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ATP Grid Index to Manufacturers Publications:
Enstrom
Helicopter
Model 280C
Flight
Manual
Section Tooic
General Information
Title
Page
List of
Chapters (Table of Contents)
Record of Revisions
Record of
Temporary
Revisions
Section 1 General
Section 2 Limitations FAA
Aproved
Section 3 Normal Procedures FAA
Approved
Section 4
Emergency
Malfunction Procedures FAA
Approved
Section 5 Performance FAA
Approved
Section 6
Weight
and Balance
Section 7 Aircraft and
System Description
Section 8 Aircraft
Handling, Servicing
and Maintenance
Section 9
Operational
Information
Section 10
Supplements
Wet/Dry Dispersal System Supplement
No. 1
Float
Landing
Gear
Supplement
No. 2
External Loads
Supplement
No. 3
02/22/2008
Copyright
Aircraft Technical Publishers
Page
1 of 2
EN 0136 FM)
Section Topic
Snowshoe
Supplement
No. 4
~kjnk
End of Index
"k
02/22/2008
Copyright
Aircraft Technical Publishers
Page
2 of 2
EN 0136 FM
IV1FG
I
INTRO
ii; rH T
MANUAL
: i::-:::-:
__
I"D(ii:
I
EN~TROM
280C
THISIS
THE 280C
QRIGINAL.
As.
Received
By
ATP
Manufactured
by
The Enstrom
Helicopter Corporation,
Menominee, Michigan.
Thismanual
pertains
to Model 280C heli-
copters
S,N. 1124 and
up
or as modified in accordance with
Enstrom
Drawing
28-100005.
Ownership
of the
Turbocharged
280C
Helicopter
will
provide
you
with asmooth, distinctive,
and comfortable mode of
flight
geared
to the
concept
of modern
transportation.
Forbusinessor
pleasure,
the fieldof
operations
is
practically
unlimited, as
point-
to-point
travel can be
accomplished
from either
prepared
or
unprepared
areas. The distinctive
appearance
of the 280C is
symbolic
of
prestige
and its
high performance capabilities.
Underthe
graceful
lines of the 280C is a
ruggedly
constructed
helicopter designed
for
easy
servicing,
minimum maintenance,
dependability
andeconomical
operation.
Copyright
1976 Enstrom
Corporation,
Menominee, Michigan,
U.S.A.
Report
No. 28 *C-016
RECORD OF REVISIONS
MFGREV
NO DESCRIPTION ISSUEDATE ATPREVDATE INSERTEDBY
Original
Issue 5/22/98 3/5/08 SHY
2/22/2008
RECORD OF TEMPORARYREVISIONS
TEMP ATP REV INSERT DATE REV REMOVE
REV NO DESCRIPTION ISSUE DATE DATE BY REMOVED INCOR BY
2/22/2008
SECTION
1 GENERAL
Introduction
FM-1-1
Principle
DimensionsoftheEnstrom280C FM-1-2
Specifications
FM-I-3
SECTION
2 LIMITATIONS
FAA APPROVED
Title
Page Approved
Section.
FM-2-1
Log
of
Pages
andRevisions
FM-2-2
Log
of
Supplements......
.IFM-2-3
PowerPlant
Limitations........
.:~FM-2-4
Rotor Flight
Limitations PowerOff............
FM-2-5
Rotor Flight
Limitations
PowerOn............
FM-2-5
Airspeed
Limitations
FM-2-5
AltitudeLimitations
FM-2-5
Weight
Limitations........
FM-2-5
Centerof
Gravity
Limitations
FM-2-5
InstrumentMarkings
FM-2-6
Type
of
Operation
FM-2-6
Placards...........
FM-2-7
SECTION
3 NORMAL
PROCEDURES
FAA
APPROVED
Normal Engine
Starting
Procedure.........
FM-3-1
Hot
Day Engine
Cooling
andShutdown
Procedure FM-3-2
Hot
Engine
Restarting
Procedure..........
FM-3-3
RotorEngagement
FM-3-4
Engine
Warm-up
andGroundCheck............
FM-3-4
Flight
Information
FM-3-5
FM-3-5
Cruise.........
Special
Instructions
forLeaning
in
Flight.........
FM-3-6
FM-3-6
Descent.......
FM-3-7
Running Landlng.......
Normal Engine
Cooling
andShutdown
Procedure..FM-3-7
EGT
Leaning
Procedure
CruiseCondition.......
FM-3-8
SECTION
4
EMERGENCY
MALFUNCTION
PROCEDURES
FAA APPROVED
Engine
Failure
FM-4-1
Lighting
Failure
FM-4-1
FM-4-1
Fire ~
FireonGround........
FM-4-1
Fire in
Flight
FM-4-2
Tail Rotor(Anti-Torque)
System
Failure..........
FM-4-2
Tail RotorDrive
System
Failure...........
FM-4-2
Revised:
May
22,
1998 Report
No. 28-AC-016
Tail RotorControl
System
Failure.
FM-4-3
Pitch Link Failure
(One
Tail Rotor
Blade) FM-4-3
Failureof Left Pedal Controls
FM-4-4
Failureof
Right
Pedal Controls.
FM-4-4
Landing
in Water
(Ditching). FM-4-5
Ditching
with Power,
FM-4-5
Ditching
Without Power..
FM-4-5
AlternatorFailure.
FM-4-5
Main RotorGearbox.
FM-4-6
Electrical Fuel Boost
Pump FM-4-6
Low
Engine
Oil Pressure,
FM-4~6
Turbocharger
Failure
FM-4-6
Abnormal Vibrations
SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE FAA APPROVED
V,,(NeverExceed
Speed)
vs,
Density
Altitude
FM-5-1
AirspeedCalibration
FM-5-2
Hover
Ceiling
In GroundEffect
FM-5-3
Height Velocity Diagram FM-5-4
Effectof
Off-Loading onChoiceof H-V
Envelope
FM15-5
Density
AltitudeChart
FM-5-6
Rateof Climbwith
DensityAltitude FM-5~7
SECTION 6 WEIGHT AND
BALANCE
Information,
Weight
andBalance.
FM-6-1
Toolsand
Equipment.
FM-6-2
Detailed Procedurefor
Weighing
2800 Series
HelicopterFM-6-2
Loading Information
Centerof
Gravity Envelopes FM-6-7
Longitudinal
CG.
FM-6-7
Lateral Offset Moment.
FM-6-7
Equipment
List,
FM-6-8
Basic
Weight
andBalanceRecord
(60001 F1165)
FM-6-9
Weight
andBalance
Report (FormF1166)........ FM-6-10
AircraftActual
Weight Report(FormF-167) FM-6-11
Aircraft
Weight
andC.G. Calculation
(FormF-168).
FM-6-12
SECTION 7 AIRCRAFT AND
SYSTEM
DESCRIPTION
Interior
Arrangement FM-7-1
AirInduction
System FM-7-1
PowerPlant
FM-7-1
Oil
System
FM-7-2
OilSystemIndicators Oil
Temperatureand
Pressure
Guages FM-7-2
Revised:
May 22, 1998
Report
No, 28-AC-016
Engine
Controls
FM-712
Throttle.
FM-7-2
MixtureControl
FM-7-2
Magneto
Switch
FM-7-2
IgnitionSafety
Switch
FM-7-2
StarterButton
FM-7~2
MasterSwitch
FM-7-2
Turbocharger
FM-7-3
Exhaust Gas
TemperatureSystem
FM-7-3
Cabin Heat
FM-7-3
Clutch
Engaging
Lever
FM-713
FM-7-3
Fuel
Systems..........:
Auxiliary
Fuel
Pump
Switch
FM-7-4
Fuel
Quantity
Indicator
FM-7-4
Fuel Flow- Fuel PressureIndicator
FM-7-4
Transmission
System
FM-7-4
Main RotorTransmissionTemperature
Ind5cator FM-714
Tail RotorTransmission.
FM-7-4
Rotor
System.............
FM-7-5
Main Rotor
FM-7-5
Tail Rotor
FM-715
RotorTachometer
FM-7-5
Flight
Controls.........
FM-7-5
Cyclic
Control
FM-7-5
Stabilizer
FM-7-5
CollectivePitchControl.
FM-7-5
Directional Control Pedals..........
FM-7-5
Flight
Instruments
FM-7-6
Airspeed
Indicator
FM-7-6
Altimeter.
FM-7-6
Compass
ic.tb; :::::::::::::
FreeAir
Temperature
Ind
Electrical Power
Supply System
FM-7-6
DirectCurrent Power
System
FM-7-6
Key
to Instrument
Panel
FM-7-7
Electrical PowerPanel............
FM-7-8
Lighting Equipment........
FM-7-8
Position
Lights.
FM-7-8
Anti-Collison Lights...........
FM-7-8
Landing Lights
FM-7-8
GroundHandling
Wheels.
FM-7-8
Baggage
Compartment
FM-7-9
SECTION 8 AIRCRAFT HANDLING,
SERV1CING
AND MAINTENANCE
Gound
Handling
FM-8-1
Mooring
FM-8-1
Revised: May22,1998
Report
No. 28-AC-016
Transporting
FM-8-1
Storage
I... FM-8-1
Hoisting
FM-8-2
Jacking
FM-8-2
ExteriorPaint
FM-8-2
Windows andDoors,
Upholstery
and
Carpets.
FM-8-2
Landing
GearShock Struts.
FM-8-2
AirCleaner
orFilter
FM-8-3
Lights
FM-8-3
Battery
FM-8-3
Dampers
Main Rotor
FM-8-3
Transmission- Main Rotor
FM-8-3
Transmission- Tail Rotor,
,,FM-8-3
Lubrication
FM-8-3
ExcessiveGrease
Main RotorandTail RotorBlades
FM-8-4
Fuel,
FM-8-4
Oil
Cooling System
FM-8-5
Required
FAA Forms
FM-8-5
Preflight Inspection
FM-8-6
Exterior.
FM-8-6
Interior
FM-8-7
Exterior
Inspection Diagram
FM-8-9
SECTION 9
OPERATIONAL
INFORMATION
Solo
Flight
FM-9-1
Taxiing
FM-9-1
Takeoff
FM-9-1
Normal Takeoffto Hover
FM-9-1
Normal TakeofffromHover
FM-9-2
MaximumPower
Takeoff...,,,.
FM-9-2
Maximum
PowerTakeofffrom
ConfinedArea
FM-9-3
Crosswind
Takeoff......~
FM-9-3
Normal
Approach
for
Landing, FM-9-4
Steep Approach
FM-9-4
Landing Landing
SiteEvaluation
FM-9-4
Wind Directionand
Velocity FM-9-5
Normal
Landing
Crosswind
Landing FM-9-5
Flight Characteristics
Handling
and
Stability..... FM-9-6
Maneuvering Flight FM-9-7
Hovering Flight
FM-9-7
Student
Training,
FM-9-7
NoiseAbatement
FM-9-7
Leaning
withan EGT
FM-9-8
Revised:
May 22, 1998
Report
No. 28-AC-016
ColdWeather
Operation......: FM-9-8
Blade
Tape 1 FM-9~9
LossofTail RotorEffectiveness
FM-9-9
Fuel Flow vs. NoulePressureChart FM-9-10
Average
CruisePerformance.
FM-9-11
SECTION 10 SUPPLEMENTS
Wet/Dry Dispersal System Supplement
No. 1
Section i-General
FM-10-1-1
Section2 Limitations
FM~10-1-1
V,,MPH
IASPlacard.
FM110-1-2
Section 3 Normal Procedures
Preflight
Check
FM110-I-2
Section4
Emergency
andMalfunction Procedures
Liquid
Jettison
FM-10-1-2
Lossof Power
FM10-112
LossofTail Rotor.........; .
