................................................................9
Worksheet 8 {3,}
{*2}anguage worksheets
4he section to e read at home sometimes presents vocaular! or other language
difficulties# and an accompan!ing worksheet is designed to make reading easier for
the learner. "n other cases# the teacher might wish to highlight a writerBs rich or
metaphorical language# or ensure that particular terms or structures encountered in a
literar! te%t are internalised and ecome part of a studentBs active vocaular!. "n all
cases# this kind of worksheet depends ver! much on the actual te%t# its level of
difficult!# its particular st!listic qualities# and so on. "t is quite difficult to give an!
general rules# or to illustrate out of conte%t. 7e therefore give a rief list of various
t!pes# with page references to indicate illustrations given within the conte%t of the
discussion of complete works of literature in later chapters.
8A4(<"1D
4he simplest wa! to help students with te%ts that have difficult words# e%pressions# or
structures is to give them simple definitions for prolem words# or simplified
rephrased sentences# which the! are asked to match with the more comple% original.
F%amples of two kinds of worksheet of this t!pe are to e found in the chapter on
Romeo and 2uliet; one gives modern colloquial sentences# in Jumled order# which the
student must match to the speeches in one scene of the pla! $see 7orksheet *1 '; the
other gives a series of rephrased# simplified sentences# some of which are accurate#
others not; the studentBs task is to distinguish etween them $see 7orksheet 33'.
FN4RA(4"1D A1: (=A//"69"1D >E(A0-=AR9 6RE8 4<F 4FN4
7hen a teacher wants to highlight words either for comprehension or for st!listic
anal!sis# students are asked to e%tract specific kinds of words or e%pressions from a
part of the work studied. A visual means of indicating different categories of words is
the star diagram given for Lord of the Flies# which can e used as a class or home
reading activit! $see 6igures ,A and ,0'.
{*1}7ER:/ ER FNPRF//"E1/ 4E (<ARA(4FR"/F A 4FN4
4o enrich learnersB vocaular!# the teacher can give them a whole series of terms or
e%pressions that must e assigned to specific features or characters in their ook.
33
F%amples are given for Lord of the Flies $see 7orksheets 13 and 3)'# grids for
characterisation work $see 7orksheet 1*' and for the short stor! A4he starB $see
7orksheet *)'.
="4FRA= A1: 8F4AP<ER"(A= 8FA1"1D
7orksheets can e used to sensitise students to the metaphorical dimension of words
in the ook the! are reading. F%amples can he found in (hapter . $see 6igure 1) and
7orksheets 3+ and 3.'.
/"8P=F DRA88AR ER /4R-(4-RF 7ER@
4he te%t of a ook often offers e%cellent opportunities to practise specific areas of
language. 4he advantage of the literar! te%t is that it provides a conte%t for language
work. F%ercises can e quite openGended# so that in addition to language
improvement# the! incorporate student response. /ome e%amples are; Apreposition
practiceB $see p. 11*' and Astructural e%erciseB $see p. 11)'.
7ER: P-QQ=F/ 7"4< 6E==E7G-P 7R"4"1D FNFR("/F/
7ord puHHles are simple to create# with followGup writing tasks designed to help
learners use their new vocaular!. F%amples can e found in 7orksheets 31 A and 31
0.
7ER@/<FF4/ 6E(-//"1D E1 4<F PFR6ER8A4">F 6-1(4"E1 E6
=A1D-ADF
/uch a worksheet# illustrated in Lord of the Flies $see 7orksheet 33' can e given to
accompan! home reading# followed ! class discussion.
.now(all acti%ities
4hese are activities which continue# and are added to progressivel!# as students read
through a long work. 4he! help to maintain an overview of the entire ook# provide a
valuale aid to memor!# and reduce a length! te%t to manageale proportions.
5etelling the story
>aluale oral practice for classes can e provided ! retelling the stor! so far as a
chain activit!. 4his also helps to keep the whole narrative in the {*&} mind of the
reader. =arge classes can e divided into stor!Gtelling groups so that each student gets
a turn. 4he activit! can e comined with vocaular! work# as in the e%ample in Lord
of the Flies or with work on character portra!al $see p. 1&2'.
Wall charts and other visual displays
>isual prompts are e%tremel! helpful to learners working their wa! through a long#
and sometimes comple%# work. 4he! function as a constant reminder of the ookBs
various elements. 7all charts can e of several kinds;
/1E70A== /-88AR"F/
A traditional wa! of retaining an idea of chronolog! is to ask students to write a
summar! of what happens as each part of the ook unfolds. 7e have found that this is
33
indeed a useful tool for oth comprehension and revision; ut keeping it going can
easil! ecome a repetitive chore# so that earl! chapters tend to e dealt with more
full! than middle or end sections.
Ene wa! of minimising tedium is to make the activit! into a shared one for the
whole class. 4he representation of events is done on a large wall chart $or# if
circumstances make this difficult# in one noteook which is availale for all memers
of the class to consult# and cop! into their own ooks if the! wish'. 4he class is
divided into teams# each assigned responsiilit! for the creation of one or more
sections of the chart.
An e%ample involving a threeGfold summar! of events# themes# and the reactions of
characters# is given for Lord of the Flies $see 6igure 12'.
8E14ADF
"n the same wa! that an authorBs life can e used for a montage $see 6igure &' the
various aspects of a work 5 plot# character# setting 5 can form the asis for a growing
visual displa!. 8agaHine pictures# drawings# photographs# suitale pieces of creative
writing or e%tracts from critical works# quotations# character sketches that have een
drawn or written ! the students can all e added graduall!.
DRAP<"( RFPRF/F14A4"E1/
4hese could e sequentiall! arranged diagrams or other forms of visual representation
focussing on different elements of a particular work. <ere are some e%amples;
5 Representations of the development of the plot. "f the teacher plans to section
the reading of a long te%t into ten parts# for instance# the chart would consist of
ten divisions# each one e%emplif!ing in some concrete wa! what happens in
that part of the ook. 8emorale quotes can e {*3} added. Fach part can e
encapsulated in a s!molic shape which reminds the reader of some particular
feature of that section of the work. An e%ample is shown for Romeo and 2uliet
$see 6igure 1+'.
5 Representations of characters# their introduction into the stor!# their growing
or changing relationship with each other. 4hese could e in the form of a large
class grid# on which new information is Jotted down as reading progresses. 6or
added visual interest and memorailit!# a different colour can e used for each
character# or nonGlinear forms adopted; for e%ample# information aout various
characters is added graduall! to large outlines of each one that have een
drawn on a wall chart; the AflowB of character development is represented
along a wa! line# showing the AupsB and the AdownsB in a particular characterBs
fortunes# or morale; finall!# the relationship etween characters is portra!ed
graphicall! on a t!pe of Asnakes and laddersB oard $AladdersB for a closer or
more amicale time# AsnakesB for conflict or discord'.
5 Representations of the setting in which the action occurs. Ence again# an
imaginative variation on a standard linear form can often prove more
interesting for learners to create# and easier for them to rememer. 4he star
diagram used to descrie the setting in Lord of the Flies# for e%ample $see
6igures ,A and ,0' could e repeated at various points in ooks where there is
a change of setting# thus providing a snowall variant.
7all charts or diagrams can e classGased# with groups given responsiilit! for one
planned sequence in the overall diagram. Alternativel!# different groups can have
their own displa!s# leading to discussion aout why each particular item or s!mol
3*
was chosen. Apart from eing useful in stimulating oral work# the latter option helps
reak down the idea of a AdefinitiveB version of literar! criticism. :ifferent responses
are seen to e possile and fruitful.
5eassessing
An overview can e maintained ! simpl! redoing a particular e%ercise at various
points in a ook. 6or e%ample# a grid used to cr!stallise a first insight into motivation
and personalit! $see 7orksheet 1*' can e collected and kept ! the teacher. /everal
chapters later# learners are given a second cop! of the same grid to fill out again#
drawing now on their e%panded knowledge of the character. (omparison of earlier
and later views is often instructiveK
#ontinuing predictions
"n situations where it is possile# that is# where students are all reading at {*3} aout
the same pace# the! can e asked to predict the likel! course of events near the
eginning# then again at later stages of their reading. 4his fosters momentum# and it
can take the form of oral work# with the teacher or# etter still# one of the learners
asking appropriate questions; 7hat is going to happenI 7hat is likel! to e the fate of
N . . . I (hoices could e offered; <ere are three possiilities . . . 7hich do !ou think
is the most likel!I 7h!I
A variation which our students have found interesting is the following; after reading
the first section of the ook# students are asked to complete a series of statements in
writing. <ere is an e%ample for Lord of the Flies;
1 think 7iggy
will ..............................................................................................................
1 think the children will8will not be rescued
because .......................................................
1 think the greatest danger they face
is ..........................................................................
1 think they will succeed
in ..............................................................................................
1 think they will fail
in .......................................................................................................
1 think they will find it easiest
to ......................................................................................
1 think they will find it hardest
to .....................................................................................
4hese are pinned up and reviewed after a few lessons. Are earl! predictions still
validI 7h!Owh! notI <ow would the! need to e changed in the light of our new
knowledgeI
A variation of the preceding e%ercise also provides training in making inferences
from given data# a skill which is an important element in reading comprehension.
6rom a set of facts# learners are asked to deduce likel! consequences. 6or e%ample#
from earl! chapters of Lord of the Flies;
3)
1n this cha(ter, we see the beginnings of conflict between Back and Kal(h. Grom this
we can foresee that
........................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
..
Back taunts 7iggy and won9t let him s(eak. This may lead
to ........................................
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM..
.
4he stress laid on facts in this version trains learners to e attentive to the possile
consequences of events in the stor! the! are reading. <aving done this once# students
could initiate the process themselves for the ne%t section of a long te%t. 4hat is#
working in groups# the! e%tract from a passage which the! have Just read# the facts
upon which inferences can e made. Fach groupBs facts are then passed on to another
group# whose task it is to work out possile conclusions.
*ecision points
At certain points in reading a ook# learners are asked to write a sentence or paragraph
in answer to a question of the t!pe; 7h! did N make this decisionI take this stepI
change her mindI
<ere are some e%amples;
{**}
Why did Ki(ley decide to kill /ickie 4reenleaf? ?'he 'alented (r 5ipley by 7atricia
*ighsmith@
Why does /aisy stay with Tom? ? 'he Great Gats&y by G. Scott Git;gerald@
Why does Li;a decide to stay with *iggins when he is so rude to her? ?%ygmalion
by 4eorge +ernard Shaw@
Why do (eo(le kee( going to /octor Gischer9s (arties? ?*octor Fischer o$ Geneva
by 4raham 4reene@
4he teacher collects the answers. <e or she then writes or t!pes out a selection of the
answers# chosen to illustrate the widest range of reasons $the rather tedious recop!ing
is to ensure anon!mit! and allow some unotrusive language correction ! the
teacher# if need e'. =ater on# when students have read further# the selection is either
pinned up for all to see or# if it is possile to duplicate it# distriuted to the students.
"t is now easier for learners to assess whether additional information gained since
writing their answers can affect their ideas aout the question asked# what new
answers would now have to e given# wh! certain answers were fuller# closer to the
mark than others# and so on.
7ith more advanced groups# this activit! can e used for quite useful language work;
the sentences or paragraphs# instead of eing corrected# are rewritten or t!ped with
either all errors left in# or with one specific t!pe left in $for e%ample# omission of
articles# ver tenses# etc.'. /tudents# working in groups# see how man! of the errors
the! can spot and correct. 4his kind of work is usuall! enJo!ale for them 5 ut it is
proal! est to use it sparingl!; after such intense scrutin! of the way ideas have
een e%pressed# it is quite often difficult to go on to a discussion of what the sentences
formulate. "n this as in so man! other activities# it is important to tr! to var! and
alance the kind of work learners are doing.
Writing ongoing diaries
3+
As the long te%t unfolds# students are asked to keep a diar! recording events and
feelings. :ifferent students can imagine that the! are different characters and keep the
diar! which AtheirB person would have written as each new circumstance in the ook
develops. 4his ensures a range of diaries written from different perspectives. "t is
important to provide some opportunit! for students to compare diaries# and discuss
them# at the end of the ook. An e%hiition of diaries could e organised.
Fly on the wall
"nstead of taking on a characterBs role# students# alternativel!# can act as Aflies on the
wallB and imagine that the! are present in the ook as themselves# though invisile.
4heir diaries therefore contain their own oserG {*)} vations and comments. 4he
responsiilit! of uilding up an accumulated range of Afl!GonGtheGwallB views can e a
shared one. 4he teacher divides the long te%t into a numer of sections equal to the
numer of students in the class. Fach learner draws a numer and is then responsile
for writing a commentar! on the part of the ook corresponding to the numer. 4hese
could e put on a wall chart# or in a decorated ook kept especiall! for this purpose
and containing one section per student. 4he inders now availale# into which sheets
of paper can e slotted etween protective plastic# seem ideal for this activit!.
According to the level of the class and his or her own teaching priorities# a teacher
could decide to correct the written comments efore incorporating them into the ook#
or leave them as each student produced# Awarts and allB.
Ether writing tasks can e similarl! added to snowall wall charts or noteooks as
reading progresses.
anguage pro4ects
An activit! to e done in groups# each group eing assigned one specific language
aspect to stud! as the class reads through a te%t. /ec 7orksheet 3& for an e%ample
using Romeo and 2uliet.
{*+}5 E!loiting highlights
Ence progress through the literar! work is eing sustained ! supported home
reading# and with snowall activities developing and maintaining a growing sense of
narrative and characterisation# the teacher can select from an additional range of
imaginative activities in order to e%ploit the highlights of the work. 4hese activities
will further encourage the students to e%plore and e%press their own response to the
literar! work. 8oreover# if the teacherBs selection is Judicious# this will enale him or
her to attend to particular deficiencies in one or more of the studentsB language skills
at the same time as the! are asored in the drama of a novel or pla!.
4he activities descried in this chapter are ideas or templates which can e modified
or adapted according to the particular literar! work eing read and the t!pe and level
of students involved. Ence again# we emphasise that the! can e used at different
points in the te%t.
Although the maJorit! of the activities are grouped under skill headings# man! of
them integrate several language skills and reflect our wish to use literature as a
stimulus to oral work# especiall! in groups. 4he result we elieve will e not onl! a
3.
general improvement in the studentsB allGround ailit! in the target language# ut also
an enJo!ale relationship with the literature of that tongue.
)riting acti%ities
=iterar! works provide a wealth of conte%ts for interesting writing activities in the
classroom. 7e group here a variet! of activities that have a writing component#
though man! lead naturall! into game# discussion or drama followGups and thus
develop into multiGskill e%ercises. 4he progression in this section is from more
controlled writing activities to more creative ones.
#onnectors and summary writing
4he teacher gives the class a list of connectors# for e%ample;
furthermore
nevertheless
even so
however
meanwhile
on the other hand
to sum u(
to make matters worse
{*.}/tudents are set a passage to read at home. "n the ne%t class lesson# the! are asked#
in pairs# to write a summar! of this section# using each of the connectors in the list
appropriatel!. 4he teacher gives them a ma%imum numer of words. 4here is
comparison and discussion of the results.
As a followGup in the ne%t lesson# the same connectors are written on slips of paper
and put into a o%. /tudents have een set a further homeGreading passage. Fach
student now chooses a slip of paper with a connector. "n groups# the! relate the events
of the new passage read# in turn# using the connector chosen. "f it is not possile for
them to use it# the! are allowed to sustitute a totall! different connector# which the!
write on a slip of paper to add to the stock. Repetition of connectors is not allowedK
/imilar work can e done with markers that help clarif! the logical progression of
an essa!# for e%ample; Aone reason for this is . . .B and Atake# for e%ample . . .B
As these activities help students develop awareness of wa!s of connecting ideas#
the! are useful preparation for writing essa!s.
Summarising the summary
Ene novel wa! of carr!ing out summar! work is to make it progressive. /tudents are
divided into three groups. Fach writes a summar! of the section read# with a
ma%imum numer of words# for e%ample# +2. 4he! then pass on their summar! to the
ne%t group# which must reduce it to half its length# that is# to 3* words. 4his is now
passed on to the; third group# which halves the length again# to 1+ words. Fach group
is thus involved in reducing all three summaries. 6inal versions are read out and
changes discussed.
#reative conversation writing
7riting dialogues is a good wa! for students to e%plore their view of a character or
fictional situation. 4he e%changes are kept simple so that the! remain effective even if
learners have not !et achieved perfect control of the target language.
3,
4he most ovious and successful wa! of creating conversation ased on literar!
works is to take scenes in which there is no speech availale and ask the class to
imagine the conversation that took place# then write it# in groups or pairs. 6or
e%ample# a character arrives on the scene# having Just een with someone else;
students are asked to write the previous conversation# which is not in the literar! work
itself. (haracters who are not placed alone together in the work can e given that
opportunit! in the readerBs imagination. Poems also provide e%cellent conte%ts for
conversation writing# and several e%amples are given in (hapter 12. 4he e%act format
of the task will of course var! according to the particular situation {*,} in each literar!
work. "n Lord of the Flies# for e%ample# students are asked to write a monologue $see
p. 1*2'# while after reading the short pla! The Sand!o)# the! are asked to create a
sketch $see p. 1,3'. "n all these cases# the dialogues written can e the asis for
e%cellent role pla! or dramatisation. /tudents usuall! enJo! performing their own
worksK
Another popular wa! of creating dialogues is to have them written Ain the roundB as
follows.
4he teacher having set the scene# each student writes the first utterance# imagining
that the! are character A. 4he! then pass their slip of paper to their rightGhand
neighour. Fver!one now reads the utterance the! have received# and# imagining the!
are now character 0# write a repl! to it on the paper efore them. 4he! then pass the
paper ack to their leftGhand neighour# that is# the learner who originall! wrote the
first e%change. Fach student is now character A once again# and replies to character
0Bs part of the dialogue. At the end of the activit!# each learner will have helped uild
up two dialogues# one in which the! have consistentl! een character A# the other in
which the! have een character 0. 4his technique often makes dialogue writing more
enJo!ale ecause it contains an element of surprise; each learner must react to the
part of the conversation written ! another student. "t also has the advantage of eing
suitale for an! siHe of class. An illustration can e found in the imagined dialogue
etween Romeo and Eld (apulet in Romeo and 2uliet $see p. 1+.'.
'hought &u&&les
As learners ecome familiar with a work of the imagination# the teacher will wish
them to ecome aware of the creative interpla! that e%ists within it# etween the
AouterB world of action and appearance# and the AinnerB world of thought and feeling.
<e or she will want them to notice# too# that readers can e given a var!ing set of
clues aout these worlds; sometimes the readers are told onl! what a character does or
sa!s# at other times the! are also told what the character thinks; sometimes there is
comment from a narrator# at other times not. 4here are assumptions which ever!
reader has to make to interpret the clues given and to create# in a sense# a new world
that is merel! pointed to# in the te%t. 4he following task helps students make these
assumptions e%plicit. "n so doing the! will# it is hoped# gain a fuller understanding
oth of the imaginar! world itself# and also of the narrative or dramatic codes !
which an author creates# and a reader reGcreates# this comple% world of the
imagination.
4he task is simple; students are asked to write the AinnerB dialogue that parallels the
AouterB dialogue given in the literar! work. A wa! of making this more visual#
concrete# and interesting# is illustrated for the poem A4elephone conversationB $see
7orksheet )+'. <ere# a cartoon has een drawn showing what each character sa!s;
*2
learners have to fill in the {)1} Athought ulesB to indicate each personBs
simultaneous# though unuttered# thoughts and feelings.
4he cartoon is not# however# an essential feature. "n 7orksheet 12# designed for a
highlight scene in The Talented Mr Ripley ! Patricia <ighsmith# the spoken dialogue
is given on the left# and students are asked to write the accompan!ing thought
dialogue on the right. "n this case# the attention of students is drawn to the fact that
some clues are given in the narrative $for e%ample# the author sa!s that 4om is
emarrassed at the eginning of the scene' and that these must e taken into account
in estalishing the parallel inner script.
#ries $or help
"t is often the case that a highlight scene in a literar! work presents one of the
characters# or several# in some dire predicament. /tudents are asked to write the note
or short letter that such a character dashes off as a plea for help. "n a state of peril or
anguish# oviousl!# communication is paramount; no one is going to worr! undul!
aout the odd spelling or s!nta% mistake as long as it does not impede possile
comprehension of the message. 4he conte%t can therefore e a lierating one for
learners who are not too confident of their master! of the written mode. An e%ample
is given for Lord of the Flies $A=etter in a ottleB# p. 11) and 6igure 11' ut the
situation can e varied for a great numer of different te%ts; students can e asked to
write the note which the girl tries to smuggle out in ?ohn 6owlesB The $ollector
$efore the class has reached that point in the novel'; or which 8rs 7ilson tries to get
out to 4om when she has een locked up ! her husand in The "reat "ats!y ! 6.
/cott 6itHgerald; or which 6riar =awrence sends to Romeo in Romeo and 2uliet; or
which ?ohn writes to the Reservation asking to e rescued# in Aldous <u%le!Bs Bra.e
9ew World# etc.
*1
Worksheet ': {)2}
{)1}%oems
7riting poems in the foreign language can e surprisingl! enJo!ale for learners# as
long as the whole activit! is done within a ver! rela%ed and nonGdirective framework.
4he aim is to cr!stallise a personal# felt response to a literar! situation. "t is usuall!
*&
Kead the (assage on ((. %6C&0 of 'he 'alented (r 5ipley, where /ickie comes into his
room, to find Tom trying on his clothes. The dialogue on the left is what they say to each
other. )n the right is what each of them is thinking. With your (artner, write what each
character really thinks. The first two (arts have been done, but you can change these if
they do not re(resent what you consider each character to be thinking. Kemember the
novelist has given some clues in the (assageI
What each character says What he is thinking
/ickie3 What9re you doing-
How dare you come into my room
secretly and sneak into my clothes!
Its disgusting!
Tom3 )h : 5ust amusing myself.
What Shall I do? Where can I hide?
Oh, my God, he knows! I hate him!
Tom3 Sorry, /ickie. /ickie, 19m sorry
ifM
/ickie3 1 wish you9d get out of my
clothes.
Shoes too? -re you cra;y?
Tom3 No.
/id you make it u( with .arge?
/ickie3 .arge an 1 are fine.
-nother thing 1 want to say, but
clearly. 19m not =ueer. 1 don9t
know if you have the idea that 1
am or not.
Tom3 Dueer? 1 never thought you were
=ueer.
/ickie3 Well, .arge thinks you are.
Tom3 Why? Why should she? What9ve
1 ever done?
/ickie3 1t9s 5ust the way you act.
etter# therefore# not to impose constraints of rh!thm or rh!me. 6ormal limitations# on
the other hand# can e quite rewarding. /tudents usuall! enJo! writing poems whose
shape# for e%ample# reproduces the main theme# as in Deorge <erertBs famous
e%amples. Poems with a set numer of s!llales# as in the various ?apanese models# or
whose first letters in each line spell a name# are also popular. F%amples are given in
the poetr! chapter# and in Lord of the Flies $see p. 1&3'.
Figure 0 {)&}
{)3}Using authentic $ormats
4here are man!MnonGliterar! formats which can e imported into the conte%t of the
literar! work and used to spur writing aout it. "n each of the following e%amples#
*3
students are first shown an AauthenticB model# so that the! have some awareness of the
usual la!out# st!le# length and register.
D-":F 4E A 4> ER RA:"E /FR"A=
/tudents imagine that the work the! are stud!ing is eing serialised on radio or 4>.
4he! are shown an e%ample of the ADuide to 4> and radioB section in a newspaper or
magaHine $see 6igure 3'. 4he! must then write a ver! rief account of one particular
scene of their work# as though for that pulication. $4his could also e used as an
ongoing snowall activit!.'
1F7/PAPFR AR4"(=F/
A newspaper article or feature is to e written aout the highlight scene chosen.
/tudents are shown e%amples of genuine newspaper articles# if possile from more
than one t!pe of pulication. 4he! are asked to write aout the events in the literar!
work as though for one of these newspapers. 4he! can e given a headline as a
prompt# and a ma%imum numer of words. 4his is e%emplified for the short stor!
A4he hitchhikerB $see p. &22' and Lord of the Flies $see p. 1**'.
RFPER4/
4hese practise a more official register# an impersonal kind of writing. "n each case# it
ma! e necessar! to familiarise students with the conventions of report writing !
stud!ing e%amples with them eforehand. :ifferent t!pes of report might e Aminutes
of the meetingB e%emplified in Lord of the Flies $see p. 1&,'# an insurance or police
report# or a school report as in Lord of the Flies $see 6igure 13 and 7orksheet 3*'.
A1 AADE19 A-14B (E=-81
F%amples of a group writing activit! ased upon the idea of seeking the advice of an
Aagon! auntB column in a newspaper are given for The Sand!o) $see 7orksheets *3A
and *30'.
FP"4AP</
A lapidar! comment on a deceased characterK Ence again# it is est if e%amples can e
provided $see 6igure *'. 4his is an e%cellent prete%t for a ver! rief appreciation of a
character# and one that seems to e alwa!s ver! popular with students $see 7orksheet
3,'.
*3
Figure 1 {)3}
**
{)*}8"//"1D PE/4FR
4his is a format which is applicale to man! literar! works. /tudents are shown an
e%ample of such a poster $see 6igure )'# then asked to write one for a character who
has gone missing# for e%ample;
5 /imon# in Lord of the Flies $see p. 1&1'.
5 =iHa# efore her father catches up with her at Professor <igginsB home# in
#ygmalion.
5 4he victim in The $ollector.
5 4he !oung o! in Alasdair Dra!Bs The Star $in (nlikely Stories Mostly'.
etc.
Figure 3
*)
{))}&istening and reading acti%ities
Reading sections of a literar! te%t in class# especiall! dramatic scenes# or those
involving dialogue# where another dimension can e added through the voice# leads to
useful listening practice for foreign learners. "f cassettes or records of the work are
availale# these can e helpful# as can video recordings. <owever# the teacherBs
reading of a section is also valuale# as well as eing often enJo!ale and rela%ing for
students. <e or she can get the meaning across ! miming# gestures# facial e%pression#
or ! mimetic emphasis# for e%ample Asl . . . o . . . o . . . wl!B drawn out# or Ain a
twinkleB said ver! riskl!# or Atearfull!B with tears in the voice. 1onGnative teachers
sometimes feel undul! reticent aout reading aloud to their students; the! can e
e%tremel! effective if the! do so# ecause the creation of atmosphere# and the
communication of meaning and drama are oth much more important than perfect
pronunciation or stress patterns.
4he students can sometimes e told Just to listen for the pleasure of it# if this is
appropriate to the classroom situation and to the particular group; man! learners enJo!
this. "t does help them create their fantas! response to the te%t and ecome involved in
it. Eccasionall!# learners like listening with their e!es shut; at other times# this makes
them feel too selfGconscious. Eviousl!# it is important to adapt activities to particular
groups# and to var! them. /traightforward listening can e followed in the ne%t lesson
! listening with worksheets for specific purposes.
istening
After a suitale warmGup# students listen to an entire short work# or a section of a
longer one# efore reading the printed version. 4his works well with oth poems and
short stories# and e%amples are given in the chapters on these genres. $/ee especiall!
A4he hitchhikerB# and A4he war in the athroomB.'
=istening to a section can e enriching and interesting# even if some of the class have
alread! read the te%t. 4he e%perience of hearing the section alwa!s rings some new
detail to the fore. /ome personal response can e encouraged in the form of Jottings or
doodlings# as in Lord of the Flies $see pp. 1*1 and 1)2'.
Activities to accompany reading or listening
4hese are grouped together ecause man! of the worksheets devised to help with
reading can also e used profital! when students listen to a te%t. /ome e%amples of
tasks used in class to further either reading or listening skills are;
{)+}DR":/
4hese can focus on different aspects of a particular work; development of character or
plot# descriptive language# attitudes to issues raised# etc. /everal e%amples are given
in Lord of the Flies; the use of grids to accompan! listening is e%emplified in A4he
war in the athroomB $see p. &&*'.
/F=F(4"1D A1: ER:FR"1D 4A/@/
4he e%amples given in the section on home reading can e adapted to accompan!
listening. An e%ample is shown for A4he edgeB $see 7orksheet *,'.
*+
?"D/A7 RFA:"1D ER ="/4F1"1D
"n the tradition of Jigsaw activities# this kind of reading or listening creates a gap in
the narrative. :ifferent groups are given either different te%ts or different recordings#
and ! consultation with each other# must reconstitute a complete narrative. 4he
e%ample given for the short stor! A:estin! and the ulletB is worked out for reading#
ut could e adapted to listening $see p. &1+'. "n either case# it also provides valuale
oral practice.
" @1E7 7<A4 9E- /A":# 0-4 7<A4 :E 9E- 8FA1I
/tud!ing what a particular utterance can actuall! mean in different circumstances is
an activit! that can accompan! either reading or listening. 7orksheet 33 in the
chapter on Lord of the Flies could e used with the printed page# or with a cassette
recording of this particular section. 6inall!# some of the listening tasks outlined in the
ne%t chapter can also e adapted to e used with highlights of a ook# as well as with
the entire work once it has een read ! the class.
%arallel reading
8an! literar! works make statements or pose questions aout larger issues or themes
which the teacher would like the students to think aout and discuss. Eccasionall!# a
ookBs themes can e e%amined more revealingl! or more thoroughl! through the
medium of other sources; through similar or contrasting short stories# poems# essa!s#
newspaper articles# or critical works. 4hese can e set as reading assignments $either
whole or in e%tract form' and comparisons# contrasts or parallels drawn out in class
discussion. 6or e%ample# one central theme in Lord of the Flies concerns the
e%perience of eing cut off from the controls and the support of oneBs own societ!.
4he same theme appears in other works# like the wellGknown novels The $oral ;sland
! R. 8. 0allant!ne or Treasure ;sland ! R. =. /tevenson# the pla! The Admira!le
$richton ! ?. 8. 0arrie# and the {).} recent nonGfiction work $astaway ! =uc!
"rvine. F%amples of e%tracts from The $oral ;sland used to complement discussion of
certain aspects of Lord of the Flies are given in that chapter $see pp. 123G)'. F%amples
of other parallel te%ts are discussed in the chapters on short stories or pla!s.
4o further haits of e%tensive reading# different groups in a class could e given
different parallel te%ts to read. 7hen this has een done# new groups are constituted#
each memer of which has read a different te%t. Fach learner tells their stor! and
descries their conclusions aout it to others in their group. 4he groupBs task is to
estalish as man! parallels as the! can etween each work read and the main ook
studied. Results are pinned up for the class to compare and discuss.
2ral acti%ities
Ef all the categories in the present chapter# that of Aoral activitiesB is the least
complete and selfGcontained. 4his is ecause so man! of our activities incorporate an
oral component# whatever other skills the! also aim to foster. 4he great maJorit! of
our classroom activities# for e%ample# are ased on group work# which stimulates oral
practice. 4he warmGup sessions which lead into more detailed e%amination of literar!
works are similarl! designed to elicit spoken response; man! of the worksheets used
to accompan! home reading give rise to oral feedack and discussion in the ne%t class
lesson.
*.
7hat follows is# therefore# an outlining of some of the activities which can e more
especiall! eneficial in promoting oral skills. 8ost of these are ampl! illustrated later
in the ook# within the conte%t of whole works# and especiall! in the chapter on Lord
of the Flies. 4he entire range cannot of course e used with an! one work; the! are
offered as ideas from which to choose# in order to link reading a te%t with improving
master! of the spoken language.
4his section progresses from two activities with a phonological emphasis# through
structured discussion to more creative activities.
(ini!reading aloud
4his activit! aims to develop student awareness of intonation# rh!thm# stress and other
features of spoken language. "ts starting point is the selection of a dramatic piece of
dialogue from a known part of the literar! work. 4hereafter the activit! can take
various forms. Ene approach is to put students into groups of three and ask each
group to stud! a different section of the e%tract. 4he! read it silentl! together and then
tr! to mark the main stresses and discuss the attitudes and feelings of the speakers#
{),} identif!ing an! particular words that would ring out those feelings. Pauses after
sense units or for special emphasis are also discussed. 4he teacher is availale to give
help where required ut does not actuall! model the e%tract.
After this preparator! phase# the groups decide on the speakers for their e%tracts# and
a AconductorB to maintain rh!thm and lend encouragement and feedack. After
rehearsals# there is a pulic performance ! each group in the correct sequence.
7ith classes that have worked through a range of literar! works# including poems#
during their course# an end of course AconcertB can e produced with several prepared
e%tracts forming the programme.
4he following e%tract from /hawBs #ygmalion is an e%cellent e%ample of a piece
eminentl! suited to miniGreading aloud. 6or more detailed e%amples with poems# see
pp. &&, and &33.
HIGGINS [in despairing wrath outside] What the devil have I
done with my slippers? [He appears at the door].
LIZA [snatching up the slippers, and hurling them at him one
after the other with all her force] There are yor slippers. And
there. Ta!e yor slippers" and may yo never have a day#s
l$! with them%
HIGGINS [astonded] What on earth&% [He comes to her].
What#s the matter? Get p. [He pulls her up]. Anythin' wron'?
LIZA [breathless] Nothin' wron' & with yo. I#ve won yor
(et )or yo* havnt I? That#s eno'h )or yo. I don#t matter* I
sppose.
HIGGINS. +o won my (et% +o% ,resmptos inse$t% I won
it. What did yo throw those slippers at me )or?
LIZA. -e$ase I wanted to smash yor )a$e. I#d li!e to !ill
yo* yo sel)ish (rte. Why didnt yo leave me where yo
pi$!ed me ot o) & in the 'tter? +o than! God it#s all over*
and that now yo $an throw me (a$! a'ain there* do yo?
[She crisps her fingers frantically].
HIGGINS [looking at her in cool wonder] The $reatre is
nervos* a)ter all.
*,
LIZA [gives a suffocated scream of fury, and instinctively
darts her nails at his face] %%
HIGGINS [catching her wrists] Ah% wold yo? .laws in* yo
$at. How dare yo shew yor temper to me? Sit down and (e
/iet. [He throws her roughly into the easy-chair].
LIZA [crushed by superior strength and weight] Whats to
(e$ome o) me? Whats to (e$ome o) me?
HIGGINS. How the devil do I !now whats to (e$ome o) yo?
What does it matter what (e$omes o) yo?
LIZA. +o dont $are. I !now yo dont $are. +o woldnt $are
i) I was dead. I#m nothin' to yo & not so m$h as them
slippers.
HIGGINS [thundering] Those slippers.
LIZA [with bitter submission] Those slippers. I didnt thin! it
made any di))eren$e now.
$from #ygmalion Act ">'
{+2}6ral summaries
:elivering an oral summar! of a section read at home gives the student good practice
while affording the teacher a check that the reading has indeed een done. "n a simple
variation# two or three individuals are asked to record on cassette a summar! of the
section read at home. A time limit is set for each summar!. 4he class listens to all
three# Jotting down an! points of divergence etween them# or omissions.
#hoose the statement
4his is the first of a series of activities ased on the idea of sparking discussion !
means of a concrete task. 4he technique is particularl! fruitful when applied to
discussion of literar! te%ts. 7hile avoiding e%cessive astraction or teacher
domination# it uilds studentsB confidence in the value of their own response.
A(hoose the statementB is an eas! activit! to organise. "t is# in essence# discussion
ased upon an openGended multiple choice. /tudents are provided with a list of
statements aout a character# an event# a theme# etc. 4he! are then asked# individuall!
or in groups# to choose the one which is closest to their own view.
6or e%ample# in ?ohn 6owlesB novel The $ollector# a girl is kidnapped and held
captive in a quiet countr! house# ! a strange# lonel! !oung man. 4he class is given
the following statements;
. The man ca(tures the girl because he is sexually attracted to her.
!. The man ca(tures the girl because he has very little selfCconfidence.
". The man ca(tures the girl because he is mentally disturbed.
#. The man ca(tures the girl because he wants to (ossess her totally.
$. The man ca(tures the girl because he wants to kill her.
7hen the! have chosen# individuals or groups are invited to e%plain the reasons
ehind their choice. A wa! of eliciting livelier discussion at this point is to ask
learners to give one reason for reJecting each of the discarded statements# rather than
)2
one reason for choosing as the! did. 4his often provokes more talk aout alternative
possile choices.
{+1}Another e%ample# using short paragraphs# is given for =ord of the 6lies $see
7orksheet 3&'.
*iscussions &ased on /uestionnaires
Luestionnaires are usuall! ver! helpful in sparking discussion. A simple kind lists
statements with answer o%es to e ticked# such as; agree O disagree O not sure. 4hese
can e prepared to e filled in at home# with followGup in the ne%t lesson;
alternativel!# the! can e completed during class time. /tudents are then asked to
discuss their choices with fellow students# either in pairs or in groups. 7orksheet 11
is ased on Bra.e 9ew World ! Aldous <u%le!.
Ether e%amples are given in later chapters; for e%ample# 7orksheet &+ in Lord of
the Flies and 7orksheets 3) and *& in Romeo and 2uliet.
Worksheet ''
{+&}*iscussions &ased on grids and worksheets
4he variet! of grids or worksheets leading to discussion is almost endless. /ome elicit
a personal response# as in A4he power of the groupB $Lord of the Flies# 7orksheet 3.'#
where students are asked for their own e%periences and feelings. Ethers involve
matching# as in A/olutionsB $Lord of the Flies# 7orksheet 3+' where possile
)1
Tick the a((ro(riate box.
Agree *isagree +ot
sure
. The +okanovsky (rocess is an acce(table
alternative to natural childbirth because
you grow u( knowing where you are.
!. Staying younger for longer is an attractive
as(ect of life in +rave New World.
". The control of individual emotions is an
effective way of (reventing timeCwasting
and loss of (roductive energy.
#. Gre=uent, brief relationshi(s are a realistic
alternative to the (ressures of married life.
$. Sexual relationshi(s are better in +rave
New World because they are sim(le and
direct, and don9t arouse anxiety or guilt.
alternative solutions have to e matched with the most appropriate character. /ome
give a list to e put in order of importance# as in AA good leaderB $Lord of the Flies# p.
1*+' or A4he traged! would not have happened if . . . A $Romeo and 2uliet# p. 1.,'.
8an! of the worksheets or grids used to uild up familiarit! with various characters
and chart the development of their personalit! as the literar! work unfolds#
incorporate an element of controvers! and can thus e useful in promoting discussion.
An e%ample of such a worksheet# designed to elicit studentsB response to a rather
m!sterious central character# is given for A4he war in the athroomB $see 7orksheet
))'. A worksheet can also e used as a first stimulus# leading to the AcontinuumB
discussion e%ercise descried ne%t.
#ontinuum
At a certain point in their reading# students are asked to e%press their reaction to
aspects in the ook ! choosing a point on a continuous line drawn etween two
opposing views# or two e%treme characteristics. 4his can e done in the following
wa!s;
5 En paper. 6or e%ample# students place the ookBs main characters on a point
along the following lines.
callous :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: kind
serious :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: frivolous
forceful :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: weak
4here is oral followGup; comparison of completed forms# Justification of
choices# discussion of implications. Another e%ample is given in =ord of the
6lies $see 7orksheet 1+'.
5 Along a wall of the room. Ene corner represents one e%treme# the other its
opposite. /tudents go and stand at the point against the wall which represents
their Judgment of the opinion e%pressed. As differences of opinion are thus
vividl! revealed# this activit! often produces spontaneous discussion of the
element of the ook that is eing highlighted. F%amples are given for a poem
$see p. &33 ' and for Lord of the Flies $see pp. 1&,G32'.
{+3}#odes
8ost literar! works have a social and political dimension in the sense that the!
portra! relationships which involve codes of ehaviour and hierarchies of power.
/ometimes these codes have the overt qualit! of laws or rules# in other cases the! are
e%pectations to e inferred from a set of given data. 4he following activities are
variations# designed to help learners articulate e%plicitl! and discuss the often implicit
set of constraints which give a ook its internal tension.
R-=F 8A@"1D
/tudents# in groups# are asked to formulate a set of rules which appl! to a particular
situation in the literar! work the! are reading. 4he! either imagine that the! are in that
setting and decide on their own rules# or the! can tr! to decide what rules seem to e
implied within the conte%t of the ook itself. An e%ample from Lord of the Flies is
given in 7orksheet &3.
)&
<E7 4E . . .
"nstead of rules# students are asked to formulate advice on coping with the social
situation the! find in the literar! work. 4his allows for considerale variation.
"llustrations might include;
1. The "reat "ats!y; A<ow to e a social successB
/ome classes enefit from eing given a set format# for e%ample;
HTo be a social success you must3
..................................................................
.................................................................
.
.................................................................
.
&. Bra.e 9ew World; A<ow to e happ!B
3. The $ollector; A<ow to persuade !our captor to release !ouB
A<ow to . . .B can e e%tended ! asking students to draw up a similar list for their
own contemporar! situation.
<E7 /<E-=: 4<F9 . . . I <E7 /<E-=: 9E- . . . . I
"n this activit!# students put themselves# imaginativel!# into a particular situation in
the literar! work. 4he! have a list of A<ow should !ou . . . IB questions to answer#
upon which the! must tr! to achieve a group consensus.
6or e%ample# in 8uriel /parkBs short stor! A4he twinsB $in The "o-Away Bird and
*ther Stories'# the narrator has a series of uncomfortale e%periences when she goes
to visit an old school friend# ?ennie# and her husand /imon. 4he coupleBs children#
angelicGlooking twins# seem to have an uncann! divisive effect upon the world of
grownGups. /tudents are given 7orksheet 1& and asked to give answers# in pairs or
small groups.
{+3}
Worksheet '+
Filling in the gaps
1ovels# stories# pla!s or poems give onl! partial portra!als of situations and
characters# leaving plent! of room for inference. A straightforward activit! is to ask
)3
Kead to the end of HThe twins9.
