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Abstract

Suicide is a major cause of death among patients with schizophrenia.


Research indicates that at least 513% of schizophrenic patients die by suicide,
and it is the higher range. Person, who commits suicide, is young, male,
unmarried. Hopelessness, social, psychological and economic factors, recent loss
or rejection, limited external support, and family stress are risk factors for suicide.
The social factor contains husband wife quarrel, dowry related problem, family
conflict etc. Psychological factor contains low self confidence, failure of love,
demand not fulfills from any person, biological crisis, physical or mental disorder
feeling shame etc. Economic factor contains poverty, low income, unemployment
etc.
I provided a brief essay on specific aspect of the problem. This is the first
attempt to present a consensus report as well as the development of a set of
guidelines for reducing suicide risk.

A huge amount of people died through suicide in Jhenidah district. Through
this research we can know when, where and how the victim commit suicide and
this research will be helpful for the Government to policy implication.
Introduction
The process of purposely ending one's own life is called suicide. Suicide is an act
with a fatal outcome which is deceased, with the knowledge and expectation of a
fatal outcome, had himself planned and carried out with the object of bringing
about the changes desired by the deceased (WHO). Suicide is an activity which
involves act with the aim and result of ones biological death on the basis of social,
specific, historical movies (Hammerlin and Enerstvedt, 1988). Suicides accounts
for approximately one million deaths annually worldwide. There are from 10
million to 20 million suicide attempts annually. About 30,000 people reportedly
kill themselves each year in the United States. Suicide is the eighth leading cause
of death in males and the 16th leading cause of death in females.
Durkheim (1897) proposed that the societal and cultural context

influenced the
risk of suicide in an individual. He described

four types of suicide: egoistic
(individuals who had lost

their sense of integration within their social group and so

no longer felt subject to social, family or religious control);

anomic (individuals
who lived in a society that lacked collective

order because it was in the midst of
social change or political

crisis); altruistic (people who sacrificed their lives

for the
good of the community) and fatalistic (when a person is excessively regulated,
when their futures are pitilessly blocked and passions violently choked by
oppressive discipline).
Suicide may occur for a number of reasons, including depression, shame,
guilt, desperation, physical pain, pressure, anxiety, financial difficulties, or other
undesirable situations. It should be noted however that there are those who lead
comparably happy lifestyles and choose to end their own lives for reasons other
than the aforementioned negative associations. The World Health Organization
noted that someone commits suicide every 40 seconds thus making it one of the
leading causes of death in the world. And there are an estimated 10 to 20 million
non-fatal attempted suicides every year.
World Health Organization (2008)
Individual risk factors for suicide are varied, but in many

countries rates are highest
in men, those who are divorced

or separated, the unemployed, those in social class
5 and those

who are socially isolated. The rates of suicide are highest

in spring and
early summer in both northern and southern hemispheres.

Low risk is associated
with religiosity. Alcohol consumption

and easy access to toxic substances or
firearms are positively

correlated with suicide rates. The majority of those who kill

themselves have a psychiatric illness, and this and recent

admission to a psychiatric
hospital are by far the most important

risk factors at a population level.
McKENZIF, MRCPsych and SERFATY, CRAWFORD (2003) The U.S.
suicide rate for 10- to 14-year-old girls rose 76 percent from 2003 to 2004,
according to a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Additionally, the CDC reported a 32.3 percent increase among 15- to 19-year-old
girls, and a 9 percent increase among 15- to 19-year-old boys. And the overall
youth suicide rate rose 8 percent. The dramatic increase sharply contrasts with the
28.5 percent decrease in youth suicide rates since 1990, thus causing alarm in the
suicide prevention community. Kevin Caruso September 6, 2007