FM-10-1-2
Vibration
FM-10-1-2
Spreader
Malfunction.......
i FM110-1-3
Section 5 Performance
Listof
Figures. FM-10-1-3
V,,vs. Density
Altitude. FM-10-1-4
Mover
Ceiling
inGroundEffect FM-10~1-5
Airspeed
Calibration. FM-10-1-6
Height Velocity Diagram. FM-10-1-7
Section6
Weight
and
Balance.........:
FM-10-1-8
Section7
SystemDescription
andInstallation Instructions
Initial Installation
FM-10-1-8
Wet
Dispersal System
Installation FM-10-1-8
Wet
Dispersal System
Removal............ FM-I0-1-9
Dry Dispersal System
Installation FM-10~1-9
Dry Dispersal System
Removal FM-10-1-9
Returnto Normal
Category
FM-10-1-9
Float
Landing
Gear
Supplement
No. 2
Section i-General... FM-10-2-1
Section2
Operating
Limitations
Type
of
Operations FM-10-2-1
V,,vs.
MPHIASPlacard. FM-10-2-1
Section3 Normal Procedures
Rotor
Engagement
onWater FM-10-2-2
Flight
Information
FM10-2-2
Running Landing
FM-10-2-2
BaseAltitude
Change. FM-10-2-2
Section4
Emergency
Procedures
Engine
Failure
DuringFlight(Above
80
MPH)
FM-10 2-3
Engine
Failure
Duringnight(Below
80
MPH).
FM-1~2-3
Revised:
May 22,
1998
Report
No; 28-AC-016
Section5 Performance
Definition,
RateofClimb
FM-10-2-3
V,,
vs,
DensityAltitude
Chart
FM-10-2-5
Airspeed
Calibration
Chart.............,
FM-10-2-6
Section6
Weight
andBalance
Operational Equipment. ............i.... FM-10-2-4
Centerof
Gravity
Limit
Envelopes,,,.., FM-10-2-4
External Loads
Supplement
No, 3
Section i-General
FM-10-3-1
Section2
Operating
Limitations
Engine,
....,...,~FM-10-3-1
Airspeed FM-10-3-1
Altitude
Weight......:
Centerof
Gravity FM-10-3-2
Type
of
Operations, FM-1013-2
V,,
MPHIASPlacard
FM-10-3-2
Section3 Normal Procedures
Preflight Operation
Check
FM-10-3-2
Static
Electricity Discharge FM110~313
Cargo
Hook
Operation FM-10-3-3
Section4
Emergency
Procedures
FM-10-3-3
Section5 PerformanceData............., FM-10-3-4
Section6 1
Weight
andBalance..........., FM110-3-4
Optional Equipment. FM-10-3-4
Snowshoe
Supplement
No, 4
Section i-General
FM-10-4-1
Section2
Operating
Limitations
Airspeed FM-10-4-1
Weight. .,,......~FM-10-4-1
Centerof
Gravity FM-10-4~1
Section6
Weight
andBalance..........., FM-10-4-1
Optional Equipment FM-10-4~1
Revised:
May 22,
1998
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-1-1
ENSTROM 280C
SECTION 1 GENER~
INTRODUCTION
This manual meets all FAA
requirements
for
approved
dataand
this datais so
designated.
It also contains
supplemental
data
suppliedby
the Enstrom
HelicopterCorporation.
In addition to this
manual,
the Enstrom
Helicopter Corporation
also hasavailablefor
yourhelicopter
aMaintenanceManual and
aParts
Catalog.
Both of these can be obtained from
your
Enstromdealerorfromthe
factory.
Periodicrevisions are made to these manuals to
incorporate
changes
and additions. Service information is also issued to
ownersof recordintheformof:
Serviceinformation letters
(informative
and
advisory)
Servicedirectivebulletin
(mandatory)
Report
No. 28-AC-016
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FM-1-3
ENSTROM 280C
~SPECIFICATION; S
PowerPlant
Type Lycoming Opposed
Designation
HIO-360-E1AD
Cylinders
4
Normal Power 205 HP
Normal RPM 2900 RPM
Specific
Fuel
Consumption
(Full Rich)
.69 Ibs,
hp/hr.
Oil 10
qts.
16 ibs.
I
Weight
322 Ibs.
Performance
Maximum
Speed
VNE
PowerOn 117 MPHto 3000 ft. Above
3000 ft. see FM-5-1
PowerOff Dueto
high
ratesofdescentat
high
forward
speeds,
sustained
autorotation
speed
is limitedto
85 MPHto 8800 ft. Above8800
ft., see FM 5-1.
Best Rateof Climb 57 MPHIASatsealevel;
abovesealevel see FM-5-7
Normal Fuel
Capacity
40 U.S.
gal.
at240 Ibs.
Rate of Climbat SeaLevel 1125 FPM
Hovering Ceiling
IGE 8800 ft.
Standard
Day
2350 Ib. G.W.
Service
Ceiling
Above
16,000
ft.
Operating
RPM
Engine
2750 2900
Tail Rotor 2504
(at
2900
engine RPM)
Main Rotor 350
(at
2900
engine RPM)
Main RotorAutorotation
Range
332 385
*MaximumFAA
approvedoperating ceiling presently
limitedto 12,000 ft.
FAA
Approval: Sept. 28,
1977
Revised: Feb. 23, 1993
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-1-4
ENSTROM 280C
Ratios
Lowerto
upperpulley
1:157
Main RotorGearBox 1:7.154
Tail Rotor%earBox 1:1
Engine
to main rotor 8.277
Dimensions
Width
(overall)
28 2"
Rotordiameter 32
Height (overall)
9
Length (overall)
27 8"
Cabinwidthat seat 58"
Tread-Landing
Gear 7 4"
Rotor
System
Numberof
blades,
Main rotor 3
Cord-main rotorblade 9.5"
Disk
area,
main rotor 804
so.
ft.
Main rotorRPM 350
Tail rotordiameter 4.67
Numberof
blades,
tail rotor 2
Chord,
tail rotorblade 4.4"
Weight
Designedgrossweight
2350 Ibs.
Empty weight (approx.)
1495 Ibs.
Useful load 855 Ibs.
C.G. travel 92"to 94.6"at 2350 Ibs.
92"to 100"at 2000 Ibs.
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-2-1
ENSTRoM 280c
ORIGINAL
SECTION 2 LIMITATIONS
As
Received
By
A6P
ENSTROM MODEL280C
HELI COPTER
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Type
Certificate No.
H1CE
Registration
Approved by
for Chief, Engineering
and
Manufacturing
Branch
Flight
Standards Divisibn
Great Lakes
Region
Federal Aviation Administration
September 23, 1977
NOTE: Sections 2, 3, 4,
5 and 6 are F=AA
approved.
Section 10
includes
supplements
to the
type
certificate which are
FAA
approved
if so
designated.
NOTE: This manual
pertains
to Model 280C
helicopters
S.N.
1124 and
up
oras modified in accordancewith Enstrom
Drawing
28-100005.
FAA
Approval: September23, 1977 Report
No. 28-Ac-016
FM-2-2
ENSTROM 2800
LOGOF PAGESAND REVISIONS
Rev.
No.
Pages Description
Date
F.A.A.
Approved
FM Revised
1 10 3 1
External Load
FM
Supplement
~0 3 2
FM
10-3-3
FM
ca~
2
2-7
Added
placard
3-3 t
and
opetatio ~,V
3-6
information s~
FM Added
2-2
operational
2-4
instructions,
S~s
Bk~
2-5 information
PL~
2-7 and
placard.
E~5
3-3
3-5
3-6
7-3
FM v dded Blade
Tape
3-3
l4dded
St~p6-e,
Pq
4
8-4 dded Blade
rape
8-7 Bnformation
9-9
*Approved
for
Manager
Chicago
AircraftCertificationOffice
Central
Region
Federal AviationAdministration
NOTE: All revisionsare indicated
by
ablackvertical line. I
FAA
Approval: September23,
19n
Revised:
Nlay 22, 1998
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-2-2.1
ENSTROM 280G
LOGOF PAGESAND REVISIONS
Aev.
F.A.A. Approved
Pages Description
Date
No.
ii Added Abnormal
Vibrations
4-71Added Page
1-3 Oil Capacity
Corrected
3-3 "Center"added
3-7 Corrected word
9-1 Corrected ht~
cI~
to 3 to 5 feet
N
9-2
Changed
wordi
ng ; E
and deleted
9-3 reference to
pop-off
valve
i-vi
RevisedPage
B
M-2 2.11FAA
ApprovalNumbers
c//M~c4,
Y\
7
; blFM-4-51Revised Emergency
rL
M-4-6
ocedure andMov
M-4-7 ext,
Added
Page
M-9-9 IAdded
Text
*Approved
for
Manager
Chicago
AircraftCertification
Office
Central
Region
Fedreal
AviationAdministration
NOTE: All revisionsareindicated
by
ablackvertical line.
FAA Approval: September27,
1977
Revised: May 22,
1998
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-2-3
ENsTRbnn2eoc
LOGOF SUPPLEMENTS
Supp.
No.
Pages Description
Date F.A.A.
Approved
Wetl~Dry
1 8 5-5 78
Dispersal System
FLOAT
2 6
LANDINGGEAR
Extema\ Loads
3 2
Snowshoe
7-28 78
Pacg
4 1
Supplement
*Approved
for
Chief, Engineering
and
Manufacturing
Branch
Flight
Standards Division
Great Lakes
Region
Federal AviationAdministration
NDTE: All revisionsareindicated
by
ablack vertical line.
I
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-2-4
ENSTROM 2809
OPERATINGLIMITATIONS
.. ---- -.NOTE:
Mandatory compliance
withthe
Limitations,
Section
2,
is
requiredby
law.
FAA OPERATINGLIMITATIONS
POWER PLANT LIMITATIONS
Engine Lycoming
Model l-llO-360E1AD
with
Rajay
301 E-10-2
Turbocharger
Fuel 100/130 minimum
grade
Oil
Viscosity
Above60 "F SAE-50
30-90"F SAE-LFO
0-70 "F SAE-30
Below 10"F SAE20
Approved
Lubricants:
50-hourbreak in
period,
MIL-L-
60828
Ashless
Dispersant,
MIL-L-22851
Horsepower
205 HP at 2900 RPM,
36.5 in. MP
; "~ qperating Engine
RPM
2,900
maximum
2,750
minimum
Engine Idling
RPM
1,500
minimum
(clutchdisengaged)
ManifoldPressure 36.5 in.
Hg,
SeaLevel to
12,000
ft.
EGT 1,650
"F maximum
Oil
Temperature
245 "F
Oil Pressure :60-90
psi,
normal
operation
25
psi, idling
minimum
100
psi, starting warmup
TransmissionOil
Temp.
220 "F maximum
Cylinder
Head
Temp.
475 "F maximum
Fuel Mixture
Setting Engine may
be leaned at 29 in.
MP or below to 1600 "F on rich
Side
of
peak.
Neverexceed 1650
"F EGT. Mixture must be full rich
for
landing
and take-off
regard-
less of
power
for
proper engine
cooling.
Mixture must be leaned
to at least 130 PPHat 36.5 in.
MAP for all
flight
conditions
except
hover. If richer mixture is
required
to maintain EGT levels
below 1650
"F, practice
autorota-
tionsare
prohibited.
FAA Approval: September23, 1977
Revised:
Aug.. 29, 1985 Report
No. 28-AC-018
FM-2-5
ENSTROM 280C
ROTOR FLIGHT LIMITATIONS
I(POWER OFF)
Maximum: 385
rpm
Minimum 332
rpm
ROTOR FLIGHT LIMITATIONS
(POWERON)
,__
Minimum: 332
rpm
Maximum 350 normal
operating
AIRSPEED LIMITATIONS
Neverexceed
speed:
VNE:
117
mph
IASSLto 3000 ft
Hg
Forvariations
greater
than3000
ft.,
see
FM-5-1.
ALTITUDE LIMITATIONS
Maximum
operating: 12,000
ft.
density
altitude.
NOTE:
(Information only)
Takeoffs and
landings
at 2350 Ibs.
gross weight
were demonstrated
during
FAA
type
inspection
tests
up
to
7,000
ft.
density
altitude.
Operators
should use
appropriate
caution above
7,00
ft.
density
altitude and limit
gross weight
as
required tL,__
insure safetakeoffs and
landings.