Aou are going to stay at Bennie and Simon9s house.
. *ow long should you stay?
!. *ow should you react if one of the twins asks you for money?
". Should you discuss the twins9 behaviour with Bennie? 1f so, what should you
say?
#. Should you interfere between (arents and children?
$. 1f Simon says something about Bennie, should you mention it to her?
%. What should you do if you receive a letter from Simon after your visit?
groups of students to make inferences aout missing aspects and then to discuss these.
:iscussion is sparked ! requesting students to provide Justifications for their
guesses; in other words# what known facts have the! used to uild up their inferred
pictureI
6or e%ample# in Draham DreeneBs %octor Fischer of "ene.a# we know# ver! little
of the doctorBs ackground or earl! life. 4he teacher gives each group a set of
questions;
What was /octor Gischer like at school?
/id he have many friends?
What was his favourite sub5ect?
/id he often get into trouble?
Was he close to his (arents?
/id he cry a lot?
/id he (lay (ractical 5okes?
"n a general class feedack session# groups compare their answers and e%plain the
particular part of the te%t which led them to their conclusions.
*e&ates
8an! ooks suggest controversial issues that can give rise to interesting deates in the
classroom. 4he formal structure# especiall! if fairl! short {+*} time limits are set# is
often helpful for learners e%pressing themselves in the foreign language. Ene e%ample
is descried in detail in Lord of the Flies $see p. 1*,'; another suJect for a deate
motion is given for the short stor! A:estin! and the ulletB $see p. &1+'.
Friendly persuasion
"n this activit!# pairs of students take on prescried roles; one tries to persuade the
other of the merits or drawacks of a course of action# or of a certain character in a
literar! work. 6or e%ample# one learner is given the role of a friend of the AcollectorB#
in ?ohn 6owlesB novel of that title. <is or her task is to persuade the manager of a
fashion model agenc! $the other student' that the AcollectorB would e the ideal
photographer the! are seeking.
"n Deorge ErwellBs 9ineteen <ighty-Four# one student could e a friend of
EB0rienBs# tr!ing to get him emplo!ed as a ps!chiatric nurse ! persuading the
nursing officer. 4he AfriendB tries hard to e convincing# while the other role pla!er
attempts to resist ! asking pointed questions# in this case# for e%ample; "s !our friend
fond of peopleI "s he compassionateI Are !ou sure he isnBt too aggressiveI# etc.
6or groups which need help to e inventive# guidelines can e offered on role cards.
"t ma! e useful to practise the language of persuasion# and of resistance to it#
efore the first role pla!. "f necessar!# students can e given some e%amples of the
kind of e%pressions the! will need.
)elp$ul e,pressions $or persuaders
She9s 8 *e9s ever so ?N ad5.@.
She9s 8 *e9s the most . . .
19ve never met anyone who is as ?N
ad5.@ as she 8 he is.
4o on, give her8 him a chance.
Why don9t you give her 8 him a
chance? Aou won9t regret it.
She 8 *e will not disa((oint you 8 let
you down.
>an9t you see your way to letting him 8
her have a go?
)3
She9s8*e9s 5ust the sort of (erson
who...
1f anyone can do it, she 8 he can.
)elp$ul e,pressions $or those resisting
persuasion
That9s all very well, but . . .
She 8 *e isn9t really what 19m after
looking for.
She 8 *e sounds a bit ?N ad5.@.
She 8 *e isn9t =uite what 1 8 we have in
mind.
1 see your (oint, but...
19m not convinced that she he is the
right (erson for the 5ob3 situation.
She 8 *e must have one or two weak
(oints.
19m sorry but 1 only have your word to
go on.
A similar activit!# ut cast in the form of AAccuse and den!B is descried in Lord of
the Flies $see p. 1*+'.
{+)}7mprovisations
At a certain point in the reading of a literar! te%t# students are asked to devise
alternative outcomes to the events the! are encountering in the stor!. 4he! are then
asked to plan an improvised dramatisation of one such outcome# and perform it for the
class. "f necessar!# the! can he given one or two possiilities to start them off.
)ere and there
4hese two activities are designed to e%tend studentsB understanding and appreciation
of characterisation within the literar! work.
<FRF
/tudents are asked to speculate aout how particular characters would ehave and
what the! would feel or sa!# in an imagined situation which is not part of the work
itself.
"deas for situations are most successful when the! are linked to learnersB own lives.
6or e%ample# a character is imagined in the town where the students live. 7here
would that character goI sta!I 7hat would heOshe catI want to doI talk aoutI u!I
4hen# the character is invited into each studentBs home or room. 7here would he O she
sit# what would heOshe notice in the room# what would the conversation e aoutI "n a
third stage# the character is placed in an urgent# interesting new situation which calls
for some reaction; predictions are made aout the characterBs likel! response. 6or
instance# a woman rushes up to the character and demands mone! ecause she has lost
hers and must pa! the rent or e evicted. 7hat is the characterBs reactionI
"n small classes# this can e done ! students simpl! Afantasising out loudB. "n larger
classes# the activit! works est when ased on a worksheet outlining the new
situations and asking students to fill in the characterBs imagined response. 7hen this
has een done# either at home or in class# answers are discussed in groups. "n a
general feedack session# the teacher can then ask the students to draw out the
implications of the choices the! made# as far as their views of the characterBs
personalit! are concerned.
4<FRF
4he preceding situation is reversed. /omeone who is not a character in the literar!
work is imported into it and his or her likel! actions# reactions# and impact are
)*
discussed# 6or instance# in a ook with a male hero# the class is asked to imagine what
differences# if an!# a female equivalent would make to events and relationships.
Alternativel!# a memer of the class is chosen and Adropped inB to a particular
situation in the work# either to replace a character# or to e {++} involved. 4he fantas!
involves working out differences in ehaviour and outlook etween the character and
the student sustitute or# in the second case# imagining what the student would do to
tr! to influence people and events once introduced into the plot. 4his usuall! provides
livel! discussion# and can also e adapted for role pla! or improvisation. An e%ample#
A9ou have the conchB# is outlined in (hapter + $see p. 1&2'.
5ole plays
4he conte%t provided ! works of literature facilitates the creation of roleGpla!
situations. /ometimes# however# learners feel rather awed at the prospect of depicting
characters or events alread! vividl! drawn in the ook. "n this case# Ae%traGte%tualB
situations# such as those imagined in the preceding e%ercise# can e particularl!
helpful. An e%ample is given for Lord of the Flies# in which the o!s who are stranded
on a desert island are imagined ack in an ordinarv school setting $see A"nterview with
a school counsellorB# p. 13)'.
Another successful technique for implementing role pla! with longer novels or
stories is to take themes from the te%t and create parallel settings# ut with totall!
different characters. Afterwards# the work itself is compared with the created role
pla!. 6or e%ample# ?ohn# the savage in Bra.e 9ew World# illustrates the fate of the
outsider who is rought into a social pattern that he finds alien and that eventuall!
destro!s him. A parallel role pla! takes the plight of the first e%traGterrestrial eings
$thankfull! humanoid and ale to speak Fnglish' who want to make a life on Farth ut
suffer the pressures of media attention. 4he role pla! involves a press conference in
which questions are prepared ! teams of Journalists# while the e%traGterrestrials
prepare a description of their societ!# which has minimised technolog! in favour of a
return to more natural living.
Parallel role pla!s work well with !ounger learners# especiall! if the te%t is a
difficult one# or set in the past# as in a /hakespearean pla!. West Side Story could
perhaps e cited as a popular AparallelB presentation of Romeo and 2ulietK
'railers
4his is another wa! of making the usiness of dramatising a novel or other work into
a more manageale task for learners. An!one who goes to films or watches television
is familiar with the notion of a AtrailerB# that is# a short advertising clip designed to
promote a film or television programme. "t usuall! consists of a narrative AvoiceGoverB
e%tolling the film# interspersed with e%tremel! rief# intriguing shots taken from the
tensest or most spectacular moments of the filmBs action.
{+.}"n groups# students are given the task of concocting a twoGminute AtrailerB to
advertise the work eing read# using the particular highlights of a chapter. 4his will e
presented to the class in the following wa!; one learner# the presenter# reads the
AvoiceGoverB narrative# while other students# at the appropriate point# act out the
dramatic highlights of the plot# or simpl! adopt froHen postures to depict them.
7e have found that even less imaginative or sh!er learners can manage the ver!
limited acting involved in these rief scenes. 4he activit! is usuall! e%tremel!
amusing# and also generates interesting discussion springing from the fact that
))
different groups produce such var!ing interpretations of the literar! workBs most
dramatic moments. An illustration is given for the short stor! A/redni >ashtarB $see p.
&1,'# and another for Lord of the Flies $see p. 1&1'.
(oviemaker
4his is a more comple% activit!# which involves adapting a highlight to make one
scene of a AfilmB or Atelevision programmeB. /tudents can e given fairl! detailed
instructions to help them visualise their task. Fach group in a class can e set a
slightl! different scene# so that there is variet! when the AfilmsB are acted out in front
of the class# and so that the contrast can lead to discussion aout differences in
interpretation. An illustration# including three different sets of instructions for three
Aproduction unitsB# can e found in the chapter on Lord of the Flies $see p. 1&+'.
{+,}" Endings
(oming to the end of a literar! work is reall! onl! a staging point# a temporar!
distancing from a continuing process of appreciation and understanding. 4he activities
descried in this chapter reflect a wish to keep each studentBs own sense of the literar!
work alive# and aim to involve students in sharing views and reviews.
7e have compiled a range of activities ut it is worth rememering that several of the
activities outlined in (hapters 3 and * are also entirel! appropriate at this stage in the
literar! work. 4his has een indicated earlier# where applicale.
As man! of the activities in this chapter involve an integration of language skills# we
have decided not to arrange them under single skill suGheadings. <owever# there is a
road progression. 6irst we outline activities which produce a strong visual impact.
1e%t those with an emphasis on discussion are descried# and so on through listeningG
ased activities# writing tasks and finall!# role pla! and drama work.
#over designs
Asking students to provide a design for the ookBs paperack cover is a wa! of
eliciting and cr!stallising their overall response to the work the! have Just een
reading. 4his can e done individuall!# or as a group activit!; ut# as students are
asked to depict their own response# it ma! e etter to keep groups small# possil!
even to get students working in pairs. 4heir rief is the following; the! are working
for the pulisherBs graphics department and are responsile for planning a cover that
will oth represent the spirit of the ook and e likel! to appeal to potential readers.
"t is important in an! activit! of this kind to provide some support for students who
are not too confident aout their artistic ailit!. "t is often more fruitful to suggest
wa!s in which students can e%press their response without eing asked to draw.
(ollage is an effective technique# for which suitale materials are;
5 8agaHine pictures# to e cut out and glued on to large sheets of coloured
poster card.
5 A kit of adhesive geometrical shapes in different siHes and colours# to e
comined to form astract or s!molic designs. 4his often produces {.1}
striking and imaginative representations of a ook. 6igure + is an e%ample of
such a cover design.
7hen the designs are complete# an e%hiition is held in the classroom. Fach
AdesignerB or design team presents its cover to the class and talks aout the effect the!
)+
were tr!ing to communicate. /tudents are free to question the designers# or to
comment on similarities or contrasts. "f there is insufficient time for ever!one to
discuss their cover# the! are asked to write what the! would have included in their
presentation# and these written comments can later e pinned up alongside the
designs.
Writing a 1&lur&2 $or the &ack cover
As preparation for this activit!# the teacher reads out the cover lur for two or three
novels or pla!s which the students are unlikel! to know. 4hese are then displa!ed# and
students are asked to rank them in order of appeal. 4he! discuss the format and an!
special features which affected their response.
"n groups or pairs# students are then to write the lur for the ook the! have een
stud!ing# including at least one quote from the work# which the! feel is ound to draw
in someone rowsing in a ookshop.
).
Figure 4 {.1}
),
{.1}Sculpting
4his activit! concentrates attention on the principal characters in a ook or pla!. Ene
student volunteers or is chosen to e the sculptor. 4he names of the main characters
are placed individuall! on slips of paper and put into a ag. /tudents take one slip
each until the! are all gone. 4he sculptor chooses a AcharacterB and asks him or her to
stand# sit# or take up an! position or e%pression which seems appropriate to that
characterBs essential personalit! traits.
A cleared area of the classroom is the sculpting arena. Another AcharacterB is now
asked to come forward and the sculptor places him or her in an appropriate position
relative to the first character# that is# near if the sculptor sees them as close# or far
apart if the! have little connection with each other. 4he characters can e facing each
other# ack to ack# holding hands# huddled together# in fact# whatever the sculptor
chooses. Ence positioned# characters remain in their positions until the sculpting is
complete. 7hen this is done# the sculptor discusses his or her thoughts with others in
the class# who comment on their view of the characters. "f there is time# several more
sculptings can e carried out.
4he activit! is surprisingl! powerful and memorale# and works particularl! well with
ooks that have a good numer of interrelated characters. "t leads to a lot of
discussion and reveals differences in individual perceptions. Although perhaps est
with adults or mature adolescents# {.&} sculpting does appeal to a wide range of
students. 7hen it is first introduced# or with more unadventurous classes# the teacher
should e the first sculptor. 6igure . is an e%ample for Lord of the Flies.
Figure 5
+2
Unsealing the time capsule
7hen predictions aout the development of the plot or characters have een put into a
sealed Atime capsuleB at the eginning $see (hapter 3'# now is the time to open it.
:iscussion centres on why students made their original predictions# and what
happened later in the ook to confirm or disprove them.
%oint o$ no return
"n groups# learners decide upon the Apoint of no returnB in the unfolding of the novel#
pla! or short stor! Just read. 4his can perhaps e done most easil! ! duplicating an
instruction card and distriuting it to each group $see 7orksheet 13'.
A p!ramiding technique is used; students decide upon their point in pairs# then in
groups of four# and so on. 4his usuall! generates livel!R discussion and a thorough
revision of the ook.
{.3}
Worksheet ',
What i$ 8 8 8 -
4his is a discussion activit!# which can e a followGup to Apoint of no returnB.
/tudents imagine the moment efore the Apoint of no returnB. 7hat if circumstances
had een differentI 7hat alternative choices could the characters have madeI 7hat
other effects upon the reader could have een attained ! the writerI $0! implied
contrast# what special effects derive from the ookBs special configuration# and what
reasons can the author have had for arranging things the wa! he or she didI'
4his e%ercise can give rise to much useful language work. 4he topic requires past
conditionals $"f N had happened# 9 would have resulted . . . ' and past modals $could
have made; could have een attained; might have . . . ; should have . . . '. PreGteaching
or revision of these forms ma! therefore e appropriate with some classes. An
e%ample is given for Lord of the Flies $see p. 1*3'.
'eam competitions
4eam competitions are a traditional ut still useful and enJo!ale wa! of reminding
students aout various strands of the ook# so that the! have all the material availale
to start uilding up an overall view. "t can e done ! straightforward questions# or !
using quotes; 7ho said thisI 7hereI 7henI
+1
We have now read ?title@ and we know its outcome.
Looking back, can you say what, (recisely, was the H(oint of no return9 : that is, the
(oint at which the outcome became inevita&le. ?This can be a (oint in the events or
the develo(ment of a character.@
Write down the (oint that you have agreed u(on in your grou(. 1f you do not think
there was such a (oint, give reasons for thinking that the outcome was not
inevitable.
4he questions can e prepared ! the teacher or# etter still# ! students in groups
setting questions for the rival team. 4he coming of the ook to find suitale
questions or quotes is in itself a useful revision e%ercise.
3ust a minute
4his classroom game is ased on the popular radio programme# in which contestants
tr! to speak for )2 seconds on a given topic# without hesiG {.3} tation# deviation or
repetition. A stopwatch is needed $a large chess clock is ideal'. 4hemes from the ook
are written on slips of paper $! the teacher or ! students working in pairs'. 6or
e%ample# themes for Romeo and 2uliet could include; love# violence# feuds# lo!alt! to
oneBs friends compassion# friendship# anger# fate# happiness# civil strife within a cit!#
arranged marriages# usefulness of alconies# the lindness of !outh# etc. "f it seems
necessar!# students are allowed to take awa! topics and consider them in preparation
for the game.
4he topics are then put into a hat. 6our learners pla! at a time; the teacher or a student
AgamesmasterB chooses a topic from the hat and designates the contestant who must
tr! to speak on that theme for )2 seconds. "f he or she hesitates# deviates# or repeats
an! word e%cept the theme words $articles# prepositions# conJunctions donBt countK'#
he or she can e challenged ! one of the three other contestants. A successful
challenger can then continue to speak for the rest of the minute. Points are awarded
for successful challenges# and for the contestant who is still talking when the )2
seconds are up.
Although the game can e pla!ed at an! point during the reading of a particular ook#
it is particularl! suited to the end# when students have most material availale and the
e%ercise is useful for revision. A slightl! easier version is given for Lord of the Flies
$see p. 1&3'.
5etelling the story
Relating the stor! seems a fairl! unsophisticated wa! of going over a ook Just read#
!et there is no dout that it can provide valuale oral practice in the foreign language
5 much of the vocaular! needed will e known# ut using it can help make it part of
the learnersB active le%is# while the narrative mode will usuall! allow them to use a
variet! of tenses# link words# and other discourse markers.
6or small classes# each student is given a numer# then all the numers are written
on slips of paper and put into a hat. 4he learner whose numer is drawn first starts off#
relating the stor! from the eginning# until interrupted ! the teacherBs uHHer or
gong. Another numer is drawn and that student continues the narration. 4his can
sometimes generate animated discussion aout points omitted or related out of
sequence.
A note on error correction; overt correction ! the teacher will prove much too
disruptive during such an activit!. "t is etter to Jot down recurring errors for
discussion afterwards. An e%cellent error correction technique for small and fairl!
rela%ed groups is recording the entire stor!telling# then pla!ing it ack and asking
learners to note an! errors the! can spot.
+&
{.*}#ritical $orum
7here this is practicale# recorded discussions or conversations aout a ook which
has een read ! the entire class provide ideal material for listening comprehension
practice; the familiar conte%t# and the learnersB e%pectations derived from their
knowledge of the ook# help them to make inferences aout what the! are hearing#
there! facilitating understanding. 4here are several wa!s in which listening tasks can
e varied to provide interest.
/PE4 4<F FRRER
7ith a friend or a native speaker# the teacher records a conversation $unscripted# or
Alightl!B scripted in note form' etween two people talking aout the ook. Ene or
more errors of fact or of sequencing are introduced. /tudents are asked to note errors
as the! listen.
As followGup# students# working in pairs or small groups# write and then record
similar conversations or monologues aout various aspects of the ook; plot# anal!sis
of motivation# character development# discussion of st!le# etc. Droups then e%change
recordings and tr! to spot the error$s'. 4his activit! can also e done in a language
laorator!# and is suited to the more advanced levels# when students do not have too
much resistance to the idea of recording their own voices.
(R"4"(A= (E88F14
4he teacher records a critical commentar! on the ook Just read $from radio
discussions# school roadcasts# etc.' or records his or her own or a native speakerBs
reading of a printed te%t. "f this is not possile# the e%ercise can still e done ! the
teacher simpl! reading a prepared te%t to the class. 4here are several tasks which can
e used to accompan! such a recorded commentar!;
5 /ummar!; /tudents are asked to list the two or three main points made ! the
speaker# or to choose $from three possiilities' the est summar! of the points
made.
5 1oteGtaking; /tudents are asked to take notes which the! later e%pand into a
paragraph.
5 Dapped te%t; "f the te%t is fairl! short# the teacher can give students the entire
te%t with some ke! words or e%pressions deleted# to e supplied ! listeners.
6or longer te%ts# onl! main sentences are given# again with lanks to e filled.
#hoosing highlights
4he teacher shows the class a sealed envelope in which is listed his or her choice of
three AhighlightsB# that is# points in the ook which he or she conG {.)} siders to e
crucial to its overall effect# for e%ample ecause of their importance in the unfolding
of the plot# the light the! throw on character or motivation# the uildingGup of a
picture of a certain societ!# and so on. <e or she then asks students# individuall!G# to
do the same.
=earners then get together in groups of three to compare their lists of highlights#
Justif! their choices# and compile a new list which represents their consensus. <aving
to e%plain their own views and argue for or against those of others can make students
ring out their own thoughts and range more freel! in e%pressing their reaction to the
ook than the! might do if the! were responding to more straightforward questions
aout it. At the end# a student is asked to open the teacherBs envelope and read its
+3
contents to the rest of the class. 4he teacher Justifies his or her choices and asks for
comments on similarities or differences of opinion.
As written followGup# students write a paragraph on each one of their groupBs
highlights# Justif!ing their choice and showing its importance for the ook as a whole.
A variation of this activit! is descried in Lord of the Flies $see p. 1)1 '.
"t will e seen that in this activit!# while learners retain the support of the group#
have access to their companionsB ideas and have the opportunit! of testing their own
views in discussion# the! are moving towards practice in answering fairl! standard
t!pes of essa! questions and thus preparing for e%ams.
5ound ro&in
4he class is divided into small groups. 6ive people per group is Just aout right. 4he
task set is to summarise the ook in five sentences $or si% sentences for a group of si%#
etc.'. Fach person in the group writes the first sentence# then passes that piece of
paper on to his or her rightGhand neighour# who writes the second sentence and then
passes the paper on to the person on the right# and so on. At the end# a group will have
five summaries# to which each of its memers has contriuted one sentence. 4hese
five are then passed on to another group. Fach group reviews the five it has received#
chooses the one it likes est and sa!s wh!. "f a group cannot agree on a choice# it is
allowed to use parts of different summaries in order to uild up what it considers to e
a complete# accurate and wellGwritten s!nopsis.
6or less advanced classes# a variation of the aove activit! can e used for
individual rather than group work. A summar! of the ook is given in ten sentences
with three choices for each sentence $32 sentences in total'. =earners choose the est
of the three in each case and then write out their complete summar!. (omparison of
the choices made can provoke discussion aout the grounds for choosing one sentence
rather than another.
{.+}Short writing tasks
=F44FR/
Ene character writes to different people. /tudents are asked to write the letter that N
$one of the main characters' sends after the end of the ook to e%plain what happened#
and how it came to happen as it did. :ifferent registers are practised ! var!ing the
people to whom the letters are to e sent $that is# N will write in a different wa! to his
mother O wife O est friend O headmaster O solicitor O oss O 8P# etc.'. /tudents read and
compare corrected letters to appreciate differences of content and st!le.
Alternativel!# different characters write to each other aout the events the! have
lived through. "n Patricia <ighsmithBs The Talented Mr Ripley# for instance# half the
class is 8arge writing to 4om# the other half 4om writing to 8arge. =etters are
e%changed# and# if appropriate# the activit! is e%tended so that each person replies to
the letter received.
=A/4 PADF P=-/ E1F
"f the ook allows for such progression# students write the ne%t few paragraphs after
the end of the ook.
+3
4<F 0EE@ E1 A PE/4(AR:
4he challenge here is to fit an appreciation of a literar! work into a ver! limited
compass. /tudents are asked to write aout the ook in e%actl! *2 words. 4he
compression quite often produces interesting pieces of writing. An e%ample is given
for =ord of the 6lies $see 6igure 1*'.
Writing essays
/ome of the grids used during the reading of a work for the purpose of e%tending
studentsB understanding of plot and character can e used after the end of the ook as
material on which to ase essa! writing# if this is seen as desirale or necessar! for
e%am preparation. F%amples are given for the short stories A4he edgeB $see 7orksheet
)&' and A/redni >ashtarB $see 7orksheet )3'.
Adapting the literary work $or another audience
4his activit! is suitale for an advanced group. "t involves rewriting the literar! work
for a different audience; for e%ample# for a child# an elementar! learner# a horror
movie director# etc. 8ost learners reaching the upperGintermediate or advanced stage
will have encountered graded readers or other forms of simplified te%t# at some point
in their language studies. 4he! usuall! respond with interest to the challenge of
creating such a te%t themselves.
{..}A prompt is often useful to start the activit!. 6or e%ample# a group of students
asked to retell %octor Fischer of "ene.a as a fair! stor! for children# can e given the
following eginning;
)nce u(on a time there was a wicked baron who lived in a large and gloomy (alace.
*e was so rich that (eo(le were . . .
4he activit! can e an oral or a writing task. A similar eginning produced the
following adaptation for !ounger readers of /akiBs short stor! A4oermor!B $in The
#enguin $omplete Saki';
Ence upon a time there was a magician who cast a spell on a cat called 4oermor!. 4he cat
was suddenl! ale to talk to humans. At first# ever!od! was e%cited and delighted and asked
the cat lots of questions Just to hear his voice. 0ut then the! ecame alarmed when the!
realised that the cat could also talk aout things it saw and heard while wandering quietl!
around the house at all hours of the da! or night. (an !ou imagine what the people decided to
do to protect their secretI 7ell# the! tried to poison his food ut 4oermor! wasnBt hungr!
for food. <e had gone off to find a friend. Panic roke out in the householdK 4oermor! was
going to tell ever!thing to the whole worldK 7hat a relief when the! found that 4oermor!
was killed in a fight with another cat. 4he poor magician was ver! sad as he needed a special
animal for his spell. <e went awa! high and low and found a much igger animal 5 an
elephant. 0ut he got the spell all wrong and made the elephant ver! angr!. "nstead of talking#
the elephant Jumped up and down 5 on the magicianK
From telegrams to newspaper reports
4his is a fourGpart writingOroleGpla! activit! especiall! suitale for ooks that contain
a lot of action and a dramatic ending. Parts ma! e used independentl! if time
constraints prevent a fuller treatment. 4he class is divided into four or eight groups.
+*
Part 1; 4he task for each group is to write a telegram $an appropriate word limit is set'
giving the gist of what has happened in the ook read# as though from a foreign
correspondent to his newspaper. 4his is more interesting if the special conventions of
telegram writing have een e%amined eforehand. Ene amusing wa! of doing so is to
look with students at the totall! inept telegrams sent ! 7illiam# the central character
of Fvel!n 7aughBs Scoop.
Part &; Fach group hands its telegram to the ne%t group. 4elegrams are read and
discussed. 4hen# on the asis o f the telegram in hand# the groups write a newspaper
report of the events. /tudents might e encouraged to decide the kind of newspaper
for which the! are going to write their article; for e%ample# a scandal sheet# or a more
soer Aqualit!B newspaper# etc. "t is usuall! est for the teacher to specif! the length of
the article# and {.,} also the time availale for the writing task. 7e have found that
group writing tasks of this kind can provide valuale help and support for students
whose oral facilit! outstrips their ailit! to e%press themselves in writing. 4o allow
these students to contriute full!# however# it is often est to keep groups relativel!
small.
Part 3; Droups pass on to the ne%t group their report# together with the originating
telegram and the title or description of the newspaper for which it was written. Droups
now ecome an editorial panel; the! read the articles sumitted to them# suggest
corrections# note omissions or overstatements# discuss the AnewsworthinessB of the
presentation.
Part 3; 7hen groups are satisfied that the corrected article is in a reasonale state $or
at the end of the specified time' the! once again hand it on to the ne%t group. Ene
thing remains to e done; suppl! a striking headline for the article. Droups read the
article sumitted# then tr! to encapsulate its essential facts in an e!eGcatching 5 or
even sensationalK 5 formula.
An important followGup to this activit! is the postingGup of all four articles# complete
with original telegrams and headlines# so that students can see the entire process.
%ress con$erence
4his activit! constitutes a logical followGon from the writingOroleGpla! activit! Just
outlined# ut it can also stand on its own as a wa! of getting students to put
themselves ack into the literar! work the! have Just finished# and to discuss it.
4he roles taken are the following;
1. A Press (onference Efficer who conducts the press conference# calls on
reporters to speak# keeps order and rings the proceedings to a close.
&. Ene# two or three characters from the ook $as appropriate ' are questioned !
reporters and give their version of the events the! have Just een involved in.
3. 4he rest of the class can e reporters. According to the numer of students
involved and their level of proficienc!# the! can e given general# or fairl!
detailed# instructions. 4his is most easil! done ! using role cards. An
e%ample follows# taken from Draham DreeneBs %octor Fischer of "ene.a.
4he use of individual role cards means that each reporter can e given different
AanglesB of the stor! to investigate# and this tends to ensure a more livel! press
+)
conference. 8ore advanced students will need to e given fewer guidance questions
than intermediate learners. 7hen appropriate# the! can e asked to conform to the
kind of questions which t!pif! differG {,2} ent t!pes of pulication; a scandal sheet# a
/unda! newspaper# a television news team# etc.
<ere is an e%ample role card for %octor Fischer of "ene.a;
*ramatic adaptations
<aving finished reading their novel# short stor!# or poem# students are asked to turn a
scene the! consider crucial into a short theatre or television pla!. 4he class is divided
into groups# each one choosing a scene and producing a dramatised version to e put
on for the class. "t is sometimes est to let this e a voluntar! activit! organised# with
more or less elaorate staging effects# props# music# etc.# ! the drama enthusiasts of
the class# perhaps as an endGofGterm activit!. 4his allows quieter students to contriute
to the creating of setting# costumes# etc. 7e have found that the class performance#
however short# or however far from perfect# is usuall! enJo!ed immensel! ! most
students# and that it does make the scene memorale for them 5 it is usuall! this ver!
scene which is later chosen to illustrate points made in essa!s or e%amsK
A television AreportageB used as a followGup activit! to the reading of a short stor!#
A4he edgeB# is descried on p. &13.
"alloon de&ates
4his traditional form of deate can e adapted with great success as a wa! of allowing
learners to e%plore the comple%ities of the characters in a novel or pla!.
PRFPARA4"E1
4he teacher chooses five or si% of the main characters in the ook read. 4he class is
divided into that numer of groups# each of which is assigned {,1} one of the
characters. 4he groups now have the task of choosing two of their memers to take on
the role of their character; one for each round of the deate. 4he memers of the
group help prepare their representatives# ! finding suitale arguments for their
characterBs survival# and good wa!s of e%pressing them.
++
Kole card
Aou are a re(orter for 'he Sunday Glo&e. Aour editor wants you to write a story
about the death of the wealthy /octor Gischer. The in=uest is now over, and .r
Bones and .r Steiner have agreed to give a (ress conference about the mysterious
affair.
Aour editor would es(ecially like you to find out3
: *ow often /octor Gischer entertained his circle of friends.
: What they did at these gatherings ?the rumours the (a(er (ublished last week
have not really been substantiated@.
: The amount of money involved in the last (arty.
4<F :F0A4F
4he class imagines that the five characters are sailing high in a hotGair alloon# when
the! start to lose altitude disastrousl!. 4o prevent a crash# all ut two of the characters
must e thrown overoard.
Fach character $first representative of each group' has an opportunit! to make a
speech outlining the reasons wh! he or she should e allowed to remain in the alloon
and survive. 4he teacher# or a student# presides. After this first speech# the class votes
for the two most convincing characters. 4he two survivors $second representatives'
make a speech# summing up the crucial reasons# and tr!ing to add new ones# for their
continued survival. 6inall!# the class votes for the last remaining survivor.
7e have found this to e a popular activit!. /ince ever!one has read the ook# the!
have a common ase of vocaular! and a shared knowledge which facilitates the
e%ercise. /tudents often comment with surprise on the insight the! have suddenl!
gained into their characterBs ps!cholog!# ecause the! have een forced to put
themselves into his or her place# imaginativel!. Ene student# for e%ample# claimed to
have suddenl! felt an une%pected compassion for 8rs 7ilson# the victim in 6. /cott
6itHgeraldBs The "reat "ats!y# when she had to plead her case in the alloon.
7mprovisations
(lasses where role pla! is popular can e given a slightl! freer task after the entire
ook has een read; to produce a dramatised version of the chapter after the end of the
ook. 4he following activit! is one wa! of doing this.
"1L-F/4
8an! ooks lend themselves to a recapitulative role pla! ased upon an inquir! of
some sort into the events that have occurred. /ome e%amples would e;
5 An inquest on oard the ship which has rescued the survivors of Lord of the
Flies# conducted ! the shipBs captain $see p. 1)1 '.
5 A coronerBs inquest into the death of Dats!# or :octor 6ischer of Deneva# or
the victim in The $ollector ! ?ohn 6owles.
Ene student is nominated the coroner. <e or she calls the inquest# interviews
witnesses# and eventuall! makes a report. 4he class is divided into groups# each of
which prepares one AwitnessB 5 a surviving character in {,&} the ook 5 for
interrogation. "t ma! e necessar! to provide a coronerBs team to help him or her
question witnesses and make a report.
>ariations on this Judgement theme might e;
5 A divorce court JudgeBs inquir! $awarding custod! of Athe twinsB in 8uriel
/parkBs short stor! of that title# for e%ample'.
5 A court martial.
5 A schoolBs disciplinar! committee# etc.
Fver!thing depends on the particular ook# its setting# characters# and situation.
PART C WORKING WITH A COMPLETE
TEXT .
# $ no%el: &ord o' the Flies (y )illiam *olding
4he novel we have selected to demonstrate the range of activities availale in
presenting a work of literature is the modern classic Lord of the Flies# ! 7illiam
+.
Dolding. 4here are man! reasons for our choice. Dolding is a maJor twentiethGcentur!
Fnglish writer# whose works are read and studied throughout the world. Lord of the
Flies deals with the everGtopical and universal themes of violence# social control#
human nature# survival in conditions of adversit! 5 !et in a setting that is neither
cultureGspecific nor restricted to one time. "ts schoolo! characters have in fact een
removed from their own conte%t to e placed in elemental conditions that reveal their
true selves. 4his gives the ook the aspect of a fale# which is at once strong and
simple enough to catch the imagination of most readers. 4he ook suits a readership
of almost an! age# and we have read it successfull! with a range of classes# from
intermediate to advanced learners. "ts rich# associative# metaphorical language
provides a challenge# ut comprehension is definitel! aided ! the clear conte%t# as
well as ! the novelBs strong characterisation and plot. =ast# ut certainl! not least#
Lord of the Flies has a strong pull on the readerBs involvement# from the ver! first
page.
6or convenience# we have divided the novel into 1& sections corresponding to its 1&
chapters. 7e have laelled these "GN"" to distinguish them from the chapters of this
ook $1G12'. 6or each chapter of Lord of the Flies# we shall descrie a large and
varied numer of classroom and homework activities. At various times# these have
een used with success in our classes# ut oviousl! the! represent a range of choices#
not a scheme of work. 4eachers must choose and adapt according to their own
situation# constraints# particular group of learners# and teaching st!le. 4he activities
are a set of ideas and resources to stimulate variet! in the classroom.
4he onl! words of advice we would like to add are these;
1. 4r! to select activities which complement each other and form a suitale
alance# for e%ample etween languageGenrichment activities and ones
designed to deepen the studentsB understanding of the ook and elicit a
response.
&. :o not select too man! activities in case this harms the simple involvement
through reading that the individual uilds. Rememer reading is often a quiet#
private activit! and one we strongl! wish to encourage.
{,3}3. :o not lose sight of the principal aim of the whole operation# which is to foster
enJo!ment of reading in the learner. An important gift we can give the student
is the realisation that further reading and rereading can e enriching. 9ou can
never reall! AfinishB a ook# e%cept on a superficial level. Rereading alwa!s
produces new insight# new perceptions# a deepened response.
3. "t is a good idea to var! the mode of presentation; silent reading# for e%ample#
can e followed ! listening to the passage on a cassette# so that this
ArevisitingB of the te%t feels like a different e%perience and challenges other
areas of the learnerBs ailities.
*. -nless !ou are oliged to use prescried te%ts# choose works that !ou know
and like# and which are likel! to appeal to the students !ou teach. -sing
activities of the kind we descrie requires a good deal of imaginative
involvement on the part of the teacher G much etter that this groundwork
should e enJo!ale rather than a choreK
Cha!ter I The sound o' the shell 3!ages #4345
3
6rom the first page# the reader is taken immediatel! into the atmosphere of the ook.
4he setting is an e%otic tropical island where two Fnglish o!s find themselves
3
Page references are to the paperack edition of Lord of the Flies# 6aer and 6aer# =ondon# 1,*..
+,
wandering aout# having een dropped to safet! efore the crash of their plane# which
had een attacked. 4o the o!s# the island seems to promise an enchanted# adultGfree
life. Draduall!# as more o!s emerge# the! hold a meeting and elect Ralph as chief.
?ack# the leader of a group of choiro!s and the other candidate for leadership# takes
to hunting; ut the first time he chases a piglet# he cannot quite ring himself to kill it.
4his chapter is quite long and is therefore est divided into class and home reading.
/ince the island setting is such a strong part of the novelBs appeal in the eginning# we
have planned a detailed warmGup activit! prior to reading# in order to focus upon this
aspect and uild up a sense of e%pectation.
7n the mood
4his warmGup activit! is a simple ut effective wa! of uilding familiarit! with the
setting of the novel prior to reading# and preferal! efore the te%ts are distriuted to
the students.
4he teacher informs the class that he or she is going to ask them to create a picture
of the eginning of the ook in their minds. 4he class are {,*} asked to rela%# close
their e!es and tr! to make a large empt! space for their imagination to work on.
/tudents are then told to imagine that the! are 11 !ears old again# and the! are
asked; 7hat do !ou look likeI 7hat is !our hair likeI !our clothesI !our shoesI <ow
tall are !ouI 7hat do !ou like doingI 7hat things are !ou interested inI $Pause for
mind painting.'
1e%t# the teacher tells students to imagine that the! have een dropped on to a
tropical island# from a plane Just efore it crashed. 4he! are alone. "t is ver! hot. 7hat
are their first thoughts# and what do the! do to start withI After allowing time for
pictures to e uilt# the teacher asks the students to open their e!es and to Jot down#
quickl!# these thoughts and initial actions.
/tudents close their e!es again and are asked to imagine what things the! see on the
island# what the! hear# touch and feel. Again# after a pause# students open their e!es
and write down their sensations.
6inall!# students are told that suddenl!# another child of aout the same age appears
from the undergrowth. <e was on the plane too. 7hat do the! talk aout with the
other childI 7hat do the! feelI /adI F%citedI 6rightenedI Again# students open their
e!es and Jot down their thoughts.
At this point the teacher asks the class to leave the island of their imagination. <e or
she puts them into pairs or threes and each person descries their scene to the others.
After a few minutes# the teacher calls the learners together again# for one or two
ApicturesB to e descried to the whole class.
4he students are now Ain the pictureB as far as the ook is concerned and proceed
either to read the first two pages or to listen to them and to note down some road
differences etween their pictures and that in the ook. 4he! are asked not to worr!
aout unknown words at this stage.
6inall!# there is general class discussion of differences noted and of points of special
interest or difficult! in this initial section.
5etrospective writing
"f sufficient time is availale# students# in small groups# are asked to reconstruct# from
details given in the first two pages# the events which happened Just efore the opening
of the novel. 4his is a planning session which will lead to students individuall!
.2
writing the last few paragraphs of the imaginar! chapter which would precede the
opening section of Lord of the Flies. 4his writing task can then e completed in class#
or set as homework.
{,)}'wo worksheets to support home reading
/tudents are asked to read the first half of the chapter# with an emphasis on gaining a
first insight into the personalities of Pigg! and Ralph# the two o!s introduced in this
section. 7orksheets 13 and 1* help this first contact with the characters# ! not
demanding too much intensive te%t work. 7e want to encourage learners# from the
eginning# to read confidentl! for gist.
Fach of the worksheets illustrated can give rise to oral feedack in class. 7orksheet
1* provides e%cellent support for a structured speaking task. /tudents are asked to
give short talks ased upon the notes the! have Jotted down in one particular o% of
the grid. 4he! speak in turn# for a ma%imum of one minute# as requested ! the
teacher.
Worksheet '0
.1
{,+}
Worksheet '1
{,.}(emory e,ercise 9pages :!;<=
7orksheet 1) is for a class game or for homework.
Worksheet '3
.&
Kead (ages &C' of ord o$ the Flies. Write brief notes in each box as a((ro(riate.
%iggy 5alph
7ersonality
-((earance
-ttitude towards being on
the island
-ttitude towards the other
boy
1nformation about (arents
#lass reading 9pages >?!@=
4he teacher reads out loud $or pla!s a cassette of' the section aout the election of a
chief. "n a general class discussion# students are then asked to list all the qualities the!
would seek in a leader# if the! were in the o!sB position on the island. 4he teacher
keeps the list# to link to an activit! designed to develop this theme later on in the ook
$see p. 1*+'.
{,,}#haracter portrayal
7orksheet 1+ is to accompan! home reading $to the end of the chapter'.
4his activit! can e repeated halfGwa! through the ook# and again when the entire
ook has een read. 4he teacher keeps the earlier graphs to demonstrate the evolution
of the studentsB awareness of characterisation# as the ook unfolds.
Worksheet '4
1#orrecting2 %iggy2s 0nglish
4he aim of this activit! is to make e%plicit the kind of Fnglish Pigg! speaks and#
through feedack and discussion# elicit what this tells the reader aout Pigg!Bs
ackground and education $see 7orksheet 1.'.
Worksheet '5
.3
7ut a mark for each boy ?O for 7iggy, ) for Kal(h, P for Back@ on each of the following
lines, according to your 5udgment of their character, so far. 1f you have no idea, leave
blank.
selfCconfidence L)W QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ *14*
intelligence L)W QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ *14*
athleticism L)W QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ *14*
sensitivity L)W QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ *14*
cruelty L)W QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ *14*
anxiety L)W QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ *14*
friendliness L)W QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ *14*
loneliness L)W QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ *14*
Aou have noticed that 7iggy s(eaks a different kind of 2nglish from that s(oken by
Kal(h or Back. - strict, traditional schoolmaster might well frown at some of the
things 7iggy says. >hoose at least three things that 7iggy says. Write down his
words, then write down what a traditional schoolmaster might want him to say.