Suicide has social, economic, psychological, legal ethical and religious
aspect. No single cause is responsible for the level of suicide rate in a particular
country. Many factors are at work at the same time. The factors associated with
suicide may be interpersonal conflicts and disruption such as marital conflict,
separation, divorce, frustration in love, failure and self-devaluations associated
with occupational aspirations accomplishments, hopelessness, loss of honor,
disgrace, personal inadequacies, mental abnormalities, deprivation, sense of guilt,
economic hardships, incurable diseases, prolonged illness, alcohol and addictive
drug consumption, broken home in childhood, pregnancy through illicit sex
relation, marriages ill arranged by parents or guardians etc.
Haq (banglapedia[use@]allbd.com) Rahman (June 1986)

Creating difficulties for the ongoing girls to the school is not yet closed by
the bad boys. Among those girls some of the girls commit suicide for eve teasing.
Now a day, eve teasing is not confined within the bad comment, some additional
things add here. All aged women are faced this problem. From 14 daily newspaper
of Bangladesh, we can see that, in 2005 the incidents of suicide was 56, in 2006 the
suicide incidents was 478, in 2007 the suicide incidents was 337 and in 2008 the
suicide incidents was 281. The experts said that. Eve teasing is one of the major
causes of suicide. Psychiatrist and Doctor Mohit Kamal said in Ittefaq Girls are
affected by eve teasing in various forms. There are so many reasons of eve
teasing, they are: lack of norms and values, lack of familial education, not take it as
a problem by the local government, no specific law about this matter.
The Daily Ittefaq, (Sunday, 22 February, 2009),
The main reason of committing suicide is psychological diseases of person. From a
research about 90% of the people suicide who suffer psychological illness. But in
Bangladesh psychological illness is not only the reason of suicide. There are some
reasons of suicide. They may commit suicide because of anger. Another thing is
that when a person falls in great danger of problems, they can commit suicide to
solve the particular problem. Kamal (2007). From the study Rahman (1986),
Jhenidah was mentioned as the most suicide prone area. Every year a few thousand
people commit suicide in Bangladesh of whom the numbers of females are highest.
From Bureau of Police Research and development, 1980-84, in Bangladesh 9.3
males and 19.6 females are commit suicide among one lakh population during the
year 1980-84. From Crime Index Bangladesh 2007, we can know that there are
1320 suicide incidents occurred in Bangladesh. So among the total crime, about
0.8% was crime. Suicide is one of the three leading causes of death among 15-44
years old people globally. Health and demographic surveillance data from 6953
households in Abhoynagar and Keshobpur, rural semi-urban sub districts of
Jessore District in southwest Bangladesh, collected by ICDDR, B during 1983-
2002 (Health and Science Bulletin Vol.1 No. 5 December 2003, ICDDR, B).
There is no man without problem and problem may arise in every stage of life. So
we have to face those problems in good hands. It is very much difficult to find out
the main causes of committing suicide.

Objectives of the study are to identify why people are more engage to
commit suicide, how social, economic, and psychological factors are related of
committing suicide. What types of methods are being used and why as well as to
find out the prevention procedure. At first I will discuss the theoretical Framework,
Methodology, Data analysis, Findings and then Conclusion.