WEIGHT LIMITATIONS
Maximum
approvedweight:
2350 Ibs.
CENTEROF GRAVITYLIMITATIONS
Forward: 2350 Ibs. 92.0 in. station
Rearward: 2350 Ibs. 94.6 in. station
2200 Ibs. 96.7 in. station
2000 Ibs. 100.0 in. station
Lateral offset moment: 2350 Ibs.
-3250,
+3700 in Ibs.
below 2015 Ibs. See FM-6-6.
This
helicopter
is to be loadedin accordancewith Section
6,
Loading
Information.
NOTE: Lonciitudinal
Station 0
(Datum)
is located 100 inches forwardcents
lineof main rotorhub.
Lateral
Station 0
(Datum)
is airct~aft
centerline,
lateral moment
arms are
positiveright, negative
left.
FAA
Approval: September23,
1977
Revised:
August29, 1985
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-2-6
ENSTROM 289C
INSTRUMENT MARKINGS
.,..,.,,,..,_~Rotor Tachometer RedLine 385 RPM
RedLine 332 RPM
GreenAre 332-385 RPM
Engine
Tachometer RedLine 2750 RPM
Red Line 2900 RPM
GreenArc 2750-2900 RPM
Airspeed
Indicator Blue Line
(PowerOff)
85 MPH
RedLine
(PowerOn)
117 MPH
ManifoldPressure RedLine 36.5 in.
Hg
Oil
Temperature
Red Line 245 "F
GreenAre 120-245 "F
YellowAre 60-120 "F
Oil Pressure RedLine 100 PSI
Green Are 60-100 PSI
YellowArc 25-60 PSI
RedLine 25 PSI
~GT RedLine 1650 "F
Cylinder
Head Red Line 475 "F
Temperature
GreenAre 200-475 "F
TransmissionOil RedLine 220 "F
Temperature
GreenAre 0-220 "F
TYPE OF OPERATION
The
helicopter
is
approvedfoy operation
under DAY NIGHT
VFR NON-1CINGconditions.
Night operation
authorized undervisual contact
flight
conditions.
Orientation must be m~intained
by ground light
or
adequate
celestial illumination.
Instrument
flight prohibited.
No aerobaticmaneuvers
permitted.
- - Cross windand downwind: When
hovering
or
landing, adequate
ght
control has been demonstratedin windsto 20
mph
to 5000
11.
density
altitude at 2350 Ibs,
gross weight. Operators
should
use
appropriate
caution above 5000 ft.
density
altitude in
high
windconditions and limit
gross weight
as
required
to insure safe
takeoffsand
landings.
Operation
withdoors removedis
approved.
FAA
Approval: September23, 1977
Revised: Feb.
17,
1989
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-2-7
ENSTROM 280C
PLACARDS:
"THIS HELICOPTER MUST BE OPERATED IN COMPLIANCE
WITHTHE OPERATINGLIMITATIONSSPECIFIED IN THE FAP
APPROVED ROTORCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL.
AIRSPEED LIMITATIONS MPH:
NEVEREXCEEDISPEEDS MILESPERHOURIAS
PRESSURE OUTSIDE AIRTEMPERATURE "F
ALTITUDE -20 0 20 40 60 80 100
SEA LEVEL 117 117 117 117 117 117 117
2000 117 117 117 117 117 114 109
4000 117 117 117 115 110 105 96
6000 117 116 111 105 96 87 78
8000 112 107 96 87 78 69 60
10000 99 88 78 69 59
12000 81 70 60
"NO SMOKING"
(This placard
not
required
when an
approved
ashtray
is
installed.)
"THISHELICOPTER ISAPPROVED FOROPERATION UNDEI
DAY NIGHT VFR NON-ICINGCONDITIONSONLY.
"MAXIMUM WEIGHT IN THISCOMPARTMENT 60 LBS.
OBSERVE CGAND GROSSWEIGHT LIMITATIONS.
"COLLECTIVE FRICTION TO BE USED FOR GROUND OPER-
ATION ONLY"
(This placard
to be
placed adjacent
to the collec-
tivefriction
device.)
"LEAN TO 130 PPHAT 36.5 sN. MAP IN FLIGHT SEE
REVISED RFM."
(Thisplacard
to be
placed
in view ofthe
pilot.)
"STOW FLAT ON FLOOR BEFORE FLIGHT"
(This placard
to be
placed
on clutch
handle).
FAA
Approval: September28,
1977
Revised:
August29,
1985 Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-2-8
ENSTROM 2800
FORNICKEL-CADMIUM ONLY
BATTERYTEMPERATURE ALERT
120 "F MONITOR BATTERYTEMPERATURE
(AMBERLIGHT)
130 "F TURN OFF ALTERNATORSW.
REDUCE ELECTRICAL
LOAD,
TURN ALT. SW. ON IF AMBER LT.
GOESOUT IN FLIGHT.
150 "F TURN OFF MASTERSWITCH.
(RED ARC)
LAND AS SOON AS PRACTICAL. INSP. BATTERY
PER MANUF. INSTR. BEFORE FURTHERFLIGHT.
EACH250 HR. INTERVALSPERFORM FUNCTIONAL
TESTSPERK.S. AVIONICSINSTRUCTIONS.
FAA
Approval: September23, 1977
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-3-1
ENSTROM 280C
SECTION 3 NORMALPROCeDURES
NORMALENGINE STARTINGPROCEDURES
1. Seat beltsfastenedanddoors.latched,
2. Fuel valve
pushed
in to turnon.
3. Collectivefull down andsecuredwiththefriction knob.
4. Heateras desire~
tin
for
OFF).
5.
Cyclic
stick cannon
plugs
secure.
6. Rotorclutch
disengaged.
CAUTION:
Although starting
the
helicopter
with the rotor
clutch
engaged
will not
damage
the rotor
sys-
tem,
it will
severely
overloadthe startermotor.
7. Check
compass
full of
fluid, no bubbles,
and with acorrec-
tion
8. Altimetersetto fieldelevation.
9.
Radio(s)
off.
10. All switchesoff.
11. Master switch and alternator on
(alternator
off if
using
an
APU
start). Ignition
switchon.
12. Throttlefull
open
for
engineprime only.
13. Mixturefull rich.
14. Fuel boost
pump
on until: the fuel
pressure gauge
shows a
rise,
then boost
pump
off.
15. Mixture idle cut off;
throttle closed then cracked
open
approximately 1/16",
mags
on both; depress starter,
when
engine
starts mixturein.
16. Fuel boost leave off
during
first cold start and
ground
run
to insure
properoperation
of
engine
drivenfuel
pump.
17. Check
engine
oil
pressure
if offthezero linewithin 30 sec-
ends..
18. Check
amp
meter
gauge
indicatesa
charge.
19. If APUstart disconnect APUcable. Then alternator switch
on checkfora
charge
indicationonthe
amp
meter.
20. Idle
engine
at 1450 to 1500
rpm.
FAA
Approval: September23, 1977
Report
No. 28-AC-016
-~- ----.- - : ---I--
-I -; - I - -- -- -
FM-3-2
ENSTRoM 280C
21. When oil
pressure
is 25
psi or above clutch
may
be
engaged.
CAUTION: On rare occasion the
engine may
backfire
through
the induction
systemduring
astart
pro-
cedure. The backfire will not cause
damage.
to
the induction
system
but it could cause the
induction hose betweentheairfilterandthefuel
injection
servo unit to be disconnected due to
the backfire. It is recommended that should a
backfire occur
during engine starting,
avisual
inspection
be
accomplished by
the
pilot
or
mechanicto assure that the hose is
securely
in
place
beforetakeoff.
HOT DAYENGINE COOLINGAND
SHUTDOWN PROCEDURE
The
following procedures
are recommended for hot weather
operations, operations
at
high
altitudes and when hot
engine
restarts are
anticipated.
This shutdown
procedure empties
the
fuel lines within the hot
engine compartment preventing
fuel
vaporization
within the lines. A successful
engine
start should
result when cool fuel is introduced into the lines
immediately
prior
to
engine cranking using
the hot
engine restarting proce-
dure.
Operations
at
high density
altitudes
may require
amixture
control
adjustment
to ensure
properengine
idle.
1. Collective
pitch
control full down andfrictionon.
2. Throttle idle
position.
3. Fuel boost
pump
on.
4. Clutch
disengaged, engine
at full idle
position.
5.
Cyclic
control centeredwithtrimcontrol.
6. F~uel shut-off valve closed
tout).
Residual fuel in the lines
will
provide
sufficient time at idle to ensure
proper engine
cool-down
(two
minutes or
cylinder
head
temperature
less
than300
"F.).
NOTE: The redfuel
systempressure
low
light
will illuminate
soon afterthe fuel shut-off valve is closed. This is a
normal indication with the fuel shut-off valve closed
even
though
the boost
pump
is still
operating.
FAA
Approval: September23, 1977
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-3-3
7. VVhen
enginestops
bobst
pump
OFF.
8. Radios OFF.
9.
Magnetos
OFF.
10.
Lights
OFF.
11. Allswitches OFF.
12. Mixture idle cutOFF.
13. Throttle closed.
14. Masterswitch OFF.
HOT ENGINE RESTARTINGPROCEDURE
1. Seat beltsfastenedanddoors latched.
2. Collectivefull down andsecuredwithfriction.
3. Rotorclutch
disengaged.
4. Radios off.
5. All switches off
6. Master switch and alternator on.
(Alternator
off if
using
an
APU
start).
7. Fuel valveon
(pushedin).
8. Throttle full
open (forengine prime only).
9. Mixturecontrol in full rich
position.
10. Fuel boost
pump
on until fuel flow
gauge
shows arise
(approximately
5-8 seconds),
then boost
pump
off.
11. Return throttle
to
idle
position
and then crack
open slightly,
approximately
1/16".
12. Mixtureto idlecutoff
position.
13. Check throttlecracked, ignition
switch
on, mags
on both
position.
14.
Depress
starter,
when
engine
fires,
advance mixture control
to full rich
position
and turn boost
pump
on immediately
to
precludevapor
lock.
15. Note
engine
idleRPM
(with
boost
off)
andturnfuel booston.
Any
difference in RPM noted indicates
leaky
idle mixture
plates (refer
to Enstrom Service Letter No.
0069). Slowly
lean
engine
with mixture control short of cutoff
position.
An
increase of 50 RPM indicates idle mixture
improperly
set
(refer
to EnstromServiceLetterNo.
0069).
16. Follow
steps
17
through
21 of "Normal
Engine Starting
Procedure".
FAA
Approval: September23, 1977 Report
No. 28-AC-016
-- : -- ----- - - --; - --- I :----- ; - ---; - ; ; - - -
FM-3-4
ENSTRoM 280C
ROTORENGAGEMENT
1. Check collective
pitch
full down. Friction on.
CAUTION: Collective friction tobe used for
ground opera-
tion
only.
2. Tail rotor
pedal
neutral
position.
3. Center
cyclic
stick withtrimswitch. I
4. Check aircraft
vicinity
clearof
personnel
and
equipment.
5. Check
engine
idle set at 1450 to 1500
RPM,
then leave
throttle fixed in this
position;
do not add more throttle
during
engagement.
6.
Slowly
and
smoothly engage
clutch handleat 1450 to 1500
RPM, allowing
the
engine
RPM to bleedno lowerthan 1200
RPM. VVhen the rotorRPM reaches 100
RPM, fully engage
cl utch.
NOTE: Clutch
disengage warning light
will
go
out when
clutch is
fully engaged.
7. Placeclutch handlein stowed
position.
ENGINE WARMUP AND GROUND CHECK
1. Advancethrottleto 1800 RPM andwaitfor
cylinder
head
temperature
to reach low
green
or200"F.
2. After
reaching
200
PF. cylinder
head
temperature, slowly
advance throttle to 2300 RPM until oil
temperature
reads
low
yellow
or80 "F.
3. Check the
magnetos using
the
following procedure:
a)
Check all instrumentsfor
proper
indication.
b)
Set the E.G.T.
gauge
cursor red needle to the stabilized
indicated
temperature. (This
will be areference
tempera-
ture
during
the
mag test).
c)
Switch from both
mags position
to left
mag position
and
note RPM
drop
and E.G.T. rise for five seconds. The
maximum allowable RPM
drop
is 125 RPM. The maxi-
mumallowable E.G.T. rise is 100 "F.
d)
Return
magneto
switchto both
allowing
E.G.T. and RPM
to stabilizeand
repeat
check on the
right mag position.
e)
The maximum
permissible
RPM differential between left
and
right magnetos
is 50 RPM without
engine roughness.