2xam(le3 7iggy says3 And this is what the tube done
The schoolmaster says3 And this is what the tube did
. 7iggy says3 ........................................
The schoolmaster says3 ........................................
!. 7iggy says3 ........................................
The schoolmaster says3 ........................................
". 7iggy says3 ........................................
The schoolmaster says3 ........................................
{122}What could 7 kill-
A questionnaire $7orksheet 1,' is given to students# either efore or after reading the
final two pages of the first chapter. Responses are compared first in groups# then in a
general class discussion.
An interesting followGup would e class reading and discussion of the parallel
situation in 7orksheet &1 which is an e%tract from The $oral ;sland ! R. 8.
0allant!ne.
Worksheet '8
Star diagram
4his activit! aims to foster studentsB understanding and appreciation of words and
e%pressions used to descrie the setting.
"n class# after the first chapter has een read# students are divided into four groups.
Fach group is assigned one element of the island setting;
"roup '; words that descrie water# the sea# the lagoon.
"roup +; words that descrie the sand# the each# the seaGshore.
"roup ,; words that descrie the Jungle and its vegetation.
"roup 0; words that descrie mountains# rocks and cliffs.
4ogether# students skim through the first chapter# e%tracting words or phrases which
refer to their element. 4heir task is then to arrange these in an order that shows which
words are visual# which are tactile# which are {121} metaphorical# and so on. Ene wa!
of doing this is to use a fiveGpoint star diagram. Fach group is given an empt! star
shape on a large card# and then groups its descriptive words into five appropriate
categories. "llustrations for two of the elements are given in 6igures ,A $words that
descrie the Jungle and the vegetation on the island' and ,0 $words that descrie
water; the sea# the lagoon# the coral reef'.
.3
Look at the creatures listed below. 1f you think you could kill any of them, (ut a tick in
the first column. 1n the second column, ex(lain circumstances in which you would do
so, for exam(le Hif starving9, Hin selfCdefence9, etc.
#reatur
e
Aes
-
#ircumstances-
8
ant
frog
hen
cat
snake
(ig
horse
human
Figure 8A
.*
{12&}
Figure 8B
7hen the aove activit! has een completed# as followGup each group is given a
coloured magaHine picture of a landscape or a seascape. 7orking singl! or in pairs#
learners write a paragraph descriing the scene# using at least one word from each of
the points of the star $for e%ample# one word which descries what the place looks
like# one which descries its sound# another which descries its smell# and so on'#
{123}%arallel reading
The $oral ;sland& a Tale of the #acific *cean is a famous adventure stor! written for
!oung readers# ! R. 8. 0allant!ne. =ike Treasure ;sland ! R. =. /tevenson# it has
provided# for generations of FnglishGspeaking adolescents# an everGpopular tale of
dangerous# e%citing e%ploits carried out ! three !oung men in the glamorous setting
of the /outh /ea islands. "ts three o!ish heroes are called Ralph# the narrator# ?ack#
the leader# and Peterkin the hunter of pigs. 0eside the ovious parallel of the names#
there are man! clues which show that DoldingBs novel constitutes a delierate and
often ironical counterpoint for this classic# which so man! of his adult readers would
.)
rememer from their childhood. (omparison of selected passages from it can throw
interesting light# for the advanced foreign student# on the e%act nature and qualit! of
what Dolding does with a similar setting and what seems at first sight a fairl! similar
situation.
{123}4wo e%tracts are given here. 7orksheet &2# with a grid for comparisons#
focuses on the setting; 7orksheet &1# for reading and discussion# can e used as a
followGup to 7orksheet 1,.
'he #oral 7sland ord o$ the Flies
. Shore/&each
>olour, sound, smell
words
Similes and meta(hors
.+
Kead the following extract from The >oral 1sland in which three young sailors, Back,
', Kal(h, $, and 7eterkin, #, find themselves alone on an uninhabited coral
island after a shi(wreck. Then fill in the boxes with a((ro(riate =uotations.
This was now the first time that 1 had looked well about me since landing, as the s(ot
where 1 had been laid was covered with thick bushes, which almost hid the country
from our view. -s we now emerged from among these and walked down the sandy
beach together, 1 cast my eyes about and truly my heart glowed within me and my
s(irits rose at the beautiful (ros(ect which 1 beheld on every side. The gale had
suddenly died away, 5ust as if it had blown furiously till it dashed our shi( u(on the
rocks, and had nothing more to do after accom(lishing that. The island u(on which we
stood was hilly, and covered almost everywhere with the most beautiful and richlyC
coloured trees, bushes and shrubs, none of which 1 knew the names of at that time
exce(t, indeed, the cocoaCnut (alms, which 1 recognised at once from the many
(ictures that 1 had seen of them before 1 left home. - sandy beach of da;;ling
whiteness lined this bright green shore, and u(on it there fell a gentle ri((le of the sea.
This last astonished me much, for 1 recollected that at home the sea used to fall in
huge billows on the shore long after a storm had subsided. +ut on casting my glance
out to sea, the cause became a((arent. -bout a mile distant from the shore, 1 saw the
great billows of the ocean rolling like a green wall, and falling with a long, loud roar
u(on a low coral reef, where they were dashed into white foam and flung u( in clouds
of s(ray. This s(ray sometimes flew exceedingly high, and every here and there a
beautiful rainbow was formed for a moment among the falling dro(s. We afterwards
found that this coral reef extended =uite round the island, and formed a natural
breakwater to it. +eyond this the sea rose and tossed violently from the effects of the
stormF but between the reef and the shore it was as calm and as smooth as a (ond.
.y heart was filled with more delight than 1 can ex(ress at sight of so many glorious
ob5ects, and my thoughts turned suddenly to the contem(lation of the >reator of them
all. 1 mention this the more gladly because at that time, 1 am ashamed to say, 1 very
seldom thought of my >reator, although 1 was constantly surrounded by the most
beautiful and wonderful of *is works. 1 observed, from the ex(ression of my
com(anion9s countenance, that he too derived much 5oy from the s(lendid scenery,
which was all the more agreeable to us after our long voyage on the salt sea. There the
bree;e was fresh and cold, but here it was delightfully mildF and when a (uff blew off
the land, it came laden with the most ex=uisite (erfume that can be imagined.
!. 'he sea/lagoon
>olour, sound, smell
words
Similes and meta(hors
". 'rees/ vegetation
>olour, sound, smell
words
Similes and meta(hors
#. 5eaction o$ the main
characters
5alphB 3ackB %iggy
'ick which description is
Sim(ler?
.ore vivid, colourful?
.ore concrete?
.ore meta(horical?
.ore (oetic?
The one you (refer?
Worksheet +: {p. 123G*}
{12)}
..
7orksheet &1
A snow&all summary
6igure 12 shows an e%ample of the gradual uilding of a threeGfold summar! as the
ook is read; of events# themes# and the reactions of characters. 4he class is divided
into four teams# A# 0# (# and :. Fach team has responsiilit! for preparing three of
the ookBs chapters# as the class reads graduall! through the novel.
#hapter/
'eam
0vents 'hemes 'he &oys2 reactions
18- Kal(h and 7iggy meet
on the island.
They swim in a (ool and
find a conch.
Kal(h blows the conch
to call the other boys.
)thers arrive. 7iggy
takes names.
Kal(h is elected leader.
Kal(h, Back and Simon
4lamour of life on
the island.
Leadershi(.
Boy of freedom.
4lamour of ex(loring the
island.
Griendshi(, shared
.,
Kead the following extract from 'he #oral 7sland in which Back and Kal(h come
across a family of slumbering (igs. Bot down the difference in attitude between Back
and Kal(h in 'he #oral 7sland and Back and Kal(h in ord o$ the Flies.
The ground at the foot of this tree was thickly strewn with the fallen fruit, in the midst of
which lay slee(ing, in every (ossible attitude, at least twenty hogs of all ages and si;es,
a((arently =uite surfeited with a recent ban=uet.
Back and 1 could scarce restrain our laughter as we ga;ed at these coarse, illClooking
animals while they lay groaning and snoring heavily amid the remains of their su((er.
HNow, Kal(h,9 said Back, in a low whis(er, H(ut a stone in your slingCa good big oneCand
let fly at that fat fellow with his back toward you. 19ll try to (ut an arrow into yon little (ig.9
H/on9t you think we had better (ut them u( first?9 1 whis(eredF Hit seems cruel to kill
them while aslee(.9
H1f 1 wanted s(ort, Kal(h, 1 would certainly set them u(F but as we only want (ork, we9ll
let them lie. +esides, we9re not sure of killing themF so, fire away.9 Thus admonished, 1
slung my stone with so good aim that it went bang against the hog9s flank as if against
the head of a drumF but it had no other effect than that of causing the animal to start to
its feet, with a frightful yell of sur(rise, and scam(er away. -t the same instant Back9s
bow twanged, and the arrow (inned the little (ig to the ground by the ear.
H19ve missed, after all,9 cried Back, darting forward with u(lifted axe, while the little (ig
uttered a loud s=ueal, tore the arrow from the ground, and ran away with it, along with
the whole drove, into the bushes and disa((eared, though we heard them screaming
long afterwards in the distance.
?5eturning to their encampmentB the two &oys do not $ind their companion %eterkin &ut
they soon hear 1a chorus o$ yells $rom the hogsB and a loud hurrah28@
We turned hastily towards the direction whence the sound came, and soon descried
7eterkin walking along the beach towards us with a little (ig transfixed on the end of his
long s(earI
HWell done, my boyI9 exclaimed Back, sla((ing him on the shoulder when he came u(F
Hyou9re the best shot amongst us.9
ex(lore the island.
They climb to the to( of
a mountain.
Back tries but fails to kill
a (ig.
What it means to
kill.
endeavours.
118+ -fternoon meeting.
- small boy s(eaks of a
snake beast.
They (ile u( wood for a
fire and light it with
7iggy9s glasses.
The forest is on fire.
Girst ideas on rules
for survival.
Gear ?littluns@.
>ontent ?biguns@.
Griendshi(, 5oy of
adventures.
1118> Back hunts.
The others build
shelters.
Kal(h and Back =uarrel.
Simon finds a secret
(lace in the forest.
Selfishness of
(eo(le,
indifference to
others9 desires.
Slight disillusionment.
Gear held in.
Grustration setting in.
1E8/ The life led by the
littluns.
Koger teases *enry at
the water9s edge.
Back (aints his face.
Kal(h sights a shi( but
their fire is out.
Back and hunters come
back with a (ig.
Back resents criticism,
attacks 7iggy, breaks
his glasses.
They roast and eat the
(ig.
>ivilisation and its
inhibitions.
Kelease in
anonymity behind
mask.
4lamour of hunt
vs. work and
res(onsibility.
Eiolence.
2lation of huntC
camaraderie.
Kal(h changes sides.
E8- Kal(h holds a meeting
to restate the rules of
the island.
The littluns talk of their
fear.
Simon suggests the
beast is within them.
The meeting breaks u(
: 7iggy and Kal(h and
Simon long for the lost
adult world.
Dualities for
leadershi(.
1rrationality and
(ower of fear.
Kules8 >haos and
hatred.
NewCfound
understanding ?K.@.
B. : aggression.
Wearisome life with
res(onsibilities.
E18+ There is a battle in the
sky above the island
during the night.
- (arachute comes
down and is caught on
the mountain to(.
Sam and 2ric make the
fire in the morning and
see what they think is a
beast.
The twins tell the others
Gear.
K. : tired of
res(onsibilities.
B. : aggression,
assertion of his
leadershi(.
Simon : inability to
communicate rational
views.
,2
about it.
The biguns go to search
for the beast.
Kal(h and Back search
the >astle Kock.
The boys roll a huge
stone into the sea.
+ravery8
>owardice.
4ames the boys
(lay.
E118> The boys set off to look
for the beast on the
mountain.
Kal(h daydreams of his
home life.
The boys hunt a boar,
Kal(h hits it with his
s(earF but it esca(es.
There is a mock hunt,
Kobert is (retend (ig.
The boys follow the (igC
run to the base of the
mountain.
Simon goes back alone
to tell 7iggy.
Kal(h and Back in
conflict : decide to go
u( the mountain in the
dark. )nly Koger 5oins
them.
Back goes first, sees the
beast. The three boys
go to look, see it and
flee.
Eiolence within
man9s heart.
+loodClust.
-ntagonism,
hatred.
K. : new
com(rehension.
Koger : adventurous.
B. : hatred, desire to
dominate, aggression.
E1118/ Back calls an assembly
to re(lace Kal(h as
leader. The others
refuse. *e goes off on
his own.
7iggy suggest a fire on
the beach.
The choir 5oins Back.
They hunt and kill a (ig.
Back leaves the head on
a stick for the beast.
Simon watches them.
*e hears the Lord of the
Glies talking to him.
Back and his hunters
raid the fire, invite the
others to their feast.
The reason for
things going
wrong.
The darkness
inside our hearts.
7. : relief at B.9s going.
B. and hunters : desire
fun, loss of inhibitions
behind (aint, Hfulfilment9
of killing.
S. : (erce(tion about
(eo(le.
1O8- Simon climbs the
mountain and sees the
dead (arachutist.
Kal(h and 7iggy go to
Back9s feast and eat.
7ower8 -uthority.
Eiolence.
S. : does rational thing
but cannot communicate
it.
,1
- storm breaks. The
boys dance in a mock
hunt.
Simon crawls in among
them and is mistaken for
the beast. *e is killed.
The (arachute is blown
into the sea.
Simon9s body is washed
out to sea.
The im(ortance of
a ritual.
>rowd violence,
mob (sychology.
+oys caught u( in violent
ritual.
O8+ The boys cannot admit
the events of the
(revious night : hide it
from themselves.
Back organises his band
at >astle Kock.
The hunters raid the
others9 cam( and steal
7iggy9s glasses.
4uilt. K. and 7. : guilt, bad
conscience.
B. : increasing violence.
O18> Kal(h, 7iggy and twins
go to >astle Kock to
recover 7iggy9s glasses.
Back orders twins
caught and bound.
Back and Kal(h fight.
Koger dislodges huge
rock. 7iggy is hit and
swe(t to the sea.
Kal(h flees (ursued by
s(ears.
>oncealing (aint
liberates into
savagery.
Rnderlying cruelty
outs H(laying the
game9.
B. : trium(hant
aggression, (ower.
K. : hunted, in terror.
O118/ Kal(h is outcast. *e
smashes skull of the
Lord of the Glies.
*e climbs u( to Sam
and 2ric on watch.
They tell him he is to be
hunted next day.
Kal(h hides in a thicket.
Back has rocks hurled
down, then sets forest
on fire.
Kal(h is (ursued
through undergrowth.
Kal(h runs out to the
beach.
Shi(9s officers a((ear to
rescue the boys.
>haos, cruelty,
disorder, violence
unleashed in boys.
HSavagery9.
The end of
innocence. The
darkness in man9s
heart.
K. : terror of the hunted.
B. : total (ower, cruelty.
Figure ': {p. 12+G112}
{111}Cha!ter II Fire on the mountain 3!ages 354515
,&
4he second chapter marks the appearance of cracks in the o!sB capacit! to organise
themselves for survival and to coGe%ist amical! amidst underl!ing fear of their new
environment. 4he safet! of their AoldB life is receding fast.
4here are numerous activities that work successfull! with most groups. At 1) pages#
the chapter is short enough for home reading with worksheets. Alternativel!# home
reading could e comined with highlights read in class ! the teacher or prerecorded
on cassette. Ence again# it would not e useful to e too prescriptive# as language
learning groups var! so widel!.
Summary comparison
4he class is asked to stud! the summaries of chapter "" in 7orksheet && and decide#
individuall! or in groups# which the! prefer# and wh!. "n this e%ercise# the summaries
are not meant to e authoritative; the! can e ascried to previous groups of students
if this helps learners feel freer to criticise. 4he Awh!B part can e done as class followG
up discussion or as individual written work to accompan! home reading. "n oth
cases# it is helpful for students to have in mind some criteria which would make one
Worksheet ++
{11&}summar! etter than another# that is# relevance of points rought out#
comprehensiveness# concision# st!le in which the summar! is written. :epending on
the level and nature of the class# a teacher could give these to help the learners see
wh! one summar! is preferale to another; or he or she could ask them to compare
two or more summaries and# in small groups# evolve a set of criteria for good
summar! writing# ased upon their comparison.
:iscussion aout wh! one summar! is preferale to the other can e followed ! the
group task of rewriting one to provide a more satisfactor! summar!# more complete#
without irrelevant details# etc.
4his activit! is useful in helping asic comprehension of the events and themes in
the chapter. "t also focuses attention on st!listic matters# and it aims to develop the
reading and writing skills which are traditionall! thought to e fostered ! prScis
,3
Kead the following summaries. /ecide which is (referable and say why.
Summary -
+asically cha(ter 11 deals with the (roblems the boys have when they try to organise
themselves for survival. There are doubts about the (ossibility of rescue and some
of the smaller boys are frightened by snakeClike beasts. The decision is made to light
a fire to aid rescue but the boys have no survival skills and the fire gets out of
control. /isagreements start to break out between 7iggy, Back and Kal(h.
Summary +
+asically cha(ter 11 concerns the making of rules. The older boys are looking forward
to the adventure of life on the island and are confident of rescue. )ne of the younger
boys is frightened of what he calls a Hbeastie9 but it is merely his fear feeding his
imagination. The boys light a fire very ha(ha;ardly. 7iggy is critical of the boys9 lack
of organisation and the first signs of discontent become a((arent.
work; the ailit! to identif! and e%tract ke! concepts in a length! prose passage#
distinguish etween essential points and illustrative or supportive material# and
finall!# e%press ideas concisel!. 4he activit! ma! therefore e appropriate to more
advanced levels. F%amples of summar! comparison focussing more particularl! on
comprehension $and therefore incorporating a ArightB or AwrongB view' which ma! e
more appropriate for intermediate learners# are given for chapter >" on p. 133.
Grids
7orksheet &3 can accompan! home reading or e done in groups in class. 4he aim is
to further develop studentsB understanding of the three central characters in the novel.
Ence again# if it is appropriate# the teacher can create a large grid for displa! on a
class wall# on which all characters are included as the! occur and personal traits added
as the! are revealed. 4his is useful vocaular! work as well as providing a hand!
visual checklist of characters for students to refer to as reading progresses.
5ules
A maJor theme in this and susequent chapters is that of rules; the imposing of order
upon chaos in nature# and in human nature. <ere are two wa!s of helping learners
deepen their insight into the issues raised;
5 Retrieving rules from the novel. /tudents in groups are given 7ork sheet &3.
(ompleted rules are pinned up so that the! can e compared and discussed.
5 A short simulation. 4his is est done as a smallGgroup activit! in class. "t can
precede the reading of chapter ""# to set the scene and make students aware of
the importance of this theme# or it can follow their {113} first home reading. "t
invarial! leads to a great deal of discussion.
Adapt the formula to suit particular groups.
7ith an older# or speciall! imaginative group# the activit! can e openGended. 4he
group is told the! are suddenl! stranded on an island# isolated {11*} from the rest of
the world; the! will proal! have to spend the rest of their lives together. 4his is
their first meeting to discuss asic rules# decide aout the social organisation the!
wish to adopt# elect leaders if the! wish# etc. $A followGup discussion on punishments
for reaking rules appears later# in the ne%t section on chapter """.'
7ith a less advanced or less adventurous group# it is proal! a good idea to give a
list of rules for life in a commune or other selfGenclosed s!stem# and ask students
either to select the three or four most important rules# or to order the complete list#
from the most to the least important. A time limit is set.
"n oth cases# once groups have decided on asic rules# results are compared and
discussed# and parallels drawn with the o!sB situation in the novel.
,3
Worksheet +, {113}
,*
1n cha(ter 11 of Lord of the Glies, we find out a lot more about three of the main
characters : 7iggy, Kal(h and Back. Study the list of words below. Rse your dictionary,
if necessary. Then, as you read cha(ter 11, (ick out short =uotes with (age references
which seem to you to illustrate the ty(es of behaviour listed. Write them into the
a((ro(riate boxes. Some boxes have been filled in to give you an exam(le. -dd other
ty(es of behaviour to the list if you can.
'ype o$ &ehaviour %iggy 5alph 3ack
. childish !All the same, you
need an army " #or
hunting$ %&'
!. mature,
thoughtful
!(acting like a
crowd o# kids$ %)*
". frightened
#. violent,
aggressive
$. caring,
reassuring like a
(arent
!(there arent any
grown+u%s We shall
ha,e to look a#ter
oursel,es$ %&-
%. good leadershi(
&.
'.
Worksheet +0 {113}
{11*}Simple language work
"t is entirel! in order to use the te%t of a novel to practise specific areas of language#
though in our e%perience this should e done riefl! so as to maintain the AmagicB of
the narrative and the readerBs immersion in its fantas!. 4he following e%amples are
taken from chapter "".
,)
#reposition work&
Gill in the blanks with one a((ro(riate word.
. We9re .................... an uninhabited island.
!. *e slammed his knife .................... a trunk.
". *e ga(ed .................... them for a moment.
#. Back snatched the glasses .................... his face.
$. There hasn9t been the trace .................... a shi(.
#hrasal .er!s&
Gill in the blanks with one a((ro(riate word.
. The shouting died .....................
!. *e sighed, bent and laced .................... his shoes.
". We shall have to look .................... ourselves.
#. *e cleared his throat and went .....................
$. 19ll s(lit .................... the choir : my hunters, that is : into grou(s.
As this particular activit! is fairl! mechanical# the teacher can adopt various tactics to
sustain interest;
5 /tudents form groups# set missing prepositions $using sentences from the
chapter' for other groups to complete.
5 /entences for completion are then used for a quiH 5 can groups identif! what
each sentence is referring to# and who is speakingI
{11)}Structural practice linked to student responseB predictionB etc8
/tudents can consolidate their control of grammatical forms ! completing sentences#
while at the same time making e%plicit their response to characters and situations in
the novel. 4he sentences which follow are more openGended than the ones in the
preceding e%ercise# and# although the structure is eing controlled# the learnerBs use of
language is more personal and creative.
>om(lete what these characters might say.
7iggy3 We won9t be rescued unless .......................................
Things won9t work on the island unless .......................................
Kal(h3 We won9t be rescued unless ........................................
Things won9t work on the island unless .......................................
Back3 1 don9t want to be rescued unless ........................................
We won9t have a good time unless ........................................
etter in a &ottle
Although we have chosen this activit! as a followGup to chapter ""# it could e inserted
almost an!where# and could e repeated later in the novel.
4he teacher writes one of the names; Pigg!# Ralph# /imon or ?ack on slips of paper so
that there is one for each memer of the class# and roughl! equal numers of slips for
each character. /tudents draw one each# at random. Fach learner then has to imagine
that the! are the character whose name the! have drawn; the! have rescued an empt!
corked ottle from the plane and have gone alone down to the each to write a letter
,+
Figure ''A {11+}
,.
Figure ''B {11.}
,,
Figure ''$ {11,}
122
{11)}home. "nventive groups will need rief instructions onl!. 8ore dependent groups
can e given more guidance# for e%ample;
Tell your (arents3 where you are.
how you feel.
what you want them to do.
what you miss most.
what you like most on the island.
etc.
4eachers can preGteach letter format and useful language if this is necessar!.
"f students do not reveal the identit! of AtheirB character# an amusing listening
activit! can follow; each learner reads their letter out loud# and the class tries to guess
the character who could have written it. 4his leads to good discussion on various
facets of personalit!.
6igure 11 shows a few e%amples of Aletters in a ottleB written ! students in a
lowerGadvanced class $first !ear after (amridge 6irst (ertificate'. 4he! are
uncorrected.
{1&2}Aou have the conch
Fach student is told to imagine that the! are on the island# with the o!s. 4he conch is
passed to them# and the! are allowed to sa! whatever the! like aout the present
situation on the island# and the est course of action to adopt.
4his can e done as an impromptu oral activit!# or as a speech delivered after some
preparation time.
6ral review
7e have emphasised how important it is# in reading a long te%t# to keep the whole
narrative in the mind of the reader so that he or she can go ackwards and forwards
easil! over the part read while maintaining an overall view. 4here are various wa!s of
doing this# ut here is one which is well suited to this part of the ook# that is# once
chapters " and "" have een read.
/tudents are given a list of words from the two chapters;
meeting
choir
chief
(ig
hunting
rules
beastie
fire
s(ecs
names
smoke
rescue
(lane
(ilot
count
conch
/tudents sit in small groups of four or five. "n turn# each selects one word from the list
and talks aout the part of the stor! to which his or her chosen word relates. 4he ne%t
person takes another word# and so on. 4he listening students can add comments or
other relevant details.
4his can e useful preparation for written work. "f repeated from time to time# it
also ensures that each student has a sense of responsiilit! to the group for home
reading.
A variation can e an oral review of characters. =earners talk aout particular
characters# using# in turn# the words from a given list as aove. 4he list is written on
the oard or a cop! is given to each student.
121
Cha!ter III 1uts on the (each 3!ages 524"25
"n chapter """# ?ack continues his hunt for meat# as !et unsuccessfull!# while Ralph
despairs of ever getting the other o!s organised enough to uild shelters. /imon is
helpful ut in an enigmatic wa!. <e wanders off into the forest to e ! himself in a
quiet clearing. 4his is a short chapter# well suited to home reading.
{1&1}#omplete the sentences
4his is a simple activit! which comines comprehension work and structure practice
$see 7orksheet &*'. "t can accompan! home reading.
Worksheet +1
Spot the speech
4his quiH can e used as a class followGup to home reading. "t can e written or oral.
/tudents identif! the speaker and what each quotation is aout# without referring ack
to the ook.
1. H*e9s =ueer. *e9s funny.9
&. H1 thought 1 might kill.9
3. HAou and your fire.9
3. HNever get it done.9
*. HAou9re chief. Aou tell Hem off.9
). -s if it wasn9t a good island.9
(issing poster
4his is a writing activit! of the kind outlined on p. )*# where an appropriate format is
illustrated. At this point in their reading of Lord of the Flies# students are asked to
write a AmissingB poster for /imon.
Film trailer
/tudents are told that the director of the film version of Lord of the Flies is compiling
some e%tracts of dialogue from the ook as part of a trailer to advertise the film. <e or
she has allotted 32 seconds of the trailer to this chapter. "n groups# students as film
directors and screenwriters have to {1&&} select what the! consider to e crucial
AsnippetsB of dialogue which can e put together in short sequences to total 32 seconds
of shooting time. Fach group of students selects# times# rehearses# and performs.
12&
Kead cha(ter 111 of Lord of the Glies, then com(lete the following sentences.
Back is a little frightened. This is shown when he ........................................
Simon is the sort of boy who ........................................
Kal(h grumbles because ........................................
Back is determined to ........................................
1n the clearing in the 5ungle, Simon seems ........................................
The littluns are unreliable and this is indicated by their ........................................
:ifferences etween group choices are discussed. "f a trailer for the entire ook is
produced at the end# the choices for chapter """ can then e reviewed and modified.
4his reGe%amination is an important aspect of the d!namics of overall response.
6or a group that needs a lot of support# the teacher might offer a range of dialogue
e%tracts from chapter """ and ask them to choose the most important and dramatic# to
make up the 32 seconds. 4he! might also assess which of the quotations are most
representative of the mood# setting# movement and events of the chapter.
<ere are some e%amples of dialogue e%tracts from chapter """;
A"f " could onl! get a pig.B $page )2'
A0ut !ou can feel as if !ouBre not hunting 5 ut eing hunted.B $page *+'
A4he! talk and scream. 4he littluns. Fven some of the others. As if . . . As if it wasnBt a good
island . . . A $page *)'
A" thought " might kill.B A0ut !ou didnBt.B A" thought " might.B $page **'
A4he est thing we can do is get ourselves rescued.B ARescueI 9es of courseK All the same# "Bd
like to catch a pig first.B $page *.'
A:onBt !ou want to e rescuedI All !ou can talk aout is pig# pig# pigKB A0ut we want meatKB
AAnd " work all da! with nothing ut /imon# and !ou come ack and donBt even notice the
hutsKB $page *,'
A<eBs uHHed off.B ADot fed up . . . and gone for a athe.B A<eBs queer. <eBs funn!.B $page *,'
Worksheet +3
{1&3}Families o$ words
7orksheet &) is a homework e%ercise for vocaular! enrichment# to follow reading of
chapter """.
Cha!ter I6 ,ainted 'aces and long hair 3!ages "34+25
7ithin the natural tempo of island life# the o!sB fortunes continue to fluctuate. 4he
small o!s are largel! asored in pla!# ut with underl!ing fear of their plight. ?ack
paints his face for more effective hunting. Ralph sees smoke on the horiHon ut ?ack
and his hunters have let their own smoke signal die out. Ralph is incensed and# as ?ack
returns triumphantl! with his first pig# a row reaks out in which ?ack picks on Pigg!
and reaks his glasses. A new ond is forged etween Pigg! and Ralph.
123
*ere are two lists of words from cha(ter 11 1 of ord o$ the Flies, which have some
features in common. >an you think of a word which would describe what all the
words in each list have in common? Write this word in the blank at the head of the
list.
MMMM.. MMMM
trotted surveyed
stole forward (eered
steal u( on ga;ed
(icked his way glanced
Now, here are some words which describe a family of words. Gor each word, write
words or ex(ressions that belong to this family.
Sounds 2motions 7lant life
4his is a long chapter ut has plent! of action and e%citement. Pages +1G& would
make good class reading; students can read silentl! or listen to the teacher or a
recording. 4he following activities offer a range of ideas for e%ploiting this material in
class and for homework.
3ungle poem
"n this activit!# students first reread pages )1G& from the end of chapter """# and an!
other parts of the ook read to date that focus on descriing G.he island itself. 4he! are
then asked to produce a AtankaB 5 a ?apanese form of poem comprising five lines with
31 s!llales# in the following sequence; five# seven# five# seven and seven. 4he! can
use an! words the! wish including those in the te%t. $-sing a format which stresses
s!llales rather than the traditional Fnglish forms# where internal stress and rh!thms
have to e taken into account# is usuall! easier for the foreign speaker.' 4he aim of the
poem produced should e to ring out one theme# such as movement# colour# mood#
or sound.
6or weaker groups# first uild up a resource ank of words. =earners skim through
the chapter and e%tract all words which refer to the theme chosen. 4hese words are
put up on the oard# then the class is asked to e%tend the ank ! adding all the words
and phrases the! can think of or find in their dictionar!.
<ere is an e%ample produced ! an upperGadvanced multilingual group;
;sland mo.ement
/urging sea elow $five s!llales'
Pigs crashing through dr! ushes $seven s!llales'
Palms# wind shimmering $five s!llales'
/hoot light in m!riad shafts $seven s!llales'
4he eastBs ear is flickering. $seven s!llales'
{1&3}Another enJo!ale form is the acrostic. <ere# learners are asked to produce
poems aout the main characters in the ook# so that the first letter of each line# read
verticall!# spells his name. <ere are two e%amples;
Strange# quiet o!
In tune with the island
Makes his wa! to the Jungle heart
Opens his eing to the eastBs voice
Never to escape its force.
Poor# fat# wise man
In ph!sical awkwardness
Gets ridicule from his peers
Gains none of the friendship he craves
6et deserves the ear of all.
*o!it!yoursel$ grid
123
4his activit! helps reading comprehension and vocaular! enrichment. /tudents often
enefit from e%ercises which the! have devised themselves. <ere are instructions to
help students produce a simple grid of the kind the! have alread! used in preceding
chapters;
(ake up a grid like the ones we have used in cha(ter 1 ?or invent a new kind@ for
someone else in the class to com(lete. The aim is to bring out some of the
differences we see in cha(ter 1E between +iguns and Littluns.
%unishment
"n this chapter the fire is allowed to go out# and the o!s are not rescued. 4his raises
the issue of the sorts of punishment that would e needed to follow violation of rules.
4his activit! is a natural followGup to ARulesB in chapter "" $7orksheet &3'.
=earners are asked to complete a questionnaire $7orksheet &+'# imagining
themselves to e stranded on the island# in their own identit!.
Group 13ust a minute2
4his activit! can e used as revision work in class. 4hose teachers who have pla!ed
A?ust a minuteB with their language classes will have discovered that it is reall! a
daunting task to talk without hesitation# deviation# or repetition for even 1* seconds in
a foreign language. 4his variation merel! makes it a team game which incorporates
revision of the stor! so far.
4he class is divided into teams of four or five. Fach student talks aout the stor! so
far for a ma%imum of 1* seconds# at which point the teacher {1&)} claps his or her
hands and counts to three. 4he ne%t person in that team must take over at this point#
and so on# until a minute has elapsed. 4he team then gains four points. "f one memer
of the team stops efore 1* seconds then the other team takes over. Repetition is not
counted as a reason for losing the suJect# nor is hesitation up to a ma%imum of three
seconds. :eviation from the suJect# however# is# and if another team spots it# the!
can claim the suJect# with the refereeBs approval.
4he teacher can change the suJect whenever necessar! from sa! Astor!B to
AcharacterB# Athe islandB# Athe fireB# Athe eastieB# AlittlunsB# etc.
4he activit! makes an e%cellent revision session for 12G1* minutes and works est
when the rules and rh!thm of this game are well estalished.
Snow&all wall chart
As the numer of named o!s increases# it is worthwhile making a wall chart of a line
of o!s from smaller to igger# each outline having a name aove it and a rief
description inside it. 4his simple representation helps to make more concrete the
growing numer of details which ecome difficult for memories to hold.
Alternativel!# the wall chart could e a sociogram; each o! is represented ! a
circle and circles are put in groups according to friendship patterns. 4he qualit! of
relationships could e signalled ! linking circles with different t!pes of line# for
e%ample;
=page ':0>
12*
12)
1magine that you are stranded with the grou( of boys on the island of Lord of the
Glies. Gor each broken rule in the leftChand column, choose one of the
(unishments listed in the rightChand column or suggest your own.
"roken rule Suggested punishment 9tick one=
. Not attending meetings. a@ No (unishment. L
b@ 2xtra work. L
c@ Less food. L
d@ )ther ?name your (referred L
(unishment MMMMMMMM
!. Letting fire go out a@ No (unishment. L
b@ 2xtra work. L
c@ Looking after fire for a month. L
d@ )ther3 MMMMMMMMMMM L
". -ttacking another boy with a@ No (unishment. L
intention to harm b@ 2xtra work. L
c@ 1m(risonment. L
d@ )ther3 MMMMMMMMMMM L
#. *iding food a@ No (unishment. L
b@ Less food L
c@ 2xtra work. L
d@ )ther3 MMMMMMMMMMM L
$. Not using (ro(er lavatory s(ot. a@ No (unishment. L
b@ 2xtra cleaning duty. L
c@ S(anking. L
d@ )ther3 MMMMMMMMMMM L
%. 1nterru(ting at meetings or a@ No (unishment. L
s(eaking when you haven9t got b@ 7ublic a(ology. L
the conch. c@ 2xtra work. L
d@ )ther3 MMMMMMMMMMM L
&. Not doing (ro(er share of work a@ No (unishment. L
: building shelters, etc. b@ 2xtra duties. L
c@ 7ublic re(rimand. L
d@ )ther3 MMMMMMMMMMM L
Worksheet +4 {1&*}
{p. 1&) continued}
*iary
A diar! is a creative writing activit! that can e used s!stematicall! as reading
progresses# thus serving as a sort of revision summar!. :ifferent students are asked to
write diaries for different characters# or allowed to choose their favourite. 6rom time
to time# learners read current sections of their diar! out loud; this rings out different
assumptions aout what each character would wish to write and different views of
their personalities.
{1&+}(oviemaker
"n this chapter# there is a heated confrontation etween Ralph# ?ack and Pigg!. 4he
class is divided into three groups. Fach one is to e a miniGproduction unit# with
instructions from an overall director aout how he or she wants the confrontation
scene to e shot. 4his is most easil! e%plained ! the use of role cards# as illustrated
elow. 4he groups egin ! reading or rereading pages +*G.2.
12+
5ole card Group A
The director insists that this scene is rewritten a little so that the argument is
more heated than in the book.
Stage ;C -s a grou(, decide on (ossible changes.
Stage >C Kewrite the dialogue.
Stage ?C -((oint actors and rehearse the rewritten scene. Kemember it is a
scene highly charged with emotionI
{1&.}After discussion and rehearsal time# each group performs its scene for the
director $the teacher'. 4he other groups watch and tr! to guess what sort of changes
the director wanted from the original te%t. After all the groups have performed# there
is a discussion on how this scene might e depicted in a film. 7ould it e pla!ed as it
is in the ookI /hortenedI 7hich of the changed scenes did the class preferI 7hat
modifications could the! suggestI
Cha!ter 6 7east 'rom water 3!ages -341/35
Almost the whole of this chapter is taken up with the asseml! called ! Ralph after
the killing and eating of the pig. <is purpose is twoGfold; first# he wants to reassert the
rules of the island and their importance; then# he wants the o!s to talk aout their
fears and thus ring them out into the open and defuse them. 0ut the asseml! ends
chaoticall! and Ralph# /imon and Pigg! are left lamenting the orderl! adultG
dominated lives the! had efore coming to the island.
Although fairl! long# the chapter contains a lot of speech and is not undul! difficult
to read. =earners could e asked to read it at home without worr!ing too much aout
an! words or phrases that are not full! understood.
'he language o$ persuasion
4his class activit! can follow home reading. "ts aim is to stud! wa!s in which the
spoken language can e used for persuasion.
Ralph has carefull! thought out what he wants to sa! in the asseml! he calls# and
how he intends to sa! it; Athe speech was planned# point ! pointB. After drawing
studentsB attention to this aspect# the teacher asks them to think aout the means
which the novelist shows Ralph using in order to persuade his audience. En three
different sections of the oard# he or she writes three techniques used ! Ralph.
12.
5ole card Group #
The director insists that this scene is changed a little so that 7iggy and Kal(h are
more aggressive towards Back and so that Back is more a(ologetic than in the book.
Stage ;C /ecide on (ossible additions8deletions.
Stage >C -s a grou(, modify the dialogue to accommodate the re=uired
changes.
Stage ?C -((oint actors and rehearse the rewritten scene. Kemember to make
Back less threatening and 7iggy and Kal(h more aggressive.
5ole card Group "
The director insists that this scene is rewritten a little so that the argument is
less heated than in the book.
Stage ;C -s a grou(, decide on (ossible changes.
Stage >C Kewrite the dialogue.
Stage ?C -((oint actors and rehearse the rewritten scene. Kemember to
reduce the level of emotion in this sceneI
/tudents# in groups# find as man! e%amples as the! can in RalphBs speech and write
them up eside each heading# for e%ample;
Using shortB simple sentencesC
HThen there9s huts. Shelters.9
HWe need an assembly. Not for fun.9
HWe decide things. +ut they don9t get done.9
5epeating key wordsC
HThat9s dirty. 1 said that9s dirty.9
HWe need an assembly. -n assembly to (ut things straight.9
HWe were going to have water . . . Now there9s no water.9
{1&,}5hetorical /uestions3 ?=uestions used for effect, rather than to get an answer@
Who built the shelters?9
Who built all three?9
1s a fire too much for us to make?9
4he class is asked to add other headings if the! can# and then to e%amine ?ackBs and
Pigg!Bs speeches in a similar wa!. :iscussion of the effectiveness of each speakerBs
persuasive methods can e followed ! a class vote; 7hich of the three is most
persuasiveI 7hich one gets the greatest audience responseI 4he teacher can also ask
students to vote on whether the! consider these rhetorical devices to e within the
charactersB age group# or whether the! are imported from a more adult perspective.
(inutes o$ the meeting
4his writing activit! practises writing in an AofficialB# impersonal register and
transforming direct into reported speech.
"n meetings# one person is usuall! responsile for keeping minutes; an official
record of what has een said. /tudents imagine that the! have een appointed to write
up the minutes of this chapterBs asseml!. "f necessar!# the teacher supplies a format
and e%amples of the kind of reporting that is required.
4he class is divided into three groups# the activit! discussed and prepared# then the
writing is done either as a group activit! or as individual homework. Droup ABs task
is to write minutes of RalphBs part of the meeting# from the start of the asseml! up to
AAnd e happ!B $page ,2'. Droup 0Bs task is to write minutes of ?ackBs part# from A/o
this is a meeting to find out whatBs whatB $page ,2' to A . . . ut there is no east in the
forestB $page ,1'. Droup (Bs task is to write minutes of Pigg!Bs talk and the littlunsB
up to the end of the asseml!.
As followGup after the writing has een done# or in the ne%t lesson if it has een set
as homework# teams are formed consisting of three students# one from each of the
groups. Fach team produces a complete set of minutes ! collating the three separate
accounts. 4he resulting minutes are displa!ed for the class to see and compare.
#on$lict scale / continuum
4he conflict etween ?ack and Ralph which egins to intensif! in these chapters will
eventuall! trigger off a series of tragic events. 4he following class activit! helps
students to have a greater awareness of what the attitude of each o! implies# and to
e%plore their own reaction to these attitudes.
12,
4he class is divided into two. 7orking in pairs or groups of three# the! fill in
7orksheet &.; half of the class fills it in from RalphBs point of view# {132} half from
?ackBs. /ome of the information the! need comes from the ook# and some from the
wa! the! imagine the characters.
Worksheet +5
7hen groups have finished# a group that has filled in RalphBs attitudes meets with
one that has done ?ackBs. 4he! compare and discuss choices. Fach group in turn then
asks the rest of the class to indicate their own feelings aout these attitudes# as
follows.
A representative from the ARalphB team goes to a corner of the room and sa!s;
ARalph sa!s the wa! to e happ! on the island is to oe! rulesB. A representative from
the A?ackB team goes to the opposite corner and sa!s; A?ack sa!s the wa! to e happ!
on the island is to hunt and have funB. Fver!one in the class takes up a position
against the wall etween these two corners# to show how close or how far the! feel
themselves to e from the two conflicting attitudes.