Theoretical Framework
Durkheim (1951) asserted that the reason people kill themselves does not occur
through random occurrences. Durkheim (1951) defines suicide as all cases of
death resulting directly or indirectly from a positive or negative act of the victim
himself, which he knows will produce this result (p. 44). To commit suicide, an
individual has to have some idea of what they are doing.
According to Durkheim, altruistic suicide occurs when an individual is too highly
integrated into the collective. This individual understands himself solely in terms
as a member of the group. They are almost completely absorbed in the group and
completely discard their individual personalities for the idea that they have become
servants (Durkheim 1951). Insufficient individuation, as can be seen with terrorist
suicide bombers, can make an individual feel it is their duty to commit suicide for
the betterment of the organization of a whole (Ritzer 1992). He believes himself
called upon to reform not only religion but also to reform society; perhaps he will
also imagine the highest sort of destiny reserved for himself (Durkheim 1951, p.
60-61). When an individual believes strongly enough in the collective, he will do
anything to help their cause. The most underdeveloped category of Durkheims
suicide typology, fatalistic suicide occurs from excessive regulation. Suicide of this
nature can be characterized by situations that result from continuous political and
economic oppression (Johnson 1979; Taylor 1982). In the case of suicide
terrorism, many individuals are excessively regulated both politically and
economically. As will be discussed further, the families of those who are chosen
and volunteer for a suicide attack receive money after the act has taken place.
Sacrificing oneself for to end the economic oppression for their family, along with
the promise of becoming a martyr, is a means to help the family, the terrorist
organization, and the oppressed individual.
Individuals who endure excessive regulation are blocked from legitimate
opportunities for advancement in society. Fatalistic suicides involve an escape
from a normative situation from which there is no appeal (Stack 1979, p. 162).
The process of over-control where an individual is blocked from political freedom
and economic opportunity creates a condition of over-control. Stack (1979)
contends, in such a totalitarian environment, marked by relatively low freedom
and respect for human dignity, already suicidal persons have an additional reason
for viewing life as meaningless and are more apt to commit suicide (p. 162).
It can be argued that while many individuals who are recruited and trained for
suicide attacks are well educated, these individuals are usually highly integrated
into the terrorist organization. Those individuals who are excessively regulated are
often religious males, who are often young, unmarried, unemployed, with some
high school education (Ganor 2000). This profile has been found to fit the Hamas
Shahid, the Black Tigers of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), and the
Shiites in Lebanon (Ergil 2001; Gunaratna 2000; Schbley 2000). The socio-
economic status of individuals has therefore been found to be similar among many
suicide terrorists that fit the fatalistic suicide typology. Egoistic suicide reflects a
prolonged sense of not belonging, of not being integrated in a community, an
experience, of not having a tether, an absence that can give rise to
meaninglessness, apathy, melancholy, and depression. Anomic suicide: reflects an
individual's moral confusion and lack of social direction, which is related to
dramatic social and economic upheaval.

ROUTINE ACTIVITY THEORY. Developed by Lawrence Cohen and Marcus
Felson
1
during the late 1970s, routine activity theory is a criminological theory
frequently used to explain crime and victimization. According to Cohen and
Felson, crime and victimization is based upon three criteria: (1) a suitable target,
(2) an absence of capable guardians, and (3) a motivated offender. Each of these
variables will be explained as they relate to the victims actions and prevention
strategies. Robert K. Merton's "Dream Machine" An Explication of
Merton's"Social Structure and Anomie" (1938) Mertons theory of social
structure and anomie. The other major contribution to the anomie tradition is
Robert Mertons theoretical analysis of Social Structure and Anomie (1938;
1957). Durkheims work provided the intellectual foundation for Mertons attempt
to develop a macro-level explanation of rates of norm-violating behavior in
American society. But, in Mertons hands, the anomie tradition advanced well
beyond Durkheims singular concern with suicide to become a truly general
sociological approach to deviance.

Freud's Structural and Topographical Models of Personality
Id, ego and super-ego are the three parts of the psychic apparatus defined in
Sigmund Freud's structural model of the psyche. The id doesn't care about reality,
about the needs of anyone else, only its own satisfaction. If you think about it,
babies are not real considerate of their parents' wishes. Freud called this part the
Ego. The ego is based on the reality principle. The ego understands that other
people have needs and desires and that sometimes being impulsive or selfish can
hurt us in the long run. By the age of five, or the end of the phallic stage of
development, the Superego develops. The Superego is the moral part of us and
develops due to the moral and ethical restraints placed on us by our caregivers.
Many equate the superego with the conscience as it dictates our belief of right and
wrong.