A differential of
greater
than50 RPM and/ora
drop
in RPM
FAA
Approval: September28, 1977
Report
No. 28-Ac-016
FM-3-5
ENSTROM 280C
greater
than 125 RPM could indicate
spark plug, spark
plug
lead
wire, or
magneto problems.
f)
An E.G.T. rise over100 "F.
during operation
on individual
magneto
indicatesa
magneto timing problem.
4.
Gently
closethrottleto
splittachometer
needlesto check
properoperation
of over
running
clutch.
5. Check the
following
beforetake-off:
a)
Check all instrumentsfor
proper
indication.
b)
Seat belts anddoors latched.
c)
Fuelon.
d)
Fuel booston.
(Pump
must be on at all times in
flight).
e)
Mixturefull rich.
f)
Fuel
pressurewarning green
indication.
g)
Clutch
warning light push
to test red
light goes
outI when released.
h)
Releasecollectivefriction.
NOTE:
Keep
handon collective and maintain down
position
whenfrictionlock is
disengaged,
i)
Setthrottlefrictionas desired.
FLIGHT INFORMATION
1. Follow normal
helicopter
takeoff
procedures
at 2900 RPM.
(See height-velocity
information,
pages
FM-5-4 andFM-5-5.
Linear
interpolations may
be usedfor
operation
between
S.L. and7000 ft.
2. Best rate of climb
speed
varies with
altitude, i.e., 57 MPHat
sealevel
decreasing
to 52 MPHIAS at 7000
ft.,
and 49
MPHrASat 12000 ft.
3. Do not exceed 36.5 inches of manifold
pressure during
~Sleeeeve3r6.5
inches of manifold
pressure during
the
I
CRUISE
Exhaust
gas temperature,
as shown on the Enstrom E.G.T. indi-
cator,
should be used as an aid forfuel mixture
leaning
in cruis-
ing flight
at 75%
power
orless, i.e., 28 inches manifold
pressure
and 2900 RPM. Do not exceed
VNE
as shown on
placard
and
the
VNE
versusaltitudecurve.
FAA
Approval: September28, 19n
Revised: Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-3-6
ENSTROM 280C
To obtain abest
economy
mixture,
lean to 1650 "F E.G.T. To
obtain abest
power
mixture,
lean
only
to 1550 "F E.G.T. Do not
exceed 1650 "F E.G.T.
Operation
on the lean side of
peak
E.G.T. is not
approved.
Also
any change
in altitudeor
power
will
require
arecheck oftheE.G.T. indication.
SPECIALINSTRUCTIONSFOR LEANINGIN FLIGHT
a)
The mixture must be leaned to at least 130 PPHat 36.5
inches MAP. Do notexceed1650 "F E.G.T.
b)
If mixture
greater
than 130 PPHis
required
to
prevent
exceeding
E.G.T. of 1650
"F, practice autorotation/power
chop
are
prohibited.
c)
With mixture leaned as
prescribed
in
(a) above, practice
autorotation/power
reductions are to be
performed
as fol-
lows:
1)
Close throttle
smoothly
all the
way
to the closed
position
andholdonthe
stop,
or:
2) Smoothly split
needles andmaintain
engine
RPM at 2000
orabove.
3)
Do not
try
to maintain throttle at intermediate
positions
between
fully
closed and 2000
engine
RPM as this
may
cause inadvertent
engine stoppage
due to
improper
idle/mixture
settings
or
faulty
fuel servo.
NOTE: Since the 280C is
equipped
with afull-time tur-
bocharger,
the
turbocharged engine
is
equipped
with an overboost
warning light
on the instrument
panel
to warn the
pilot
of an overboost condition.
Transient overboost conditions which
may trigger
the
warning light may
not show as overboost condi-
tions on the manifold
pressure gauge.
The manifold
pressure gauge
red line is the
determining
factor in
ascertaining
the
magnitude
of an overboost condi-
tion.
Subject
overboost
conditions
must be
logged
in
the
engine log
and
inspections performed per
Lycoming
Bulletin 369F.
DESCENT
CAUTION: Exercise care
during
descent to avoid
exceeding
VNE
FAA
Approval: September28,
1977
Revised: Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-3-7
ENSTROM 280C
RUNNINGLANDING
i. Maximum recommended
ground
contact
speed
is 35 MPH.
Reduce
speed
on
rough
surfaces.
2. After
groundcontact,
the
helicopter
must have zero forward
motion beforecollective
pitch
is
fully
lowered.
NOTE: Due to the
high
friction characteristics of the heli-
copters
hardened steel skid
shoes,
premature
low-
ering
of the collective must be avoided as
rapid
deceleration andnosedown
pitching may
result.
PRELANDINGCHECKS
1. RPM 2900
2. Fuel
quantity
3. Instruments
4. Mixturefull rich
5. Boost
pump
check on
NORMALENGINE COOLINGAND SHUT-DOWN
PROCEDURE
1. Collective
pitch
full downandfrictionon
2. Throttlefull off;
3. Fuel boost
pump
off
NOTE: Leave boost
pump
on until
enginestops
where tem-
perature
and altitude conditions
preclude
smooth
idle
engine operation
with boost
pump
off.
4. Clutch
disengaged, engine
at full idle
only
CAUTION: Clutch
disengagement
without throttle at full idle will
result in
engine overspeed.
Clutch
disengagement
is
signaled by
ared
warnirig light
on the instrument
console.
5.
Cyclic
control centered. I
6. Note
engine
idle RPM
(with
boost
off)
andturnfuel boost on.
Any
difference in
engine
RPM noted indicates
leaky
idle
mixture
plates (refer
to Enstrom Service Letter No.
0069).
Slowly
lean
engine
with mixture control short of cutoff
posi-
tion. An increase of 50 RPM indicates the idle mixture is
improperly
set
(refer
to EnstromServiceLetterNo.
0069).
7. Idle
engine
at 1800 RPM for2 minutes oruntil
cylinder
head
temperature
coolsto 300 "F.
FAA
Approval: September28, 1977
Revised:
Report
No. 28-Ac-016
FM-3-8
ENSTROM 2809
8. Radios off.
9.
Lights
off.
10. Throttlefull idle,
11. Mixture idlecut off.
12. When
enginestopsturning magnetos
off.
13. All switchesoff.
14. Masterswitchoff.
15. Fuel valveclosed
tout).
16. Set collective one-half
way up
in its travel to unload lamiflex
bearings.
17. Tie down main rotorandtail rotorif wind
speed
is
expected
to
go
over30
mph.
E.G.T. LEANINGPROCEDURE CRUISE CONDITION
1. Attainthedesiredcruise
flight
condition.
2. Maintain aconstantaltitudeand manifold
pressuresetting.
3. Trimout
cyclic
forcesto maintain level
flight.
4. Turn mixturecontrol to attaindesired lean E.G.T.
setting.
NOTE: Do not exceed 1650 "F E.G.I. Under certain
high
altitudes and
high O.A.T.s, near full rich mixtures
will be
necessary
to control
cylinder
head and
engine
oil
temperatures.
If the
temperatures
are too
high,
enrich in 25 "F E.G.T. increments until the
temperatures
remain,jnthe
green
arci
5.
Any change
in manifold
pressure
will
require
additional mix-
ture
adjustment.
FAA
Approval: September28, 1979
Revised:
Report
No. 28-AC-018
FM-4-1
ENSTRoM 280C
SECTION 4 EMERGEb\ l%YAND
MALFUNCTION PROCEDURES
ENGINE FAILURE
1. Enternormal autorotationandstabilizeat 58 MPH
(minimum
rate of
decent).
See
Height Velocity information,
pages
FM-
5-4 and
FM-5-5.i
NOTE: Due to
high
rates of descent at forward
speeds,
sus-
tained
autorotatiohlspeed
is limited to 85 MPHto
8800 ft. Above8800
ft., see FM-5-1.
Maximum
glide
distance in autorotation is attained
at 80
mph
and 332 rotor
rpm. (Reduce
collective to
build RPM
prior
to
touchdown.)
2. Maximum recommended
ground
contact
speed
on
prepared
surfaces is 35
mph.
Reduce
speed
on
rough
surfaces.
3. After
ground
contact the
helicopter
must have zero forward
motionbeforecollective
pitch
is
fully
lowered.
NOTE: Due to the
high
friction characteristicof the heli-
copters
hardened steel skid
shoes, premature
low-
ering
of the collective must be avoided as
rapid
decelerationand nosedown
pitching may
result.
LIGHTINGFAILURE
i.
Landing
can be made in case of
landing light
failure
by
illu-
mination from
navigation lights.
In case of afon/vard
landing
light
failure,
thetaxi
light
will
provide
sufficient illumination to
land.
2. Instrument
lighting
is
provided by eyebrow lights,
internal
lights
and
map light.
~Vhile
satisfactory landings
have been
demonstratedwithout instrument illumination, a
supplemen-
tal
light
source
(flashlight)
is recommended.
FIRE
Fires
may
haveseveral sources of
origin. Generally they may
be
classified as
engine compartment
orcabin
compartment,
fuel or
oil
supported,
oreledtrical.
FIRE ON GROUND
1. Shut off
engine
andall sw/tches.
2. Shut offfuel valve.
FAA
Approval: September23, 1977
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-4-2
ENSTROM 280C
3. Determine source of fire and use fire
extinguisher
to extin-
guish any
flames.
NOTE: Do not restart or
fly
aircraft until cause of fire is
investigated
andcorrected.
FIRE IN FLIGHT
If the
presence
of odor and/or smoke is
detected, proceed
as
follows:
1. Check instrumentsforcorrect
reading.
2. Shutoff masterandalternatorswitchies.
3. Unlatchdoors andlet themtrail
open.
4. If smokeandodor
persist, proceed
to suitableareaand land
aircraft.
5. If
inspection
of aircraft indicates
presence
of
flames,
shut off
engine
and fuel valve and
extinguish
flames with fire extin-
guisher.
NOTE: If flames are
present,
do not
attempt
to start to
fly
aircraft until the cause of the fire has been investi-
gated
andcorrected.
Severe
leakage
of oil onto the exhaust
system may
cause con-
siderable smoke to enterthe cabin. In such case aircraft should
not be flown until cause of
leakage
is
investigated
and correct-
ed.
TAILROTOR
(Anti-Torque)
SYSTEM FAILURE
There are two
majorpossibilities
forfailure of the tail rotor
(anti-
torque) system
and
subsequent
loss of directional control as fol-
lows:
1. Failure of
any portion
of tail rotor drive
system
that causes
stoppage
or
physical
loss ofthetail rotorblades.
2. Failure of
any portion
of the mechanisms that cause
pitch
change
of thetail rotorblades.
Upon
loss of directional control,
the
pilot
must
immediately
determine the
type
of malfunction that has occurred
(No.
1 or2
above)
andselectthe
properemergency procedure.
TAILROTORDRIVE SYSTEM FAILURE
During hovering flight (aircraft
will rotate
rapidly
to the
right
withfull left
pedal):
1. Cut throttle full off
immediately (aircraft
will slow down or
stop
its
rotation),
FAA
Approval: September23,
1977
Report
No. 28-AC016
FM-4-3
ENSTROM 280C
2.
Complete
I
During cruisingflight
(aircraftwill rotateto the:
right
with full left
peddle):
i. Powerfull off immediately ,:enterautdrotation.
2.
Complete
autorotatjonto nearestsuitablearea.
NOTE: If no suitable ar~a:i$ ; available within autorotative
distance, pilot
shoulb
proceed
as follows after hav-
ing
established stabilized autorotation with at least
60 MPH
airspeed.
1. Increase collective
pitch
and
power gradually (maintaining
60 to 80 MPH
airspeed)
until
yaw
to the
right
reaches
approximately
45
degrees.
2. Continue
flight
in thisfashion
using cyclic
stick fordirectional
control until suitableautorotational
landing
areais reached.