#hess&oard
"n this chapter there are growing indications that the id!llic island has its darker
aspects as well as its glamorous side. /ome of the o!sB e%periences seem to contain
oth good and ad elements. 4he following classroom activit! is designed to sharpen
studentsB awareness of those amiguities.
4he teacher prepares a large wall chart in the form of a chessoard# with light and
dark squares. <e or she tells students that the light squares represent positive aspects
of life on the island# and the dark squares represent negative aspects. 4o set the scene#
the class is asked as a whole to {131} think aout where the! would place the topic
AhuntingB on the chessoard# and wh!. "s hunting a positive aspect of life on the
islandI $"t is e%citing# creates a ond etween the hunters# and provides the o!s with
meat.' Er is it negativeI $"t diverts attention from more important duties# like uilding
shelters or tending the fire# it means that the chance of rescue is missed# it seems to
turn the hunters into violent people.'
4he class is divided into four groups# each to work with one quarter of the
chessoard. 4he groups are given a set of eight topics relating to this chapter# for
e%ample;
112
Think about Kal(h and Back9s attitudes to the island. .ake notes about how each
boy would answer =uestions on the following.
4ood things about the island.........................................
+ad things about the island.........................................
The most im(ortant thing to do on the island.........................................
The most im(ortant =uality in a leader.........................................
The most im(ortant =uality in a friend ......................................
The way to survive.........................................
The way to be ha((y.........................................
- (roverb that sums u( a good attitude to life........................................
- motto.........................................
-n emblem ?(lant, flower@..........................................
-n emblem ?animal@.........................................
)beying rules.
Sharing work.
+eing scru(ulous about cleanliness.
7lanning things carefully.
*aving assemblies.
2x(ressing fears o(enly.
Looking after the younger boys.
Tending the fire.
4he groupBs task is to decide whether each of these is a good or a ad thing and to
find a quote from the chapter which supports their opinion. 4he! then write the topic
on a slip of paper# together with the supporting quote and page numer# and pin it on
to a light or a dark square in their sector of the chessoard. "f the! consider an! topic
to have oth positive and negative aspects# the! are allowed to pin it on oth squares#
with different supporting quotes.
7hen all four parts of the chart have een filled in# livel! discussion often results
from the fact that topics have een placed on opposite squares ! different groups.
6igure 1& shows a quarter of a chessoard# with some of the squares filled in. A grid
of this kind# with light and dark squares# can also e given for students to fill in as
the! read a section at home# with comparison and discussion in the ne%t class lesson.
{13&}
Figure '+
Cha!ter 6I 7east 'rom air 3!ages 1/441-5
111
At the eginning of chapter >"# RalphBs longing for a sign from the adult world
receives an ironic repl!. :uring the night# there is an aerial attle aove the island and
a parachute floats down to the mountain top. 7hen the twins awaken# the! are
horrified ! the sight of the illowing material# which the! take to e the longGdreaded
AeastB. 4he! run down the mountain to tell the others. After some delieration# Ralph
leads a part! of the igger o!s in search of the east. <aving e%plored (astle Rock in
{133} vain# with ?ack# Ralph decides the! must continue their search on the mountain.
4his chapter divides naturall! into three sections;
5 4he aerial attle and the twinsB discover! $pages 123G+'.
5 4he asseml! $pages 12.G1&'.
5 4he search part! at (astle Rock $pages 113G1,'.
4he first of these is especiall! well suited to home reading# and we egin with a
choice of worksheets to help students cope on their own.
7orksheet &, involves a rather elementar! kind of right or wrong choice# designed
to help weaker students with asic comprehension of the passage. 7orksheet 32# for
use with the same passage# could accompan! home reading# or e the asis of a group
activit! in class following silent reading of the first three pages.
Worksheet +8
{133}
11&
Kead (ages 0#C& of ord o$ the Flies. There are three summaries of these (ages.
>hoose the one you think most a((ro(riate.
. While the boys were aslee( that night, there was a battle between aero(lanes
high above the island. - (arachute carrying a dead airman came down and
became caught in the trees on the mountain to(. The twins, when they woke
u(, saw the moving (arachute in the forest and, terrified, ran down to tell the
others.
!. The boys were restless and frightened but they looked at the stars twinkling
above them and this made them calm again so that they could fall aslee(.
While they were slee(ing there was a great storm above the island with
flashing lightning and loud thunder. This was a sign that things would not go
well for the boys on the island.
". The boys were slee(ing, so that they did not see a man on a (arachute who
was coming to rescue them. The (arachute was blown over the lagoon and
out to sea. Sam and 2ric were aslee( too, although they should have been
on watch. When they woke u(, they tried to make a fire but couldn9t. They
thought Kal(h would be angry with them so they ran and told the others they
had seen a Hbeast9.
Worksheet ,:
Answer to Worksheet ,:
4he o!s were restless and frightened ecause the! had talked a lot aout easts. 6inall! the!
fell asleep. 7hile the! were sleeping the! did not see a parachute coming down. 0eneath the
parachute there was a limp figure. 4he parachute ecame tangled in the trees on the mountain
top. /am and Fric had fallen asleep though the! should have een on watch. 7hen the! woke
up the! hastil! looked {13*} for wood ecause the fire had gone out during the night. 4he!
feared Ralph would e angr! with them. /uddenl! the! saw something white and horrile
moving in the Jungle. 4he! were terrified ut the! managed to run down the mountain and tell
the others the! had seen a terrile monster.
A word puDDle
7orksheet 31A shows an easil! constructed word puHHle# of the kind !ounger
students usuall! enJo!# to accompan! home reading of chapter >". 4he aim is to help
learners uild vocaular! and move from passive to active master! of slightl! unusual
words.
113
Within this (aragra(h, there is an accurate summary of (ages 0#C& of ord o$ the
Flies. *owever, most sentences contain information that is not correct3 that is, it
does not corres(ond to what the reader is told in these (ages. Girst, strike out the
incorrect information. Then, use the remaining correct (arts to build an accurate
summary. Aou will have to make changes to the (unctuation and ca(ital letters. The
first sentences have been done for you.
The boys were restless and frightened because they had found snakes in their shelters. They
had talked a lot about beasts and this reassured them so that finally they fell aslee(. Then
they looked at the stars twinkling above them but while they were slee(ing they did not see
the storm with an aerial battle high above the island. The lightning and thunder were so loud
they could not hear a (arachute coming down carrying a message in a bottle from the (ilot
who wanted to rescue them in the middle of the night. +eneath the (arachute there was a
basket with food and drink for a lim( figure which blew far out to sea where it became a mere
s(eck on the hori;on. While the twins were (laying a game on the shore, the (arachute
became tangled in the trees that the boys had (lanted to give shade on the mountain to(.
There was a terrific (o((ing noise which was a sign from the world of grownCu(s. Sam and
2ric were determined to find a (ig that had fallen aslee(, though they should have told Back
about it because he had been on watch. When they woke u( later on, they climbed the
mountain and hastily looked for wood because there was the fire bla;ing merrily and they
wanted to see if 7iggy had gone out of the shelter during the night to search for the beast.
They feared Kal(h would be angry with them. Suddenly they saw Back cree(ing through the
bushes with something white and horrible moving behind him and following him in the 5ungle.
They were so terrified they didn9t notice that fire was s(reading amongst the trees but they
managed to run down the mountain and into the sea where they felt safe. Kal(h saw them
but didn9t tell the others because he knew they had seen a terrible monster, as well as (lanes
fighting in the sky.
Worksheet ,' A
{13)}
Worksheet ,' B
113
When you have found the ten words, look u( the sentences in which they occur in
this cha(ter. Grom the context, or using a dictionary if necessary, make sure you
understand the meaning of each word. Now choose one of these words to fill the
blanks in these ten sentences.
. The young lad sat on the wall, his legs ......................... over the edge.
!. H+e careful as you climb down that cliff,9 said the team leader. HWe don9t want
any of you breaking a .......................... .9
". When 1 received another useless advertisement through the (ost, 1
5ust ......................... it u( and flung it into the waste(a(er bin.
#. The golden eagle was flying so high above their heads that it was only
a ......................... in the sky.
$. The assistant at the cheese counter cut a thin ......................... of >heddar so
that 1 could taste it.
%. The young man (aced u( and down ......................... in the hos(ital corridor
as he waited for his child to be born.
&. The table was on such a ......................... that the (encils ke(t rolling off.
'. H)h dear,9 said my father, H1 don9t think 1 can hang the washing out after all. 1t
looks like rain. There9s only a tiny ......................... of blue sky in between
those big dark clouds.9
6. -s he came in the door, there was a ......................... of corks and everyone
shouted HSur(riseI *a((y +irthdayI9
0. The lights on the aircraft wings ......................... as the great 5et came gently
down to the airfield.
Answers to Worksheets ,'A and ,'B
{13+}"t is hoped that working with the ten words within the conte%t of the novel# then
in individualised sentences# will reinforce studentsB ailit! to use them in different
conte%ts. As followGup# the! can e asked to use each word in a sentence of their own.
An amusing variation on this wellGknown language activit! consists of asking
students# in pairs# to use all ten words# or as man! as the! can# in one single sentence.
Ffforts are read out# and the class awards marks for the following;
5 Accurate use of the words.
5 Amusing use of the words.
5 "maginative or inventive use of the words.
6or variet!# learners can e given definitions with which the! must match the ten
words the! have found in the puHHle. "t is usuall! more interesting to give out more
than ten definitions# especiall! if the activit! is eing done in groups during class
time.
'he meaning o$ signs
/tudents fill out 7orksheet 3&# then compare their answer with their neighourBs.
Fach pair then tries# through discussion# to find a common interpretation. 4he! then
compare their results with another pairBs# and so on.
{13.}
11*
Worksheet ,+
Cha!ter 6II .hadows and tall trees 3!ages 12/43"5
4he o!sB search for the east is first dela!ed while the! tr! unsuccessfull! to hunt#
then ! a hunting dance with one of them acting the part of the pig. 6inall!# as
darkness sets in# ?ack taunts and dares Ralph to go up the mountain# and the two of
them clim up with Roger. 4here# the! catch a dim glimpse of the tangled# flapping
parachute and when the wind stirs it# the! flee in panic# convinced that the east is in
pursuit.
A short chapter# with clearl! marked events leading up to a suspenseful {13,}
clima%# this is suitale for home reading. /tudents can e encouraged to read it for the
stor!# without worr!ing too much if the! do not completel! understand ever!thing in
the two or three descriptive passages which contain a greater densit! of unfamiliar
words. 4he narrative thread should carr! them along.
#hoosing and ordering
7orksheet 33 can accompan! home reading of the entire chapter.
11)
-t the end of cha(ter E of ord o$ the Flies, 7iggy and Kal(h long for the world they
have known, where adults make decisions and ensure a wellCordered life. H1f only
they ?the grownCu(s@ could get a message to us,9 cried Kal(h des(erately. H1f only
they could send us something grownCu( . . . a sign or something.9
The beginning of cha(ter E1 brings a certain answer to Kal(h9s wish. Which of the
following four inter(retations best ex(resses that answer, do you think? 1f none =uite
does so, in your o(inion, then write your own inter(retation against number $. Then
com(are your answer with your neighbour9s.
. The boys wanted some sign from the world of adults. They got that sign but
did not see it because they were aslee(. This means that you must be
extremely watchful all the time to sei;e o((ortunities as they ha((en.
!. The sign from the world of adults was a battle in the sky. The sign means that
the orderly adult world that the boys remember exists only in their
imagination. Keality is different. Keality is =uarrels among the boys and war
among the adults.
". The sign that the boys wanted a((eared in the form of a dead soldier. The
significance of this sign is that (eo(le must fend for themselves. 1t is not any
good ex(ecting others to rescue you from the mess you have got yourself
into.
#. The boys wanted a sign from the world of adults to reassure them that they
were not alone in the world. The fact that there was a battle above the island
does show that other (eo(le were =uite near and that they could ho(e to be
rescued after all.
*. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
Worksheet ,,
Sculpting
4his activit! is descried and illustrated in (hapter ) $see p. .1' as an AendingB
activit!# ut it can also e used in the middle of the novel. "n this chapter# there is a
sutle ut definite shift in the relationships etween {132} several of the characters.
Rivalr! and tension increase etween ?ack and Ralph# there is new understanding and
a growing ond etween Ralph and /imon# and Roger emerges as a character in his
own right. 4his makes it a particularl! appropriate point for sculpting.
%lausi&le chains
=earners are paired or put into small groups. 4hen the! are told to think aout what
would ha.e happened if the crucial decision to go up the mountain had not !een
made. 4he! are to write as man! sentences as the! can# having een given a few
e%amples# such as;
5 "f the o!s had waited until da!light# the! would ha.e seen that the east was
reall! a dead man hanging from a parachute.
5 "f ?ack had not taunted Ralph aout his cowardice# Ralph would ha.e
suggested postponing the clim.
5 "f /imon had gone up with the others# he would ha.e had the courage to
e%amine the east more closel!.
7hen the groups have written as man! as the! can# all the AifB sentences are pooled
$written on the oard or overhead proJector; or t!ped and duplicated for later
distriution'. 4he groups are then asked to choose among the sentences the one which
est e%presses;
5 4he most important factor which determined the decision to go up the
mountain in the dark.
5 4he most important consequence of that decision.
11+
*ere is a list of twelve events. 'en of these ha((en in cha(ter E11. >hoose the right
ten and (ut them in the right order so that they tell the story as it ha((ens.
a@ Back goes on by himself to look for the beast but comes back terrified.
b@ The (arachute comes down to the island and is caught in the foliage on the
mountain.
c@ The three boys see the beast and run away in terror.
d@ Simon goes off by himself through the forest to tell 7iggy that the boys are
climbing the mountain.
e@ - boar comes crashing through the forest. The boys try to kill it, and Kal(h
hits it with his s(ear.
f@ The boys have a mock hunt, (retending that Kobert is the (ig3 they
dance around him and 5ab him with their s(ears.
g@ The boys set off to look for the beast on the mountain.
h@ The boys roll an immense boulder off >astle Kock into the sea.
i@ Kal(h daydreams of his home as he walks along.
5@ Kal(h leads the other two to have a look at the beast.
k@ Koger is the only one who volunteers to climb the mountain in the dark with
Kal(h and Back.
l@ The boys follow a (igCrun to the base of the mountain.
Ene sentence ma! e chosen for oth# or two different ones for each part. 1ew
sentences are often added to the list at this pointK
4his is quite a simple activit!# ut the ensuing general feedack and comparison of
sentences chosen often generate fairl! wideGranging discussion of a numer of issues.
En one level# learners are made to think aout the comple% causes motivating an!
decision# and to assess whether it was a good decision or not. En a more literar! level#
in some advanced classes it has led $with some prompting from the teacherK' to talk
aout the plausiilit! of a particular chain of events# and aout whether the steps
which eventuall! ring aout a tragic clima% are accidental or unavoidale.
7 know what you saidB &ut what do you mean-
4he aim of this activit! is to sensitise students to the underl!ing meanings of spoken
phrases 5 often a thorn! area for foreign learners# and even for native speakersK
/tudents are asked to consider utterances made ! the o!s in this chapter and decide
on each speakerBs intended meaning. 7e have worked out three variations of this
activit!# to suit different levels of students or different teaching situations.
{131}>AR"A4"E1 1
4his is proal! more suited to advanced classes. /tudents are divided into two
groups# and each given the task of finding in the chapter phrases that are spoken !
one of the o!s# where the students feel that the underl!ing meaning or intention
differs from the surface words. 7hen this is done# each group takes turns reading out
one utterance to the other group $having previousl! checked pronunciation and
intonation with the teacher# if necessar!'# asking them to provide an interpretation.
4here ma! e cases where one ArightB interpretation seems evident# and others where
different interpretations can e defended. Ene interesting wa! of carr!ing out this
activit! is for the teacher to keep a record# perhaps on the oard# of the numer of
times the whole class could agree on one single meaning# as opposed to the numer of
times there was disagreement. 4his can provide a graphic demonstration of the
essential amiguit! of speech# and# of course# of the sutlet! of the novelistBs
depiction of it.
>AR"A4"E1 &
4his is easier. =earners are given quotations# and choose the est interpretation from
three possile ones listed. 4his can e done individuall! or in pairs. 7orksheet 33
illustrates this.
> AR"A4"E1 3
4his is a listening task. 7henever possile# the activit! should include an aural
component# ecause it attempts to heighten learnersB awareness of the spoken
language. 4he teacher could use a recording of the novel; either a commercial
recording or one he or she has created ! reading the appropriate passage on to a
cassette. 4he students listen to the e%tract# then work with a multipleGchoice series of
questions# like the ones in {133} 7orksheet 33. "t is etter for the whole passage to e
listened to# rather than Just the isolated quotations reproduced on the worksheet. 4he
AmeaningB or intentional aspect can then e understood not onl! through intonation
and tone# ut through the whole situation.
11.
{131}*ere are ten (hrases s(oken by the boys in cha(ter E11 of ord o$ the Flies.
Gind the (lace in the novel where each is s(oken ?the first one is on (age !&, the
others follow@ then decide which of the three (ossible meanings is closest to what the
boy wanted to say or to im(ly in each case.
1. Kal(h3 HWell. We shan9t find what we9re looking for at this rate.9
L Let9s go on and find the beast.
L We9d better give u( this foolish search.
L 19ve given u( ho(e of finding the beast.
&. {13&} HShouldn9t we go back to 7iggy,9 said .aurice, Hbefore dark?9
L 1 really care a lot about 7iggy.
L 1 think we shouldn9t be out after dark.
L 19m afraid to look for the beast in the dark.
3. The twins3 HAes, that9s right. Let9s go u( there in the morning.9
L We feel morning is the (ro(er time for a search.
L We es(ecially like climbing the mountain in the morning.
L We want to delay the (ossibility of meeting the beast for as long as
(ossible.
3. Kal(h3 HWe9ve got to start the fire again.9
L We must climb the mountain now.
L 19m reasserting my leadershi( and insisting on the most im(ortant
thing.
L - shi( might (ass by any moment now.
*. Back3 HAou haven9t got 7iggy9s s(ecs, so you can9t.9
L 19m o((osing your claim to leadershi(.
L Aou never get things right.
L The fire isn9t im(ortant anyway.
). Kal(h3 H1f we went back we should take hours.9
L 1t9s a long way to the shelters.
L 2veryone walks so slowly. Aou should all hurry u(.
L 1 don9t want to go back. 1 intend to continue the search.
+. Back3 HWe mustn9t let anything ha((en to 7iggy, must we?9
L We des(erately need 7iggy9s brains.
L 1 hate 7iggy and 1 hate you for (rotecting him.
11,
L 7iggy is so im(ortant to our survival that we must look after him
carefully.
.. +ill3 HThrough the forest by himself? Now?9
L 19m sorry, 1 didn9t =uite hear what you said?
L 1 don9t intend to walk through the forest in the dark by myselfI
L 1 want to go back to the shelters.
,. Back3 HWould you rather go back to the shelters and tell 7iggy?9
L 7lease go back and tell 7iggy.
L Aou9re a coward and you9ll run away rather than face danger.
L 19d like you to do whatever you think is best.
12. Back3 H1f you9re frightened, of course.9
L 1 dare you to come.
L Would you come with me, (lease?
L Tell me whether you9re frightened or not.
7orksheet 33
{133}School reports
"n their ordinar! school life efore the! came to the island# the o!s would receive
reports ever! term# in which their schoolteachers assessed their {133} academic
progress as well as their character and their ailit! to function in the schoolBs social
setting.
/tudents are asked to imagine that the! are a teacher who has to write a progress
report on the o!sB ehaviour on the island so far. 4he! are given an e%ample of an
Fnglish schoolo!Bs report $see 6igure 13'. 6irst# the! should suggest appropriate
headings for the island situation# then write rief notes under each of the headings for
one of the main characters $see 7orksheet 3*'. 4he! are to give some idea of how
each o! is managing on the island so far.
4his can e done individuall!# ut it is proal! more enJo!ale when {13*} done as
group work# with each group eing allocated one character to write aout. 4he reports
for each o! are then displa!ed for the whole class to read. 6igure 13 shows some
e%amples of general comments written ! a student on ?ack and Ralph.
"n classes which enJo! improvisations# the reports can lead to the followGup activit!
on p. 13).
1&2
Figure ',
0
{133}
3
Eur thanks to Patrick 8artin for allowing us to use this report.
1&1
Worksheet ,1 {133}
1&&
Figure '0 {13*}
{13)}7nterview with the school counsellor
En the asis of the teacherBs report# one of the o!s $?ack# Pigg!# /imon# or Ralph' is
asked to go and see the school counsellor. RoleGpla! cards are made up for the
counsellor# according to the reports written in the previous activit!. 7orking in pairs#
students create the interview# one taking the role of the counsellor# with help from his
card# the other taking the role of the o!# and drawing on his knowledge of the
character# gained from his reading of the novel so far.
1&3
4he e%ample shows a roleGpla! card for the counsellor who has een asked to see
/imon.
Cha!ter 6III *i't 'or the dar0ness 3!ages 13#45-5
4he rivalr! etween ?ack and Ralph comes to a head as ?ack tries to replace Ralph as
leader. 7hen the o!s do not vote for him# he stalks off ! himself# ut is soon Joined
once again ! his choir. 4ogether the! hunt and kill a pig and leave its head stuck on a
stick as a sacrifice to the AeastB. -nknown to them# the scene has een watched !
/imon# who has a AvisionB in which the A=ord of the 6liesB speaks to him. 4he hunters
later raid the other camp to get fire# and the! invite ever!one to their feast.
A long and in man! wa!s comple% chapter# ut ver! important to the unfolding of the
novel. "t ma! e a good idea to plan one or two listening {13+} passages# and ensure
sufficient time for appreciation of the s!molic power of the A=ord of the 6liesB.
5eaction words
7orksheet 3) accompanies home or silent class reading of the eginning of the
chapter. "ts aim is to improve studentsB vocaular! and especiall! their awareness of
the emotional dimension of words descriing human reactions.
1&3
5ole cardC 7nstructions $or school counsellor
Aou have been asked to see SI.O/ on his last school re(ort, his teacher
has written3
A dreamy boy who a%%ears to be ,ery re#lecti,e but has di##iculty
communicating with the others 0e#initely a !loner$ He sometimes
seems 1uite disturbed
Try to find out more about Simon. Try to find out3
: *ow he feels about the leaders of his grou(, Back and Kal(h.
: *ow he feels about being on the island.
: What he does when he goes off into the forest on his own.
: What he would like to tell the others.
: What he likes best on the island.
: What he dislikes on the island.
: -ny other thing you feel would hel( you understand this boy.
Worksheet ,3
Solutions
7orksheet 3+ can also accompan! home reading and then gives rise to discussion in
class.
{13.}
Worksheet ,4
1&*
-t the beginning of cha(ter E111 of ord o$ the Flies, the boys each (ro(ose a solution
to the dilemma they find themselves in. 1n the rightChand column are many (ossible
solutions. .atch each boy9s name to the solution he (ro(oses.
+uild rafts and sail away.
Back Gortify the shelters.
+uild the fire on the shore.
Kal(h >limb the mountain and have another look.
4o and live at >astle Kock.
7iggy >hange leadershi(.
4ive u(.
Simon 7retend nothing ha((ened.
4rou( together and attack the beast.
What would you have done in the boys9 (osition?
Kead (ages "&C#% of ord o$ the Flies. -t the beginning of this cha(ter, we see the
boys trying to co(e with the terrible fact that there is a beast on the mountain.
Which of the words listed below could be used to describe the reaction of each boy
to the news?
frightened determined to survive incredulous
a(athetic a(athetic curious
aggressive (anicCstricken defeated
de(ressed determined to ignore it wondering
des(airing determined to make matterCofCfact
belligerent the best of it sensible
heartsick rational excited
.atch each boy9s name to as many a((ro(riate words as (ossible.
Back ..........................................................................................................................
Kal(h ........................................................................................................................
7iggy .........................................................................................................................
Simon ........................................................................................................................
Sam Hn 2ric ...............................................................................................................
A peace o$$ering
"n the central part of this chapter# ?ack and his hunters offer a kind of sacrifice to
placate the east. 4his activit!M attempts to make learners e%plore the concept of a
Apeace offeringB with which people tr! to ward off evil.
"n groups# learners tr! to list as man! situations as the! can in which peace offerings
of some kind are resorted to. A few e%amples can e given to start them off. 4he!
could e ever!da! ones like;
Aou come home later than you (romised. *ow do you (lacate your wife 8 mother 8
father 8 boyfriend . . . ?
Aou forget an im(ortant occasion. What do you do to redeem yourself?
Aour teacher is cross because you have not handed in your work on time. What do
you do or say to remedy the situation?
Er the! could e more unusual e%amples like;
-s you9re crossing a field marked H(rivate9, you see an angry farmer waving a
(itchfork. What can you do?
Aou find a burglar in your home at night, with a knife . . . ?
Aou find a .artian sitting on your windowsill, with a rayCgun . . . ?
After comparison of the situations imagined ! various groups# and personal
recollections if these come up# discussion can e turned to the {13,} particular peace
offering devised ! ?ack and his hunters 5 is it simpl! a more e%treme form of the
kind of offering learners have found in their own lives# or is it a darker# more ominous
thingI "s it appropriateI disgustingI etc.
)umans- Animals- 6r savages-
"n a previous chapter# Pigg! asked the o!s; A7hat are weI <umansI AnimalsI Er
savagesIB
4he reakGup of the island communit! gives renewed force to the question. 4his
writing and discussion activit! attempts to get learners to consider whether or not
these are quite separate categories# and what each reall! means.
4he class is divided into groups# each of which has responsiilit! for one or two
pages in this chapter. 4heir task is to write out# on slips of paper# in clear# correct#
simple Fnglish# the things that happen in their pages. 6or e%ample;
The boys refuse to vote for Back as leader.
Back is humiliated and cries.
7iggy and the twins bring Kal(h fruit to cheer him u(.
The hunters (aint their faces.
The hunters leave the (ig9s head for the beast.
7iggy and the twins build a fire on the beach.
The hunters invite the others to their feast.
The hunters en5oy killing the (ig.
8eanwhile# the teacher prepares a chart with three large headings;
*R.-NS -N1.-LS S-E-42S
1&)
7hen writing is completed# each group in turn reads out one of its sentences# then
puts it up on the wall chart in the appropriate column. 4he class as a whole has to
agree that the event descried ! the sentence is characteristic of human# animal# or
savage ehaviour. "n cases of disagreement# or where the class agrees that the
ehaviour could fit two or even three of the categories# the sentence is quickl! written
out again on a new slip and the two sentences are put up in their respective categories.
4here is often livel! discussion# as students are made to reassess their ideas aout
what these three words# which are so crucial to the novel# reall! impl!.
Grammar e,ercise
4his is a team game to practise the past perfect. 4he class is divided into teams. Fach
team is given a paragraph to stud!. 4wo useful paragraphs {1*2} are; page 133 $A4he
greatest ideas are the simplest . . . A' and page 13) $A6ar off along the each . . . A'.
Fach team now e%tracts simple sentences from the te%t# starting each one with the
word A1owB. 6or e%ample; A1ow there was something to e doneB# A1ow the! worked
with passionB# A1ow Pigg! was full of delight in ?ackBs departureB# etc.
Fach team then fires a A1owB sentence at another team# which has to respond ! one
perfectl! formed sentence eginning A0eforeB# without using more than two of the
same main words. 6or e%ample;
Now there was something to be done.
Now they worked with (assion.
Now 7iggy was full of delight in Back9s
de(arture.
+efore, they had not known what to do.
+efore, they had been a(athetic.
+efore, he had feared Back.
Voca&ulary enrichment
/tudents are given some e%pressions which are used to descrie movement at the
eginning of the chapter. /ome of these e%pressions also indicate the mood or
emotion accompan!ing the movement.
5erked away walked a few (aces along shuddered violently
turned towards (anic flight down the mountain marches away
came stealing out s=uats by the fire twisting his hands
stayed back cre(t to the (latform went on
running away rose obediently
4he! are then asked to list as man! of these as the! can under the following headings;
Fear Secrecy (enace *etermination *e$iance
6inall!# the! find movement words from the rest of the chapter and fit them into these
columns or add new columns if necessar!.
'he ord o$ the Flies speaks
"n the final section of chapter >"""# /imon AhearsB the =ord of the 6lies speaking to
him in the voice of a schoolmaster. 7hat /imon hears is partl! a recollection of his
past# partl! a formulation of his thoughts aout their present predicament# and partl! a
prediction of things to come.
1&+
"f the activit! is done in class# it starts with silent reading of the passage# followed
! general discussion aout the kind of things /imon hears. 4hen the class is divided
into pairs. Fach pair is given one character from {1*1} the novel. 4he! imagine that
their character is sitting alone with the =ord of the 6lies# and write what the pigBs head
sa!s to him.
As individual homework# learners can e given some help in the form of a few
prompts# for e%ample;
1magine that you are the Lord of the Glies. ........................ comes alone to sit with you
in the clearing. Kemembering the kind of things you said to Simon, s(eak to this boy.
4ive him the advice you think he needs. Tell him the truth about his situation on the
island, without s(aring him. .ake sure you tell him3
: What his (articular weaknesses are.
: *ow he relates to the rest of the grou( and what they think of him.
: What is going to ha((en to him on the island.
Cha!ter I8 $ %iew to a death 3!ages 1"/4#/5
4his rief chapter is full of suspense and action# and well suited to classroom
treatment. An e%tract from it makes e%cellent listening material.
4he chapter is a dark one. "t marks the reakGup of the fragile communit! into two
distinct camps led ! Ralph and Pigg! on the one hand and ?ack and Roger on the
other. 4he constitution# such as it was# shatters. At the same time# a storm signals the
return of fear and the power of ritual to keep fear at a! and cement the group
temporaril!. 4he ritual# however# summons the darker recesses of the o!sB
personalities# and the! collectivel! harness their individual aggression in a semiG
conscious org! of death. 4he unwitting /imon# returning to dispel fears aout the
east# ecomes the victim. (ivilisation snaps# violence stamps its authorit! on the
island.
*oodle and listen
4his activit! comines rela%ed listening with freeGrunning creativit!. 4he class listens
to a recording of $or to the teacher reading' pages 1)3G,# from the point at which
Ralph and Pigg! Join ?ack and the others. 4he! are given a piece of paper# preferal!#
with an inset empt! rectangle# and ire told to draw or write whatever comes into their
minds in response to the events the! hear aout. At the end of the reading# the class is
put into small groups and their efforts discussed# if the! wish to do so. /ome students
prefer to keep their doodles private and simpl! to incorporate them into their own
noteooks as records of their response to this particular part of the ook.
/tudents ma! at first e puHHled ! the lack of a formal structure for this listening
task. "ts advantage lies in the fact that learners remain rela%ed !et active while the!
listen. 4he teacher must emphasise that it does not {1*&} matter if the! produce
nothing# and that individual artistic talents are not relevant.
'he power o$ the group
"t is quite common for individuals to e persuaded to do something uncharacteristic in
order to remain accepted ! a group of friends.
1&.
/tudents are given a questionnaire $7orksheet 3.'# which the! answer individuall!.
4he! are then put into small groups to discuss and compare their answers# and to tell
others aout the things the! did. 4hen the class is rought ack together. Fach group
is asked to talk aout one event the! heard aout in their first discussion.
4he teacher then asks the class to give their suggestions as to wh! the o!s killed
/imon. 7ere the! reall! vicious under the veneer of their civilisationI (ould the! e
descried as temporaril! insaneI 7ere the! rendered helpless ! the dancing and
chantingI
"f learners are emarrassed ! the personal nature of the questionnaire# the! ma! not
enefit from the activit!. 4eachers must Judge according to their particular groups of
learners. "n some cases it ma! e etter to use other ideas to present the theme.
Worksheet ,5
{1*3}5itual activities
4he impromptu ritualised dancing and singing in chapter "N leads to a grisl! death.
An! societ!# however# incorporates a certain ritualistic element. After a warmGup
aout the nature of rites# students in groups rainstorm a list of ritual activities which
the! as individuals take part in# and mark them national# local or personal. 4hen the!
are asked to nominate the activities on the list which the! feel most involved in at the
time the! happen.
Afterwards# groups compare results and discuss differences# and reasons for them.
/tudents are asked for their reactions to the ritual chanting and dancing in this chapter.
"n what wa!s is it different from their own e%perienceI :oes it fulfil an! social
functionI 7h! does it get out of handI 7h! didnBt a single o! stop and shout; A"tBs
/imon# stopKB
1&,
*ave you ever done anything ?either individually or with others@ that was daring or
wrong to (rove yourself (art of a grou( of friends?
MMMMM.. Aes MMMMM.. No
1f Hyes9, what was it? Tick the following list if a((ro(riate3
L Stolen something from a sho(, house, school, garden, car.
L 4one u( to someone and asked a =uestion or told them something.
L 2aten or drunk something unusual or daring.
L *urt someone or something.
L 7layed a (ractical 5oke or trick on someone.
L Thrown something.
L Kidden or driven something in a daring way.
L Something else, name it3 ........................................
*ow did you feel afterwards?
*ow do you feel about it now?
1f you have never done anything of this kind, can you ex(lain why not?
What i$-
4his is a suitale spot in the ook for the kind of speculation descried in (hapter )
$see p. .3'. 7hat if the parachutist had survived intactI 7hat would have happened to
the o!sI <ow would their life have een alteredI 4he class can e divided into
groups# half imagining that the surviving airman is an FnglishGspeaking friend# the
other half imagining him as an alien foe.
anguage e,erciseC $igurative language
4his is a chapter rich in striking similes.
H . . . The Lord of the Glies hung on his stick like a &lack &all. . .9
H . . . made the s(lit guts look like a heap o$ glistening coal. . .9
H?Simon@ . . . walked . . . like an old man . . .9
H . . . Back (ainted and garlanded sat there like an idol. . .9
H. . . The movement . . . began to beat like a steady pulse . . .9
HThe shrill scream was like a pain . . .9
H. . . let down the rain like a water$all. . .9
4he teacher discusses with the class the images created ! these similes# asking them
to suggest wh! these particular correspondences were chosen# and what the effect is
on them when the! read the passage. All suggestions are allowed# as this is an
e%plorator! activit!. 4hen students are asked to provide comparisons for the following
descriptive sentences# adapted from this chapter. 4his can e done for homework.
(age %0 The flies gathered round the (ig9s head like . . .
(age % Simon staggered like . . .
(age %! The clouds loomed like . . .
{1*3}(age %$ The boys ate the meat like . . .
(age %' The sticks fell on to the beast like . . .
(age &0 Simon9s dead body moved out towards the o(en sea like . . .
"n the feedack session# the learners are asked to compare their similes in groups to
see if the! have used similar ones. /ome ma! e read out and the vividness of the
imager! discussed.
Simon2s epitaph
-sing the outline of a tomstone# students write a short epitaph for R /imon#
eginning A<ere lies /imon . . . A $7orksheet 3,'.
132
Worksheet ,8
{1**}+ewspaper reports
4he class is divided into three groups. Fach group is composed of reporters writing
for a particular newspaper with a different st!le from the other two. 4asksheets are
given to each# as follows;
131
+ewspaper A
The *aily (ercury is a news(a(er which sensationalises its news re(orts and tends to
exaggerate. 1t em(hasises violence and likes to use lots of ad5ectives. 1t is generally antiC
youth and welcomes o((ortunities to attack young (eo(le9s crimes.
Tasks3. -s a grou(, decide on a headline for an article about Simon9s death.
!. +rainstorm for ad5ectives and (hrases to use to describe the events
surrounding the death, remembering the Hhouse style9.
". 1ndividually, write an article of !0 words about what ha((ened on the island
that evening.
{1*)}
Cha!ter 8 The shell and the glasses 3!ages 1#14+"5
After /imonBs death# Pigg! and Ralph have difficult! coping with the implications of
what the! have done. 8ost of the other o!s have Joined ?ackBs group of hunters.
After a violent raid# ?ack and some of his group make off with Pigg!Bs glasses. 4his
chapter is suited to a mi%ture of class treatment and home reading.
%ledges
4he reakGup of the o!s into two ver! different groups raises the question of what
each stands for. 4he teacher e%plains the idea of a ApledgeB and gives e%amples. 4hen
students# in groups# write the pledge of allegiance for each communit! of o!s on the
island# according to the studentsB assessment of what each communit! values. A
formula is given for starting;
The *unters
1, ........................................ solemnly swear that 1 will ........................................
The >onchies
?same formula@
7hen each group has prepared its pledges# these are read out and similarities and
differences discussed. 4his provides an opportunit! for the teacher to ring out the
implications of the polarisation that has taken place amongst the o!s. 7as it
inevitaleI 7h! has it happenedI 7as there an! wa! in which it could have een
preventedI
{1*+}A good leader
13&
+ewspaper #
The (orning Glo&e is essentially a serious news(a(erF it detests sensationalism and too
much interest in (ersonalities and tries to examine the underlying issues.
Tasks3 . -s a grou(, decide on a headline for an article about Simon9s death
!. +rainstorm for ad5ectives and (hrases to use to describe the events
surrounding the death, remembering the Hhouse style9.
". 1ndividually, write an article of !0 words about what ha((ened on the island
that evening.
+ewspaper "
The Western +ews is a news(a(er which concentrates on the (ersonal angle and gives a
lot of detail about any individuals involved in an event. 1t (lays down a sensational
a((roach and seldom examines issues surrounding issues.
Tasks3. -s a grou(, decide on a headline for an article about Simon9s death.
!. +rainstorm for ad5ectives and (hrases to use to describe the events
surrounding the death, remembering the Hhouse style9.
". 1ndividually, write an article of !0 words about what ha((ened on the island
that evening.
Ene of the principal issues in the novel concerns the ailit! of a leader oth to
command respect and coGoperation# and to emod! acceptale social values. /ingl! or
in groups# students arrange the following leadership qualities in order of importance;
@ Sensitivity to the views of the grou(.
!@ >harismatic (ersonality.
"@ -bility to see situations in terms of broad goals.
#@ -da(tability.
$@ Sticking to a decision once it has been made.
%@ 1nvolving as many (eo(le as (ossible in decisionCmaking.
&@ /elegating tasks but taking final res(onsibility.
'@ Strong (ersonality.
6@ *igh intelligence.
0@ Willingness to (ut the wellCbeing of the whole grou( before (ersonal
considerations.
@ Kefusal to tolerate dissent.
As Ralph and ?ack have ver! different st!les of leadership# students are asked which
of the two o!s most closel! represents the ideal leader suggested ! their list.
Accuse and deny
4he class is divided into two; accusers and deniers. Accusers have to think of as man!
different statements or questions as the! can# which accuse the deniers of murdering
/imon. :eniers have to think of as man! statements as possile to avoid admitting
personal responsiilit!.
After a set time for preparation# sa! ten minutes# the class is put into pairs in two
circles facing each other. Accusations and denials egin. 7hen the teacher claps once#
accusers rotate clockwise and interaction recommences. 7hen the teacher claps twice#
deniers rotate anticlockwise one space.
0,amples o$ possi&le accusations 8 8 8
-dmit your guilt, murdererI
Aou are res(onsible for Simon9s death.
+ut you did murder him, even if you
were in a dream.
Aou are a murderer, aren9t you?
Aou are guilty, you can9t deny it.
Aou are a coldCblooded murderer.
Why did you do it?
We know you were one of the
murderers.
and denials8 8 8
1 was on the outside all the time.
1 was in a dream.
1 wasn9t in my right mind.
1t wasn9t me, honestly.
1 had nothing to do with it.
1t was dark.
1 was frightened.
1 couldn9t see what 1 was doing, could 1?
{1*.}#haracter $antasy
133
7orksheet 32 could e done as homework and followed ! class discussion.
Worksheet 0:
Cha!ter 8I Castle 9oc0 3!ages 1+#42/15
4his intensel! dramatic chapter reaches a clima% in the stor!. Ralph and Pigg! tr! to
retrieve Pigg!Bs glasses ut ?ack and his group are in no mood for compromise. Pigg!
is killed ! a large falling oulder# the conch is shattered# the twins are captured and
Ralph runs off in terror.
"f students have een drawn into the fiction# there ma! e a case for not reaking the
spell ! too man! activities# ut simpl! allowing the class to read or listen to the
uninterrupted te%t. A good place to start class listening of the chapter would e page
1,3# when the two groups of o!s confront each other. <ere# more than ever# it is
difficult to prescrie set pages for home reading as man! students will want to read on
and find out what happens. 4he listening time in class would then aim to provide a
revisiting of the te%t# enrichment# not Just repetition.
4he following activities work well when the chapter has een read.
{1*,}*iplomacy
4his is a fantas! activit! which involves rewriting part of the chapter or adapting it for
role pla!.
"n this chapter# RalphBs appeal to ?ackBs humanitarian instincts fails; disaster ensues.
Perhaps Ralph needed to use a little more diplomac! and guileI 7hat could Ralph
have done and said which might have produced compromise or a peaceful end to his
missionI
"n groups# students tr! to think of as man! diplomatic solutions as possile. 4he!
are then asked to script the dialogue $together# or as homework' to e acted out later.
"n classes where it would e appropriate# students can improvise a role pla! to e
presented in front of other groups. "n each case# the class tries to imagine ?ackBs
response.
133
-ssume that the boys are now grown u(. Gor each category in the grid below insert
an a((ro(riate entry based on what you imagine might be the choice of each
character.
3o& 'ype o$
car
Favourite
holiday
Favourit
e colour
Favourite
drink
Favourit
e $ood
Kal(h
Back
7iggy
4his is often a useful e%ercise ecause classes sense that an! attempt at diplomac!
would e reJected ! ?ack at this point in the stor!# and this can lead to insights into
the nature of the inevitale qualit! that is part of traged!. Alternativel!# some groups
are eager to accept an! diplomatic overtures# to avert the terrile happenings at the
end of the chapter. Again# drawing this response into the open has the effect of
sharpening learnersB awareness of the implications of events in this part of the novel.