Methodology
Methodology is a set of step to perform a particular task. Methodology
involves with the selection of the areas & the respondent, variables, & sources of
data. It explains how data was collected or generated, how data was analyzed. It
also explains the methodological problems and their solutions or effects. In the
context of Bangladesh this research is a type of exploratory research. The study
took a grounded theory approach where research questions emerged from the
initial interview data collected. Incarcerated offenders were simply asked to tell
me the story of your life following Wengraf (2001).This study explores the nature
and frequency of problems and some objectives. So I use this methodology instead
of descriptive methodology. It helps to establish a new knowledge of this field.
This study also helps to establish a new policy or update the existing policy of the
Government. My research is both qualitative and quantitative. It is qualitative
research because I use here case study methods and others so it is also a
quantitative research. This method of data collection is depending upon some tolls
and techniques. To perform this research I used the interview schedule Techniques.
Interview Schedule based on the questionnaire. The questionnaire includes both
open ended and close indeed question. Here I use pilot survey, survey method, and
key information interview for doing my research more valid, reliable and scientific.
I use case study method. I have to do report building with respondent to collect
information closely and correctly. From the historical analysis we can know that,
Jhenidah District is the most suicidal prone area in Bangladesh. Every year a huge
number of men and women are died through suicide. As Jhenidah district is a
suicidal prone area and I have a keen interest of this particular subject, so for this
research I select Jhenidah District as the study area to collect information from the
sample. Sampling is the process of selecting sample. Here I use probability
(Simple Random Sampling) sampling to collect the data from respondent. Here
the total number of population is 413 in 2009. The sample size is 60. I collect data
from all Thana (Harinakundu, Shailkupa, Jhenidah Sadar, Kotchandpur, Kaligang
and Mahespur) in Jhenidah district. The method of data collection is depending
upon some tolls and techniques. To perform this research I used the interview
schedule Techniques. Interview Schedule based on the questionnaire. The
questionnaire includes both open ended and close indeed question.
Here I use pilot survey, survey method, and key information interview for
doing my research more valid, reliable and scientific. I use case study method. I
have to do report building with respondent to collect information closely and
correctly.


Data Analysis
I process the data through field editing, coding, categorization & tabulation. Then I use
the Statistical Program for Social Sciences (SPSS), Microsoft Office Word and Microsoft Office
Excel for analyzing the survey data.
Age Group Number Percent (%)
Less than 17 years 11 18.33
18-27 years 26 43.33
28-37 years 12 20
38-47 years 6 10
48-57 years 3 5
Above 58 years 2 3.33
Total 60 100
Male 24 40
Female 36 60
Nuclear 36 60%
Extend 24 40%
Occupation of the victim Number Percent (%)
Farmer 3 5
Service man 2 3.33
Business 3 5
Household work 27 45
Day Labor 10 16.67
Student 15 25
Total 60 100
Fathers Occupation Number Percent (%)
Farmer 22 36.67
Service 05 11.67
Labor 6 10
Business 17 28.33
Dead 10 16.67
Methods Number of Methods Percent (%)
Poisoning 21 35
Hanging 28 46.67
Giving body in Railway 5 8.33
Others 6 10

There are 60 suicide victims from, I collect data. Here suicide rate of age
group 18 to 27 is so high. From Anomie theory we know that when a person cant
achieve his goal according to the means he commits crime. Age group 18-27
people build up their career and if they fail they commit suicide. Basically females
are more likely to commit suicide than male. Out of total victim 40% of the victims
were male, while 60% of the victims were female. Most of the female victims are
affected from depression and stress. Married person are more likely to commit
suicide. Here 70 % of the married persons are commit crime and the rest are
unmarried of 30%. Female suicide percentage is very high. 45% married female
committed suicide in a year and the main cause is conflict between husband and
wife, dowry problem, torture etc. The people of nuclear family mostly commit
suicide because they cant share their problems with others. So these types of
victims have isolation, loneliness, and others physical problems. Here we can see
that 40% of the victims have primary education and 26.67% of the victims have
secondary education. So awareness of the education helps people to make their life
beautiful. Among 60 victims 45% were household worker and 25% were student.
Here house workers mostly commit suicide because of their dependency on men.
Someone commit suicide failing demand in the examination. The fathers
occupation has a great role for suicide victim. Here we can see that most of the
victims father were farmer, the second highest of the victims father occupation
was businessman. Children of farmer commit more suicide because they are in
economic problem and daughter of any farmer suffer cant maintain in a new
family after marriage. There are so many methods of committing suicide. About
46.67% of victim use hanging method to commit suicide. About 35% victims
commit suicide through suicide. Giving body in the railway is another type of
suicide. Some others types are being used to commit suicide and those are fire
burn, acid burn, sleeping pill, Electric shock etc.