3. When 200 ft. altitude or more over suitable
area,
re-estab-
lishfull autorotationandland.
TAILROTORCONTROLSYSTEM FAILURE
NOTE: Loss of control
may
be caused
by
failure of left
pedal controls, right pedal
cdntrols orfailure of
pitch
link to an individual tail rotorblade. On the Enstrom
tail
rotor,
it is normal
(if
uncontrolled or
unattended)
forthe blades to assurne a
nearly
neutral
pitch
con-
dition.
Upon
loss of
ability
to
fully
control tail rotor
duringcruisingflight, proceed
as follows:
PITCHLINK FAILURE
(One
tall rotor
blade)
Aircraft will
yaw
to the
right initially
and will
subsequently
need
an abnormal amount of left
pedal
to maintain
straight
and level
flight
since
only
one blade is
providing anti-torque
thrust.
1.
Ply
at low cruise
power
to suitable
landing
areaand make
normal
powerapproach.
2.
Complete
aslow
(less
than 35
mph)
run on
landing
at low
powersetting.
FAA
Approval: September23, 1977
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-4-4
ENSTRoM 280C
FAILURE OF LEFT PEDALCONTROLS
The direction and amount the aircraft
yaws
will
depend
on air-
speed
and amount of
power applied
at time of failure. At
high
power
and
high airspeeds
the aircraft will
yaw right.
At all air-
speeds
and low
powersettings
below 23"
Hg
the
helicopter
will
yaw
left. At low
airspeeds
where
aerodynamic
effects are
negli-
gible
the
helicopter
will
yaw
left. At low
airspeeds
where
aerody-
namiceffectsare
negligible
the
helicopter
will
yaw
left to
approx-
imately 30", hesitate
briefly,
and then accelerate into 360"turns
to the left. Thisconditioncan beavoided
by adding power
to 24"
Hg
and
accelerating
to 50
mph. T~he helicopter
can then be
flownto suitableareaandlanded
using
the
procedure
below.
1. Removefeetfrombothtail rotor
pedals.
2. Maintain24"
Hg
manifold
pressure
and50
mph.
3.
Fly
to suitable areaand
complete
ashallow
power
on
approach
at 50
mph.
4.
Manipulate power
and collective
pitch
so that aircraft touch-
es down
straight
aheadat an
airspeed
of 0-10
mph.
Reduce
power
andcollective
cautiously
asskidscontactsurface.
NOTE: Do not abort the
emergency landing
after
airspeed
hasdiminishedbelow40
mph.
FAILURE OF RIGHT PEDALCONTROLS
Tail rotorcontrols will be normal at
powersettings
over23"
Hg.
Power
settings
under 23"
Hg
will
produce yaw
to the left.
Proceedasfollows:
1.
Fly
to suitable
landing
areaat
power setting
of at least 23"
Hg.
2.
Complete
ashallow
power
on
approach
at 60
mph (do
not
auto
rotate)
3.
Manipulate power
and collective
pitch
so that aircraft touch-
es down
straight
aheadat an
airspeed
of 0-10
mph.
Reduce
power
and collective
pitch cautiously
as skids contact sur-
face.
NOTE:
Application
of
power
to over 23"
Hg
will make air-
craft more controllable.
Therefore, landing attempt
may
be aborted and new new
approach
initiated as
many
timesas
necessary
FAA
Approval: September23, 1977
Report
No. 28-AC-018
FM-4-5
ENSTRoM 280C
LANDINGIN WATER
(Ditching)
DITCHINGWITHPOWER
If
ditching
is unavoidable without other
recourse, proceed
as
follows
1. Descendto low
hovering
altitudeoverwater.
2. Unlatchboth doorsandexit
passengers.
3. Hoveraircraftclearof; i~il
personnel
in,water.
4. Turnoff masterand
alternator
8witches.
5.
Completehovering
autorotation:intbiwater.
6. As collective
pitch reaches-full up
and aircraft settles into
water, apply
full lateral
eyelid
in directionaircrafttendsto roll.
7. Afterrotorstrikeswaterand
:stops,
climboutandclearaircraft.
DITCHINGWITHOUT POWER
1. Turnoff masterandalternatorswitches.
2. Unlatch both doors.
3.
Complete
normal autorotation to land in water at zero air-
speed.
4. As collective
pitch
reaches full
up
and aircraft settles in
water,
apply
full lateral
cyclic
in direction aircrafttendsto roll.
5. Afterrotorstrikes waterand
stops,
exit all
occupants
andclear
aircraft.
ALTERNATORFAILURE
A malfunctionofthealternatorwill be indicated
by
zero
charge
rate
orconstant
discharge
on the ammeter. To
put
the alternator back
on line, proceed
as follows:
NOTE: Use the
following procedure
if the alternator excite circuit
breaker
(ALT
EXCorALTNTR
EXC)
is not installed.
1. Alternatorcircuitbreakerin.
2.
Cycle
MASTERandALTERNATORswitches.
3. If alternatoris not restoredOr
goes
off-line
again,
turnoffthealter-
nator switch and all nonessential electrical
equipment.
Land as
soonas
practicable.
NOTE: Use the
following procedure
if the alternator excite circuit
breaker
(ALT
EXCorALTNTR
EXC)
is installed.
1. Alternatorcircuitbreakerin.
2. Alternatorexcitecircuitbreakerin.
3.
Cycle
theALTERNATORswitch.
4. If the alternator is not restored or
goes
off line
again,
turn off the
alternatorswitch andall nonessential electrical
equipment.
Landas
soonas
practicable.
FAA
Approval: September23, 19n
Revised:
May 22, 1998 Report
No. 28-AC-016
.- ---; -.---- - - ; ---- - - - --; -- I -- - -; -; - I---
--; - --- --1 -- ; ; -- ------; -; ----
FM-4-6
ENSTRoM 280C
MAIN ROTORGEARBOX
If,
in normal
flight,
the main rotor
gearbox
red line
temperature
is
exceeded,
the
helicopter
should be landed at the next suitable
landing
site.
ELECTRICFUELBOOST PUMP
Failure of the fuel boost
pump
will be evidenced
by
illumination of
the red low boost
pressure warning light.
In the event of afuel
boost
pump
failure,
the
helicopter engine
will continue to
operate
in anormal manneras
long
as the
engine-driven
fuel
pump
contin-
uesto function
properly.
If the
helicopter experiences
a,fuel boost
pump
failure,
terminate
the
flight
at the earliest
practical
time and have the malfunction
corrected
prior
to next
flight.
CAUTION: If
flight
is continued after the fuel boost
pump
failure
and the
engine-driven
fuel
pump
malfunctions,
the
engine
will
stop
due to fuel starvation.
Gravity
fuel
feedis insufficientto
supply
fuel to the
engine.
LOW ENGINE OILPRESSURE
If low oil
pressure
is
accompaniedby
normal oil
temperature,
there
is a
possibility
theoil
pressuregauge
orrelief valveis malfunction-
ing.
This is not
necessarily
cause for an immediate
precautionary
landing. However, a
landing
at the nearest
airport-heiiport
would
beadvisableto
inspect
thesourceoftrouble.
If atotal loss of oil
pressure
is
accompanied by
arise in oil tem-
perature,
there is
good
reason to
suspect
an
engine
failure is
imminent. Reduce
engine powerimmediately
and select asuitable
forced
landing
field.
TURBOCHARGERFAILURE
(SEIZURE)
Turbocharger
seizurewill be evidenced
by
a
power
loss
(manifold
pressure drop)
if
operating
at manifold
pressures
above ambient
atmosphericpressure.
It should be
possible
to maintain level
flight
at reduced
airspeeds
and altitude as the
engine
will then be
oper-
ating essentially
as a
non-turbochargedengine
with manifold
pres-
sure available
essentially equal
to ambient
atmosphericpressure.
A
power
check shouldbe
performed
to confirm
power
availablefor
landing.
A
landing
shouldbe
accomplished
assoon as
practicable.
Plan for and
perform
a
high
altitude
type (running) landing,
see
page
FM-3-7.
FAA
Approval: September23,
1977
Revised:
May 22, 1998 Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-4-7
ENSTROM 280C
ABNORMALVIBRATIONS:
Vibrations in this
helicopter
can
usually
be classified as either low
frequency
or
high frequency.
Low
frequency
vibrations are
generally
caused
by
the main rotor
system
while the
high
frequency
vibrations
usually originate
from the
engine,
drive
system,
ortail rotor.
Any
abnormal vibratiansare an indication that
something
is not correct and
should
be referred to amechanic
before further
flight.
If avibration
suddenly appears during
a
flight,
it is an indication that
somethingi
has
suddenly changed.
The
helicopter
should be landedas soon aS
practical
and
inspected
to
find the cause of the vibrations. After the cause of the vibration
has been
identified,
the
pilot
and the mechaniccan determine
whether the
helicopter
can be
safelyflown
or should be
repaired
on the
spot.
An abnormal vibration is reason to
get
the aircraft
down as soon as
pdssii~le
bu~
th~?
prlot; ~nuqt ~ISP use caution and
select the safes~
poss~
landingsit~, working
around
wires,
people
andotherobstrJctions.
; I
i
FAA
Approval: September23, 1977
Revised:
May 22, 1998 Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-5-1
ENSTROM 2800
SECTION 5 PERFORMANCE
V never
exceedVS. DENSITYALTITUDE
(Vne
demonstratedat2750
enginerpm)
2350 Ib.
grossweight
Max.
Approved
12000
10000
lL
8000
D
u I
cl
8000
I 1 \ S
4000
$ I
I h
2000
S.L
-2000
20 40 60 80 100 120
Indicated
Airspeed
MPH
FAA
Approval: September
23, 1977 Report
No. 28-AC-0~6
FM-5-2
ENSTROM 280C
AIRSPEED CALIBRATION
120
too
a:
5
80
w
w
a
v,60
o
uJ
C
40
a
0
20
0 20 40 60 80 100
INDICATED AIR SPEED M.P.H.
NOTE: Indicated
speeds
below20 MPHarenotreliable
FAA
Approval: September23,
19n
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-5-3
ENsTRonn23dC
H~VERCEILINGIN GROUND EFFECT
314~ FOOT SKID HEIGHT
13000
Max:
Approved- Ceiling
12000
Y,
10000
\ I\
8000
B
L
sooo
I I standard
Day
4000
Max. Approved
Weight
2000
1 1 (2350 Lbs.)
S.L.
1000 1800 2000
2200
2400
Gross Weight
Lbs.
FAA
Approval: September23,
1977 Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-5-4
ENSTROM 280C
HEIGHT VELOCITYDIAGRAM
(Tests
conductedon
preparedsurfaces)
2350 LB. GR. WT.
AVOID OPERATION IN THIS AREA
600
O.G.E. Hoover
May
Be Precluded
By
Atmospheric
Conditions In This Area.
SAFE OPERATING AREA
600
Note:
Critical
points
were demonstrated
at S.L. 7000 Ft Hd
u
Intermediate altitude curves
rr.
400
were developed analytically
i
Racommendcd Takeoff Proflk
300
~CI
r
J
Q)
:t
iC
P
r
200
o,
I
JUss
c ution in
100
area to avoid
IEDnt e~
.I 1 ll
role;
Guardwith
ground.
0 20 40 60 120
Indicated Airspeed
MPH
FAA
Approval: September23,
i977 Report
No. 28-40-016
FM-5-5
ENSTROM PEjOC
EFFECT OF OI=F-LOADING
ON
CHOICE OF HIV ENVELOPE
The H-V
envelopes
shown on FM-5-4 must be usedforthe den-
sity
altitudes shown on the curves when
operating
at 2350 Ibs.
Operations
at
grossweights
lessthan 2350 Ibs. can be conduct-
ed
using
aless restrictiveH-V curve.
Thechart below
provides
amethodto select amore
representa-
tive
envelope.
For
example,
a
gross weight
of 2000 Ibs. and
3900 ft.
density
altitude would allow use of the S.L.
envelope
(i.e.
see
example 1).