Which is &etter-
At the moment of greatest crisis etween ?ackBs and RalphBs groups# Pigg! three
times shouts out a question to the AsavageB and inside their fortress of (astle Rock;
A7hich is etter 5 to e a pack of painted niggers like !ou are# or to e sensile like
Ralph isIB
A7hich is etter 5 to have rules and agree# or to hunt and killIB
A7hich is etter# law and rescue# or hunting and reaking things upIB
At the end of chapter N"# with classes which enJo! quite structured oral activities# a
deate can e planned on the issue of social order which underpins these questions.
4he motion is; A4his class agrees that law and order must e the first priorit! in an!
civilised societ!.B
"n the first step# ever! memer of the class tries to think of as man! arguments as
possile for or against. 4hese are noted down ! a secretar! for each side# on the
oard or in individual noteooks.
/tep two is preparation of the speaking team. 4his can e done during the lesson or
as an out of class activit!# as appropriate. Fach side is represented ! a team of three
people 5 two to argue their side of the deate# the third to cope with reuttal of their
opponentBs arguments.
/tep three is the deate itself# with a student presiding if at all possile. 4he two
representatives from each team speak in turn# for one or two {1)2} minutes# then the
third memer reuts. 4he floor is then open to questions.
4he final stage is a general vote to carr! the motion or defeat it.
0choes
13*
4his simple activit! attempts to make readers aware of patterning in the novel $see
7orksheet 31'. "t is est done as group work in class# so that students can help each
other with the task of tracking down echoes. 4he teacher circulates and gives clues if
necessar!.
Worksheet 0'
Cha!ter 8II Cry o' the hunters 3!ages 2/24235
4he violence of the and of AsavagesB reaches its clima% as the! hunt the wounded and
terrified Ralph through the island# setting fire to the forest in which he is hiding to
force him out into the open. 6inall!# Ralph ursts out on to the each# where he and
his pursuers are confronted ! a rescue part! that has Just landed 5 attracted# ironicall!
enough# ! the smoke from the fire.
4his is a fairl! long ut suspenseful chapter# whose dramatic qualit! easil! carries the
reader along. /imple class listening $accompanied# perhaps# ! noting down of
impressions# or doodles as descried for chapter "N' is ver! suitale for the e%tremel!
vivid description of the chase {1)1} $pages &1*G&2'. 4he following activities are for
use after the chapter has een read.
%oint o$ no return
4his activit!# ver! appropriate as a followGup to =ord of the 6lies# is descried in
(hapter ) $see p. .&'.
What i$-
/tudents are asked to note down quickl! their response to the following question;
"magine that the plane had deposited a group of girls on the island. 7ould the
outcome have een differentI Luickl! Jot down whatever possile differences come
into !our mind.
6eedack and comparison of answers is revealing of studentsB ideas aout the
causes of the traged! on the island# and their opinions on maleO female stereot!pes.
13)
1n cha(ter O1 of ord o$ the Flies, there are some words, some ex(ressions and some
events which echo others that were in (revious (arts of the novel. Look at this list.
>an you remember or find where these occurred before? 1s there any difference now
in what each of them means or im(lies?
Koger throwing stones
heaving a large rock down
(ainted faces
Hthe storm of sound9
Hwaxy9
H(laying the game9
Hyou9re acting like a crowd of kids9
Ha sense of delirious abandonment9
Ha sense of power began to pulse in ?his@ body9
)ighlights
4his is a variation on the activit! descried in (hapter ). <ere# learners are asked to
choose the ookBs most powerful pictures# in this wa!; the! descrie the si% mental
snapshots the! would choose for a large poster to advertise the film of the ook. 4his
can e done as a group activit!. "n teams of si%# learners decide upon the si% most
powerful ApicturesB in the ook. Fach then has the task of writing the description of
one of these images $a paragraph# plus title'.
Results are displa!ed so that the pictures descried can e compared.
7n/uest on &oard ship
4his activit! is in three parts.
First part; a general rainstorming session with the whole class. "magine that on the
wa! home# the (hief Efficer decides to investigate what reall! happened on the
island. 7hat questions would he need to askI 7hat answers would e given !
RalphI ?ackI RogerI /am An FricI Ene of the little o!sI "t is useful to Jot down the
questions and answers# either on the oard or in a noteook.
Second part; role pla!Oimprovisation. Roles are distriuted; the presiding officer# his
panel of inquir!# five o!s. 7ith the help of the recorded questions and answers# the!
enact the inquest scene.
Third part; the verdict. 4his is a simulation. 4he class is divided into groups or four or
five; these are now the presiding officer and his panel of inquir!. 4he! have Just
witnessed the questioning of the five o!s# and {1)&} their task is now to arrive at a
verdict# and to write a report on the incident which includes recommendations for the
treatment of the o!s when the! return to Fngland. $4he report can e discussed in the
group and written then# or done later as an individual task.'
'he &ook on a postcard
/tudents distil their impressions of the novel in e%actl! *2 words $see 6igure 1*'.
13+
Figure '1
{1)3}+ ,lays
8ost of the activities discussed in previous chapters can e adapted to pla!s as well as
other genres. An added element in presenting a pla!# however# is its particular
dramatic qualit!# which it is important to ring out as much as possile in the
classroom. 0eing ale to take students to a performance is oviousl! a great help# as
are films or videos. 8an! pla!s are availale on records or cassettes nowada!s#
especiall! suitale for listening e%ercises; in the asence of curriculum or e%am
constraints# this would certainl! e a factor in choosing a pla! to read with a class.
7ith groups that respond well to drama activities# putting on one scene# or a short
pla!# can e oth enJo!ale and rewarding. 8an! students love planning costumes#
sets# props# lights# and so on. 7hen fullGscale staging is not feasile# a prepared
reading of a previousl! studied scene# at the front of the class and with a few props#
can also e fruitful. 7hat is not so successful# in our opinion# is asking a student to
read aloud an unseen or minimall! prepared role. 7orking in a foreign language# the
learner usuall! has difficult! comining the simultaneous demands of comprehension
and language production. "n fact# good pla! reading is not reall! all that eas!# even in
oneBs own language. 4hat is wh! we prefer other kinds of activities to help students
deepen their understanding of the te%t and the dramatic situation# followed !
listening periods in class# or# if cassettes are availale# in the language laorator! or at
home.
"n this chapter we look more closel! at wa!s of working through a whole pla!# or
rather# two ver! different pla!s. -ntil now# on the whole# we have chosen to illustrate
our ideas through modern te%ts# for the opportunities the! offer oth of useful
language transfer and of insights into contemporar! social# political or cultural
aspects. 0ut modern works# of course# rest upon and interact with a whole line of
predecessors. And man! students# especiall! if the! are intending to go on to literar!
studies# are keen to master some of the classics the! have heard aout. 7e have
therefore chosen as our e%ample for wa!s of working with a complete long pla!#
/hakespeareBs Romeo and 2uliet. 7e have found it accessile and interesting for preG
universit! classes. "ts theme of love in a setting torn ! civil strife is universal and
13.
still ver! poignant toda!. "t is a pla! that is often produced# so that we have een ale
to take students to performances# or to show them the ver! eautiful Qeffirelli film.
Although to avoid repetition we do not go through the pla! in the same {1)3} detail
as we have done for Lord of the Flies# we hope that these ideas will stimulate interest
and help learners overcome the arriers posed ! language. 7ith secondar! school
pupils or nonGspecialist adult classes in mind# we have aimed at comprehension and
enJo!ment first and foremost. 4he various activities should also help students to a
etter understanding of dramatic structure# development of character# the mechanisms
of traged!# and so on. 0ut we have not gone into questions of ackground;
/hakespeareBs life# the FliHaethan period and its theatre; nor into more scholarl!
issues regarding the estalishing of the te%t. 7e have concentrated aove all on
getting classes to feel the immediac! and the pathos of the central theme# as well as
the power of the poetr!.
4hese two aims have also underpinned our work with the language of the pla!.
(ertainl!# students have to e helped with si%teenthGcentur! idioms and structures#
and with the e%traordinaril! rich# compact e%pression of comple% concepts. <ere as
elsewhere# though# we have encouraged learners to read for gist and comprehension#
to feel the! can appreciate a scene even if the! do not understand ever! single thing
aout it.
6or contrast# we then look at a ver! rief modern American pla!# Fdward AleeBs
The Sand!o)# where the language presents ver! few prolems ut where students ma!
have to e helped to see and appreciate the pla!Bs full dramatic import.
9omeo and :uliet (y )illiam .ha0es!eare
5
Feud $or thought
4he underpinning to the wellGknown traged! of the two !oung lovers is the itter
famil! feud etween the 8ontagues and (apulets which permeates the atmosphere in
the cit! of >erona# and creates an ominous tension in the pla!. 4here is no indication
in /hakespeareBs te%t of the origin of the feud 5 it is Just a fact.
4he following warmGup activit! aims to draw a class into the pla!Bs setting !
asking them to speculate aout the origins of the interGfamil! strife. 4hese are the
stages in the activit!;
1. 0efore the students arrive for their lesson# the teacher arranges the
desksOchairs into two separate clusters in two different corners of the
classroom.
&. 7hen the students enter the room# the teacher asks them to sit down without
disturing the desksOchairs. <e or she then asks them to {1)*} speculate aout
what is going on. 7hat might the two AcampsB signif!I /peculation is fed !
informing the students that the classroom is a cit!# and that the! are some of
its inhaitants.
3. Ence it has een estalished that the two groups are families separated ! an
ancient feud# the teacher announces $if this has not alread! een guessed' that
one famil! has the name 8ontague# while the other group are (apulets. 4he
cit! is >erona in "tal!.
*
References are to the (amridge -niversit! Press edition of Romeo and 2uliet# edited ! D.
0lakemore Fvans# pulished in paperack 1,.3.
13,
3. 1e%t# the teacher asks each famil! to rainstorm and discuss possile causes of
the feud. 7hat event$s' started it all offI A sheet of ideas can e supplied to
classes in greater need of support.
%ossi&le causes o$ the $eud &etween (ontagues and #apulets
-n unsolved murder.
- theft of valuable 5ewellery.
)ne of the families discredited the other by ex(osing corru(tion.
-n extraCmarital affair between a .ontague and a >a(ulet which ended in the
suicide of one of the lovers.
>om(etition for (olitical and economic (ower in Eerona.
)ne of the families s(read a rumour that the other family was cheating the
>atholic church of money.
*. After each famil! group has discussed the origin of the feud and agreed upon
their stor! $or stories'# the two families are asked to put their desksOchairs into
two lines facing each other.
4he teacher asks the families to egin to accuse each other of starting the
feud and to e%plain the original situation. Accusations should e met ! angr!
denials and the teacher should tr! to fuel the animosit! etween the two
groups without taking sides.
). After accusations and denials have een traded# the teacher sa!s that he or she
wants the two families to retain their identities while the pla! is eing studied.
4hus# for an! pla! reading or enactment of scenes# (apulets will e drawn
from the (apulet famil! and 8ontagues from the 8ontague famil!. /imilarl!#
if an activit! like sculpting $see p. .1' is undertaken# characters will e drawn
from the appropriate camps.
Wordplay / Swordplay
4he ver! first scene of Romeo and ?uliet fairl! ristles with puns and pla!s on words#
and this can sometimes e rather discouraging for foreign students aout to tackle the
pla!. "f warmGup activities have sensitised the class to the mood of a cit! deepl! torn
! internal strife# however# it will e easier for students to see how the language
actuall! articulates the feud itself. =ike the swordpla! that follows them# these initial
e%changes are full of parr! and thrust. 4he two servants enter with their swords drawn
and their wits full! sharpened. 0awd! and aggressive# their language {1))} uilds up
a highl! charged atmosphere. Ene word sparks off another; a veral equivalent to
their arel! restrained eagerness for the fra!.
4he following activit! is a wa! of helping students to see how much is compressed
into these apparentl! frivolous e%changes# designed at one level to secure the attention
of the audience. "t also helps clarif! the d!namics of this first scene. "n the first stage#
the activit! is done ! the class as a whole. /tudents are given the following
statements# which represent the gist# in modern Fnglish# of the first si% e%changes;
. We9ll not carry coals.
!. We9re not colliers.
". 1f we9re9in choler9 ?angry@ we9ll draw our swords.
#. We9ll draw our necks out of the collar.
$. 1 strike =uickly when 19m moved.
%. +ut you9re not easily moved to strike.
132
/tudents are also given the following set of definitions $worksheet# or oard';
coals S a form of fuel
carry coals S a low, menial task
colliers S coalCminers
colliers S a term of abuse ?for the 2li;abethan audience@
choler S anger ?a word no longer used in modern 2nglish@
collar S a yoke ?symbol of having to work hard under a master@
collar S a hangman9s noose
moved S made to feel a strong emotion, in this case anger
moved S motivated, given a reason to do something
4he task is now to construct a diagram which shows how each statement relates to the
others# and what its effect is $that is# whether it is intended as an aggressive statement
ut with no particular target# or as a particular threat against the (apulets# or used to
tease each other or# in later lines# to make awd! Jokes'.
"n 6igure 1)# worked out on a white oard# the statements were placed within o%es
that were colourGcoded for effect $lack for generall! aggressive# red for teasing'.
131
Figure '3 {1)+}
13&
{1))}=inks etween the statements were indicated ! lines;
"n the second stage of the activit!# the class is divided into four groups. 4wo of
these are given the ne%t si% e%changes in /cene 1# the other two are given the
following si%. Appropriate definitions are also given# or more advanced classes might
e asked to find these themselves# in their dicG {1).} tionar! or glossar!. Fach group
designs a diagram for its e%changes# either following the pattern alread! set# or
devising a new one. 4he finished diagrams are compared and discussed# or posted up
for class memers to compare at their leisure. A further task could e to Join the three
series in a master diagram# perhaps on a large wall chart.
"t will e seen that this is a means of e%ternalising a quite conventional anal!sis of
the te%t. 4he fact that students are given the gist# and a set of meanings# does however
reduce prolems of simple comprehension# allowing learners to concentrate on the
d!namics of the e%changes. 4he visual element usuall! makes it easier for students to
grasp the te%tual anal!sis# while the! on the whole enJo! the challenge of finding a
wa! of representing quite comple% relationships in a graphic manner.
A visual snow&all
7ith a pla! that carries the linguistic richness and comple%it! that Romeo and 2uliet
does# it ecomes vital to keep the spirit of the stor! alive ! visual means. (learl! the
e%cellent video versions of the pla! could e used alongside the reading of the te%t#
ut man! language learning situations do not include video facilities# and in an! case
it is difficult to hire videoGcassettes for e%tended periods of time# and the! are
e%pensive to u!.
"n pairs# within their famil! groups# the 8ontagues and (apulets have the task of
producing a simple visual presentation for each scene. 4he asic visual elements
should suggest the main events or the atmosphere in a particular scene. /hort
quotations can e woven into each design. "f possile# learners should e supplied
with poster card and felt pens; ut the teacher should stress that simple designs are
often the most striking# and that artistic e%pertise is not the main requirement. 4he fact
of working with someone else also helps reduce the an%iet! some students feel aout
their ailit! to draw. Fach pair in turn is responsile for adding a representation to
depict one scene# and pairs are likel! to have more than one go# as there are &3 scenes
in the pla!.
As each scene design is completed# it can either e displa!ed on a 8ontague wall or
a (apulet wall# as appropriate; or scenes as the! accumulate are put into a famil!
folder until the end of the pla!# at which point the! are e%changed as a sign of the end
of the classroom feud.
7hen the entire pla! has een read# the visual snowall can e used for revision
purposes. Fach scene design cues the studentsB memories of events# atmosphere# and
language. "n addition# the quotes on each visual can e used as the asis for a quotes
team quiH. 6igure 1+ shows how this activit! could e started.
133
Figure '4 {1),}
133
{1+2}A language snow&all
4he oJect here is to allow students to e%amine in depth one particular aspect of the
language of the pla!# as reading progresses. Droupwork also lets them draw on each
otherBs knowledge and resources so that the! are helped to a etter understanding of
the pla!.
"n pairs or small groups of three or four# students are given one topic to look into as
the! read the pla!. /ince each group is to work on a different aspect# one wa! of
e%plaining the task is through the use of individual worksheets for each group $an
e%ample is shown in 7orksheet 3&'. Er the teacher can e%plain what each proJect
entails# and let students choose the one the! prefer. Droups have a noteook in which
each memer can {1+1} Jot e%amples noticed as the! read# as well as their thoughts
and comments upon them.
Worksheet 0+ {1+2}
{1+1}4opics could include; puns; parado%es; various kinds of imager! 5 of light and
darkness# of flowers# of irds and animals# of celestial odies and the spheres# imager!
used to foreshadow the tragic outcome; rhetorical questions; use of riald language;
the language of violence; language that has a performative aspect; that is# of
politeness# command# mocker!# etc.; epithets and images used to delineate oldO!oung
or loveOhate.
Ene effective wa! of ensuring that each groupTs work produces feedack for the
whole class is to ask the groups to prepare a poster or wall chart to displa! the results
of its proJect. 7hen the entire pla! has een read# a date is set for completion#
followed ! a poster e%hiition in the classroom# hallwa! or common room. 4he
13*
%uns E language pro4ect work
- H(un9 is a (lay on words that de(ends on the fact that one word, or two words that
sound exactly alike, can have very different meanings. Gor exam(le, in -ct 1 of
5omeo and 3uliet ?1. .%$@, Tybalt says that +envolio, who is standing with his sword
drawn amongst the fighting men, is Hdrawn among these heartless hinds9. H*eartless
hinds9 means Hyokels without a heart9, that is, cowardly. +ut Hhinds9 also means a
female deer, so that Tybalt is making a (un, saying the men are like female deer
without their male deer ?Hhart9@.
.any (eo(le disa((rove of (uns, and it is often said that they are Hthe lowest form
of humour9. /octor Bohnson, the famous eighteenth century critic, thought (uns ?or
H=uibbles9 as he called them@ marred Shakes(eare9s style3 H- =uibble, (oor and
barren as it is, gave him such delight, that he was content to (urchase it, by the
sacrifice of reason, (ro(riety, and truth9. Some readers still think (uns are distracting
and trivialise the language of the (lay. )thers think that they can (roduce, like
meta(hors, a sudden overla( of two unex(ected s(heres of ex(erience so that they
are both arresting ?as when the 7rince tells the men to throw their Hmistem(ered9
wea(ons to the ground@ and moving ?as when .ercutio can still 5est on the brink of
death3 H-sk for me tomorrow, and you shall find me a9grave9 man9.@.
1n this (ro5ect, try to gather as many (uns as you can from your reading of the (lay.
Bot them down in your grou(9s notebook. Gor each one, state what two meanings are
being (layed u(on. -s a grou(, try to decide whether any s(ecial (ur(ose is served
by the (un, and what the effect of each one is.
requirement for a visual presentation can tap quite considerale creative resources in
man! students# and it makes the whole endeavour more memorale.
6or classes preparing e%ams# the material gathered during the proJect can e used to
support the writing of an essa! on an! of the particular points studied# or on the
language of the pla! as a whole.
'he %rinceFs speech
7orksheet 33 is a home reading worksheet for Act " /cene 1.
Worksheet 0, {1+&}
13)
{1+3}#omplete the summary
4he summar! in 7orksheet 33 refers to the last part of Act " /cene 1 and could e
done as homework.
Worksheet 00
'he language o$ love
4hese are activities designed to sensitise students to one area of language within the
pla!; the language of love# and the concepts and conventions that underlie it.
"n order to allow students etter to appreciate particular characteristics of the
/hakespearean universe# it is useful to look first at what AloveB means and how it is
e%pressed in our modern world# oth in contemporar! Fnglish and# for monolingual
groups# in their own culture. A popular wa! of doing this with adolescents or !oung
adults is through an anal!sis of pop songs.
4he class is divided into small groups. Fach chooses a different song to {1+3}
e%amine $an FnglishGlanguage one if possile 5 man! are familiar to students; or a
song in their own language# to e anal!sed in Fnglish'. 7orksheet 3* can e used.
Droups then compare notes and tr! to estalish an overall AprofileB of the attitudes to
love and to lovers implicit in the songs# and of the kind of language used to conve!
them. 4he profile is retained for later comparison with the pla!.
An alternative wa! of tr!ing to assess contemporar! views of love and its language
is through the use of a questionnaire such as the one illustrated in 7orksheet 3).
/tudents are each provided with several copies of it# one to answer themselves. 4hen#
for homework# the! ask other people for their answers# preferal! people of different
age groups from their own. "f this can e done in Fnglish $for e%ample# !
questioning language assistants or other Fnglish speakers in the school or town'#
valuale language practice can e gained# and students will often learn man! new
terms and e%pressions.
13+
Kead from the end of the 7rince9s s(eech ?1..0#@ to the end of Scene . Then
com(lete the following sentences so that they form a summary of this (art of the
(lay.
-fter the 7rince has left, )ld .ontague asks his ne(hew +envolio to tell
him ......................................... +envolio ex(lains. Lady .ontague is glad that her
son was not in the fight but she wonders where Komeo is. +envolio says that he
met Komeo that morning, when both he and his cousin .........................................
+envolio did not s(eak to Komeo then because ........................................ )ld
.ontague ex(lains that Komeo has develo(ed the habit of going out, before dawn
each day, to wee( and sigh. When the sun rises Komeo .........................................
*is father cannot understand why Komeo is behaving in this way. *e would like to
find out, so that ......................................... +envolio (romises to try
. The .ontagues leave, and Komeo a((ears. *is cousin asks him why he is so sad.
Komeo answers that although he is in love ........................................
+envoliowantsto knowwhothe loved one is. +ut Komeo will only say that it is
someone who has sworn to ......................................... . +envolio advises Komeo to
forget her and to look at ......................................... Komeo (rotests
that ......................................... The two young men leave.
"n situations where this is impossile# students can ask questions in their =l# then
translate the answers on to the form.
Ence again# pooling of results and discussion are oth ver! important.
Worksheet 01
{1+*}
-nswer the following =uestions about the nature of love.
1. Which of the following statements comes closest to your idea of what love is?
?Tick one, or more.@
L Love is a (aradise.
L Love is hell.
L Love is a disease.
L Love is a state of madness.
L Love is a religion.
L Love is an allCconsuming fire.
L Love is a kind of warfare.
L Love is an e(hemeral nonsense.
L Love is MMMMM..
&. *ow im(ortant, how valuable is it for you? Which of the following sentences
comes closest to your o(inion?
L The most im(ortant thing, the only valuable thing in the world.
L - good thing, but not the only good thing in the world.
L - mixed blessing.
L - disaster3 it always ends in tragedy.
13.
Write notes on the lyrics of the song you have chosen, answering the following
=uestions.
. What is Hlove9 like, according to this song? >hoose a s(ot on the continuum.
1s it . . .
su(remely im(ortant relatively unim(ortant
marvellous, full of 5oy terrible, (ainful
lasting e(hemeral
what else?............................................
!. Words that describe love ?does the song have any images or
com(arisons?@3 ........................................
". Words that describe the loved one ?images?
com(arisons?@3 ........................................
#. 1t you9re in love, according to the song3........................................
*ow do you behave?........................................
*ow do you feel?........................................
*ow does the (erson who is loved behave8feel?........................................
L - (leasant illusion, cloaking the reality of sex.
L -n un(leasant illusion, distorting our idea of relations between the sexes.
3. 1f you love someone, what would you be most likely to com(are him or her to?
L a flower3 ....................
L a bird3 ....................
L an animal3 ....................
L a celestial body3 ....................
L a (art of nature3 ....................
L something else3 ....................
#. 1f a man loves a woman, this is how he behaves3
L Writes (oems to her.
L Sends her flowers and gifts.
L Wee(s and sighs if she doesn9t res(ond.
L -cts in a manly, masterful way.
L >onceals his love.
L ............................................
$. 1f a woman loves a man, this is how she behaves3
L 4ives him gifts.
L 7retends to love someone else.
L >onceals her love.
L Tells him about it.
L Sighs and wee(s if he doesn9t (ay attention to her.
L ............................................
Worksheet 03
{1+)}4his is est done in groups in the ne%t class lesson; each group compiles a list of
its results and outlines the kind of attitudes and the kind of language which emerge
from their surve!.
4he ne%t step is to turn to the pla!. 7hen we first meet Romeo $".1.1*,' he is
convinced that he is deepl! in love with Rosaline. <e is a conventional lover#
ehaving and talking in the wa! then e%pected of lovers. "t is important for students to
understand these conventions# so that an! later change in language or ehaviour can
e appreciated. 4his kind of comprehension is the aim of the following activit!.
4he class together e%amines two short scenes in which Romeo appears efore he
meets ?uliet. 4his can e done ! listening to a recording# or to the teacherBs reading#
with rief elucidation of an! maJor difficulties in the te%t. 4he! are then# in groups#
13,
given 7orksheet 3+# which gathers# under si% categories# the pronouncements on love
made ! Romeo and 0envolio. Fach group decides what view of love is eing
proposed in each case. After feedack and discussion of their conclusions# students
are asked to compare the attitudes and language of the two !oung men in the pla!
with the kind of language and concepts that emerged from their previous inquir! into
modernGda! stances. Fach group is given the task of drawing out from the comparison
an! specific aspects that seem to e particular to the pla! and its time span# whether
these relate to ideas# words# images or opinions.
'he %etrarchan over2s code
4his is a good point in the pla! for the activit! A(odesB# descried in (hapter * $see p.
+3'. Romeo# at the eginning of the pla!# conforms to the stereot!pe of an ideal
courtl! lover. "n fact# 8ercutio teases him aout it# sa!ing that Romeo is tr!ing to
outdo the famous love poet Petrarch himself# ! using his kind of poetic language and
imager! $his AnumersB'; A1ow is he for the numers that Petrarch flowed in. =aura to
his lad! was a kitchen wench . . .B $"".3.3.'.
6rom the material gathered on their worksheet# and from their discussions# students
should now e in a position to write ARules of feeling and ehaviourB for such a lover.
4his acts as a consolidation for the e%tended investigation into the language of love
that students have een engaged upon. A further followGup activit!# designed to
compare RomeoBs language efore and after he meets ?uliet# is descried after the
classroom activit! of role pla! and discussion which is outlined ne%t.
ove at $irst sight
"n Act " /cene *# Romeo and ?uliet meet for the first time and e%press their {1++}
immediate love for each other in the form of a sonnet which culminates in a kiss. 4he
following discussion and roleGpla! activit! precedes the reading of this scene and sets
the mood for it.
Kead the two scenes in which Komeo and +envolio talk about Komeo9s love ?. .
%0C!"& and .!.#$C0!@. *ere are some of the things that the two young men say
about love and the ex(erience of being in love. The (hrases have been grou(ed
together in six categories. Aour task is to decide together whether a certain definition
of love emerges from each set of (hrases, and write an a((ro(riate heading. The first
one has been done for you.
Love is . . . Love is . . . Love is . . .
a state #ull o# %arado2es MMMMMMMMM.. MMMMMMMMM..
?ove is3@ sad hours seem long -las that love, so gentle
heavy lightness 4riefs of mine own lie in his view
serious vanity heavy in my breast Should be so tyrannous
bright smoke ?love is3 @ a sea nourished and rough in (roofI
cold fire with lovers9 tears She will not stay the siege
sick health Shall 1 groan and tell thee? of loving terms
stillCwaking slee( 1n sadness, cousin, 1 do Nor bide th9encounter of
love a woman assailing eyes
She9ll not be hit with
>u(id9s arrow
Love is . . . Love is . . . Love is . . .
1*2
MMMMMMMMM.. MMMMMMMMM.. MMMMMMMMM..
a madness most discreet +id a sick man in sadness When the devout religion
Not mad but bound more make his will of mine eye
than a madman is )ne (ain is lessened by .aintains such falsehood,
Shut u( in (rison, ke(t another9s anguish then turn tears to fires
without my food )ne des(erate grief cures Trans(arent heretics, be
Whi((ed and tormented with another9s languish burnt for liars
Take thou some new
infection to thy eye
a choking gall
Worksheet 04
{1+.} /tudents are paired off $one o! and one girl# if possile' and are asked to
plan a short scene in which a o! and a girl meet for the first time and are strongl!
attracted to each other. 4he teacher offers a choice of situations in which the
encounter can take place 5 a train Journe!# a dance# a part!# a us stop# a park# on
holida!# for e%ample. A ma%imum length of fourteen lines of dialogue is set ut
students are free to decide which of the lovers does what proportion of the talking.
4he scene is then written# with the teacher assisting as necessar!. 7hen an! two
pairs are read!# each pair in turn performs its scene for the other. 4he teacher
circulates and selects pairs to perform their scenes for the whole class. 4he language
used in the scenes is discussed. "s it romanticI :oes it contain an! metaphorI 7hat
differences are there etween the manBs and the womanBs languageI :oes the scene
involve an! ph!sical contact# like a kissI :o actions speak louder than wordsI
"e$ore and a$ter
After the classroom warmGup Just descried# students# having now invested something
of themselves in the theme of love at first sight# read or listen to Act " /cene *# in
which Romeo and ?uliet first meet at the (apuletsB all. 7ith the help of a worksheet
$7orksheet 3.' the! make notes on the language Romeo uses oth efore and after he
meets ?uliet.
7hen the completed worksheets are compared and discussed after this activit!# or in
the ne%t class lesson# the feelings e%pressed ! Romeo# as well as the language he
uses# are compared to those noted in the earlier e%ercise done in class $7orksheet 3+'.
5omeo and 6ld #apulet
En discovering that Romeo# a 8ontague# is present at his masquerade# Eld (apulet
does not have him thrown out. <e seems to have heard good reports of Romeo and
stops the angr! 4!alt from attacking Romeo and reaking up the part!. 4ragic events
move so quickl! thereafter that Romeo never has the opportunit! of tr!ing to persuade
Eld (apulet that a marriage etween himself and ?uliet would e an admirale wa! of
healing their famil! quarrels. <owever# this situation which never occurs provides the
asis for a fantas! writing activit!.
/tudents are asked to imagine a meeting etween Romeo and Eld (apulet. 7ould
(apulet receive Romeo politel! or angril!I 7ould Romeo# with all his !outhful
charm# e ale to persuade the old manI 7ould the ancient famil! feud sour their
encounter and cause it to end itterl!I
1*1
4he teacher can also tr! to elicit the sort of language that might emerge $nowada!s' in
the course of such a conversation. 6or e%ample A"Bd like to {1+,} ask !our permission
to marr! ?uliet O to ask for ?ulietBs hand in marriageB; A"tBs out of the question. 1o
8ontague will ever marr! a daughter of mineB# etc.
7orksheet 3.
7hen the preparator! phase has een completed# the conversation can e written#
either as homework# or more enJo!al!# using the technique in which the class sits in
a circle and the dialogues rotate# first left and then right# thus enaling each student to
write# alternatel!# as Romeo and as {1.2} (apulet# and to produce a different
conversation with the students on either side of him or her. $4his is descried on p.
*,.'
'he &alcony scene
1*&
Listen to -ct 1 Scene $ in which Komeo and Buliet first meet. .ake notes about the way
Komeo ex(resses his new love, using the following headings.
Words/e,pressions (etaphors/images
The way Komeo refers to
his new love.
The way he talks of
himself as a lover.
What he says of love itself.
-re any of the ex(ressions or meta(hors noted above the same as ones already
ex(ressed by Komeo or +envolio in the (revious scenes? .ark them S.
What is the effect of these Hechoes9?
L ironical
L em(hasises continuity in Komeo9s character
L em(hasises the short s(ace of time between his loves
L ?other?@ MMMMMMMMMM.
>om(are the language and imagery noted above with Worksheet #&. 1s one set3
L more concrete than the other?
L more Hflowery9 than the other?
L more convincing?
L focussed more on the ex(erience of love?
L focussed more on the loved one?
L What other differences can you see between them? ........................................
7orksheet 3,# which is a Jumled summar!# accompanies home or class reading of
the alcon! scene $"".&'.
Worksheet 08
Answers; f# d# g# a# # J# h# i# c# e
'he &alcony sceneC a $ollow!up listening activity
4his is a classroom activit! to deepen studentsB understanding and appreciation of the
alcon! scene. <aving mastered gist through home {1.1} reading and the
accompan!ing worksheet# students now listen to a recording of Act "" /cene &. $A
video# if availale# can e used in the same wa!.' 4he teacher pla!s the recording
through without stopping. At the end# he or she asks students to Jot down quickl!# in
one or two sentences# a description of the part the! liked est# or found most
memorale or most moving. /tudents then get together in pairs to compare notes and
e%plain wh! the! made their particular choice.
Fach pair is then given its own specific task to carr! out as the! listen a second time
to the scene. Ene is responsile for making notes aout ?uliet# the other aout Romeo.
<ere are some e%amples of task slips that different pairs might e given $13 task slips#
one for each pair in a class of &.';
. Bot down any references to the sun made by Komeo.
Bot down any references to the sun made by Buliet.
!. Bot down any references to the moon made by Komeo.
Bot down any references to the moon made by Buliet.
1*3
Kead the balcony scene ?-ct 11 Scene !. Then try to rewrite the following summary
sentences, in (aragra(h form, in the correct se=uence.
a@ Komeo at last s(eaks and they share the distress of the feud between their
families.
b@ Buliet warns him of the dangers should he be discovered in the garden.
c@ -fter another brief absence, Buliet comes back and they arrange a time for
Buliet9s messenger to be sent to him the following day.
d@ Grom a hidden (osition, he listens to Buliet.
e@ With the a((roach of dawn, they reluctantly (art.
f@ Komeo steals into Buliet9s garden without being seen.
g@ *e hears her declaring her love for him and her sadness that family rivalries
should come between them.
h@ These worries are interru(ted by the nurse9s call, at which (oint Buliet says
she will be back in a few minutes.
i@ )n her return, Buliet asks Komeo to send word the next day, if he intends to
marry her.
5@ When she asks Komeo if he loves her, he o(enly declares his great love,
but Buliet is worried by the suddenness of their strong feelings for each
other.
-re there any im(ortant events or declarations which are in the scene but not in this
summary? Write them down if you think there are, and add them to your summary.
3. Bot down things said which show Komeo being bold.
Bot down things said which show Buliet being bold.
#. Bot down things said which show Komeo being reticent.
Bot down things said which show Buliet being reticent.
*. Bot down religious imagery used by Komeo.
Bot down religious imagery used by Buliet.
%. Bot down ex(ressions of fear or a((rehension s(oken by Komeo.
Bot down ex(ressions of fear or a((rehension s(oken by Buliet.
&. Bot down any very sim(le, straightforward statement made by Komeo.
Bot down any very sim(le, straightforward statement made by Buliet.
.. Bot down =uestions asked by Komeo.
Bot down =uestions asked by Buliet.
.ark rhetorical =uestions K ?=uestions where the s(eaker doesn9t really want
or ex(ect an answer@.
,. Bot down any meta(hors or com(arisons from nature, that is, flowers, birds,
etc. in Komeo9s s(eeches.
Bot down any meta(hors or com(arisons from nature in Buliet9s s(eeches.
12. Bot down references to family made by Komeo.
Bot down references to family made by Buliet.
. Bot down references to marriage made by Komeo.
Bot down references to marriage made by Buliet.
1&. Bot down any concrete (lans for the immediate future ex(ressed by Komeo.
Bot down any concrete (lans for the immediate future ex(ressed by Buliet.
". Bot down any ex(ression of concern about safety ex(ressed by Komeo.
Bot down any ex(ression of concern about safety ex(ressed by Buliet.
#. Bot down wishes ex(ressed by Komeo.
$. Bot down wishes ex(ressed by Buliet.
4he recording is pla!ed with a few pauses to allow students to take notes. 7hen this
has een done# students are given a series of questions on a {1.&} worksheet $see
7orksheet *2'. 4he! must provide answers supported ! quotations from the pla!.
Fach pair will alread! have gathered material appropriate for one or other of the
questions. 4he pairs must now consult one another and# ! pooling their resources#
find a quotation to support their opinion on each question.
Angel2s advocates
"n Act """ /cene 1# troule is rewing once more etween 8ontagues and (apulets. A
fight is imminent etween 4!alt and 8ercutio.
As a first step# students read the scene silentl!# to get a asic understanding of it. 4he
class is then divided into two groups. Ene group# of {1.3} four to 1& students# consists
of the characters in this scene. 4he! choose roles and rehearse their reading of the
scene.
4he remaining students in the class are asked to imagine that the! can travel through
time and e transported into the pla!. 4he! choose a point somewhere etween lines
33 and 131# where the! are to appear and tr! to keep the peace. Fach student can
deliver one speech to achieve this aim.
0efore the time travel takes place# students# in pairs# rainstorm to uild a range of
arguments the! can use in their speeches. 4he! then individuall! write the speeches#
with the teacher helping as necessar!.
4he ne%t stage involves a dramatic performance of Act """ /cene 1. 0efore the scene
commences# the teacher nominates the AtimeGtravelling angelsB who will stand up
1*3
during the scene# at their chosen point# and deliver their speeches. As each
interruption occurs# the students with the official roles in the scene are instructed to
AfreeHeB while each angelBs speech is eing delivered# then to continue the scene.
4o end the session# the teacher and students discuss the impact of the interruptions
and consider whether an!thing could have prevented the two deaths in that scene.
Worksheet 1: {1.&}
{1.3}'hen and now
7orksheet *1 is a matching activit! to help students understand Act """ /cene 3# as
the! read it on their own.
1**
-nswer the following =uestions, su((orting your answer in each case with a
=uotation from the Hbalcony scene9 ?11.!@. 1f you haven9t got an a((ro(riate =uotation,
ask a classmate.
Which o$ the two loversC
is more (ractical? Komeo8Buliet
Quotation3 ......................................................................................................................
is more imaginative? Komeo8Buliet
Quotation3 ......................................................................................................................
is more attached to his8her family? Komeo8Buliet
Quotation3 ......................................................................................................................
is more extravagant in s(eech? Komeo8Buliet
Quotation3 ......................................................................................................................
is more fearful of the conse=uences of their love? Komeo8Buliet
Quotation3 ......................................................................................................................
is more confident? Komeo8Buliet
Quotation3 ......................................................................................................................
is more forceful? Komeo8Buliet
Quotation3 ......................................................................................................................
is more realistic? Komeo8Buliet
Quotation3 ......................................................................................................................
is more clearCsighted? Komeo8Buliet
Quotation3 ......................................................................................................................
Worksheet 1' {1.3}
1*)
{1.*}%lotting movement
4his activit! helps classes imagine a production of the pla!# even if the! do not
actuall! put it on; it can e done individuall! or in groups.
/tudents are asked to plot on paper# preferal! graph paper# the movements of
actors in one particular scene. 4he graph paper represents the stage area# and each
characterBs movements are indicated ! a different t!pe of line# with numers
corresponding to the speeches uttered. "t is preferale for students to use different
colours instead of the conventions shown here. 4he task can e quite comple%# as with
the swordpla! scenes# or the scene at the (apuletsB feast; or simpler# as in the scenes
in ?ulietBs edroom. 4he e%ample shown in 6igure 1. is from Act """. ?uliet# alone
after RomeoBs e%it# has to face first her mother# then her e%tremel! irate father# then
the 1urseBs heartless advice to reJect Romeo.
1*+
1*.
1*,
Figure '5 {1.*G1..}
Friar awrence2s letter
"n Act "> /cene 1# 6riar =awrence tells ?uliet that he intends to send a letter to Romeo
to tell him that ?uliet is to feign death# and to ask Romeo to come ack so that he and
6riar =awrence can e with ?uliet when she awakes;
1n the meantime, against thou shalt awake,
Shall Komeo by my letters know our drift.
-nd hither shall he comeF $">.".113'
/tudents# in groups# discuss what 6riar =awrence would sa! in his letter# and how est
to phrase it in order not to alarm Romeo ut to reassure him. 4hen# individuall!#
perhaps as homework# each learner writes 6riar =awrenceBs letter in modern idiom.
72d do anything $or youB dearB anything 8 8 8
0! the time the students are approaching the end of the pla!# the! are ound to have
identified with the situation of the two lovers and to have thought aout what lovers
are prepared to do rather than live without each other. 4his activit! aims to draw out
the studentsB own potential response to a similar situation in their own lives.
"f it is availale# a song from =ionel 0artBs Eliver# a musical version of :ickensB
Eliver 4wist# can e used as a first step. 4he students are asked to write down some of
the things that the singer sa!s he would do for his {1.,} loved one# while the! listen.
4he teacher quickl! goes through the l!rics after the class has told him or her what
the! heard.
1e%t# the learners are given 7orksheet *&# and the! tick the things that the! feel
sure the! would do for someone the! loved# rather than live without that person.
"n groups# students compare answers and e%plore differences etween their views.
After a short plenar! discussion to widen the discussion# students are asked to
reconsider the decision made ! Romeo and ?uliet. 7ould the! sa! that this decision
indicates that the lovers were madI emotionall! unalancedI immatureI deludedI . . .
1)2
Worksheet 1+
*iscussion &ased on prioritising
4his is an activit! designed to stimulate oral e%pression and to help students think
aout the Ainevitailit!B of the tragic outcome.
/tudents in small groups or pairs stud! the following list of possiilities;
The tragedy would not have ha((ened if3
a@ The stars had been in a different configuration when Komeo and Buliet were
born.
b@ Lady >a(ulet had been a better mother, so that Buliet had felt able to confide
in her.
c@ The a(othecary had been less (overtyCstricken, and refused to sell Komeo
the (oison.
d' Griar Bohn had been able to deliver Griar Lawrence9s letter to Komeo, instead
of being (revented by chance from doing so.
e@ Komeo had been less im(etuous and waited instead of taking (oison so
=uickly.
f' {1,2}Buliet had refused to take the (otion.
g@ Griar Lawrence had arrived at the tomb a few minutes earlier.
h' Komeo9s (age +althasar had disobeyed his master and =uickly raised the
alarm.
i' The two families had sought to be reconciled instead of kee(ing to their old
=uarrel.