Types of Suicidal Behavior
Life is
meaningless
No hope No
benefit
to live
Take
pardon
from
others
Always
think
about
death
Total
Show
Suicidal
Behavior
Yes 22
57.89%
04
10.53%
3
7.89%
07
18.42%
2
5.26%
38
63.33%
No 22
36.67%

Suicidal behavior is the important theme of suicide. A huge number of the
victim showed the suicidal behavior i.e. 63.33% and rest of them (36.67%) did not
show any suicidal behavior. Those who had show the suicidal behavior, the
common way of showing the behavior is life is meaningless that is 57.89%. Then
take pardon from others is 18.42%. A few victim showed the behavior of always
think about death.




Finding
The particular age group (18-27 years) people commit suicide because this
age group people are too much aggressive and they have high ambitions, demand
etc. When they cant achieve their goals according to their means, they attempt to
commit suicide. Another age group is 58 years above where people belong at the
eleventh hour of their life and they have no ambition or demand of their life. The
female person commit crime most of the cases of being victim before or after
marriage. Before marriage they are deprived by eve-teasing, illegal sex relation,
conflict with parents, refuses to marry, failure to love, psychological disorder etc.
On the other side, after marriage they suffer from torture by husband, loves one
victimization, dowry problem etc.
This study found female married person are more victim than other type of
victims. 46.67% of the total victim are deprived and commit suicide. At least
26.697% male married person commits suicide because of low salary,
unemployment, conjugal conflict, demand not fulfill to wife etc. Family type is the
most important subject in this type of research. From table, 60% of the total victim
commits suicide having in a nuclear family and this rate is lower in extend family
because in a nuclear family victim cant share his/her problems with any others.
From education status we see that most of the suicidal acts are committed
after completing Junior School Certificate and Secondary School Certificate. This
period victims suffer from some problems such as anxious about SSC, High aim in
life and not fulfill the demand of result.
Now come to the point occupation of the victim. Most of the victim commits
suicide at the student life. In this stage not fulfill the ambition of their parents and
commit suicide. Most of the female students are married off by their parents and
suffer from various types of extra marital problems and commit suicide.
Children of the farmer commit suicide most of the cases. Study shows that 36.67%
farmers children and 17% business mans children commit suicide in Jhenidah
Districts. Other side service man and labors children less commit suicide.

Conclusion
Suicide commonly understood as the intentional killing of oneself. People
commit suicide in Jhenidah District when there is a lack of integrity between the
victim and the society. Suicide may occur for a number of reasons here. Through
this research I want to find out what are the reasons of suicide in this particular
area. Before committing suicide what were the social, psychological and
economical factors of the victims I tried to find out. I also tried to find out the
behavior which a victim plays before committing suicide and which methods they
follow most of the time and why those methods are being followed. As a
criminological research it is difficult to find out the exact result because informant
tries to hide the main problem of the victims most of the cases. In this research I
used both qualitative and quantitative method and used probability sampling
because my population is known. To selecting sample I use 12% error. So I think
that my research is a valid one.

Recommendation
Suicide in Jhenidah can be prevented in many ways. Firstly we have to
recognize the risk factors of suicide thats given below.
a. By increasing awareness among the people about the bad impact of suicide.
b. Provide proper knowledge about the conjugal relation.
c. Implementation of law properly.
d. Prohibition of early marriage.
e. Increase the work availability.
f. Practice the religious value.
g. Seminar can be held by trained person in this side.
h. Increase the education level.
i. Provide mental support.
j. Give more priority to the women in home and society.
k. Provide the basic rights of women.
l. Not to give too much pressure to the children.
m. Friendly attitude should be made between parents and children.
n. Daughter should share her physical problems with her mother.
o. Social norms and values have to build based on eve-teasing.
p. High ambition may cause suicide, have to reduce in some cases.
q. Materials that help to commit suicide should be controlled.
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