A
gross weight
of 2200 Ibs. and 4500 ft.
density
altitude would
require
a2800 ft. curve. To be conserva-
tive, usethenext
highest envelope,
4000 ft.
7000
~B ~B
8000 ; IC
ci
; r
; C
IL
5000
Q1
~02
C)
u
4000
1~
r
~ooo
B
Examples
U)S
XX~O
t
o
r
1000
1600
1800
2000 2200
2400
FAA
Approval: September23, 1977
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-5-6
ENSTROM 288C
DENSITYALTITUDE CHART
SET ALTIMETER TO 29.92 fN. HG.
WHEN READINGPRESSURE ALTITUDE
15,000
14,000
13,000
~65/
I
~2:
2~
11 ,000
cP(j:
r
10,000
p
c
9000
soo
w
o
8000
-o
t I Y
I2000
I> rn
7000
C~
rn, ,o~
~Tb
Z
6000
O
5000
4000
3000
2000
2
1000
s.L.
--20 -10
0
10"C 20 30 40 50
0
Ib 20 30 40 50 60 78 80 90 100110120
"F
OUTSIDE AIRTEMPERATURE
FAA
Approval:September
23, 1977 Repsrt
No, 28-AC-816
FM-5-7
ENSTRd~
2~bC
RATE OF; CLI ALTITUDE
2350 LBS. GROSSWEIGHT
BEST RATE OF CLIMB SPEED VARIES WITH
ALTITUDE;
57 MPHAT S.L. DECREASINGTO 49
MPH,
IASAT
12,000
FT
12000
10000
a.
8000
a
I I
eoos
4000
6
11 I i ~t
2000
400 800 800 fOOo 1200 1400
Rate, Ot Climb, Feet Per Minute
FAA
Approval: September23, 1977 Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-6-1
ENSTROM 280C
SECTION 6 WEIGHT BALANCE
INFORMATION
All
helicopters
are
designed
for certain limit loads and balance
conditions.
Changes
lin equipment
whichaffect the
empty weight
centerof
gravity
must be recorded in the aircraft and
engine log
book. It is the
responsibility
of the
helicopterpilot
to ensure that
the
helicopter
is
loaded properly.
The
empty weight, empty
weight
C.G. and useful loads are noted on the
weight-balance
sheet includedin this Manual forthis
particularhelicopter.
The
longitudinal
and lateral
c.g. range
fortheModei 280C
vary
with
gross weight. Satisfactory
aircraft
handling qualities
have
been established
throughout
the
c; g. envelopes
shown on
page
FM-6-8 of this manual.
Although
the
envelopes presented
cover
awide
range
of
typical loading conditions, pilots
must calculate
any
unusual
loading
conditions to insure that the aircraft
c.g.
range
forthe Model 280C
vary
with
gross weight. Satisfactory
aircraft
handling qualities
have been established
throughout
the
c.g. envelopes
shown on
page
FM-6 8 of this manual.
Although
the
envelopes presented
cover awide
range
of
typical loading
conditions, pilots
must calculate
any
unusual
loading
conditions
to insure thatthe aircraft
c.g.
remains in the
approvedenvelope.
Sample
calculations areshown on
pages
FM-6-6 and FM-6-7 for
reference.
The lateral
c.g.
limit is defined in terms of lateral moment in that
the calculations of lateral
c.g.
is not
part
of the
primary
aircraft
weight
and balance records. Lateral moment is the
algebraic
summation of the left and
right
handloadstimes their
respective
lateral moment arms. A
sample
calculation is shown on
page
FM-6-7 for reference. The aircraft centerline is used as the
datum reference. Left lateral moment arms considered
negative;
right
lateral moment armsareconsidered
positive.
WEIGHT AND BALANCE
The
remdvai
oraddition of:fuel orequigment
results in
changes
to the center of
gravity
and
weight,of
the
aircraft,
and the
per-
missible useful load is affected
accordingly.
The effects of these
changes
must be
investigated
in
all
Gases to eliminate
possible
adverseeffects on the aircrafts
flight
characteristics.
Report
No. 28-Ac-016
-; r -- --- - -- --------- ------ -1- -- -~---
11. -~-.
FM-6-2
ENSTROM 280C
MaximumGross
Weight
2350 Ibs.
Estimated
Empty Weight
(no accessories,
fuel or
oil)
1495 Ibs.
Useful Load 855 Ibs.
Approved
ForwardC.G. Limit 2350 Ibs. station 92.0
Approved
Aft C.G. Limit 2350 Ibs. station 94.6
Approved
Aft C.G. Limit 2000 Ibs. station 100.0
Approved
Lateral Offset Moment
2350 \ bs.
-3250,
+3700 in. Ibs.
Below2015
Ibs., see FM-6-8.
Centerlineof aircraft is "O"lateral moment arm.
TOOLSAND EQUIPMENT
Tape
Measure Commercial
Scale
(two)
I
10001bs.capacity
Scale tail
tone)
100 Ibs.
capacity
Level
bubble-type
Commercial
Work stand As
required
DETAILED PROCEDURE FORWEIGHING280CSERIES
HELICOPTER
a.
Thoroughly
clean
helicopter.
b.
Helicopter
will be
weighed
inside aclosed
building
to
prevent
errors in scale
readings
due to wind.
Helicopter
will be
placed
in alevel
flight
attitude..
c. Check for
proper
installation of all
accessory
items. Check to
determine if thescalesthatare
being
usedhavebeencalibrat-
ed
recently,
and check to see that the scales will zero out
before
weighing helicopter.
d. the
helicopter
will be
weighed
without
fuel,
butthe
weight
and
balance record will reflect corrections to indicate the amount
of unusable fuel 2 U.S.
gallons.
The
helicopter may
be
weighed
with full oil orwithout
oil,
butthe
weight
and balance
report
shouldbecorrected
accordingly.
e. Tare will be noted when
helicopter
is removed from the
scales.
NOTE: Check oil level of main transmission and tail rotor
transmission. Check to see that the main rotor
bladesare in uniform
position,
120"
apart.
f. Closeandsecureboth
doors,
left and
right
handsides.
g.
Hoist or
jack helicopter
clearof
ground.
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-6-3
ENSTdbM; 28dC
h. Positiontwo mainscalesbeneaththeskids.
i. Position a
pipe nipple
in the center of left and
right
hand
scales at 17.7 inches aft of the center line of the forward 3-
inch diameter aluminum
landing gear
cross beam
assembly.
(Detail
No.
1)The
17.7 inchdimension must be taken
perpen-
dicularto thecenterlineofthe
helicopter.
In order to
simplify defining
the fulcrum
position,
Enstrom tool
T-1794 is shown below. This tool
may
be
purchased through
the
EnstromCustomerService
Department.
lf.7"
T-1794 TOOL
Z
FULCRUM
WEIGHT AND BALANCE
TOOLPOSITIONING
Pig.
5-3
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM 6-4
ENSTROM 280C
Fig.
1 ORIGINAL
As
ReceivedBy
ATP
j. Height
of tail to be
adjusted
forlevel.
k. Level forand aft to be taken at lower
pylon tube,
left
side, so
identified.
(Detail
No.
2). Fig.
i.
i. Lateral level takenat lowerforward
pylon
tube
m. Small scale will be located undertail rotorat thecenterline of
thetail rotor
outputshaft, Fig.
2.
n.
Using jack,
raise or lowertail as
required
to level the aircraft
along
the
longitudinal axis, paying
attentionto the level on the
longitudinal
andlateral
pylon
tubes.
o. Readandrecord
weight
fromeachofthreescales.
p.
Calculate
weight
and center of
gravity
on attached
form,
with
weight
date.
Empty weight
will be
dly weight.
q.
All items added or subtracted will be listed on the attached
formwith
weight, are,
andmoment.
Rspon
Na, 28-AC-016
QRIGINAL
FM-6-5
As
Received
By
ATP
Fig.
2
CAUTION:
Weight
and measurement
headings
are critical.
Doublecheck results.
r. Remove
helicopter
fromscales.
CAUTION: Do not remove
curbing, jack, nipples, blocks, etc.,
fromscales. Theseitemsconstitutetare
weight.
s. Readand recordtare
weight
fromeach ofthethreescales. An
official
weight
and balance
report
is
prepared
in connection
with each
helicopter presented
for air-worthiness certification
at the Enstrom
Cbrporation.
All tt-iese
reports
are marked
"actual
weight."
t. This
weight
andbalance
report,
and
equipment
list will be
pre-
pared
and
supplied
with each
helicopter.
u. Use Form No. F-165
(page FM-6-10)
Basic
Weight
and
Balance
Report
to
give you
acontinuous
history
of
weight
changesthroughout
thelifeof
yourhelicopter.
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-6-6
ENSTROM 280C
LOADINGINFORMATION
NOTE: It is the
responsibility
of the
helicopterpilot
to insure
that the
~elicopter
is loaded
properly.
The
empty
weight, empty weight c.g.
and useful load are noted
on the
weight
and balance sheet included in this
manual forthis
helicopter.
C.G.
Range:
Variablewith Gross
Weight
92.0 to 100
MaximumGross
Weight
2350 Ibs.
TYPICALLOADING 280C
Weight
Arm Moment
RearwardC.G. /Ibs.) tin.) tin. Ibs.)
Empty Weight (including
1495.0 101.4 151593.0
undrainable
engineoil,
gearbox
oil andunusable
fuel)
Baggage
Box 10.0 ; 135.0 1350.0
Engine
Oil 15.0 100.5 1507.5
Pilot 120.0 62.0 7440.0
Baggage
60.0 135.0 8100.0
1700.0 99.99 169990.5
Weight r
Arm Moment
ForwardC.G. (Ibs,) tin.) tin. Ibs.)
Empty Weight
1495.0 101.4 151593.0
Baggage
Box
1
10.0 135.0 1350.0
Additional Panel Instr. 20.0 32.0 640.0
Fuel,
40.0 Gal. 240.0 96.0 23040.0
Pilot
Passengers
530.0 62.0 32860.0
40 Ibs. of
Baggage
40.0 135.0 5400.0
2350.0 92.08 216390.5
Lateral Offset Moment
Pilot
(left seat)
190 -13.5 -2565
Copilot (right seat)
130 +12.12 +1575.6
-989.4
(Centerline
of aircraft is "zero"lateral moment
arm)
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-6-7
ENSTFPOM 2800
APPROVED CENTER OF GRAVITV ENVELOPES
LONGITUDINALC.G.
2400
2350--i--
q
2200
2OOO
1
I IPPROVED P~! EP.
1800
1600
92 94 96 98 100
LONGITUDINAL C.G. -INCHESAFT OF DATUM
LATERALOFFSET MOMENT ENVELOPE
2400
1
2200
ui 1 I I I APPROVED AREA
I~
q~"
IsOO
v
leOO
-4000
1 12060 6 2000 +4000
LEFT
L*tEAALOrmfUOYENT
RIGHT
(IM. LBS.)
Report
No. 28-40-016
FM-6-8
ENSTROM 280C
ENSTRO~ 280C EOUIPMENT LIST
Serial No.