/tudents are asked to choose three and place them in order of importance; first#
second and third. 4he! must then decide which of the following statements fit each of
their three choices;
Tragedy results from a chance coincidence of events.
Tragedy results from (reCordained fate.
Tragedy is caused by human error.
Tragedy results from a flaw in the human character.
1)1
Gor a man8woman 1 loved, 1 feel sure that 1 would3
1. .ove to another city or town rather than live without him8her. L
&. >hange my religion rather than live without him8her. L
3. /eceive or disobey my (arents, rather than live without him8her. L
3. Wait any number of years for him8her to return if we were
se(arated, rather than live without him8her (ermanently. L
*. 4ive u( my 5ob to look after him8her if he8she had an
incurable illness, rather than live without him8her. L
). 4ive u( my life, if he8she died rather than live without him8her. L
Tragedy does not ha((en in real life3 it is a distortion of (robable events im(osed by
the writer.
After discussion in groups and then comparison of choices made# students could e
asked to prepare a short oral presentation $one or two minutes' in which the! Justif!
their choice of one $or more' of the aove statements ! referring specificall! to the
pla!.
The .and(o (y Edward $l(ee
"
4here are good reasons for using this pla! with foreign learners; it is ver! rief# and
its simple# ever!da! language presents few prolems. Although on one level it can e
read as a rather iting comment on the American wa! of life G and death G there is a
sense in which it also mediates issues that are universal; how to cope with the elderl!;
how to face approaching death; how to retain human feeling within the dehumanising
rituals of social intercourse. 4hese are themes which ma! not appeal to the !ounger
reader; the pla! is proal! more effectivel! used with mature students or with
learners in their final secondar! school !ears.
Ene difficult! in presenting the pla! stems from its modern st!le# which {1,1} ma!
reak with the readerBs e%pectations. 4he long warmGup session descried elow was
devised to allow students to ecome thoroughl! immersed in some of the themes
efore the! come to the pla! itself. 4his often has the effect of rela%ing learners so
that the! enter into the spirit of the pla! and enJo! it rather than worr!ing undul!
aout Awhat it is sa!ingB. 4he meaning of this kind of pla! is intimatel! linked with
what it is# and it therefore suffers from eing paraphrased. 4his is one reason for our
recommendation that teachers tr! to have their students put the pla! on# in a more or
less elaorate form. "ts small cast# almost are set# and simple language make it ideal
for a fullGscale performance# where this is possile and desirale. Fven a minimall!
staged reading performance in class# however# will conve! something of its dramatic
qualit! and allow students to appreciate the force of its imager!# as well as its humour
and iron! $see AReading and performing the pla!B on p. 1,3'.
4he pla! is a sort of modern fale aout death. A couple# 8omm! and :add!# carr!
the womanBs mother# ADrandmaB# on to the stage and put her into a sando%. 4he!
then sit down to await the event which has rought them here; DrandmaBs death.
8omm! and :add! are ver! an%ious to preserve all the conventions and do
ever!thing in a tasteful wa!. 4he! have even hired musicians for the occasion. 0ut
these social traces cover a callous lack of feeling. Drandma# who seems at first in her
second infanc!# is graduall! revealed to e a pluck! old lad! with a lot of life left in
her. 0ut to no avail. 4he pleasant !oung man who has een doing e%ercises in the
ackground# and who is the Angel of :eath# eventuall! comes forward to perform his
appointed role. Drandma is at first surprised# then resigned# while 8omm! and
:add!# having shed conventional tears# go riskl! ack to their own lives.
Warm!up
)
in The ?oo Story and *ther #lays
1)&
4his is an activit! which involves discussion and writing and is done in class prior to
reading the pla!. 4he aim is to get learners thinking aout relationships etween the
generations# and elicit their own feelings aout them.
4he class is divided into groups of three or four. <alf the groups receive 7orksheet
*3A# the others 7orksheet *30. "f it is necessar!# the teacher e%plains the idea of an
Aagon! auntB column in a newspaper or magaHine# and asks the class to imagine that
the! must suppl! useful advice for people with real prolems. $4he! are not told at
this stage that the material comes from a pla!.'
Droups discuss an appropriate response# write it# then each memer of group A
meets with one memer of group 0 to compare prolems and answers. A general
feedack session follows# with discussion of the questions raised.
1)3
Worksheet 1,A {1,&}
{1,3}
1)3
Worksheet 1,B
5eading and per$orming the play
At the end of the warmGup activit!# which will usuall! take up a whole class lesson#
learners are given the pla! to read at home. "f this is not appropriate# reading can e
deferred to the ne%t class lesson.
<ome reading can e accompanied ! a worksheet to highlight one {1,3} particular
feature of the pla!. 6or e%ample# 7orksheet *3 focuses the studentBs attention on
ideas of childhood and old age.
A performance is planned for the ne%t lesson. Roles are given out# with nonGactors
assuming responsiilit! for arranging a set $at the front of the classroom' and
providing the props $these are minimal; chairs# a sando% or something to represent
one# a ucket and spade'. "n man! classes# there will e one person at least who can
1)*
pla! a musical instrument ut if not# the AmusicianB can mime in time to a recording.
4he cast need not memorise their lines ut are asked to practise reading them so that
the! can carr! off their performance fairl! fluentl!. Providing that a rela%ed
atmosphere is maintained# we have found that students enJo! this kind of staged
reading a great deal.
Worksheet 10
Follow!up activity
4his activit! is suggested for advanced students stud!ing literature as a main part of
their course# or preparing to do so at the higher education level.
An interesting aspect of The Sand!o)# which links it to one of the mainstreams in
contemporar! drama# is its pla! on the idea of theatriG {1,*} calit!# of appearance and
realit!# of ArolesB in life and ArolesB in dramatic productions. Realist pla!s attempt to
portra! life as it is led outside the theatre. The Sand!o) portra!s this AoutsideB life as
though it were itself a staged pla!.
A teacher wishing the students to reflect on this aspect could first ask them to skim
through the short pla! once again and e%tract all the references where characters speak
of their lives as though the! were in fact engaged in a pla!. 4his can e done singl! or
in groups# and the resulting list put up on the oard. "t should include items such as;
4randma3 Aou9re . . . you9re an actor, hunh?
Aoung man3 Aes, 1 am.
4randma ?to the musician@3 *oney, do you (lay all through this (art?
/addy ?starting@3 What was that?
.ommy3 1t was an offCstage rumble . . . and you know what that means . . .
Aoung man3 Rh . . . ma9amF 1 . . . 1 have a line here.
1))
1n 'he Sand&o, we meet a young man, a middleCaged cou(le, and an old lady. The
way each one behaves is a mixture of what we ex(ect from the old and the very
young. List as many as(ects as you can for each character, under the headings given.
"ehaviour appropriate to
children
"ehaviour appropriate to
grown!ups
.ommy and /addy
4randma
Aoung man
Which character seems to you most Hchildish9? Why?
Aoung man ?(re(aredF delivers the line like a real amateur@3 1 am the -ngel of /eath.
1 am . . . uh . . . 1 am come for you.
4randma3 What 1 meant was . . . you did that very well, dear.
4he teacher asks students to give their impressions aout this aspect of the pla!. :o
the! find it startlingI offGputtingI :oes it stop them from elieving in the charactersI
7hat could e its purposeI <ow true to their own e%periences is itI <ave the! ever
felt as though the! were involved in a performance in their lives# instead of ehaving
spontaneousl!I
4his general discussion is followed ! a task in groups $or discussed in groups then
written individuall! as homework'; to write a ver! short sketch in which some
situation in their real life is depicted as though it were a stage pla!. /ituations with a
strong element of ritual immediatel! spring to mind# since participants in them often
feel as though the! were pla!ing a stage role; getting married# going through a
graduationO christeningOconfirmation ceremon!# appearing in court $swearing the oath
e%actl! like in a film'# going for a Jo interview# attending a funeral# etc. /ome of
these can e suggested if learners are at a loss for ideas.
4his e%ercise often stimulates the interest of students in the theme and how it is
handled ! other modern dramatists. "t can e e%plored further ! reading other pla!s
that emod! it# for e%ample 4om /toppardBs The Real ;nspector ound or :avid
<areBs A Map of the World.
{1,)}- .hort stories
/hort stories are often an ideal wa! of introducing students to literature in the foreignG
language classroom. 6or the teacher# the! offer man! immediate and striking
advantages;
5 4heir practical length means the! can usuall! e read entirel! within one or
two class lessons. /lightl! longer works can e sectioned in the same wa! as
novels or pla!s# ut still e completed in a few lessons.
5 4he! are less daunting for a foreign reader to tackle or to reread on his or her
own# and are more suitale when set as home tasks. /tudents get that feeling
of achievement at having come to the end of a whole work# much sooner.
5 4he! offer greater variet! than longer te%ts. A teacher can choose ver!
different short stories# so that there is a greater chance of finding something to
appeal to each individualBs tastes and interests.
5 /hort stories are especiall! valuale for sessional courses# summer courses or
the like; or for teachers with shifting classes; evening courses# for e%ample# or
continuousGintake adult classes.
7e hope that the ideas on the following pages will encourage a creative use to e
made of this rewarding genre. 7e have alwa!s found that eing creative in presenting
and e%ploiting the te%t is# if an!thing# even more important with short stories than
with longer works. 4he! are so rief that if we are not careful# the! ma! e less
involving for the foreign reader; there is not enough time to e drawn into the fiction
and feel reall! at home within its created universe. 4he! are also e%tremel!
compressed. 4his is of course what makes them such a delight; when a short stor!
writer is successful# he or she encapsulates e%perience with a masterl! econom! of
language and imager!. 7e are invited to see the universe in a grain of sand. 0ut this
compression can make it difficult for foreign readers to appreciate the qualit! of the
work# even when the! understand its surface meaning. 7hen the! look at the grain of
1)+
sand# the! must e helped to see the universe within it# and to respond to it on an
emotional level.
6or this reason# care and preparation are needed for successful presentation of short
stories. 4he grids and activities suggested in previous chapters are Just as valuale
here# partl! ecause the! diversif! classroom procedure and make it more enJo!ale#
partl! ecause the! encourage students to go ack over the pages read# look more
closel! at {1,+} the detail# mull over what is happening. Rereading is a ke! element in
the full appreciation of short stories; ecause of its concision# a short stor!Bs full
richness is hardl! ever revealed in a first reading.
7e have assumed that class time need not alwa!s e devoted to the actual process
of reading the short stor!# either silentl! or out loud. /ome activities depend upon
students having een given the stor! previousl! to read on their own# usuall! with the
suggestion that the! read for gist without stopping to look up ever! unknown word.
Ether activities give learners a taste of the plot or theme of a particular stor!# which
the! are then left to read on their own. "f classwork is to have an! repercussion on the
reading haits of students# the! must e encouraged to ecome more independent in
the foreign language# Just as the! are# presumal!# when the! choose a edside ook
in their own language.
;The hitchhi0er< (y 9oald =ahl
#
4his simple ut effective stor! holds the readerBs interest throughout. "t concerns a
writer who is enJo!ing a drive in his new car. <e stops to pick up a hitchhiker and
ecomes intrigued when he is unale to guess the manBs occupation. 4he hitchhiker
tempts the writer into testing the ma%imum speed of the car ut the e%periment is
rought to a halt ! an equall! speed! policeman on a motor c!cle. <e takes down
details of the two men and warns the writer that a heav! fine and loss of licence are
inevitale. 4he Journe! continues and the hitchhikerBs AskillB is revealed he is a
AfingersmithB. <e shows the writer some of the elongings he has picked from his
pockets during the ride. 4he writer is astonished ut overJo!ed to discover that his
passenger also has something elonging to the policeman . . .
6or classroom purposes the stor! divides neatl! into four sections which can e
presented for listening or reading or a comination of oth. 4he following activities
aim to integrate different language activities and to ma%imise student involvement and
response.
Warm!up
/tudents are asked to stud! some photographs of various hitchhikers $see 6igure 1,'
and to decide whether or not the! would give each of them a lift. Fach decision must
e accompanied ! an e%planation. /tudents are grouped to compare decisions riefl!.
6or a more structured warmGup# the teacher can use a simple worksheet $see
7orksheet **'. "f necessar!# the whole activit! can e preceded ! some practice of
appropriate {1,,} language using one of the photos $for e%ample# A<e looks . . . A# A<e
looks a it . . . A# A<e looks as though . . . A'.
+
in More Tales of the (ne)pected
1).
{1,.}
1),
Worksheet 11 {1,.}
{&22}5eading or listening in sections
/tudents read or listen to the first section of the stor! $ending A4he secret of life . . . is
to ecome ver! ver! good at somethinB thatBs ver! ver! Aard to doB'. 4he writer has
picked up the hitchhiker ut is unale to find out what he does for a living. 4he class
is asked to consider what it knows so far aout the hitchhiker and then to choose the
occupation he seems most likel! to have# using the following list as a prompt;
carpenter# iceGcream salesman# knifeGsharpener# artist# vet# musician# lacksmith.
(hoices are compared and students asked to Justif! the chosen occupation in terms of
the stor!Bs content.
1+2
Study the four (hotogra(hs of hitchhikers in Gigure 6 and com(lete the boxes
below.
Aou can assume the following3
: Aou are alone in your car.
: Aou are not in a hurry.
: 1t is safe to sto( your car if you want to.
: *itchhiking is (ermitted along this road.
: 1t is daytime.
7hoto no. Sex .8G -((rox. age 7ossible
occu(ation
-((earance
?face, clothing,
(ersonality, etc.@
-re you going to sto( for the (erson in (hoto ? A2S8N)
-re you going to sto( for the (erson in (hoto !? A2S8N)
-re you going to sto( for the (erson in (hoto "? A2S8N)
-re you going to sto( for the (erson in (hoto #? A2S8N)
Now discuss the reasons for your decisions in grou(s.
4he second section of the stor! descries the encounter with the policeman $ending
A4hen he kicked the starter and roared off up the road out of sightB'. 4he language is
straightforward so a response activit! is appropriate; students are asked to imagine
that the same event has happened in their countr! or countries. 7hat would e the
differences in the policemanBs ehaviour# attitude# questions# and the eventual
punishmentI "f necessar!# the teacher puts these questions on a simple questionnaire.
/tudents discuss in groups and possil! improvise a sketch of the parallel situation in
the target language to illustrate the differences the! perceive.
4he third section of the stor! $ending A0ecause !ouBve got fantastic fingersB'
satisfies the readersB or listenersB curiosit! as the! find out that the hitchhiker is a
pickpocket. <is Afantastic fingersB are his special skill. As a lightGhearted response
activit!# the teacher asks the students to think aout their own special skills. 4hen he
or she tells them to write their prime skill on a piece of paper. 4he skill doesnBt have
to e ver! special# Just something that each of them is good at. 4he teacher collects
the slips of paper and puts them into a hat together with his or her ownK /tudents then
take out one piece of paper each $not their own' and tr! to guess who is the possessor
of the special talent written on it.
4he final section of the stor! reveals the surprise. 4he hitchhiker has pickpocketed
the policemanBs noteook with all the details of the two men and of the offence in it.
<e has saved the da!. An attractive wa! of commencing this final part of the narrative
is to ask the class to tr! to predict the end of the stor!.
As followGup# after reading or listening# several activities work well;
5 /tudents have to determine the e%act point in the stor! at which the hitchhiker
took the policemanBs noteook. 4he! write down words from the stor! that
mark the chosen point. Results are then compared.
5 /tudents are asked to write a newspaper article aout the incident with the
headline APE="(F8A1 4A@F1 6ER A R":FB.
5 /tudents are put into pairs for an improvised role pla!. 4he teacher gives each
pair a stor!Grelated situation to think aout and then act out. /ituations include
the following;
{&21}5 Policeman and writer meet in a pu shortl! after the incident; policeman is offG
dut!.
5 PolicemanBs wife is talking to ne%tGdoor neighour over the garden fence;
neighour has read a newspaper account of the incident.
5 <itchhiker meets policeman in motorwa! cafS the same da!; policeman asks
for his noteook.
/tudents prepare their respective sketches and each situation is performed for the
rest of the class ! volunteering pairs. 4he teacher monitors for later language repair
work# as necessar!.
;The star< and ;The s!read o' Ian >ichol< (y $lasdair *ray
+
4hese are two e%tremel! compact stories incorporating a strongl! surreal element.
"n A4he starB# a !oung o! sees a AstarB drop from the sk! into the ack !ard of his
house. <e finds it and treasures it# secretl!. 7hen he takes it to school# however# he is
caught looking at it ! his teacher. Rather than relinquish it# he swallows it and
ecomes a AstarB too.
"n A4he spread of "an 1icholB# "an 1ichol# a riveter# finds he has a lump on a ald
patch at the ack of his head. "t spreads and graduall! ecomes a complete doule#
.
in (nlikely Stories7 Mostly
1+1
another "an 1ichol. A struggle for ownership of identit! ensues. 7hen that is finall!
resolved# each of the two discovers a lump at the ack of his head . . .
Group work and mime
"n this activit!# the stories are presented without the usual warmGup# and mime is used
to stimulate interest in these and other contemporar! short stories and in e%tensive
reading. 4he aim is to develop self and group reliance in comprehension; to encourage
individual class memers to share their own interpretations of the stories without the
feeling that there is a single ArightB view.
6"R/4 /4ADF; RFA:"1D A1: -1:FR/4A1:"1D
4he class is divided into two halves# with the e%planation that each is going to read a
different short stor!. A4he starB is distriuted to one half# A4he spread of "an 1icholB to
the other half# and interest is uilt ! mentioning that these are unusual stories.
/tudents read# marking an! unknown words with pencil.
7hen the stories have een read once# students are placed into groups of four# and
asked to discuss difficult vocaular! and check understandG {&2&} Ging of the stor!.
4he teacher helps out if the comined group cannot guess the meaning of an! word or
e%pression.
/F(E1: /4ADF; 8"8"1D 4<F /4ER"F/
4he small groups are told that the! have to prepare a mime of the stor! the! have read
and then perform it for one of the groups which read the other stor!; the! need mime
onl! the main narrative and can divide it into scenes if the! wish. Droups then
perform their mimes and the watching group guesses aloud the stor!Gline eing
performed. $7ith larger classes# the teacher might need more than one room.'
,
4<"R: /4ADF; RFA:"1D 4<F /F(E1: /4ER9
7hen mimes have een completed# the other stories are distriuted so that each
student can read the stor! the! saw mimed. /tudents are paired# one from each of the
groups formed in the first stage. Fach student helps the other with an! difficult words
in the second stor!.
6E-R4< /4ADF; :"/(-//"E1
4he teacher has several choices at this point. <e or she can simpl! ask the class to sa!
which stor! the! liked est# which the! thought most unusual# {&23} etc. and# after a
short discussion# give out worksheets for homework# or the teacher can read oth
stories to the class at the eginning of the ne%t literature lesson# then let students go
through the worksheets together in groups $see 7orksheets *) and *+'. 4his usuall!
produces a good range of views and deate# and it uilds confidence in e%pressing
personal interpretations# rather than simpl! rel!ing on received ones.
,
4he miming of stories also works ver! well for stories read privatel! at home. /tudents then start the
class ! preparing the mime $second stage'.
1+&
Worksheet 13 {&2&}
{&23}
1+3
1n HThe star9 it is (ossible to build u( a good (icture of >ameron, the boy. Gind =uotes
from the story which indicate or suggest the following =ualities.
secretiveness lack of confidence
loneliness lack of love
fear other?
shyness
Which of the following ideas or things do you most readily associate with the image
of the star in the story?
a marble imagination eternal life
suicide a longing for love flight from reality
Write down any other thoughts you have on the (ossible meanings associated with
the star. /iscuss your thoughts with others in your grou(.
1+3
Worksheet 14
;The edge< (y 9? @? >arayan
1/
4his is a fairl! long stor!# with some vocaular! that ma! e unfamiliar# est suited#
therefore# to more advanced levels. At first# the stor! seems almost plotless# as it
graduall! uilds up a picture of its endearing central character; Ranga# a knifeGgrinder
in "ndia. A wealth of details sketch his ackground and idios!ncratic personalit!# his
love for his daughter# his repeated conflicts with his wife# his pride in his trade and his
relationship with his customers. Fventuall!# though# Ranga encounters officials from
the governmentBs sterilisation programme. 4he! cannot understand what having a
child means to this poor illiterate man# while he at first fails to realise wh! e%actl! he
is eing offered the princel! sum of 32 rupees. "n a final iron!# the knifeGgrinder runs
awa!# unwilling to have the sharp instruments of his trade used on himK
{&23}Warm!up activities
/PF(-=A4"1D A0E-4 4<F 4"4=F
/tudents are told that the! are going to read a stor! called A4he edgeB. (an the! think
what AedgeB is eing referred toI 7hat e%pressions do the! know containing the word
AedgeBI 6or e%ample; the sharp or lunt edge of a knife# the edge of a cliff# the edge of
town# to live on the edge of povert!# the edge of sanit! O the edge of madness# a sharpG
edged tongue# to e on the edge of a reakthrough# to e on the edge of a reakdown#
etc. All suggestions are accepted at this stage. 4he teacher puts them on the oard#
while students Jot them down in their noteooks. 4he! are to e kept for the followGup
activit! $see p. &2,'.
(E8PAR"1D ="6F/49=F/
4his is designed to elicit studentsB attitude to the central situation in the short stor!.
/tudents are asked to think aout what life is like for a ver! poor# illiterate man in a
small rural village. 7hat differences would there e etween that personBs life and the
12
in Malugdi %ays
1+*
HThe s(read of 1an Nichol9 is an unusual story. 7erha(s it does not have a moral in
the traditional sense, but if you were asked to su((ly one, what would it be? *ere
are some (ossible morals. 1f none of them seems a((ro(riate, make u( your own
and say why you think it suitable. 2ven if you choose one of the morals from the
list, 5ustify your selection.
(oral ;3 2veryone is afraid of meeting a double.
(oral >3 Narcissus got it all wrong.
(oral ?3 1nside everyone there9s another (ersonality trying to get out.
(oral @3 No form of birth control is safe.
(oral G3 >reativity isn9t always original.
(oral H3 Whatever you do, life goes on relentlessly.
(oral :3 Know Hthyselves9.
Aour moral3 ........................................
Aour choice and reason3 ........................................
life of someone who has een educated and lives and works in an uran environment
$their own lives# if that is the case'I 4his can e done as a general class discussion#
although working in groups# with a grid like the one in 7orksheet *. often ensures a
more evenl! distriuted participation.
7hen the various groups have filled in their grid# there is a general feedack session
to estalish an overall class grid.
A listening activity
/tudents read ten statements aout the first section# which the! are aout to hear. 4wo
of them are false. 4heir task is to tick the correct statements and mark the two
incorrect ones# with an N $see 7orksheet *,'.
4he teacher then reads out the first section $33 lines 5 appro%imatel! twoGandGaGhalf
minutesB reading time' once or twice as necessar!. 4he worksheet acts as a miniG
summar! to guide students into the stor!# and also introduces and e%plains some of
the terms needed for comprehension 5 dhoti# peripatetic# grinding# etc.
After answers have een checked# the teacher asks students for their impressions of
the main character# so far. As man! details as possile aout his personalit! are
elicited and Jotted down# to e kept for later reference.
After this first encounter with the te%t# students can do the AintensiveB vocaular!
e%ercise which is descried ne%t# or the class can go on to a reading of the first three
pages# to e followed ! a discussion sparked ! an AinterpretationB questionnaire
$7orksheet )2'.
Worksheet 15 {&2*}
1+)
Worksheet 18 {&2)}
1++
Write comments on the contrasting lifestyles of the two kinds of (eo(le below.
Attitudes toC An illiterate person in a
small rural community
An educated person in
an ur&an environment
'imeC
What does it mean?
*ow im(ortant is it?
FamilyC
What does it mean?
*ow im(ortant is it?
#ommunity3
*ow does an individual
relate to his community?
#ommunication with
othersC
*ow can an individual
communicate with others?
'he central government3
*ow can an individual
relate to it?
A 4o& or trade3
What does it mean?
*ow im(ortant is it?
Age3
What does it mean?
What are its s(ecial rights,
(rivileges or duties?
A voca&ulary game
6or this e%ercise# learners are given the first page of the short stor! to read $&3 lines'.
4he teacher has prepared as man! slips of paper as there are students in the class. <alf
the slips have one difficult or unusual word from the te%t; the other half have a
definition of one such word. 4he e%ample shown is worked out for a class of 32
students.
2xam(le3 $ words and their definitions, each one to be (ut on a sli( of (a(er
and used for a vocabulary game based on (age of HThe edge9 ?for a
class of "0@.
Words *e$initions
(ressed Rrged stronglyF com(elledF forced.
tactics The art or skill of organising your efforts to reach a desired
aim.
scythe -n instrument for cutting grass or other cro(s. 1t has a long thin curving blade
and is held with both hands. 1t is used with a long swee(ing
motion.
{&2+}
hatchet - small or light axe with a short handle, for use with one hand.
lo=uaciousness The condition of someone who is talkative, who loves to talk.
(atchy Kesembling a (atchworkF made u( of different bits and (iecesF having an
uneven a((earance.
tuft - bunch of small things, usually soft and flexibleClike hairs, feathers, etc.,
fastened at the base together.
1+.
Aou are going to hear the first (art of a short story by K. K. Narayan called HThe
edge9. +efore you listen, read the following statements. 0ight of them describe the
facts in the short story accurately. 'wo of them are false. -s you listen to the story,
tick ?T@ the statements which are true. .ark the two incorrect statements with an O.
'he statements are not in order.
. *e was dressed in a dhoti, a shirt and a turban. ?- dhoti is a looseCfitting cloth
worn around the middle (art of the body, by *indus.@
!. *e carried a (ortable grinding machine o(erated with a (edal.
". *e had become a millionaire by shar(ening swords for a .ahara5a.
#. *e liked to think that he could shar(en all kinds of instruments, not 5ust
knives.
$. *e did not work in one single (lace, but was (eri(atetic ?he moved from (lace
to (lace@.
%. *is name was Kanga, and he would never tell anyone his age.
&. *e did not have a moustache, but had a very full beard.
'. *e was a man who loved to talk on and on.
6. *e had a lot of trouble (ersuading tailors and barbers to have their knives
shar(ened.
0. *e had a loud voice and used to walk in the city streets calling for (eo(le to
come and have their knives and scissors shar(ened.
overlaid 7ut or (laced over something else.
almanac - calendar of months and days, with calculations and forecasts
based on the stars.
a dhoti - looseCfitting cloth worn around the middle (art of the body, by *indus.
khaki - dull brownishCyellow colour. )ften used for military uniforms.
sonorous )f sounds3 loud, dee(, or resonant.
highC(itched )f sounds3 high in tone, s=ueaky.
grindstone - disk of stone turning on a central axle and used for grinding,
shar(ening or (olishing.
(eeler - tool used to stri( anything of its outer layer, or its skin or rind ?for exam(le,
oranges, carrots, etc.@.
4he teacher puts all the slips into a container and lets each student choose one. 0!
reading out their word or definition to each other# students must now tr! to find their
partner.
4his activit! is usuall! rather chaotic at first# and the noise level can e rather high#
so that it can onl! e used in situations where there is no danger of disturing
neighouring classes. 0ut learners enJo! it# and it is an effective wa! of getting them
to use the conte%t to tr! to guess meanings.
As soon as pairs egin to form# the teacher puts two pairs together. Fach pair asks
the other two whether the! can provide a definition for their word; A:o !ou know
what UalmanacU meansIB "f the second pair can answer the! get a point. 4he! then go
on to the ne%t pair and repeat the procedure.
An 1interpretation2 /uestionnaire
/tudents read the first three pages of the short stor! $up to the paragraph eginning
ARanga ph!sicall! dwelt in the town no dout . . .B'.
4he! are then given 7orksheet )2 to fill in# singl! or in groups. 4hese are not
questions of fact or comprehension# which can e given a right or a wrong answer.
Rather# the! tr! to make learners think aout some of the underl!ing issues within the
te%tGthe! tr! to make them interpret it.
4his t!pe of questionnaire must e adapted to the level of the class. 7e have found
that it is useful to give students one or two suggestions to get {&2,} them started# ut
not too man!# ecause that tends to cramp their own imagination. =iterar! specialists
and more advanced learners need fewer suggestions# general students and less
advanced classes need more. A few suggestions are made after 7orksheet )2# from
which a teacher preparing such a worksheet might choose.
(omparing the completed worksheets and Justif!ing choices in pairs or groups is
followed ! general feedack and discussion.
1+,
Worksheet 3: {&2.}
*ther suggestions
1. <e didnBt want to e stereot!ped.
<e didnBt think it important.
<e thought it would give others power over him.
&. <e wasnBt worried aout his appearance.
<e trusted in fate to e good to him.
<e didnBt have a oss to nag at him.
3. <e never knew what their reaction would e.
<e had to work hard to convince them.
<e couldnBt trust them.
3. aggressive# full of pride in his skill# determined# caring# craft! . . .
*. <e thought hunger would go awa! if he took no notice.
<e wasnBt interested in an! personal comfort.
{&2,}6rdering events
4he class is now asked to read the ulk of the short stor! 5 up to the part where Ranga
meets the sterilisation teamGproal! as homework. $4he! read up to the paragraph
eginning A<e noticed a coming vehicle . . . A'.
7orksheets )1A and )10# which lead to the construction of a flowchart# can
accompan! home reading. 4he comparison and discussion of the flowcharts can e
reserved for the ne%t class lesson# otherwise the whole activit! can e done in class
after students have read the section on their own.
/tudents are given a list of 13 events which make up the stor! of RangaBs life as we
know it# up to the point where he meets the government officials. 4he events are given
1.2
Try to give as many answers as (ossible to the following =uestions. - few
suggestions have been made for you.
. Kanga never told anyone his age. Why not?
He didnt know it
He had #orgotten it
!. Kanga walked about the streets of .algudi Hin a blissful state9. Why was his
state blissful?
He lo,ed his work
He didnt ha,e to watch the clock
". Kanga was careful when he had to do business with tailors or barbers. Why?
He could not de%end on them
3hey re#used to ha,e their kni,es shar%ened
#. What words could you use to describe Kanga9s attitude to his work?
%ersistent
cunning
$. Kanga did not care much about food. Why not?
He didnt want to s%end too much money on #ood
He thought eating was necessary but not interesting
in a Jumled order. =earners must order them according to RangaBs chronolog!# then
fit them into the diagram of the flowchart the! have also een given. $6or an advanced
class# the teacher asks students to devise their own flowchart to portra! the stages of
RangaBs life.' 4he completed flowchart is shown in 6igure &2.
5eading to the end
4he class is now poised to finish the stor!# perhaps as home reading. "t is useful to
pause a moment efore doing so# to review what has een learned so far and tr! to
guess how the stor! might develop from this point. Ence the whole stor! has een
read# there are a variet! of followGup activities to choose from.
5eviewing 1edges2
/tudents are asked to return to the list of AedgesB the! wrote down efore starting to
read. "n groups# the! must now choose three of those e%pressions# the three which are
more appropriate to the stor!# and grade them in order of importance. 7hen lists are
compared at the end of this activit!# there is often fruitful disagreement and an
ensuing discussion on the stor!Bs man! levels of meaning and s!molism. 6or
homework# students are asked to write one sentence Justif!ing each one of their three
choices.
1.1
Worksheet 3'A {&12}
1.&
*ere is a list of # events in Kanga9s life as we know it so far. 7ut them in the right
order so that they tell his story as it ha((ened.
a@ *is wife refuses to move to town with him.
b@ The village smith demands a share of his (rofits and often wants a drink at
the tavern as well.
c@ *e walks through the streets of his village but cannot make enough money.
*is wife is discontented because they are so (oor.
d@ When his first line of moustache a((ears, he starts working as a knifeCgrinder.
e@ *is wife9s tem(er im(roves.
f@ *e consults the schoolmaster to find the right date for his de(arture to the
city.
g@ *e strikes his wife and she retaliates with the broom, driving him out of their
home.
h@ *e sets u( his grinding wheel as an assistant to the village smith, under the
big tamarind tree.
i@ *is daughter is old enough to be sent to the .ission school. *is wife wants
the child to leave school because it is too ex(ensive, but Kanga insists that
she must be educated.
5@ Kanga goes on a 5ourney to ex(lore the (ossibilities of work in .algudi, a
town !$ miles away. *e decides it is the (lace for him.
k@ *is wife has tantrums and won9t serve him food when he has been to the
tavern.
l@ *e decides to try his luck as a (eri(atetic shar(ener.
m' Kanga decides on a com(romise3 he works in .algudi but visits his family
every other month for a few days.
n@ *e wants his wife to try a si( of drink. She hates it and s(ills it all over the
floor.
1.3
1.3
Worksheet 3'B {&11}
1.*
Figure +: {&1&}
{&13}A grid leading to essay!writing
1.)
/tudents are given a grid to fill in $7orksheet )&'. 4he! are to Jot down a rief
quotation from the stor! $with page reference' which would give the reader
information aout each heading. 4his is intended as a class activit!. <alf the class is
asked to fill in details aout Ranga# the other half {&13} aout his wife. 7hen the task
is completed# students are paired to enale them to compare the grids of husand and
wife.
As homework# students can write an essa! either aout one of the characters; or
comparing and contrasting their personalities# strengths and weaknesses.
1.+
Worksheet 3+ {&13}
{&13}'elevision reportage
"n this classroom group activit!# each group must prepare and present a short
reportage on the events of the stor!# as though for a Aspecial reportB to e shown on
the evening news programme. /tudents ma! e given a framework to start them off#
as follows.
1..
Gind a brief =uote indicating Kanga9s8 Kanga9s wife9s attitude to the following. Write it
in the a((ro(riate box, with a (age reference.
Attitude
Good
Task in life
/aughter9s
education
Women9s role
/rinking
Kelationshi(s
with the other sex
Gate
7overty
.odern
civilisation
7lace in the
community
The younger
generation
The first (art of this television (rogramme features Bim8Bulia Smith, who is the reader
on the Hsix o9clock news9 every evening, and who starts off by reading the following
news item3
H1n an attem(t to im(rove living standards in 1ndia, the government has been
conducting a vigorous cam(aign aimed at reducing the birth rate. 7osters carrying
the cam(aign slogan UTwo Will /oV have been (ut u( all over the country. Teams of
s(ecialists have been sent to every region so that anyone who already has two or
more children can be sterilised. -ttractive cash bonuses will, it is ho(ed, convince
(eo(le to come forward voluntarily. +ut in some areas, the (rogramme has been
running into stiff o((osition. To see how (eo(le are reacting to the government9s
initiative, we go now to our s(ecial re(orter >hristine >arterC+rowne, who has been
interviewing (eo(le in and around the rural town of .algudi . . .9
/tudents now prepare this Aspecial reportB. Ene of them is to e the reporter# the others
her suJects; Ranga; the leader of the team of doctors carr!ing out the sterilisations;
RangaBs wife; the village schoolmaster# etc. 6or a more controversial report# groups
can e invited to include interviews with people likel! to have strong opinions; for
e%ample# the leader of the AntiGAortion =eague in 8algudi# the government e%pert
on relief to famineGstricken areas# etc.
4he teacher helps students prepare their scripts. 4he! are encouraged to make the
interviewees from the stor! act Ain characterB 5 for e%ample# would Ranga answer the
reporterBs questions directl!I 7ould he answer riefl! or tend to talk on and onI <ow
would RangaBs wife ehaveI 7ould she regret the lost 32 rupeesI And so on.
7hen groups are read!# the special reports are presented in front of the class# or put
on video if at all possile.
{&1*} ;The o!en window< (y .a0i 31? 1? Munro5
11
4his classic short stor! is ver! rief and therefore ideall! suited to a doule lesson of
sa! oneGandGaGhalf hours.
4he stor! is cleverl! constructed. >era# a selfGconfident 1*G!earGold# talks a nervous
visitor# 8r 1uttel# into elieving that her auntBs husand and rother never returned
after a hunting trip# ut that her aunt still leaves the 6rench window open in the elief
that the! will turn up. 7hen three figures approach the house# 1uttel flees in panic#
while >era puts her talents for AromanceB to instant use ! inventing a farGfetched
e%planation for her aunt.
Warm!up
A fullGscale classroom activit! is used as a prelude to the actual reading of the stor!. "t
aims to encourage learnersB imaginative development# to foster their oral skills# and#
11
in The #enguin $omplete Saki
1.,
aove all# to uild the desire to read literature. "t is particularl! successful with
students who know each other well.
Fach pair is given 7orksheet )3 which contains a list of the main characters and a
few sentences $e%tracted from the stor!# although the! do not know this !et'. 4he! are
then asked to uild an! stor! that retains the elements contained in the e%tracts.
=earners new to this kind of creative activit! can e given further help ! eing told
to answer the following questions# as the! rainstorm for ideas# and ! having their
attention drawn to ke! vocaular! items such as the word Acreep!B;
. Who is .r Nuttel and why is he visiting .rs Sa((leton?
&. What was .rs Sa((leton9s tragedy?
3. Who are the figures? Where have they come from and what do they want?
#. Where has the s(aniel come from? Whose is it?
$. Why does .r Nuttel run away in fear?
Ence each pair has pieced together its own stor!# the! tell it to other pairs# and listen
to other versions# in turn. 4hen the class is invited to read the original stor! silentl!
straight through. "mmediate reactions are requested# after which the teacher can move
into more conventional comprehension work with worksheets# or discussion of
character and plot.
<ere# as an e%ample# is an imagined stor! produced ! a multilingual lowerG
advanced class from the stimulus e%tracts.
8r 1uttel is a lonel! widower# looking for a female companion. <e has suscried to a
matrimonial agenc! and has een matched with a 8rs /appleton. <e visits her house.
8rs /appleton is a pathological manGhater. /he uses her niece to occup! her {&1)}
prospective suitors while she spies on them from upstairs to see if she is interested in
nurturing the relationship. "n this case# she signals to >era that she is not. >era therefore tells
1uttel that her auntBs three previous husands disappeared m!steriousl! while out on the
moors. 1uttel is uneas!. 8rs /appleton tiptoes unnoticed down the stairs# carr!ing a stiletto
knife. /uddenl! 1uttel sees three men coming across the lawn carr!ing guns. <e is terrified
and rushes out.
4he men are policemen investigating the disappearance of a widower called 8r ?ohnson.
4he! ask who the man is who rushed from the house. 8rs /appleton sa!s it was a man
looking for gardening work# and the niece e%plains that her auntBs spaniel had reawakened his
terror of dogs# which had een formed after he had een adl! itten ! his motherBs dog
when he was a child.
1,2
Worksheet 3,
;=estiny and the (ullet< (y *erald @ersh
12
4his is a ver! short stor! with a strong narrative. A man tells of the time when he was
a soldier in (hina. 7hile on sentr! dut!# he killed a poor {&1+} man who was looking
for food for his famil!. 9ears later# the man gets married. <e emplo!s a (hinese
servant girl. 4he girl saves the life of his wife and a! son. 6or the first time he starts
to talk to the servant girl. 7hat he discovers aout her own life has the painful echo of
destin! . . .
Warm!up
4he teacher tells the students the title of the stor! and invites speculation aout the
possile connection etween Adestin!B and AulletB. "f necessar!# students are guided
! questions such as; <ow could a ullet pla! a part in someoneBs lifeI "f someoneBs
destin! is to shoot another person can that person change his or her futureI 7h! or
wh! notI
3igsaw reading
1&
in Read and Relate# ed. ?ohn Ashton and Deorge 0ott
1,1
1n (airs, make u( a short story ?orally@. 1t should contain the elements listed below.
+e ready to tell your story to other (airs.
%rincipal characters $or your storyC
Eera, aged $
.rs Sa((leton, Eera9s aunt
Gramton Nuttel, a visitor to .rs Sa((leton9s house
0lements to include in your storyC
H.y aunt will be down (resently, .r Nuttel,9 said a very selfC(ossessed young lady of
fifteenF Hin the meantime you must try to (ut u( with me.9
H*er

great tragedy ha((ened 5ust three years ago,9 said the child.
!
H/o you know, sometimes on still, =uiet evenings like this, 1 almost get a cree(y
feeling that they will walk in through that window...9
1n the dee(ening twilight three figures were walking across the lawn towards the
windowF they all carried guns under their arms.
Gramton grabbed wildly at his stick and hat.
H- most extraordinary man, .r Nuttel,9 said .rs Sa((leton.
H1 ex(ect it was the s(aniel,9 said the niece calmlyF Hhe told me he had a horror of
dogs.9

*er9 refers to .rs Sa((leton.
!
Hthe child9 refers to Eera.
/tudents read the first part of the stor! stopping at the point at which the narrator
egins to tell his own stor! of destin! and the ullet. 4hen the teacher divides the
class into three groups. Fach group is asked to read a different section of the
narratorBs stor!. /tudents read their respective sections individuall! and then meet as a
group to iron out difficulties of comprehension contained in their portion. After that#
new groups are formed in the conventional Jigsaw activit! progression. 4hus each
new group has three memers# each of whom has read a different section of the stor!.
Fver! group memer retells their part of the stor! and the overall account is pieced
together. 1e%t# the teacher tells the class that the final twist in the stor! is missing. "n
groups# the! are to discuss a likel! ending $that is# the! tr! to work out that the
(hinese servant girl is the daughter of the poor man whom the narrator shot'. Ence an
ending has een deduced# students are asked to write it using appro%imatel! 1&2
words. 4he! are advised to stud! the writerBs st!le and to ear it in mind. 6inall!# the!
read the original ending and compare it with their own efforts.
Follow!up activities
<ere are some alternatives;
5 7ith advanced groups# the teacher can ask students to make a st!listic anal!sis
of their endings and then to compare them with the original. 4he! report ack
to the class in terms of the similarities and differences that have een found.
5 /tudents write the conversation that takes place etween the narrator and the
servant girl after he has confessed to her that he killed her father. 4hen it is
acted out in short role pla!s in pairs.
5 A class deate could take place. 4he motion is; A4his class elieves that the
narrator was not responsile for the death of the poor manB.
{&1.} ;.redni 6ashtar< (y .a0i
13
4his is a concise stor! that quickl! uilds up suspense and leads# along classic short
stor! lines# to a dramatic clima%. $4here is an e%cellent film version which catches
these qualities admiral!.' 4here are some le%ical difficulties ut the! do not ostruct
understanding of the main narrative# so that the stor! can e used to good effect to
provide training in gist reading.
A sickl! tenG!earGold o! lives a miserale life in the house of his spinsterl!#
domineering cousin cum guardian. <e creates a fantas! religious cult in a garden
shed# where his idols are a hen and a ferret. 7hen his guardian gets rid of his hen# he
pra!s to the ferret for revenge. /he goes down to the shed again . . .
4he aim of the activities is to encourage reading for the central features of the stor!#
without undue fear of unknown words; to uild up motivation to read the stor!# so that
13
in The #enguin $omplete Saki
1,&
learners are willing to reread it for more detailed comprehension; to move towards a
written composition on the two main characters.
Warm!up
/tudents are told that the! are going to read a ver! short stor!. 6ive ke! words are
written on the oard;
+)A 4R-K/1-N G2KK2T /2-T* *-T2
$6erret will proal! have to e e%plained.' "n groups of three or four# learners tr! to
predict what the stor! might e aout.
After the class has een called together again and has shared predictions# the stor! is
distriuted $referenced for line numers'. 4he class is asked to read it once to find out
what the stor! is. 4he! are told not to use dictionaries and not to worr! aout
unknown vocaular!. 4his could e set as homework.
#lassroom activities
After students have read the stor!# the original small groups are reconstituted for
students to discuss the stor! and especiall! the relationship etween the o! and his
guardian. 7e have found that discussion is often stimulated ! giving each group a
grid to fill out $see 7orksheet )3'. At this point# use of dictionaries is encouraged# to
help pinpoint meanings and nuances of words relevant to the qualit! of the
relationship. (omG {&1,} pleted grids are posted up at the end of this period so that
students can compare them.
As a revisionOoral activit!# students could make a AtrailerB. Droups are told to
imagine the! are now moviemakers who have finished making a film of A/redni
>ashtarB ut have not !et made a AtrailerB# that is# a selection of snippets with a voiceG
over to whet the appetite of cinemagoers the week efore the film is shown. $"f the
actual film version can e otained# groups are to imagine the! have een
commissioned ! its director to produce the trailer.'
4he moviemakers must devise# act out and do the voiceGover for their trailer. 4his
must last no longer than two minutes# and must aim to uild up a desire in the
audience to come and watch the film ne%t week. Preparation and dress rehearsals
follow# within a set time limit. Fach groupBs trailer is then performed for the whole
class $this can e done ne%t lesson if time is a prolem'.
1,3
Worksheet 30
Written $ollow!up
4he teacher can set a homework essa! which asks the students to anal!se the
relationship etween (onradin and 8rs de Ropp. A great deal of the material for such
an essa! will alread! have een gathered and Jotted down in note form on the grid# so
that learners are free to concentrate on questions of essa! structure# st!le# and
organisation of material.
{&&2} ;The war in the (athroom< (y Margaret $twood
14
4his unusual short stor! is set in the form of seven entries in a diar!# one for each da!
of the central characterBs first week in new lodgings. 4he themes 5 the prolems of
adJusting to new surroundings# and the inevitale clashes that arise when people share
a houseGare quite wide in their appeal# while the amiguit! of the image proJected !
the narrator creates enough suspense to carr! the reader along. Another advantage
from the point of view of the foreign student is the simple# Aever!da!B qualit! of much
of the language $there are a few 1orth American terms which ma! have to e
glossed'.
4his is a fairl! long stor! ut its division into definite sections makes it ideal for
varied treatment; some used for listening or other classroom activities# others left for
individual reading.
Warm!up
4he aim is to set the scene# and elicit learnersB own feelings aout the central situation
of moving into new# unfamiliar surroundings. 4his can e done in a variet! of wa!s#
according to the groupBs needs and the linguistic skills the teacher wishes to
emphasise. Ene wa! of achieving this is to use visual prompts; for e%ample# pictures
13
in %ancing "irls and *ther Stories
1,3
HSredni Eashtar9 (resents the reader with two strong characters in conflict. Kead
=uickly through the story again, (icking out the words or ex(ressions which indicate
either (ositive or negative feelings between >onradin and .rs de Ko((. 2nter as
many as you can in the a((ro(riate boxes below, with line references.
V 5
4disagreeable 5line 67
4hated her 5line 867
of packing cases# removal vans# etc. $see 6igures &1A and &1f3'. /tudents are asked to
think aout moving# cither the class as a whole or in small groups;
: *ave you ever moved? Were you excited? de(ressed? nervous? etc.
: Would those feelings change if you had to move often?
: /o things get lost when you move?
: /o you en5oy ex(loring new territory or does it frighten you?
: /o you (refer new things or old, wellCused and wellCloved things?
6ollowed ! similar questions aout sharing a house;
: What kinds of things can cause friction if you are sharing a house?
: /o you think time in the kitchen8bathroom should be rationed?
: What do you feel about noise (roblems in a shared house?
: What are the advantages8disadvantages of sharing? *ow do you feel about
this?
An alternative warmGup strateg! is writing followed ! oral feedack. /tudents are
shown pictures without comment# then asked to write down their reactions as
spontaneousl! as possile# in a few sentences# which are later compared and
discussed.
/tudents are asked to make their choices# then compare their answers {&&1} with their
neighourBs. 6urther discussion is often sparked ! estalishing a Aclass profileB of
favourite oJects; the teacher asks how man! students chose numer 1# numer &# and
so on# giving one mark for each choice# so that the overall favourites can e found
$see 7orksheet )*'. 7hichever warmGup activit! is used# it should take up aout 1*
minutes to half an hour. 4he rest of the lesson can then e devoted to a class reading
of the first section# A8onda!B.
1,*
Figure +' A
{&&&}
1,)
Figure +'B
istening in class
/tudents do not !et have the te%t. 4he teacher gives them a list of questions to help
shape their listening; 7hat is the stor! aoutI 7ho do we meet in itI 7hat is the
narrator likeI <e or she then reads to them# or pla!s a recording of# A8onda!B $threeG
andGaGhalf to four minutes'. 4he language in this first section is simple# and some of
the crucial words have {&&3} een presented in the warmGup session. 6or most upperG
intermediate or advanced classes no further preGteaching will e necessar!. /tudents
listen# then write comments on the stor! the! have Just heard. "n particular# the! are to
indicate what most struck them in it and what the! rememer most aout it.
After students have compared their impressions# first in pairs# then in general
feedack and class discussion# the! are given A8onda!B to read# and# for home
reading# the longer section# A4uesda!B. 4he teacher encourages students to speculate
aout the central character$s'# and# if possile# compare notes with others. "n
particular# learners are asked to note what new facts emerge aout the protagonist$s'#
and hisOherOtheir personalit!. "n A4uesda!B# contradictor! clues egin to e picked up
! the reader. 4o accompan! home reading# it is useful to give learners a AfocussingB
worksheet $see 7orksheet ))'. 4he class is asked to start uilding up a picture of the
narrator# which the! ma! want to revise as the stor! progresses.
1,+
Worksheet 31
"n the ne%t class# a similar procedure can e used. /tudents listen to A7ednesda!B
$three to threeGandGaGhalf minutes'. 4he language is ver! straightforward and most
suitale for listening comprehension. Ence again# students Jot down a description of
what the! have heard and their reactions to it. "n groups# the! compare reactions# and
their picture of the central character. 4he! are given A7ednesda!B and A4hursda!B for
home {&&*} reading. 4heir task is now to list and descrie the people who live in the
house# perhaps using a grid with the following headings;
(eo(le in the house
age
a((earance
character 8 (ersonality
what the narrator thinks of them
"f time is short# or with more advanced learners# the third listening activit! ma! e
omitted and students given the rest of the stor! to read# with the task of upGdating their
picture of the narrator. Etherwise# A6rida!B# a ver! short section# can e used for a
final listening session $under one minute'. A/aturda!B and A/unda!B are given for
silent class reading# followed ! group or general discussion of the readerBs final
impression of the protagonist# and of the stor!Bs themes; the intensit! of conflict
generated in cramped quarters# the cruelt! of domestic AwarsB# the meaning of AselfB or
Aidentit!B.
1,.
1magine you are moving into new Hdigs9 ?one room only@. Aou can take with you only
three things from this list. Which would you choose?
. my radio8cassette (layer
!. my own cutlery ?this is called Hsilverware9 in the story@
". my own (lates
#. glasses ?wine glasses@
$. my two favourite books
%. my own sheets and =uilt or duvet
&. a tea(ot ?or coffee(ot@
'. the teddyCbear ?or other toy@ 19ve had since childhood
6. a framed (icture of my mother8father8lover8child
0. a good bedside reading lam(
. my diary8notebook
!. my calendar
". other item ?name it@ ....................................
1,,
Worksheet 33 {&&3}
{&&*}%arallel reading
/tudents who enJo! reading parallel stories could e given Patricia <ighsmithBs A4he
cries of loveB $in <le.en'. 4his is a stor! of two elderl! ladies who have shared a room
for so long that the! cannot manage to live apart# ut who spend their whole lives
plotting increasingl! cruel acts of revenge against each other. En a formal level#
however# this stor! provides a striking contrast with A4he war in the athroomB# as it
is a fairl! straightforward thirdGperson narration. (omparison of the two stories can
thus e used in advanced classes to stimulate discussion of the effects of a writerBs
narrative strategies.
{&&)}1/ ,oems
Poems offer a rich# varied repertoire and are a source of much enJo!ment for teacher
and learner alike. 4here is the initial advantage of length man! poems are wellGsuited
to a single classroom lesson. 4hen again# the! often e%plore themes of universal
&22
)ne of the intriguing things about HThe war in the bathroom9 is that the reader has
difficulty building a (icture of the narrator. The clues we (ick u( at the beginning
are contradictory and confusing3 it is often necessary to go back and look more
closely at what we have been told.
Look at the following descri(tions and decide which one coincides most closely with
your (icture of the narrator. -dd any details of your own so that you end u( with
your view of the narrator9s background and character. Aou may end u( with an
amalgamation of details from , !, " and #, (lus your own thoughts and hunches.
. The narrator is a disturbed, elderly lady forced to live with her middleCaged
daughter who is also rather de(endent and shy. The old lady is very
(rotective towards her daughter and not ha((y to be living in circumstances
far below her former standard of living. The old lady is rather religious.
!. The narrator is a youngish woman ?in her late thirties (erha(s@ (robably
unmarried and a bit of an outsider. She has some mental (roblems (robably
caused by an overCrigid u(bringing. -s a result she is hy(erCsensitive and
antiCsocial but reasonably selfCdisci(lined, tidy and clean. She dislikes
mess, es(ecially other (eo(le9s and is (ettyCminded. She (robably grew u(
in a rural area.
". The narrator is (robably a young graduate student in her twenties who is
unem(loyed and forced to live in a rented room. She is la;y and de(ressed,
and lonely, but very sensitive and observant. She mocks herself by calling
herself Hshe9 from time to time. She is sus(icious of men, and en5oys her
food. She seems to have middleCclass tastes, has regular habits and is
careful with money. She needs more (rivacy.
#. The narrator is (robably a writer in her fifties who has a s(lit (ersonality, is
obsessed with cleanliness and (urity, is (aranoid and has (robably been in
and out of mental hos(itals. She is frightened and also aggressive because
she needs a lot of (ersonal s(ace in order to remain calm. She is
sometimes cruel ?(erha(s her father was cruel to her@ but basically she is a
rather sad, com(liant woman who is not getting much out of life and is
withdrawing into herself.
concern and emod! life e%periences# oservations and the feelings evoked ! them.
4heir rilliant concision and strong imager! comine to powerful overall effect.
8oreover# poems are sensitivel! tuned to what# for language learners# are the vital
areas of stress# rh!thm and similarities of sound. Reading poetr! enales the learner to
e%perience the power of language outside the straitGJacket of more standard written
sentence structure and le%is. "n the classroom# using poetr! can lead naturall! on to
freer# creative written e%pression. "ndeed# poems are capale of producing strong
response from the reader# and this memorale intensit! motivates further reading of
poetr! in the foreign language.
7hen the teacher comes to select poems to share with the students# he or she will
need to take into account which poems are suited to their interests# language and
maturit! levels. 1ot all poems are serious or comple%. 4here are man! poems written
in a lighter vein# or with a fairl! simple narrative structure. 0oth these t!pes are wellG
suited to language learners# especiall! at the earlier stages. <owever# the teacher
should not e too hesitant aout working with more challenging poems# especiall!
ones he or she particularl! likes.
Providing that learners can e given help with the personal and linguistic resources
the! will need# the! will e ale to attain the fuller enJo!ment of a poem that comes
from a sense of sharing the poetBs created world and ecoming# as reader# a new
creator of meaning. Ence again# we feel that this kind of help can est e provided
through a range of group activities. "n particular# efore a poem is read or listened to
for the first time# it is often ver! important to plan a sustantial warmGup activit! to
arouse the learnersB curiosit! and involve them in the poemBs themes.
As far as is possile# we feel that the activities selected should encourage a sort of
productive e%ploration which feeds the confidence of the learners oth to develop
their own responses and to read and enJo! poetr! in the target language on their own.
4he aim# ultimatel!# is to individualise each studentBs e%perience of literature.
6or our illustrations in this chapter we have chosen Just a few of the {&&+} poems
which we have used to good effect in our teaching. 4he selection demonstrates a
variet! of approaches which can e used at different levels with students of different
ages and interests. "n Appendi% &# we have included a list of anthologies that ma! e
useful to language teachers.
;The @ing o' China<s daughter< (y Edith .itwell
15
4his is a set of related activities designed to help students appreciate the l!rical and
melodic qualit! of poetr! as well as its metaphorical richness.
Warm!up
4he class is asked to recall an! songs or nurser! rh!mes the! particularl! liked as
children. 4he teacher can often start this off ! reciting or singing one that he or she
rememers with pleasure# or that his or her children especiall! enJo!. "n monolingual
classes# favourite rh!mes or songs are compared# and learners are asked to note an!
points of similarit! etween them. "n multilingual classes# students are encouraged to
recite or sing in theirG own language# so that other students can hear the rh!thm or
melod! of the original# then to e%plain meanings in Fnglish. Ence again# the class is
asked to look out for an! points of similarit! etween the various rh!mes recalled.
1*
in The Fa!er Book of Modern @erse7 ed. 8ichael Roerts
&21
4he teacher then distriutes the te%t of three or four Fnglish nurser! rh!mes. /uitale
ones could e; A" saw three shipsB# A" saw a ship aGsailingB# A=avenderBs lueB# A4he old
woman tossBd up in a asketB# A" haad a little nut treeB# etc. 5 the te%ts of these follow.
4he teacher reads them out to the class# then asks learners# in pairs# to list as man!
similarities as the! can etween the various rh!mes# and# if possile# etween these
and the ones previousl! rememered. $Recordings of sung versions are ideal# if
availale.'
; saw three ships
" saw three ships come sailing !#
(ome sailing !# come sailing !;
" saw three ships come sailing !#
En 1ew 9earBs :a! in the morning.
And what do !ou think was in them then#
7as in them then# was in them thenI
And what do !ou think was in them then#
En 1ew 9earBs :a! in the morning.
{&&.}
4hree prett! girls were in them then#
7ere in them then# were in them then;
4hree prett! girls were in them then#
En 1ew 9earBs :a! in the morning.
And one could whistle# and one could sing#
And one could pla! the violin
/uch Jo! there was at m! wedding#
En 1ew 9earBs :a! in the morning.
; saw a ship a-sailing
" saw a ship aGsailing#
AGsailing on the sea;
And ohK it was all laden
7ith prett! things for thee.
4here were comfits in the cain#
And apples in the hold#
4he sails were made of silk#
And the masts of eaten gold.
4here were raisins in the cain#
And almonds in the hold#
4he sails were made of satin#
And the mast was made of gold.
La.enderAs !lue
&2&
=avenderBs lue# dill!# dill!#
=avenderBs green;
7hen " am king# dill!# dill!#
9ou shall e queen.
(all up !our men# dill!# dill!#
/et them to work#
/ome to the plough# dill!# dill!#
/ome to the cart.
/ome to make ha!# dill!# dill!#
/ome to cut corn#
7hile !ou and " dill!# dill!#
@eep ourselves warm.
{&&,}
The old woman tossAd up in a !asket
4here was an old woman tossBd up in a asket
1ineteen times as high as the moon;
7here she was going " couldnBt ut ask it#
6or in her hand she carried a room.
Eld woman# old woman# old woman# quoth "#
E wither# E wither# E wither# so highI
4o rush the cowes off the sk!K
/hall " go with theeI A!# !GandG!.
4here is a feedack session when the class pools similarities noted. 4hese usuall!
include features such as repetition of ke! phrases# strong rh!thm# simple rh!mes#
recurring reference to kings# queens# precious things such as gold and silver# strange
happenings or transformations# e%pressions of love or happiness# vivid ut sometimes
m!sterious images# etc. 4he teacher elicits comments on whether students rememer
these features as eing appealing to them when the! were children# and whether the!
are so still.
4he teacher then asks the class to look more particularl! at this short nurser! rh!me;
" had a little nut tree
1othing would it ear
0ut a silver nutmeg $a .ariant .ersion; ut a silver apple'
And a golden pear.
4he @ing of /painBs daughter
(ame to visit me#
And all for the sake
Ef m! little nut tree.
4he teacher reads the poem once or twice# and asks students to place a little mark# in
their cop! of the poem# over the words that are stressed. 4hese are then compared# an!
differences discussed# then learners read the poem softl! to each other# in pairs.
4he teacher then tells the class that an old professor was said to have een at work
for man! !ears on a ver! thorough and detailed interpretation of this poem. After his
death# however# nothing was found in his papers ut a few unintelligile scrilings;
&23
among these there was a list of words which could onl! e made out with difficult!.
4he teacher writes these words in a column at the leftGhand side of the oard $or on
different oards# if the classroom has more than one';
{&32}
hard8soft
edible
rich, (recious
fruitful8barren
exotic8magical
attraction
(ower
love8sex
4he class is then asked# in groups of three or four# to choose an! two words# and tr! to
decide how the! relate to the poem. 7hen the! have agreed amongst themselves# one
of the groups goes up to the oard and writes his or her groupBs e%planation# as riefl!
as possile# against the appropriate column. 4he teacher can write a first sentence of
his or her own to start off the e%ercise# if students need an e%ample.
"t is est to treat this as a rainstorming e%ercise# in which odd or unusual
e%planations are welcomed# and to set a fairl! short time limit for it. 7hen time is up#
the class considers the various links made. Are an! not clearI /tudents are encouraged
to question memers of other groups aout what the! meant. Are there an! words or
sets not chosenI 7h! notI (an the class together suppl! an! e%planations for theseI
4he teacher then asks students to nominate the word or set that the! feel is most
important or most illuminating. 6inall!# the teacher asks students to sa! whether it is
possile to indicate what the concrete images could mean.
5eading the poem
4he preceding activities will proal! occup! the whole of a first lesson. At the
eginning of a second lesson# perhaps after a reak# or the ne%t da! or week# the
teacher tells students that he or she is going to read them a modern poem and that their
task is to list as man! differences as the! can etween it and A4he little nut treeB. 4he!
ma! wish to remind themselves of the nurser! rh!me ! rereading it quickl!. 4he
teacher then reads the poem out# perhaps twice# with lots of e%pression.
The Bing of $hinaAs daughter
4he @ing of (hinaBs daughter#
/he never would love me
4hough " hung m! cap and ells upon
<er nutmeg tree.
6or oranges and lemons#
4he stars in right lue air#
$" stole them long ago# m! dear'
7ere dangling there.
{&31}
4he 8oon did give me silver pence#
4he /un did give me gold#
And oth together softl! lew
&23
And made m! porridge cold;
0ut the @ing of (hinaBs daughter
Pretended not to see
7hen " hung m! cap and ells upon
<er nutmeg tree.
/tudents note down differences and compare them afterwards with their neighourBs.
A class list is drawn up on the hoard ! a nominated student. 4hen the teacher
distriutes the te%t or displa!Gs it on the overhead proJector. /tudents# in groups of
three or four# read the poem# asking each otherBs help with an! difficulties the! might
encounter. 4he teacher writes on the oard three items; cap and ells# oranges and
lemons# porridge cold. <e or she circulates# ensuring that students etween them have
picked up the references underl!ing these# to traditional lore; the Acap and ellsB is the
s!mol of the Jester or fool who was also often thought of as a AardB or stor!teller;
oranges and lemons feature in man! childrenBs songs as e%otic and precious fruit# and
as the name for a traditional childrenBs game; porridge also occurs in games and
rh!mes# as well as in the ver! wellGknown childrenBs stor!# A4he three earsB.
Fach group is now set a doule task;
1. Rememering the e%ercise the! did with the AprofessorBs list of wordsB in the
preceding lesson# the! are ale to write a similar list of words# or paired
words# that would e important to an interpretation of the /itwell poem.
&. 4he! are to write one sentence which encapsulates the groupBs view of what
the poem is aout $for e%ample# one group wrote; A" am not important to the
person who is most important to meB'.
(omparison of ke! words chosen# and of the overall interpretation contained within
the sentence written# often increases studentsB appreciation of the poem as a whole.
"f there is time# a readingGaloud e%ercise can follow. 4he poem divides quite easil!
into fourGline sections# each of which is given to one group to prepare. /tresses are
marked as in the initial activit! with A4he little nut treeB. 4he teacher circulates and
helps with places where there is variation on the standard pattern $as in the three
stressed final words in A4he stars in right lue airB'. 7hen ever!one is read!# choral
reading is done ! each group in turn.
Follow!up
=earners are asked to look ack at all the vivid images in the poems the! {&3&} have
een reading; sailing ships# the sun# moon and stars# gold# silver# girls singing and
dancing# a nutmeg tree# oranges and lemons# cap and ells# etc.# then choose the one
the! like est. 4he! are to write a short note $or poem# if the! wish' to a loved one#
telling him or her how the! feel# through the image chosen.
;My !a!a<s waltA< (y Theodore 9oeth0e
1"
1)
in The Fa!er Book of Modern @erse7 ed. 8ichael Roerts
&2*
4his poem is written in deceptivel! simple language and evokes strongl! the
amivalence of a childBs view of a parent. 4his is a theme within the e%perience of
most people.
Warm!up
4he students are asked to complete the following sentences in an! wa! that the! feel
is appropriate;
- good father . . .
- bad father . . .
-pon completion# comparisons are made in pairs and then the teacher asks for some
samples and these are written up on the oard. 1e%t# the teacher tells the class the title
of the poem and asks for guesses in terms of its likel! theme. 4hen he or she reads the
poem to the students having asked them to choose one word which captures their first
response to its contents. A ank of likel! response words is supplied where necessar!;
AfearB# AfunB# AtensionB# Ainsensitivit!B# Aull!B# AdancingB# AdrunkenB# ApleasureB#
Am!ster!B. "nstead of preGpresenting an! difficult le%is# the teacher mimes or indicates
words like AdiHH!B# AknuckleB# AuckleB# AcountenanceB during the first reading.
My papaAs waltC
4he whiske! on !our reath
(ould make a small o! diHH!;
0ut " hung on like death;
/uch waltHing was not eas!.
7e romped until the pans
/lid from the kitchen shelf;
8! motherBs countenance
(ould not unfrown itself.
{&33}
4he hand that held m! wrist
7as attered on one knuckle;
At ever! step !ou missed
8! right ear scraped a uckle.
9ou eat time on m! head
7ith a palm caked hard ! dirt#
4hen waltHed me off to ed
/till clinging to !our shirt.
Ence the students have heard the poem# the! select their word and choices are
compared and e%plained. 4hen the te%t of the poem is distriuted. An! remaining
vocaular! prolems are discussed after a silent reading and the students are asked if
the! wish to change their choice of word. Ence again# an! changes are discussed. 4o
help to clarif! the studentsB response# the teacher asks the students to make two
columns on a piece of paper with the headings ApositiveB and AnegativeB. <e or she
then reads out some of the words from the poem and asks the students to assign each
&2)
word to one of the columns according to whether the! feel it has a AgoodB or a AadB
sense in the poem. 4he columns are then discussed and should reveal the amivalence
of words like AeatB# AatteredB. 4he students consider whether the father in the poem
is AgoodB or AadB. 4heir views are related ack to the warmGup activit! and the
discussion is there! e%tended.
5eading the poem chorally
4his poem has a sutl! irregular rh!thm and rh!me which carr! additional meaning.
4he sutlet! can e drawn out ! encouraging the students to read the poem aloud.
4he following procedure is an enJo!ale wa! of involving the whole class and marks
an elaoration of the activit! outlined for A" had a little nut treeB.
4he class is first divided into four groups 5 one group per stanHa. Fach group is
allotted a stanHa and e%amines it in detail. 8ain stresses are marked and groups circle
an! words which can e spoken in a wa! that reveals meaning $for e%ample# slid#
attered# scraped# waltHed# diHH!'. 1e%t# groups are told to quietl! AdrumB the stress
pattern of their stanHa with their hands until all drummers are in time. A conductor
should e appointed to keep disagreements to a minimum. 4hen the groups read out
their respective stanHas quietl!# led ! their conductor. 7hen each chorus is in
reasonale shape# the groups discuss possile improvements pauses# or other
modifications to their AtuneB. Rehearsals continue for a little longer and then the
teacher announces that the AconcertB will commence. After an introduction ! the
teacher# the poem is read ! the {&33} choral groups in the correct sequence. 4he
performance is discussed and then individual memers of each stanHaGgroup are
invited to give solo renderings. 6inall!# the teacher gives a solo performance and there
is discussion of differences in the readings. 7ith confident groups# a recording of the
concert helps this discussion greatl!.
Follow!up
4his poem offers plent! of scope for followGup. 4he students can he asked to
improvise a conversation etween the child in the poem and his mother that same
evening# or etween the father and mother. 4his usuall! reveals assumptions aout the
relationships which are implicit in the poem. Alternativel!# the students can e asked
to draw up a list of qualities of the Agood fatherB and then to arrange them in order of
importance.
6or students who enJo! creative writing# a simple activit! starts when the teacher
asks the class to imagine that the! are !oung children again. 4he! must tr! to
rememer their world at that time and their perceptions of adults# especiall! their
father or a fatherGfigure such as a favourite uncle or rother. 4he! are asked to
complete a stanHa eginning thus;
Father ?or uncle8brother, etc. as a((ro(riate@
Aou make me feel . . .
Aou give me . . .
1 give you . . .
1 wish . . .
1 . . .
6inall!# there are several fine poems written aout famil! life from the perspective of
the child. 4hese can e used as a asis for st!listic contrast or as additional reading for
&2+
the students to do at their leisure. F%amples of such poems include; A6ollowerB !
/eamus <eane!# A/orr!B ! R. /. 4homas# A6amil! ReunionB ! /!lvia Plath.
1+
;Tele!hone con%ersation< (y )ole .oyin0a
1+
4his wellGknown poem vividl! illustrates the distastefulness of racial preJudice. 4he
narratorBs anger at eing on the receiving end of its patronising attitudes is forcefull!
conve!ed. /ome of the vocaular! in the poem is quite challenging# ut the situation
is clear enough for it to he used successfull! with advanced classes.
Warm!up
0efore the! hear or see the poem# the students are asked to imagine a situation in
which a person is looking for a room and is aout to telephone a woman who has
advertised a suitale room in the newspaper. <alf of the class imagine that the! are
landladies. 7hat will the! want to know aout an!one who phones up aout the
roomI 4he other half are prospective tenants. 7hat will the! want to knowI Fach half
is given time to consider its questions. 4hen the teacher asks for questions from each
side. 4hese are written on the oard and discussed. 7ith suitale groups# the teacher
can encourage an improvisation of the telephone conversation and ask the rest of the
class for their reactions to the characters. "s the landlad! pleasantI suspiciousI coolI
"s the prospective tenant politeI timidI desperateI
5eading the poem
4he teacher reads /o!inkaBs poem. :ifficult words are given initial meaning through
mime or manner of deliver!. 7e do not like to preGpresent isolated vocaular! items
as this spoils the integrit! of the first contact with the whole poem.
Telephone con.ersation
4he price seemed reasonale# location
"ndifferent. 4he landlad! swore she lived
Eff premises. 1othing remained
0ut selfGconfession. A8adam#B " warned#
A" hate a wasted Journe! 5 " am African.B
/ilence. /ilenced transmission of
PressuriHed goodGreeding. >oice# when it came#
=ipstick coated# long goldGrolled
(igaretteGholder pipped. (aught 1 was# foull!.
A<E7 :AR@IB . . . " had not misheard . . . AARF 9E- ="D<4
ER >FR9 :AR@IB 0utton 0. 0utton A. /tench
Ef rancid reath of pulic hideGandGspeak.
Red ooth. Red pillarGo%. Red douleGtiered
Emnius squelching tar. "t was realK /hamed
0! illGmannered silence# surrender
Pushed dumfoundment to eg simplification.
1+
in $ontemporary British and 9orth American @erse# ed. 8artin 0ooth; #oem into #oem ! Alan
8ale! and /andra 8oulding; $ollected #oems ! /!lvia Plath# ed. 4ed <uges# respectivel!.
1.
Reproduced in Baleidoscope7 ed. 8ichael /wan
&2.
(onsiderate she was# var!ing the emphasis
AARF 9E- :AR@I ER >FR9 ="D<4IB Revelation came.
A9ou mean 5 like plain or milk chocolateIB
<er assent was clinical# crushing in its light
"mpersonalit!. Rapidl!# waveGlength adJusted#
{&3+} " chose. A7est African sepiaB 5 and as afterthought#
A:own in m! passport.B /ilence for spectroscopic
6light of fanc!# till truthfulness clanged her accent
<ard on the mouthpiece. A7<A4B/ 4<A4IB conceding
A:E1B4 @1E7 7<A4 4<A4 "/.B A=ike runette.B
A4<A4B/ :AR@# "/1B4 "4IB A1ot altogether.
6aciall!# " am runette# ut# madam# !ou should see
4he rest of me. Palm of m! hand# soles of m! feet
Are a pero%ide lond. 6riction# caused 5
6oolishl!# madam 5 ! sitting down# has turned
8! ottom raven lack 5 Ene moment# madamKB 5 sensing
<er receiver rearing on the thunderclap
Aout m! ears 5 A8adam#B " pleaded# AwouldnBt !ou rather
/ee for !ourselfIB
After the poem has een read with plent! of feeling and e!e contact the teacher asks
the students for their reactions. 4his should lead to the concept of preJudice# and more
especiall!# racial preJudice. 4he poem is then handed out and the teacher reads it for a
second time. 6ollowing that# the poem is e%amined in more detail through a range of
questions# for e%ample; 7h! are the landlad!Bs words written in capital lettersI 7hat
words indicate the emotions of the two speakersI /tudents are encouraged to guess
the meaning of unknown vocaular! items. 4he teacher then asks the class what the
landlad! and the caller are thinking while the! are communicating with each other.
4he! are reminded that the actual words of the conversation do not seem to reflect the
emotion words that the! have alread! identified. A simple cartoon version of the
conversation is displa!ed on the overhead proJector $see 7orksheet )+' and the
students# in groups# consider the likel! contents of the thought ules. 4hen groups
are given copies of the cartoons and the! write in the thoughts. After that# groups
e%change cartoons. 6inall!# a short scene is enacted with one student pla!ing the
landlad!# another the prospective tenant and two additional voices eing the thoughts
of each.
&2,
Worksheet 34 {&3)}
{&3+}Follow!up
&12
Activities could suital! concentrate on creative writing. 4he students might imagine
themselves to e either the landlad! or the caller and write a letter aout the telephone
conversation to a friend or# in the callerBs case# a race relations organisation.
8ore amitiousl!# the students could uild up a group poem aout the landlad!.
6irst the teacher distriutes to groups of five students a sheet of paper with the
following written on it;
{&3.}
(etaphor poem E 'he landlady
?-nimal@ She9s...
?Glower@ She9s...
?/rink@ She9s...
?Weather@ She9s...
?>olour@ She9s...
4he students are told that the poem the! are going to write is to e aout the landlad!
in /o!inkaBs poem. Fach student in the group chooses one of the categories in
rackets. 4hat categor! then ecomes the asis for a metaphor aout the landlad!.
Fach student writes his or her metaphor sentence and then the groupBs collective
efforts are put together to form a fiveGline metaphor poem. <ere is an e%ample;
The landlady
/heBs a lind peacock strutting in a small circle#
/heBs a faded rose with a rotten scent#
/heBs iced tea ehind lace curtains#
/heBs a frost against the summer sun#
/heBs the !ellow face of preJudice.
;The cou!le u!stairs< (y 1ugo )illiams
1-
4he revit! of this simpl! written poem leaves plent! of scope for a detailed
e%amination of the effects it creates and the inferences availale to the reader.
Warm!up
/tudents are asked aout their neighours. :o the! have neighoursI <ow close to
their houseOflat do the! liveI 4he! are then asked to form pairs# and# using the grid
illustrated in 7orksheet ).# to interview each other aout one or two of their
respective neighours. 6indings are discussed as the teacher asks different students
what the! discovered. 4he teacher then asks whether the! are affected ! what their
neighours do. :o the! tr! to Akeep up with the ?onesesBI :o the! go out together#
visit each otherBs housesI <ow would the! feel if one of their neighours leftI
5eading the poem
1,
in $ontemporary British #oetry# ed. 0lake 8orrison and Andrew 8otion
&11
/tudents are told that the! are going to hear a poem aout neighours {&3,} called
A4he couple upstairsB. 4he! are given a gist question to accompan! the first listening;
7hat has happenedI 4he teacher reads with plent! of e%pression and e!e contact.
Worksheet 35
After this first reading and the followGup to the gist question# the poem is displa!ed on
the oard or overhead proJector and the teacher reads it once more.
4he teacher now sa!s that he or she has a cop! of the poem with some notes and
questions written on it ! Fnglish students who used the class te%t in previous !ears
$see 7orksheet ),'. 4he students are asked# in pairs or threes# to stud! the notes and#
concentrating on the ones the! find most interesting# discuss what the! mean# and
whether the! agree with statements made. 7ith man! groups# at least &2 minutes must
e allowed for this. 7hen the groups are read!# the teacher invites comments aout
the notes and questions.
4his activit! is a wa! of getting the students to e%amine the poem in some detail on
their own. 4he situation is informal and the discussion is not teacherGcentred. 4he
notes# handwritten and AarrowedB into a cop! of the poem# make the process of
anal!sis visual and concrete. 4he Jotted down# openGended nature of the comments
gives students the feeling that the! can e more easil! e%plored or challenged. 4he
unanswered questions leave room for student contriution. "n short# this format uilds
{&32} initial confidence in the anal!sis of poetr! in a foreign language# and heightens
appreciation.
&1&
Work in (airs and com(lete the =uestionnaire about your (artner9s neighbours.
+eigh!
&our
num&er
What are
their
4o&s-
*ow long
have they
lived
there?
*ow
many in
the
family?
1nterests
, hobbies
2ccentriciC
ties,
strange
habits
Dualities3
friendly?
nosy?
cheerful?
etc.
.
!.
".
Worksheet 38
Follow!up
6ollowGup could include;
;mpro.isation 4he teacher returns to the theme and asks the students to improvise the
conversation etween the couple downstairs and the man $now living aloneI' upstairs.
Writing /tudents are asked to imagine what is going on in the departing womanBs
mind as she runs down the steps and# turning# Just catches a glimpse of the curtain
moving in the neighoursB edroom. 4his can e written in the form of a AstreamGofG
consciousnessB 5 that is# thoughts {&31} Jotted down as the! occur without an!
delierate ordering 5 or as a poem eginning with the line;
Watching, always watching MMMMMMMMMMMMM.
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM..
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM..
6igure && shows e%amples of poems students have written.
&13
Figure ++A
Figure ++B
&13
{&3&}
Figure ++$
;To women, as 'ar as I<m concerned< (y =? 1? &awrence
2/
4his poem# like the ne%t one# has proved popular with classes of adult learners or
students at the upper secondar! school level# ecause oth poems cr!stallise feelings
that lie close to the centre of man! lives; feelings aout human relationships and the
Agames people pla!B in their dealings with each other. 4he! are an e%cellent stimulus
to discussionK
A4o women# as far as "Bm concernedB is a short poem# consisting entirel! of
straightforward statements# with no linguistic prolems for advanced students. Ene
wa! of presenting it is to cut it up into its individual lines# and ask students in small
groups to decide on a possile order for them;
The feelings you would like us both to have, we neither of us have.
So if you want either of us to feel anything at all
The feelings 1 don9t have, 1 won9t say 1 have.
The feelings (eo(le ought to have, they never have.
The feelings you say you have, you don9t have.
The feelings 1 don9t have 1 don9t have.
you9d better abandon all idea of feelings altogether.
1f (eo(le say they9ve got feelings, you may be (retty sure they haven9t got them.
{&33}
&2
in Selected #oems
&1*
"t is important to stress that it is not necessar! to guess the ArightB order; the task is
rather to arrange the lines in a wa! that suggests some kind of progression. 6or
e%ample# students have sometimes arranged the lines to show a movement from m!
feelings# to !ours# to ours; or from the general to the particular; or from an idealised
view of the world to what it is Areall!B like. 7hen this ordering has een done# each
group is asked to suppl! a title for its poem# then compare it with the results achieved
in other groups. 4he task in itself usuall! sparks off a livel! e%change of views aout
what the poet is sa!ing. 4hese opinions can e further drawn out ! a AcontinuumB
e%ercise of the kind descried in (hapter *. 7ith one corner of the room representing
total agreement and the other total disagreement# learners are asked to take up a
position along the wall in etween# there! showing the e%tent to which the! agree
with certain statements aout the poem# for e%ample;
5 4he speaker in this poem is quite right in his attitude to feelings.
5 People who talk most aout feelings donBt have an! real feelings.
5 Perfect honest! etween people Just isnBt possile.
5 All social relationships are h!pocritical.
5 4he speaker is quite wrong to presume he knows what another person is
Areall!B feeling.
5 4he speaker is selfGsatisfied# not to sa! arrogant.
5 4he speaker is patronising towards the A!ouB in the poem.
5 4he speaker is honest and tr!ing to uild up a good relationship with the other
person in the poem.
5 4he poetBs title suggests an antagonism towards women.
etc.
4he teacher encourages students to Justif! the position the! have taken# and question
others at different points aout the reasons for their decision.
Ene question which is often thrown up in the course of these activities concerns the
poetic qualities# or otherwise# of this particular work. "s it reall! a poemI And if so#
what e%actl! makes it oneI "f the teacher has not told the class that the statements the!
were ordering in the first phase came from a poem# he or she can ask them what kind
of te%t the! feel it is. >er! often# learners sense that it is a poem# ut the! are
sometimes worried ! the asence of conventional features; imager!# metaphors#
rh!me# a stanHa pattern. "n a general class discussion# the teacher asks students to list
as man! aspects or qualities as the! can which mark this collection of sentences as a
poem. 1e%t# students in pairs tr! to work out a short definition of Apoetr!B which fits
the poem G or alternativel!# which e%cludes it# if learners think that it is not reall! a
poem at all. Afterwards# definitions are pinned up for learners to compare. 4he
teacher could at this point add a definition of his or her own# andOor one or more
famous ones# for e%ample;
{&33}
What oft was thought 8 +ut ne9er so well ex(ressed ?7o(e@
2motion recollected in tran=uillity ?Wordsworth@
- (oem should be (al(able and mute
-s a globed fruit . . .
- (oem should not mean
+ut be. ?-rchibald .acLeish@
.athematical formulae are satisfying because they ex(ress in a very shar( form a
very wide law of nature. )ne ex(ression enca(sulates the motion of all the (lanets
&1)
and satellites around the earth. 1 find that very satisfying. 1 regard (oetry as being
akin to that. ?/. KingC*ele@
4he te%t of A4o women# as far as "Bm concernedB follows.
To women7 as far as ;Am concerned
4he feelings " donBt have " donBt have.
4he feelings " donBt have# " wonBt sa! " have.
4he feelings !ou sa! !ou have# !ou donBt have.
4he feelings !ou would like us oth to have# we neither of us have.
4he feelings people ought to have# the! never have.
"f people sa! the!Bve got feelings# !ou ma! e prett! sure the! havenBt
got them.
/o if !ou want either of us to feel an!thing at all
!ouBd etter aandon all idea of feelings altogether.
;Bou and I< (y 9oger Mc*ough
21
4his poem is on a similar theme# and can follow A4o women as far as "Bm concernedB#
if students have enJo!ed the discussion generated ! that poem. A9ou and "B is slightl!
more comple% linguisticall!# with some words or e%pressions that ma! e unfamiliar
to learnersGBtr! a new tackB# AlinkersB# Aplacator!B# Acrocodile tearsB G and some
images whose connotations in Fnglish ma! have to e drawn out for students from
some other cultures; Adove and hawkB# Aolive ranch and thornsB. 4he discourse
pattern uilt up cumulativel! ! each succeeding stanHa is so strong# however# that the
conte%t usuall! helps learners get the sense of these e%pressions# with onl! minimal
help from the teacher# so that preGteaching is not reall! necessar!. 4he following
activit! aims at getting learners right into the situation# asking them to imagine what
the poet {&3*} could have written so that the! can assess the strength and vividness of
the images in the poem.