FAA
Approved Regislraticin
No. Date
Check Dale
No. Item Wt. Arm
On O11
tMSTAUMENfS AEQUtAED
Altimeter 1 1.2 11 36
Airspeed 1 .5 36
Tachometer 1 1.3 1 36
Manifold Fuel Pressure 1.5 36
Inslrument Cluster :i 2.0 36
Oil Temperature
Oil Pressure
Gear Box Temperature
Cylinder Temperature
Fuel Quanlity
Ammeter
Compass I
t o 40
OAT
Gauge I
0.5 55
Ball Bank Indicator
E.G.T. Gaupet
0.5 36
OPTlONALEOUIPMENT I
1 Night lighting equipment (includiog combination
strobe and position lights, internally lit instrument
cluster)
2 Map tight (Aeqd fornight flight) .5 80
3 8 day clock 1
.5 36
4 nourmeter .75 88
5 Soundproofing
6 Defroster F28A. F28C
7 Strobe lightsi
F28A
8 Float build up
9 Center radio console (F28A, F28C)
(O CargoHook
11 Extrahead set 2.0 80
12 Cabin heater detroster combination 280, 280C 3.5 46
13 Snow shoe installation 18.0 100.9
14 Cabin heater (F28A, F28CI 4.1 36.0
15 Baggage comparlmenl 10.0 (35.0
16 Flotation gearlwith hardware
17 Dual controls 12.0 50
18 Floor carpet, Int, trim 8 headliner 6.0 65.0
19 Fed. 12V. twin
speaker-siren
11.3 1 79
20 Litterkit-single 1
24.0 100.0
21
King
KT 76 transponder
4.0 i 34.0
22 Shoulder harness wlreel single
3 81
23 Shoulder harness wlreel double 6 82
24 First aid kit 5.2 135
25
Ashtrays
8 lighter
I
I
o 32.0
26 Fire extinguisher 1
5.7 80.0
27 External power
unit (APU)
1.0 75.0
28 Narco com 11 AHwlintercom I 4.0 34.0
29 Narco nav It 1 3.5 32.0
30 Narco ADF i40 4.3 33.0
3\ Narco OME \ 90 6.6 34.0
32 Narco ATSOA transponder
4.0 34.0
33
King KR86 ADF 3.9 34.0
34
Gyco horizon model R.C. Alien 25 3.4 32.0
35 1 RCA-15A-3 directional pro
2.3 1 32.0
36
King
KX1758 NAVICOM
1
7.0 34.0
37 ADF 140 loop 6 sense antenna 3.1 138.0
38 Presidential doors (door pockets) 1 6.0 60.0
39 Instantaneous vertical speed indicator 1.3 34.0
40 Aim 200 directional
gyro
3.8 34.0
41 Antenna(vor) I
1.3 194.0
42 Narco DGO-lO 1 4.7 32.0
43 Daul landing light (Reqd
for
night l(lght) 1 3.2 25.0
44
King KA 85 wiindicator
I
I
1
7.0 39.0
45 Chadwicle tank
46 Ground handling wheel(s) 1
13.0 104.7
47
King
Kl-225-01 indicator ~.3 34.0
48 Natco NAV 14 2.25 34.0
49 Narco ELT 1 3.3 135
Sisnderdequipment not requiredby
FaA.
I patNo.
Report
No. 28-AC-016
Item
Weight added Weight removed
Running basictotal
o
S
Item cc
Date Description of article or modification s h
No.
In Out Weight ArmlMom.lWeightlArm Mom.lWeight(C.G. IMom.
R
~o it QI
rag ACTUALDELIVERED WEIGHT AND BALANCE DATA I 1 I I a,
rr V)
o,J
O
i
m~
r:
o II m
v,C)
"I 11. 2
~"-I
(D
n
Z~
z
o
Z
g
o
Dp
I;
iv
OD
r
o
o
o
P
P
Z
O
Zlm
o
3)
r
Zm
a
co P
O
o
3
O
o
O I
n,
i z 1 I 1 I 1 I I I I 1 I I I I I II 3J
b
N
ca
i
co
o
71
o
I
b
c~ ir,
cr, cb
FM-6-10
ENSTROM 2800
looa
CRaroRHue
Lca
Ilo.ts
C~d
O
6~Q ~L*UI t9dO SLOI)
~WD
WeWHO YIBOH~
STATIO~
srimaj
rl
.Model Serial No. Regittretion
No.
FWD. c/B limit 92.0"
AFal. clg
limit 98,0"
Weigh point
8cele-lbf. Tare Net wt. Arm Moment x 1000
Left
gear
(WL)
Right gear IWR)
Tail (WTI
Total
WT
(320.0)
(WL WR)
(93.446)
LCG
WT WL WR
Date Weighed by
Report
No. 28-ACOi6
FM-6-11
ENSTROM 280C
AIRCRAFT ACTUALWEIGHT REPORf
Model Serial No. keg. No.
Standard
equipment not installed Optional surplus equipment
in
at weigh-in
aircraft at weigh in
Momant X Moment X
Item No. Wt. Arm
000in./lbs.
Item No. Wt. Arm
11000 in./l
Total Total
Weighing
witns~ed by c
I Date
Fgtm No. F 167
Report
No. 28-AC-016
-- - ----; - -; - ; --- - r -- ; --
FM-6-12
ENSTROM 280G
AIR.CRAFT WEIGHT AND C. G. CALCULATION
Model Serial No.
Peg. No.
Weight
Arm Moment
Ibs. in. 1000 in./lbs.
Weight las weighed)
Less:
optional 8 surplus weight
Plus: missing std. equipment
Computad
Total weight empty
std. aircraft
Actual
Plus: engine
oil
Plus: optional equipment kits
Total basic
weight
Fo~m No. F-188
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-7-1
ENSTROM 280C
SECTION 7 AIRCRAFT AND SYSTEM
DESCRI P~ION
One of the first
steps
in
obtaining
the utmost
performance,
ser-
vice,
and
flying enjoyment
from
your
280C,
is to familiarize
your-
self with its
equipment, systems,
andcontrols.
The Enstrom280C
Helicopter
is
designed
for
high performance,
mechanical
simplicity,
and maxiri~um
versatility. By
virtue of
component longevity
and minimum maintenance
requirements,
the280C
enjoys
the lowest
operating
cost of
any helicopter.
The
rugged, patented
rotor head,
combined with the
(51
Ibs.
each)
rotor blades, gives
unheard of
stability
and excellent autorota-
tional characteristics.
INTERIORARRANGEMENT
The cabin interior is afull, three-place,j side-by-side seating
arrangement
with a
spacious
581 width for maximum
pilot
and
passenger
comfort and
safety.
The instrument
panel
is on the
vertical
plane
for more natural
scanning
and is
conveniently
located for dual
pilot viewing.
Excellent
visibility
is offered
throughout
the tinted
Plexiglas
windshield and doors with over-
head and lower deck windows. Extra-width, swing-open
doors
close
securely
with
simple-to-operate safety
lock handles. The
helicopter
can beflownwitheitherleft,
right,
orboth doors off.
AIRINDUCTION SYSTEM
The airinduction
system
consists of afiltered
non[ram
airintake
locatedwithin the
engine compartment.
It
incorporates
a
spring-
loaded,
automaticalternateairsource.
POWEk
PLANT
An Avco
Lycoming
HIO-360-E1AD 205
hp engine
is used in this
helicopter.
The
engine
is adirect drive, four
cylinder,
fuel
inject-
ed, horizontally opposed,
air cooled
engine.
This
engine
incor-
porates
features for
turbochargingl
Platinum
spark plugs
are
supplied
withthe
engine.
NOTE: It is recommended that the
appropriate Lycoming
Operators
Manual be consulted
prior
to
any adjust-
mentor
repair
to the
engine.
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-7-2
ENSTROM 2800
OILSYSTEM
The
Lycoming engine employs
awet
sump
lubrication
system
having
a
capacity
of 8
quarts.
The
engine
oil
pump
circulatesthe
oil
through
aremote mounted oil cooler
to; provide cooling.lt
is
located on the
right-hand
side of the
engine compartment.
A
thermostatic
bypass
and
pressure
relief valve are
supplied
as
standard
equipment.
Restricted
pressure engine
oil is also circu-
lated
through
the
turbocharger bearing housing.
A
separate
engine scavenge pump
returns the oil to the
engine sump.
A
bayonet-type
oil
quantity gauge:with graduated markings
is
part
of the oil filler
cap
and is accessible
through
the left fuel drain
access door.
The total oil
system
has a
capacity
of 10
quarts.
This includes
theoil inthe
engine,
oil
filter,
~oil
cooler,
andoil lines.
Oil
System
Indicators-Oil
Temperature
andPressure
Gauges.
Standard
type gauges
are
provided
forboth the
engine
oil tem-
perature
and oil
pressure
indications. Both
gauges
are marked
to
provide
visual
engine operating
limitations andare locatedon
theinstrument
panel.
ENGINE CONTROLS
Throttle. A
twist-grip type
throttle is located on the collective
pitch
control stickfordirectcontrol of
enginepower.
It is manual-
iv
connectedtothefuel servo-throttlevalveonthe
engine.
Mixture Control A vernier mixture control knob is
provided
on
the instrument console. Thisverniercontrol
incorporates
thefea-
tures of astandard
push-pull
cable. Full rich is in the "in"
posi-
tion. Full lean is in the "out"
position.
The vernierfeature allows
ascrew
type
of
adjustment
to fine tune
any preset
mixture
posi-
tion.
Magneto
Switch. The
magneto
switch is a
key-operated
switch
located on the left side of the switch circuit breaker
panel.
For
starting, place
theswitch inthe"Both"
position.
Ignition Safety
Switch. This switch closes the circuit to the
starterbuttononthecollectivecontrol.
Starter Button. The starter button is located on the end of the
collectivecontrol. Pushto
engage.
Master Switch. The masterswitch is located on the left side of
the switch circuit breaker
panel.
It is a
single-throw, two-position
switch.
Report
No. 28-AC-018
FM-7-3
TURBOCHARGER
The
turbocharger
unit has
only
one
moving part,
a
rotating
shaft
with aturbineshell on oneend, a
compressorimpeller
on the
other,
all
precision
balanced and each contained in its own
housing.
The
turbine wheel,
driven
by
exhaust
gas energy,
drives the
impeller
which
compresses
intake air to a
density equivalent
of near sea
level and delivers it to the
engine
intake. This increasedvolume of
airallowsthe
engine
to "breath"withthe same volumetric
efficiency
that it does at low levels. The
engine
can
produce
the
equivalent
power
atall altitudes
up
to12,000
feet
density
altitude.
EXHAUST GASTEMPERATURE SYSTEM
The exhaust
gastemperature,
asshown on the
panel
mounted indi-
cator,
is used as an aid for fuel mixture
leaning
in
cruising flight.
The
panel
indicator is red-lined at 1650 "F. The exhaust
tempera-
ture
probe
is locatedonthe exhaust stack
just
beforethe inletto the
turbocharger.
This allows an actual:
temperature
measurement of
theexhaust
gases
thataredeliveredinto the
turbocharger
unit.
CABIN HEAT
The cabin heat control is located at the left-hand side of the
pilots
seat ontheforwardface oftheseat structure.
By moving
the control
in or out,
the
operator regulates
the amount of cabin heat
through
two
output
louvers located on the seat structure
just
above the
lowerdeck windows.
CLUTCHENGAGINGLEVER
Theclutch
engagement
leveris locatedat the
right
sideofthe
pilots
seat on the forward face of the seat structure. The clutch lever is
provided
as ameans of
engaging
and
disengaging
the rotor drive
system.
The rotor drive
system
is
engaged by pulling
the clutch lever
upward
and rearward until the lever hits the
stop
and the
warning
light goes
out. The handle can then be stowed
by lifting
it
straight
up
and
pivoting
it down to the floor. When it is in the stowed
posi-
tion,
the handle should
lie flat on the floor. If it does not lie flat on
the floor in the stowed
position,
the clutch
rigging
should be
checkedas describedin Section8 of theMaintenanceManual. The
clutch lever must be stowed whenever the rotor drive
system
is
engaged.
FUELSYSTEM
The
system
consists of two interconnected20 US
gallon
fuel
tanks,
which feed
simultaneously
to the
engine.
The tanks are located on
the left and
right
side of the aircraft over the
engine compartment.
Revised:
August29, 1985
Report
No. 28 AC-016
FM-7-4
ENsTROM 2800
Thetanks have atotal fuel
capacity
of 40 US
gallons,
with atotal of
two
gallons
unusable
fuel, one
gallon
unusable fuel in each tank.
Each fuel tank is
gravity
fedto acentral
distributing
line which con-
nects to the electricboost
pump
and
engine
driven
pump.
The fuel
control located on the firewall next to the
pilots
left shoulder. Each
tank has an individual: drain valv~ in the bottom. There is also a
main
gascolator
filter located aft of the firewall in the
engine
com-
partment.
The control is on the
right-hand
side of the
engine
com-
partment
andextends
beyond
theside
panel.
Auxiliary
Fuel
Pump
Switch The fuel boost
pump
switch and
fuel
pressure warning lights
are located on the switch circuit
breaker
panel.
The
green warning light
will
stay
illuminated as
long
as thefuel boost
pump
is
operation.