4he teacher gives the class the title and first stanHa onl! of the poem $written on the
oard# on a handGout# or overhead proJector'. <e or she reads it out# e%plains an!
difficulties# then asks students to sa! what the poem is aout. 7ho could the A!ouB
and the A"B eI 7hat is their relationship likeI :o memers of the class recognise this
situationI :o the! ever feel misinterpretedI Are their own good intentions sometimes
seen as aggressive ! other peopleI :o the! feel the! sometimes distort or
misunderstand what others are tr!ing to communicate to themI
4he teacher then gives the second stanHa# ut gapped# in the following wa!;
Aou see both sides. 1
.......................................... 1
am (lacatory. Aou
..........................................
<e or she e%plains difficulties# and asks for suggestions as to what could complete
these sentences. Luite often# the first attempt will produce a tooGsimple opposition;
A9ou see oth sides. " see neitherB or A" see only oneA A" am placator!. 9ou are
.iolent7 refuse to gi.e inA# etc. "n such cases# the teacher accepts the suggestions#
&1
in Wa.ing at Trains
&1+
writes them down# then asks students to check whether the second stanHa is consistent
with the first. A" see neitherB is a possi!le completion# ut does it continue the thought;
A" e%plain quietl! ut !ou hear me shoutingBI 7ould the thought have een different
if the poet had written; A" e%plain quietl! ut !ou shoutAI /tudents usuall! then revise
their first sentence to produce something like; A9ou see oth sides. " think youAre
!iassed =unfairDnarrow-minded>B A" am placator!. 9ou think ;Am insulting you D
stirring up trou!le D am a trou!le-makerA6
After this first communal writing effort# the teacher gives students in pairs the
gapped third and fourth stanHas# and asks them to fill in the missing sections;
{&3)} /ome sentences provided ! a multilingual class preparing for the (amridge
Proficienc! e%am are given aove# on the right. "t is clear from these that students
oth understood the poem and responded to it with imagination and sensitivit!. After
comparing their solutions# the! were eager to read the poem. 4here were cries of
delight as students realised that the! had come ver! close indeed to the spirit of the
poem# ut satisfaction too at the vivid metaphorical e%pression of the original. A7ellB#
the! said# Aafter all# he is a poet# isnBt heKB 4he te%t of the poem follows.
You and ;
" e%plain quietl!. 9ou
hear me shouting. 9ou
tr! a new tack. "
feel old wounds reopen.
9ou see oth sides. "
see !our linkers. "
am placator!. 9ou
sense a new selfishness.
" am a dove. 9ou
recognise the hawk. 9ou
offer an olive ranch. "
feel the thorns.
&1.
9ou leed. "
see crocodile tears. "
withdraw. 9ou
reel from the impact.
{&3+}$!!endi 1 )ith eaminations in mind
/ome students who are reading works of literature in a foreign language will e
working towards a written e%amination# usuall! involving essa! writing. /ometimes
the essa!s will need to e written in the target language.
Fssa! writing and e%aminations are frequentl! a lonel! usiness. 4he element of
competition and the awarding of marks compound this isolation. "n our view# essa!
writing and marking need to e e%plored and shared so that the processes at work can
e etter understood. Fver! literature essa! is a form of communication etween
writer and reader. Poor marks indicate that the two of them are not in tune; the writer
is not meeting the e%pectations of the reader. (learl! the teacherBs written comments
or class discussion of an essa! question will help students to understand what is
e%pected of them ut the teacher has man! other helpful options availale.
Asking students to set essa! questions enales them to appreciate how the working
of the question determines what will e relevant in the answer and also gives them a
greater sensitivit! to the sort of question that particular literar! works seem to
demand.
F%changing essa!s and then marking and reporting on them# or even marking and
commenting on their own essa!s# prior to handing them in to the teacher# can help
students to develop greater awareness of their own strengths and weaknesses.
0rainstorming for the relevant content of an essa! in groups prior to individual
writing is another wa! of restoring a social dimension to the planning of essa!s.
7ith weaker groups# the teacher can suppl! a checklist of possile points for
inclusion in an essa!. /tudents can then e asked to prioritise the points and group
them# having first deleted an! that are considered irrelevant.
7e hope that some of the activities we have descried in this ook will help
students to have a more thorough asic understanding of the literar! work and a
strong sense of involvement with it. 4hese two factors will help to add sustance and
life to essa! writing in literature.
6or teachers seeking an attractive activit! that integrates man! of the aove
awareness e%ercises# the following simulation is offered. "t is versatile enough to e
adapted to different class siHes and requires a total {&3.} of aout two to twoGandGaG
half hours in all# although the various parts can also e done separatel!.
The Eaminations 7oard C a simulation
4he idea for this simulation was orn out of a desire to make students more aware of
what the! are doing 5 and wh! 5 when the! write literar! essa!s to prepare for
e%aminations. "t can e done in part# or in full# according to choice and availale time.
Step ;C 'he su&!committee o$ the +ational 0,aminations "oard
&1,
/tudents are divided into small groups# each one representing a sucommittee of the
F%aminations 0oard# whose task is to write the questions to e set on an Fnglish
=iterature e%amination.
7e assume a class siHe of &2 for the purpose of illustrating the simulation# ut it can
e adapted to other class siHes $see the tale at the end of this appendi%'. 6our groups
of five students each receive;
5 A tasksheet $e%ample follows'.
5 A sample 1F0 e%am paper# showing the kind of questions set.
&&
/tudents read the instructions and the sample papers on other works of literature; then
the! write two questions for the e%am to e set on the work the! have een stud!ing.
:iscussion and writing take aout &2 minutes.
{&3,}
4asksheet 1
P 1ote to teacher; >ar! these categories evenl! so that two questions are produced in each categor!.
6or e%ample; group 1 5 $a' and $c'; group & 5 $' and $d'; group 3 $a' and $d'; group 3 5 $' and $c'.
{&*2}
Appendi% 1
&&
7e give two Asample papersB of different levels# as e%amples; one is on the short stor! A/redni
>ashtarB ! /aki# with literar! questions set at a preGuniversit! level# for students who have een
stud!ing literature as part of a s!llaus; the other# on D. 0. /hawBs #ygmalion# has questions set for
advanced students not sitting a specificall! literar! paper ut an e%am with a literar! essa! as part of a
language composition paper $for e%ample# (amridge Proficienc! in Fnglish'. 4eachers working for a
set e%am s!llaus might wish to include their own past papers at this stage of the simulation.
&&2
The e)am Euestions su!-committee
9ou are a memer of the e%am questions suGcommittee of the 1ational F%aminations
0oard.
9ou are meeting to devise two essa! questions for this !earBs 1F0 Fnglish =iterature
e%am. 4he two questions will e ased on;
Lord o4 t0% 7#%& .) W##'( Go#dn,
4his ook has not een used on the 1F0 =iterature s!llaus efore. 4he tradition in
the 1F0 is to offer candidates a choice of one from four questions on each work on
the s!llaus.
4he four questions correspond to these four categories;
a' Ene question on a character or characters in the work.
' Ene question on one of the maJor themes in the work.
c' Ene Aconte%tB question 5 that is# using a short quotation from the ook as the
asis for interpretation and comment.
d' Ene free or open question with no restrictions.
9our suGcommittee is concerned onl! with two questions; of t!pe $a' and $c' aove.P
9ou can consult !our sheet of sample 1F0 questions on other works of fiction to get
some idea of the Ahouse st!leB. Please do not imitate an! of these questions.
9ou must sumit !our two questions after a ma%imum of 89 (nut%&" d&cu&&on.
{&*1}
&&1
NEB:EL:SA ;<:9=>
1A4"E1A= FNA8"1A4"E1/ 0EAR:
En,#&0 Lt%r'tur% S)##'.u& A
4uesda! 1&th ?une 1,NN ,amGl&am 3 hours
PAPER ? SHORT STORIES
Answer three Euestions only from this paper& one Euestion only may !e selected from
each one of the sections A7 B and $6
SECTION A5 !Sr%dn V'&0t'r" .) S'$
1. AAlthough 8rs :e Ropp is the victim in this short stor!# our s!mpath! lies with
the !oung o!# (onradin.B
:o !ou agree with this viewI :iscuss with detailed reference to the stor!.
&. AReligion is one of the wa!s used ! human eings to dispose of their
enemies.B
:iscuss# with specific reference to A/redni >ashtarB.
3. A" thought !ou liked toast#B she e%claimed# with an inJured air# oserving that he
did not touch it. A/ometimes#B said (onradin.
F%plain how this quotation relates to the stor! as a whole# and especiall! to the
depiction of the relationship etween the two main characters.
3. :iscuss the wa! in which the author rings out the intensit! of the emotions
simmering in the :e Ropp household.
{&*&}Step >C 'he e,ecutive committee o$ the +ational 0,aminations "oard
7hen time is up and the first task has een finished# students are told to write down
the two questions set ! their group. Fach student now ecomes a representative of
his or her suGcommittee# sent to a meeting of the 1ational F%amination 0oardBs
e%ecutive committee.
4he teacher regroups &2 students into five e%ecutive committees of four students;
each student coming from a different suGcommittee# and each ringing his or her
suGcommitteeBs two questions.
An eas! wa! of achieving this changeGover is as follows; when the teacher gives out
tasksheets to the suGcommittees in step 1# he or she laels them; A 5 0 5 ( 5 : 5 F#
giving one to each memer of the group. 7hen the second committee is formed# he or
she tells all the ABs to go together to one corner of the room# all the 0Bs to go to
another corner# etc. "n this wa!# five groups are formed# each consisting of one student
from suGcommittee 1# ringing with him or her questions $a' and $c'; one student
from &# with questions $' and $d'; one student from 3# with questions $a' and $d' and
one student from 3# with questions $' and $c'.
Fach memer of the new e%ecutive committee is now given 4asksheet &.
Regrouping# discussion and selection of questions should take aout &2 minutes.
&&&
NEB:EL:SB ;@:AB>
1A4"E1A= FNA8"1A4"E1/ 0EAR:
En,#&0 Lt%r'tur% S)##'.u& B
7ednesda! 13th 8a! 1,NN &pmG3pm & hours
PAPER = DRAMA
Answer two Euestions only from this paper& one Euestion from section A and one
Euestion from section B6
SECTION A5 #ygmalion .) G.B. S0'/
1. (ompare and contrast the characters of Professor <iggins and Alfred
:oolittle.
&. 7hat is the importance of (olonel Pickering in this pla!I
3. 4owards the end of the pla! <iggins sa!s to =iHa; A" presume !ou donBt
pretend that ; have treated !ou adl!IB
7hat do !ou thinkI as <iggins treated =iHa adl!I
3. 4he wa! !ou speak is at least as important as what !ou are. :o !ou agreeI
:iscuss with reference to #ygmalion.
Tasksheet +
Step ?C 'he +0" plenary meeting
All students now meet together with the teacher as vote counter. Fach e%ecutive
committee reports its choices; then# the teacher nominates the final four on the asis
of which questions were chosen most often. An! two questions from the same
categor! which have the same numer of inclusions are put to an immediate vote.
{&*3}
Tasksheet ,
4his meeting should take no longer than 1* minutes. 4he final four questions are
recorded and sumitted to the 1F0 for inclusion on the Fnglish =iterature
e%amination paper.
4he first part of the simulation is now concluded. "t usuall! takes aout one hour.
4he ne%t step can follow immediatel!# if another hour is availale# or it can e done in
a later lesson# as appropriate.
Step @C 'he marking scheme su&!committee
4he class goes ack to its original four groups of five students. Fach group receives;
5 4asksheet 3.
5 A Alist of criteriaB from the 1F0.
4he time allowed for this task is appro%imatel! one hour. Fach memer of the suG
committee should keep a cop! of the weighting decided.
{&*3}
&&3
'he e,ecutive committee o$ the +ational 0,aminations "oard
Aou are the executive committee of the N2+, and you have been asked to make the
final choice of four =uestions for this year9s 2nglish Literature examination. Aou
have eight =uestions submitted by the subCcommittees3 two for each of the
categories ?a@, ?b@, ?c@ and ?d@.
Aour final choice must be3 four =uestions in all, one for each category.
Aou have 15 minutes to make your selection.
'he marking scheme su&!committee
Aou are a member of the N2+9s marking scheme subCcommittee. Aou are meeting to
assign weighting to a number of =ualities which the N2+ seeks in literature essays.
Aour decisions will form the basis of the marking scheme for all N2+ examiners.
The N2+ su((lies a Hlist of criteria9. Study the list and add any criteria which you
think are missing. Then assign marks to the criteria you consider im(ortant,
remembering that each essay answer is marked out of a total of 100 marks.
Gor sim(ler calculations, you may wish to work in multi(les of ten.
Step GC )omework
4he teacher asks the class to do a test run of the e%am paper questions ! choosing to
answer one as their homework.
Step HC 7ndividual marking o$ essays
7ithout prior discussion# the teacher asks each student to mark his or her own essa!#
using his or her suGcommitteeBs marking scheme and headings. 4he final mark out of
122 should e recorded. 4he teacher checks all {&**} the essa!s# marks them in his or
her own wa!# then discusses with the student# either in a written note or in an
individual interview# the differences he or she sees etween his or her marking
scheme and the studentBs selfGmarked total.
4his can lead on to a ver! useful discussion etween the teacher and the class# in
which the teacher estalishes his or her own view of what the ArealB e%amination
oardBs criteria would e for marking studentsB essa!s.
Adapting the simulation to di$$erent class siDes
0asicall!# the grouping for step 1 is done through multiples of four# with odd numers
slotted in to the four groups# as shown for class siHes of 13 and 13. 6or class siHes
aove &2# use multiples of the asic patterns given; that is# for a class of &3; & % 1&;
for &.; & % 13# and so on.
$lass siCe Step ' group configurations Step + group configurations
. A0 5 A0 5 A0 5 A0 AAAA 5 0000
&&3
1F0 marking criteria
$riterion What is meant !y this criterion
Marks
assigned
1. knowledge
of the ook
(andidate shows thorough and detailed familiarit! with the
work.
&. essa!
structure
(andidate organises his or her essa! in a s!stematic and
logical wa!.
3. language (andidateBs use of language is accurate# varied and clear.
3. illustration (andidate quotes from the ook to support arguments made#
ampl! and relevantl!.
*. relevance (andidate answers questions directl!# with no unnecessar!
material.
). coverage (andidate deals with all main aspects of the topic set.
+. originalit! (andidate e%presses his or her own criticism and
interpretations# in a personal wa!.
Su!-$ommittee can offer alternati.e criteria if they wish
..
,.
1& A0( 5 A0( 5 A0( 5 A0( AAAA 5 0000 5 ((((
13 A0( 5 A0( 5 A0( 5 A0(( AAAA 5 0000 5 (((((
13 A0( 5 A0( 5 A00( 5 A0(( AAAA 5 00000 5 (((((
1) A0(: 5 A0(: 5 A0(: 5 A0(: AAAA 5 0000 5 (((( 5 ::::
&2 A0(:F 5 A0(:F 5 A0(:F 5
A0(:F
AAAA 5 0000 5 (((( 5 :::: 5
FFFFF
{&*)}$!!endi 2 $ resource (an0 o' titles
=anguage teachers can# in favourale circumstances# help their students to read more
widel! ! setting up a class lirar! of suitale# unaridged literar! works. A catalogue
of titles might indicate appro%imate difficult! and include s!nopses designed to whet
the readerBs appetite. Eccasional visual displa!s of particular authors and their works G
including perhaps photographs# theatre programmes# critical reviews# film posters and
so on could serve oth to encourage interest and to ecome the asis of class proJects.
7here the possiilit! e%ists# film showings# poetr! readings# radio pla!s and theatre
visits will lend further encouragement to students e%ploring literature in the target
language.
7ithin e%isting liraries outside the classroom# a list of suitale titles for language
learners could e made availale to students or displa!ed to guide their rowsing.
7hen students are using a lirar! independentl!# teachers might organise social
evenings or classroom sessions during which learners would talk aout ooks the!
had read and enJo!ed and perhaps read out favourite e%tracts. Alternativel!# students
could write rief reviews of ooks read# for displa!.
&&*
+ovels
Author and Title Le.el Language
difficulty
Length Brief description "eneral comments
?ohn 6owles#
The $ollector
A 8 8 /olitar! !oung man
kidnaps girl and holds
her captive
/uspense and
ps!chological
interest.
7illiam Dolding#
Lord of the Flies
AO" 8 = A group of o!s
stranded on a desert
island struggle to
survive# learning itter
lessons aout human
nature in the process.
A modern classic 5
universal themes#
simple !et powerful
plot.
Draham Dreene#
%octor Fisher of
"eno.a
"OA / / 8an of great wealth
pla!s sinister games
with his grovelling
entourage.
Fconomical st!le 5 a
powerful modern
tale.
Patricia <ighsmith
The Talented Mr
Ripley
A 8 8 9oung American in
"tal! murders his friend.
Dripping
ps!chological
thriller.
Aldous <u%le!#
Bra.e 9ew World
A 8 8 /anitised life in a
futuristic societ! ased
on genetic engineering.
"ntriguing 5 uildGup
of suspense 5 good
discussion potential.
/omerset
8augham# The
Moon and
Si)pence
A 8 8 Respectale anker
deserts home and wife
to pursue the 0ohemian
life of an artist.
"nteresting theme#
sustained ! a central
character in a variet!
of settings.
Deorge Erwell#
Animal Farm
" / / Animals take over a
farm and things
graduall! go sour.
A wellGknown and
wellGloved allegor!.
Deorge Erwell#
9ineteen <ighty-
Four
A 8 = A gloom! futuristic
vision of a totalitarian
societ!.
A powerful novel
that rewards effort.
6. /cott 6itHgerald
The "reat "ats!y
A 8 8 =ove# se%# corruption
and death in a high
societ! setting in 1,&2s
America
A sutle# evocative
masterpiece.
{&*.}%lays
Author and Title Le.el Language
difficulty
Length Brief description "eneral comments
Fdward Alee#
The Sand!o)
A / / American couple
dispose of an elderl!
mother.
0iting satire on
modern wa!s.
Ra!mond 0riggs#
When the Wind
Blows
A 8 / Retired couple struggle
to survive nuclear
attack on 0ritain.
(ontroversial# topical
theme 5 knowledge
of Fnglish culture
helpful.
:avid <are#
A Map of the
World
A 8 = A pla! written aout
real events satisfies
none of its ArealB
protagonists.
A wellGcrafted
variation on the Apla!
within a pla!B theme.
<arold Pinter#
Applicant
A 8 >/ A iHarre Jo interview. Dood length for class
staging# with few
props needed 5
amusing.
&&)
7illiam
/hakespeare#
Romeo and 2uliet
A 8O: = A !oung coupleBs love
is thwarted ! their
feuding families.
-niversall! loved 5
surprisingl!
accessile for foreign
students.
D. 0. /haw#
#ygmalion
A 8 = Professor of speech
takes on challenge of
transforming poor
(ockne! girl to pass
her off as a duchess.
Period piece that is
still witt! and
entertaining# relevant
to modern concerns
aout gender and
social roles.
4om /toppard#
The Real
;nspector ound
"OA / / A spoof of murder
m!ster! pla!s# which
questions notions of
Arealit!B versus
AappearanceB.
>er! enJo!ale.
4ennessee
7illiams#
The "lass
Menagerie
A 8 8 6amil! drama set in the
southern -/A; a
motherBs attempts to
marr! off her crippled
daughter.
8oving portra!al of
famil! relationships.
{&*,}7oo0s re'erred to in the tet
Alee# F. $1,)&' The ?oo Story and *ther #lays# ?onathan (ape.
Ashton# ?. and D. 0ott $1,)+' Read and Relate# (ornelsonG>elhagen and @lasing.
Atwood# 8. $1,.3' %ancing "irls and *ther Stories# >irago.
0allant!ne# R. 8. $1,.&' The $oral ;sland# Penguin 0ooks.
0arrie# /ir ?. 8. $1,)+' The Admira!le $richton# <odder and /toughton.
0ooth# 8. $ed.' $1,.1' $ontemporary British and 9orth American @erse# E%ford
-niversit! Press.
0riggs# R. $1,.3' When the Wind Blows# Penguin 0ooks.
0rontW# (. $1,+3' @illette# Pan 0ooks.
:ahl# R. $1,+2' Someone Like You# Penguin 0ooks.
:ahl# R. $1,.)' More Tales of the (ne)pected# Penguin 0ooks.
6itHgerald# 6. /cott $ 1,*2' The "reat "ats!y# Penguin 0ooks.
6owles# ?. $1,).' The Magus# Pan 0ooks.
6owles# ?. $1,+)' The $ollector# Panther 0ooks.
Daskell# F. $1,++' 9orth and South# E%ford -niversit! Press.
Dolding# 7. $1,*.# reprinted 1,.3' Lord of the Flies# 6aer and 6aer.
Dra!# A. $1,.3' (nlikely Stories# 8ostl!# Penguin 0ooks.
Dreene# D. $1,+.' The uman Factor# Penguin 0ooks.
Dreene# D. $1,.1' %octor Fischer of "ene.a# Penguin 0ooks.
<are# :. $1,.3' A Map of the World# 6aer and 6aer.
<ighsmith# P. $1,+&' <le.en# Penguin 0ooks.
<ighsmith# P. $1,+)' The Talented Mr Ripley# Penguin 0ooks.
{&)2}<u%le!# A. $1,**' Bra.e 9ew World# Penguin 0ooks.
"rvine# =. $1,.3' $astaway# Penguin 0ooks.
=awrence# :. <. $ed. 7. F. 7illiams' $1,*2' Selected #oems# Penguin 0ooks.
8cDough# R. $1,.&' Wa.ing at Trains# (ape.
8ale!# A. and /. 8oulding $1,.*' #oem into #oem# (amridge -niversit! Press.
8alamud# 0. $1,.*' Selected Stories# Penguin 0ooks.
8augham# /. $1,1,' The Moon and Si)pence# <einemann.
&&+
8orrison# 0. and A. 8otion $eds' $1,.&' $ontemporary British #oetry# Penguin
0ooks.
1ara!an# R. @. $1,.3' Malgudi %ays# Penguin 0ooks.
Erwell# D. $1,),' Animal Farm# Penguin 0ooks.
Erwell# D. $1,+2' 9ineteen <ighty-Four# Penguin 0ooks.
Plath# /. $ed. 4ed <ughes' $1,.1' $ollected #oems# 6aer and 6aer.
Pritchett# >. $1,.3' $ollected Stories# Penguin 0ooks.
Redamond# R. and <. 4enn!son $1,+)' $ontemporary *ne-Act #lays# <einemann.
Roerts# 8. $ed.' $1,)*' The Fa!er Book of Modern @erse# 6aer and 6aer.
/aki $1,.&' The $omplete Saki# Penguin 0ooks.
/hakespeare# 7. $ed. D. 0lakemore Fvans' $1,.3' Romeo and 2uliet# (amridge
-niversit! Press.
/haw# D. 0. $1,),' #ygmalion# Penguin 0ooks.
/park# 8. $1,)3' The "o-Away Bird and *ther Stories# Penguin 0ooks.
/park# 8. $ 1,)+' The Mandel!aum "ate# Penguin 0ooks.
/tevenson# R. =. $1,+1' Treasure ;sland# Penguin 0ooks.
/toppard# 4. $ 1,+2' The Real ;nspector ound# 6aer and 6aer.
/toppard# 4. $1,.3' The Real Thing# 6aer and 6aer.
/wan# 8. $ed.' $1,+,' Baleidoscope# (amridge -niversit! Press.
4hornle!# D. (. $ed.' $1,*.' *utstanding Short Stories# =ongman Droup.
4rollope# A. $1,+3' The <ustace %iamonds# Panther 0ooks.
7augh# F. $1,*1' Scoop# Penguin 0ooks.
7ells# <. D. $1,*.' /elected /hort /tories# Penguin 0ooks.
7illiams# 4. $1,).' The "lass Menagerie# <einemann $and in Penguin Pla!s'.
7oo0s 'or the classroom C 'urther suggestions
Anthologies o$ poetry
0ooth# 8. $ed.' $1,.1' $ontemporary British and 9orth American @erse# E%ford
-niversit! Press.
<enri# A.# R. 8cDough and 0. Patten $ 1,)+' The Mersey Sound# Penguin 0ooks.
<unter# ?. $ed.' $1,).G.1' Modern #oets '-1# 6aer and 6aer.
=ucie /mith# F. $ed.' $1,.*' British #oetry since '801# Penguin 0ooks.
8aceth# D. $ed.' $1,+,' #oetry '8::-'841# =ongman Fnglish /eries# =ongman
Droup.
/ummerfield# D. $ed.' $1,).G+2' @oices '-,# Penguin 0ooks.
7ain# ?. $ed.' $1,+,' Anthology of $ontemporary #oetry #ost-War to the #resent#
<utchinson.
{&)1}Anthologies o$ short plays
/hackleton# 8. $1,.*' %ou!le Act7 Ten *ne-Act #lays on Fi.e Themes# Fdward
Arnold.
#ollections o$ short stories
A14<E=ED"F/
Adkins and /hackleton $eds' $1,.2' Recollections F Ten Stories on Fi.e Themes#
Fdward Arnold.
&&.
<adfield# ?. $ed.' $1,.3' Modern Short Stories '# :ent and /ons.
<unter# ?. $ed.' $1,)3' Modern Short Stories# 6aer and 6aer.
/wan# 8. $ed.' Samphire and *ther Modern Stories# (amridge -niversit! Press.
/watridge# :r (. and :r (. A. 0itter $eds' $1,.)' The Man with the Scar and *ther
Stories# 8acmillan.
4a!lor# P. $ed.' $1,+,' The Road and *ther Modern Stories# (amridge -niversit!
Press.
-pdike# ?. and /hannon Ravenel $eds' $1,.*' The YearAs Best American Short Stories
$annual'# /evern <ouse.
(E==F(4"E1/ E6 /<ER4 /4ER"F/ 09 "1:">":-A= A-4<ER/
0radur!# R. $1,*,' The %ay ;t Rained Fore.er# Penguin 0ooks.
:ahl# R. $1,),' Biss7 Biss# Penguin 0ooks.
:ahl# R. $1,+,' Tales of The (ne)pected# Penguin 0ooks.
Dreene# D. $1,+&' $ollected Stories# <einemann.
?o!ce# ?. $1,+3' The %u!liners# 8acmillan.
=awrence# :. <. $1,+1' Short Stories# Penguin 0ooks.
=essing# :. $ 1,+*' The Story of a 9on-marrying Man and *ther Stories# Penguin
0ooks.
=essing# :. $1,.2' The "rass is Singing# Panther 0ooks.
8ansfield# @. $1,+3' Bliss and *ther Stories# Penguin 0ooks.
4hurer# ?. $1,+1' A Thur!er $arni.al# Penguin 0ooks.
Some modern novels
Achee# (. $1,)&' Things Fall Apart# <einemann.
Amis# @. $1,+,' Lucky 2im# Penguin 0ooks.
Atwood# 8. $1,.2' The <di!le Woman# >irago.
0aldwin# ?. $1,.3' "o Tell it on the Mountain# (orgi 0ooks.
0aldwin# ?. $1,.3' Another $ountry# (orgi 0ooks.
0anks# =. R. $1,+1' The L-Shaped Room# Penguin 0ooks.
0ellow# /. $1,))' SeiCe the %ay# Penguin 0ooks.
0ellow# /. $1,),' erCog# Penguin 0ooks.
0radur!# 8. $1,+,' The istory Man# Arrow 0ooks.
0radur!# R. $1,+)' Fahrenheit 01'# Panther 0ooks.
0rookner# A. $1,.*' otel du Lac# Dranada Pulishing.
:rale# 8. $1,),' The Millstone# Penguin 0ooks.
{&)&}:rale# 8. $1,++' The ;ce Age# 7eidenfeld and 1icolson.
du 8aurier# :. $1,+)' 2amaica ;nn# Pan 0ooks.
Fllison# R. $1,+2' The ;n.isi!le Man# Penguin 0ooks.
Dolding# 7. $1,**' The ;nheritors# 6aer and 6aer.
Draves# R. $1,),' ;7 $laudius# Penguin 0ooks.
Dreene# D. $1,),' The Guiet American# Penguin 0ooks.
Dreene# D. $1,),' The #ower and the "lory# Penguin 0ooks.
Dreene# D. $1,+,' The uman Factor# Penguin 0ooks.
<emingwa!# F. $1,+)' The *ld Man and the Sea# Panther 0ooks.
<ighsmith# P. $ 1,+&' A Suspension of Mercy# Penguin 0ooks.
<ill# /. $1,+3' ;Am the Bing of the $astle# Penguin 0ooks.
@ese!# @. $1,+3' *ne Flew *.er the $uckooAs 9est# Pan 0ooks.
=ee# <. $1,+3' To Bill a Mocking!ird# Pan 0ooks.
&&,
=odge# :. $1,+.' $hanging #laces# Penguin 0ooks.
8arshall# ?. >. $1,.2' Walka!out# Penguin 0ooks.
8urdoch# ". $1,),' The Bell# Penguin 0ooks.
8urdoch# ". $1,+&' A Fairly onoura!le %efeat# Penguin 0ooks.
1aokov# >. $1,.2' Lolita# Penguin 0ooks.
1aipaul# >. /. $1,),' A ouse for Mr Biswas# Penguin 0ooks.
1aipaul# >. /. $1,.2' A Bend in the Ri.er# Penguin 0ooks.
Rushdie# /. $1,.&' MidnightAs $hildren# Pan 0ooks.
/alinger# ?. :. $1,),' The $atcher in the Rye# Penguin 0ooks.
/hute# 1. $1,).' A Town Like Alice# Pan 0ooks.
/hute# 1. $1,),' *n the Beach# Pan 0ooks.
/inclair# -. $1,)*' The 2ungle# Penguin 0ooks.
/park# 8. $1,),' The #rime of Miss 2ean Brodie# Penguin 0ooks.
/park# 8. $1,+2' The Ballad of #eckham Rye# Penguin 0ooks.
/teineck# ?. $1,+2' The #earl# Pan 0ooks.
/teineck# ?. $1,+3' *f Mice and Men# Pan 0ooks.
7alker# A. $1,.3' The $olor #urple# 7omenBs Press.
7augh# F. $1,+2' The Lo.ed *ne# Penguin 0ooks.
7eldon# 6. $1,.2' #ra)is# <odder and /toughton.
7eldon# 6. $1,.&' Watching Me7 Watching You# <odder and /toughton.
7!ndham# ?. $1,),' The Midwich $uckoos# Penguin 0ooks.
7!ndham# ?. $ 1,+2' The %ay of the Triffids# Penguin 0ooks.
7!ndham# ?. $1,+2' $hocky# Penguin 0ooks.
Some modern plays
=eigh# 8. $1,.3' A!igailAs #arty# Penguin 0ooks.
Erton# ?. $1,.*' Loot# F!re 8ethuen.
Erton# ?. $1,+*' The "ood and Faithful Ser.ant# F!re 8ethuen.
Esorne# ?. $1,*+' Look Back in Anger# 6aer and 6aer.
Pinter# <. $1,)*' The Birthday #arty# F!re 8ethuen.
Pinter# <. $1,.2' Betrayal# F!re 8ethuen.
Priestle!# ?. 0. $1,)*' An ;nspector $alls# <einemann.
/haffer# P. $1,++' <Euus# Penguin 0ooks.
{&)3}.elect (i(liogra!hy
Alderson# ?. (. and A. <. -rquhart $eds' $1,.3' Reading in a Foreign Language#
=ongman.
0rownJohn# /. $1,.2' %oes it a.e to Rhyme/# <odder and /toughton.
0rownJohn# /. $1,.&' What Rhymes with Secret/# <odder and /toughton.
0rumfit# (. ?. $ed.' $1,.3' HTeaching literature o.erseas& language-!ased
approachesA F=4 :ocuments 11*# 0ritish (ouncil# Pergamon Press.
0rumfit# (. ?. $1,.*' Language and Literature Teaching& From #ractice to #rinciple#
Pergamon.
(hristison# 8. A. $1,.&' <nglish through #oetry# Aleman! Press.
(uller# ?. $1,+*' Structuralist #oetics# Routledge X @egan Paul.
:ought!# P. /. $1,).' Linguistics and the Teaching of Literature# =ongman.
Fagleton# 4. $1,.3' Literary Theory& an ;ntroduction# 0asil 0lackwell.
Forum# >ol. NN"""# 1o. 1# ?anuar! 1,.* $issue devoted to the teaching of literature'.
&32
6owler# R. $1,.)' Linguistic $riticism# E%ford -niversit! Press.
Datonton# F. (. and D. R. 4ucker $1,+1' A(ultural orientation and the stud! of
literatureB# T<S*L Guarterly *# 1,+1# pp. 13+G33.
Dower# R. $1,.)' A(an st!listic anal!sis help the F6= learner to read literatureIB# <LT
2ournal# >ol. 32# 1o. &# April 1,.)# pp. 1&*G32.
Drellet# 6. $1,.1' %e.eloping Reading Skills# (amridge -niversit! Press.
<olden# /. and R. 0oardman $eds' $1,.+' Teaching Literature# Proceedings of the
1,.) /orrento (onference# 8FPO0ritish (ouncil.
@och# @. $ 1,.3' Rose7 where did you get that red/ Teaching great poetry to children#
>intage 0ooks# Random <ouse.
=eech# D. 1. $1,),' A Linguistic "uide to <nglish #oetry# =ongman.
8c@a!# /. $1,.&' A=iterature in the F/= classroomB# T<S*L Guarterly# >ol. 1)# 1o.
3# :ecemer 1,.&# pp. *&,G3).
8ale!# A. and /. 8oulding $1,.*' #oem into #oem# (amridge -niversit! Press.
8ood!# <. =. 0. $1,).' Literary Appreciation# =ongman.
8ood!# <. =. 0. $1,+1' The Teaching of Literature# =ongman.
1uttall# (. $1,.&' Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Language# P=4 ,#
<einemann Fducational 0ooks.
4raugott# F. (. and 8. (. Pratt $1,.2' Linguistics for Students of Literature# <arcourt
0race.
7iddowson# <. D. $1,+*' Stylistics and the Teaching of Literature# =ongman.
7iddowson# <. D. $ 1,.3' <)plorations in Applied Linguistics +# E%ford -niversit!
Press.
{&)3}Inde
Aaccuse and den!B# 1*+
adapting literar! works# .+G.# ,2
agon! aunt columns# )3# 1,&G3
AangelBs advocatesB# 1.&G3
authentic formats for writing# )&G*# 133
alloon deate# ,2G1
iographical activities# &3G+
Aiographical lieGdetectingB# &+
Aiographical montageB# &3
iographical sketch of author# &3G*
Aook on a postcard# theB# .+# 1)&
Acall m! luffB# &+
character portra!al# ,.G,# 11&G13
AchessoardB# 3,# 132G&
Achoosing a moralB# 3,G*2# &23
AcodesB# +3G3# 11&G1*# 1&3G*# 1*)# 1+)
comparison activities
eginnings# 31G3
summaries# 3*G)# 111G1&# 133G3
connectors# writing with# *+G.
AcontinuumB# +&# 1&,G32# &33
Acries for helpB# )1
Acritical forumB# listening activities# .*
deates# +3G*# 1*,G)2# &1+
Adecision pointsB# *3G*
Adiplomac!B# 1*,
discussion prompts
grids and worksheets# +2# +&# 122# 1*.# 1+3G
+# 1+.G,# &2&G3# &23G*# &1.G1,# &3.G,
language work# 132
prioritising# 1.,G,2
questionnaires# &2G1# 3&# +1# 122# 1*&# 1+*#
&2+G,# &3.G,
speculation# .3# 1*3
Adoodle and listenB# 1*1G&
AechoesB# 1)2
Aeditorial suggestionsB# 33G*
epitaphs# )3G3# 1*3G*
e%aminations# &3+G**
e%tensive reading# encouragement of# &*)
fantas! activities
character# 1*.
guided# 1.# ,3G*
with role pla!# 1*,
see also improvisation
Afeud for thoughtB# 1)3G*
Afilling in the gapsB# +3
flowchart# &11G1&
Afl! on the wallB# **G)
followGup activities# +,G,&# 1)1G&# 1.2G1# 1,3G*#
&22G1# &1+# &1,# &31G&# &33# &3+G.# &32G&
guessing
iographical information# &)
lines of a poem# &33G)
&31
Ahere and thereB# +)G+
highlights
AchoosingB# .*G)# 1)1
e%ploiting# *+
home reading# with worksheets# 3.G*1
A"Bd do an!thing for !ou# dear# an!thing . . A#
1..G,
A" know what !ou said# ut what did !ou meanIB#
132G3
improvisation# +)G+# ,1G&# 1)1G&# 1++G.# &33#
&32
AinquestB# ,1G&# 1)1G&
Ainterview with the school counsellorB# 13)
Jigsaw listeningOreading# )+# &1+
AJust a minuteB# .3G3# 1&3G)
ke! wordsOsentences# 1,G&2# &1*G1)# &1.# &&,G
32# &3&G3
Alanguage of love# theB# 1+3G)
language work
figurative# 1*3G3# 1+3G3# &31
grammar# *1# ,,# 11*G1)# 1&1# 13,G*2
performative function# *1# 1&.G,# 132G3
proJects# *)# 1+2G1
vocaular!# *2# 1&&G3# 13+# 13.# 1*2# 1)*G
+# 1.3G3# &2)G+
word puHHles# 13*G+
listening activities
efore reading# &1G3# ))# 1*1G&# &&&G*
followGup# 1.2G&
with gist questions# &3.G32
with grids# ))G+# &23G*
Alistening inB# &1G3
literature
as authentic material# 3G3
as cultural enrichment# 3
as language enrichment# 3G*
on language s!llaus# &
for personal involvement# *G)
selection of te%ts# )G+
Alove at first sightB# 1++
maintaining momentum# 3)G+
Ameaning of signs# theB# 13+G.
Amemor! e%erciseB# ,.
mime# &21G&
Amissing posterB# )*# 1&1
mood setting# 1.# ,3G*
AmoviemakerB# +.# 1&+G.
nurser! rh!mes# 1.# &&+G,
ordering activities# &,# 3)G,# 13,# 1*+# 1..G,#
&2,# &3&G3
parallel reading# )+G.# 123G)# &&*
Apeace offeringB# 13.G,
persuasion activities# +*# 1&.G,# 1*&# 1*+
Aplausile chainsB# 132
ApledgesB# 1*)
Aplotting movementB# 1.*G+
Apoint of no returnB# .&G3# 1)1
Apoint of orderB# &,G32# &3&G3
predicting activities# 32G1# 31# 33# *3G3# .&
questionnaires# &2G1# 3&# +1# 122# 1*&# 1+*# &2+G
,# &3.G,
quiHHes# ,.# 1&1
reading aloud# ).G,# &&,# &31# &33G3
readingOlistening in sections# &22
reassessing# *3# 1)2# &2,
retelling a stor!# .3# 1&2
Aritual activitiesB# 1*3
role pla!# 33G3# +)G+# ++# ..G,# .,G,2# 13)# 1++G
.# &22G1
ARomeo and Eld (apuletB# 1+.G.2
Around roinB# .)
ArulesB# see AcodesB
Aschool reportsB# 133G*
AsculptingB# .1G&# 13,G32
Asealing the time capsuleB# 31
selecting te%ts# )G+
Asentence whispersB# &.
Asignpost questionsB# 33
simulation# 33# 11&# &3.G**
snowall activities# *1G)# 12)G12# 1&)# 1).G,#
1+2G1
AsolutionsB# 13+G.
Astar diagramsB# &+G.# 122G&
summaries
comparison of# 3*# 111G1&# 133G3
connectors for# *+G.
Jumled# 3)# 13,# 1.2# &2,G11
ke! points for# 3)
oral# +2
progressive# *.# .)
snowall# 12)G,
teaching literature
aims# .G12
approaches# +G.
prolems# 11G1*
teaching
novels# ,3G3
pla!s# 1)3G3
poems#&&)G+
short stories# 1,)G+
team competitions# .3
Atelevision reportageB# &13
theme# using the# 1,# 1)3G*# 1,1G3# &23# &&+G,#
&3&G3# &3*
Athought ulesB# *,G)1# &3)G+
titleOcover design# using the# 1+G1.# +,G.1# &23#
&1+
&3&
AtrailersB# ++G.# 1&1G&# &1,
4>Oradio guides# )&
visual displa!s# *&G3# 12)G12# 1&)# 13.G,#1).G,
visual prompts# 1.G1,# 1,+G,# &&2G&
wall charts# *&G3# see also visual displa!s
warmGup activities# 1)# 1+G&&# 1)3G*# 1,1G3#
1,+G,# &23# &1*G1)# &1+# &1.# &&2G1# &&+G32#
&3&G3# &3*# &3.
Awhat could " killIB# 122
Awhat if . . . IB# .3# 1*3# 1)1
Awordpla!Oswordpla!B# 1)*G+
worksheets
home reading# 3.G*1# ,)G+# ,.# 11&G13# 13+#
1+&G3# 1,3G3
interpretation# 3+# 13+G.# &&3G3
language# *2G1# see also language work
moral choosing# 3,# &23
questionOanswer# 3.G,# 3,G31
true or false# 33
value Judgments# 3+ see also questionnaires
writing
conversationsOdialogues# *.G,# 133G/# 1*2G
1# 1*,# 1+.G.2# &1+
diaries# **G)# 1&)
essa!s# .+# &13G13# &1,# &*3G*
letters# .+# 11)G1+# 1..
minutes of a meeting# 1&,
newspaper articles# )3# ..G,# 1**G)# &22G1
notes# )1
poems# )1# 1&3G3# &33# &3)G.# &32G&
reports# )3# 133G*# &13
retrospective# 33# ,*
short tasks# )3G3# )*# .1# .+# 1*3G*# 1)&#
&3&
sketches# 1,*
&33