The red
light
will illumi-
nate at
any
time thefuel boost
pump-is
shut off orfails to func-
tion
properly.
Fuel
Quantity
Indicator. The fuel
quantity gauge continuously
indicatesthetotal
quantity
of fuel. It is hooked
up through
asim-
ple type liquidometer
float located in
theright-hand
fuel tank. A
translucent
strip
on each tank
provides
adirect,
visual indica-
tionoffuel level.
Fuel Flow-Fuel PressureIndicator. Thefuel
pressure provides
pounds per
hourand
pressure readings
of the fuel as delivered
to the flow divider. The indicator is markedfor normal
operating
range
from 0 to 160
pounds per
hours and 0 to 25
psi
index
lines in 5
psi
increments.
TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
The main transmission unit
provides
an 8.277 reduction ratio
between the
engine
and the main rotor. The transmission
incorpo-
rates a
free-wheeling
unit in the
upper pulley assembly
which is
mounted on the
pinion input
shaft. The
free-wheeling
unit
provides
adisconnect from the
engine
in the event of a
power
failure and
permits
the main andtail rotorsto rotate in orderto
accomplish
safe
autorotation
landings.
Six
pints
of S.A.E. 90 wt. E.P.
gear
oil are
used in the transmission. The main rotor transmission has a
sight
gauge
which is located on the aft
right-hand
side and is visible
through
an
opening
in the
baggagecompartment
orthe
right
access
panel
Main Rotor Transmission
Temperature
Indicator. A main
rotortransmission
gauge
is located on the instrument
panel
and
is redlined at 220 "F.
Tail RotorTransmission. The tail rotor
transmission,
mounted
at the aft end of the tail
cone, supports
and drives the tail rotor.
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-7-5
i
ENSf"ROnn:~OC
The tail rotor transmission
is~qllilpped
with aself-contained
lubricant
supply
and level
gauge
at the rearof the
housing
and
magneticplug
can be removed
to-inspect
formetal
particles.
Its
capacity
is 5 ouncesof SIA.E, 10 wt.
non-detergent
motoroil.
ROTORSYSTEM
Main Rotor. The main rotor is athree-blade, fully
articulated
system.
The
fully
articulated
system
in the 280C
Helicopterpro-
videssmoothcontrol
responses
in all modes of
flight;
anddueto
the kinetic
energy
stored in the
heavy
rotor blades,
allows for
easy-to-perform,
safe autorotation
landings
in the event of
power
failure. The rotor
assembly
consists of three all-metal
bonded
blades,
upper
and lower rotor hub
plates,
universal
blocks,
blade
grip
assemblies;
iand lead
lag hydraulicdampers.
Tail Rotor. Thetail
anti-torque
rotor
counteractsthe
toque
ofthe
main rotor and functionstb jriaintain
Or change
the
helicopter
heading.
The tail rotor is a
two7b; ! aded, teetering, delta-hinge
typeassembly.
RotorTachometer.
ihe rotor RPM,indicator
is
part
of adual-
purpose
tachometerwhichlals; o reads
engine
RPM.
T=LIGHT CONTROLS
Cyclic
Control. The
cyclic
control stick is similarin
appearance
to the control stick of a
fixed-wing
aircraft. The direction of stick
movement results in a
change
of the
plane
of rotation of the
main rotor and will
produce
a
corresponding
~irectional
move-
ment of the
helicopterthrocjgh
the
longitudinal
andlateral modes
of
flight.
The stick
grip incorporates
a
trigger-type
switch used
forradio transmissions and intercom. A trimswitch is also locat-
ed on the
cyclic
stick
grip
to control the
longitudinal
and lateral
trimmotion.
Stabilizer. Anall-metal, fixed-position
stabilizer
adjusted
to a-6"
is installed on the tail cone
assembly
for
longitudinal
trim and
vertical
upper
and lower stabilirerare installed for increased
yaw stability.
Collective Pitch Control. The collective
pitch
control lever is
locatedto the left of the
pilots position
and controls the vertical
mode of
flight.
A
rbtating, grip-type
throttle is located at the end
of thecollectivecontrol.
I)irectional Control Pedals. The directional control
pedals
are
located in the cabinfor\ iva:rd bf the
pilot
and/or
co-pilot.
when
moved,
these
adjustablepedals change
the
pitch
of thetail rotor
blades and
thereby; provide
the method of
changing
directional
heading.
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-7-6
ENSfROM 280C
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
The standard
flight
instruments which are installed in the 280C
as basic
equipment comply
with the
requirements
under visual
flight
rules for
day
or
night operation.
The
panel arrangement
provides
ease of visual observance and includes
space provi-
sions
Airspeed
Indicator. The
single-scale airspeed
indicator is cali-
brated in MPHand
provides
an indicated
airspeed reading
dur-
ing
forward
flight.
The
pitot,tube, which: provides
air
pressure
source,
is located below the cabin nose section. Staticair
pres-
sure for instrument
operation
is derived from two staticvents
locatedon eithersideofthetail cone
assembly.
The
openings
in
the
pitot
tube and staticvent
ports
must be maintained obstruc-
tion-freeandcleanat all timesfori
proper
instrument
operation.
Altimeter. The altimeter is asensitive
type
that
provides
dis-
tance-height readings
from 0 to 25,000
feet. The
long
hand in a
singlecomplete
sweep
ofthedial totals
1,000 feet,
andtheshort
hand totals the thousands of feet altitude. The instrument is
ventedto thesame static
port
ventsasthe
airspeed
indicator.
Compass.
A standard aircraft
quality magneticcompass
is
mounted on the center windshield
support
within
easy sight
of
pilot
or
co-pilot.
It is to be used in
conjunction
with a
compass
correctioncard located
adjacent
to theinstrument.
Free Air
Temperature
Indicator. The free air
temperature
indi-
cator is adirect
reading,
bi-metallicinstrument with astainless
steel
probe.
This instrument
provides
ambient
temperature
infor-
mation
which,
when
utilized,
will assist in
determining perfor-
mance
capabilities
of the
~elicopter
at the
existing
climaticcon-
dition. The indicatoris locatedinthe
top
of thecabin.
ELECTRICALPOWERSUPPLYSYSTEM
Direct Current Power
System.
The basic
powersupply system
is a12-volt direct current
system,
with a
negative ground
to the
helicopter
structure. A belt-drive 70
amp
alternatoris located on
the aft
part
of the
engine.
One 12 volt
battery
is located in the
right-hand
side of the
pilots compartment
and serves as a
stand-by power
source
supply power
to the
system
when the
alternatoris
inoperative.
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM 7-7
ENSTROM ? BOC
25
1
9
n
000
266
11
3 8 7
n)(z2f(26f(n
28
ORIGINAL
AsReceivedBy
ATP
280CINSTRUMENT PANEL
1. Manifold
pressure/fuel
flow 15.
Engine
hourmeter
2. Fuel
quantity
16. Clock
3. Oil
pressure
17. Instrument
lights
4. Main
rotor-gear
box 18.
Navigationlights
5. Oil
Temperature
19. Anti-collision
lights
6. Ammeler 20.
Landing light
7.
Cylindertemperature
21. Alternatorswitch
8. Altimeter 22. Panel
light
circuitbreaker
9.
Airspeed
23. Bank indicator
in.
rotor/engine
tachometer 24. Mixturecontrol
11. Panel
light
dimmerswitch 25.
Compass
12.
Ignition
switch 26.
ignitionsafety
switch
13. Masterswitchandcircuitbreaker 27. Trimmotorswitch
14. Fuel
pressure
indicatorandboost 28. EGT
gauge(notshown)
pump
switch.
Repan
No. 28-ACa16
FM-7-8
IERISTROM 280C
Electrical PowerPanel. The
following
switches/combinationcir-
cuit breakers are located on the switch circuit breaker
panel
mounted on the instrument console within
easy
reach of
pilot
or
co-pilot: magneto key switch, master
switch, alternator switch
and alternator circuit
breaker,
boost
pump
switch,
navigation
position lights switch,
anti-collision strobe
light switch, landing
light switches, panel light switch,
starter
switch,
and trim motor
switch.
LIGHTINGEQUIPMENT
The
helicopter lighting; lkjt
includes the
relquired lights necessary
for VFR
night operatibn plus
additional
lighting equipment
for
utility
and convenience The electrical
panel
on the
right-hand
side of the instrument console~ontainsthe
protective
circuit breakersandcontrol
panels
forthe
li~hting equipment.
Position
Lights.
Two
position lights
are located one on each
horizontal stabilizer
tip
and one
light
is located aft of and below
thetail rotor
gearbox.
Anti-Collision
Lights.
The anti-collision
lights
have astrobe
flashing
action that
provides
for
adequate
identification of the
helicopter. They
are
operatedby
the anti-collision switch located
on the
panel.
Landing Lights.
The
landing lights
are of the
permanent
extend
type,
one is mounted on the nose and the otherone the under-
side of the aircraft and set in the desired
angle
forthe best for-
ward and down illumination. The switches for
operation
of the
landing lights
are located on the instrument
panel
in the electri-
cal console section. The
light
on the underside of the aircraft is
primarily designed
to
provide
illuminationwhile
hovering.
GROUND HANDLINGVI~HEELS
Each
landing gear
skid:tube
has amanuallyloperated over-cen-
tering
device to lowerthe wheels or retract them for
flight.
The
ground handling
wheels should be retracted and the
helicopter
allowed to rest on the skids when
engine run-up
is
being per-
formedorwhen
helicopter
is
parked.
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-7-9
ENSTROM 2800
BAGGAGE
COMPARTMENT! I:
-:ly;
The
compartment
for
storage
of
baggage
is
provided
in the area
aft of the
engine compaltment.
Access is
through
a
single
door
locatedon the
right-hand
sidewhichhas alock forexternal lock-
ing.
The
capacity
of the
compartment
if
approximately
10 cu. ft.
and hasan allowable
loadingcapacity
of 60 ibs. at Station 135.
SHUI
ORIGINAL
As
ReceivedBY
ATP
R~pOn
NO. 28-AC-016
FM-8-1
ENsIROM 280C
SECTION 8
AIRCRAIFTWANDLING,
SERVICINGAND MAIN~TENANCE
If
you
wish to obtain maximum
performance
and
dependability
from
your
280C Helicapt~r, certain
inspection
and maintenance
requirements
must be followed. It is
always
wise to follow a
planned
schedule of lubrication and maintenance based on the
climaticand
flying
conditions encountered in
your locality. Keep
in touch with
your
Enstrom dealer and take
advantage
of his
knowledge
and
experience.
Your dealer is
ready
and
willing
to
assist
you
andto
keep you
abreast of all
changes,
whetherit be
maintenanceor
periodicservicing
of the
helicopter.
GROUND HANDLING
To lower the
ground handling/; wh~el_s,l
insert the slotted handle
facing
forward. While
applying
al:~onstant
pressure
to
handle,
release
pin.
Pull
uarifl
aft Inrith :a
lifting,,.motion
until the holes
line
up.
Insert the
19CnSpin. t(e~p
firm,grip
on the handle
until
pin
is in
place.
CAUTION: 1.
Keep yi~ur
feetfromundertheskids.
2.
Stay
onoutside of
skid,
dlo not straddle.
MOORING
Although
it is not
generally necessary
to tiedown the
helicopter,
a
nylon rope
can be attached to the
landing gear
cross tube at
the oleo attach
points.
One blade should be
placed parallel
to
tail coneandtiedto tail cone.
TRANSPORTING
If
transporting helicoptBr
on trailer or truck,
skids
may
be
securedto bedoftrailer
allowing
oleosto function.
a. Removethreemain rotorblades andstore in blade box.
b. Securetail rotor.
c. Disconnect
battery.
STORAGE
The
metal-fiberglass
construction of
you
280C makes outside
storage practical, although
inside
storage
will increase its life
just
as inside
storage
will increase, the life of
your
car. If
your
280Cmust remain inactiveforaZime,
cleanliness is
probably
the
most
important
It:is
suggt~sted
that acanvas or
nylon
cover be
placed
over
the rotol. head. If
storage
is foran
extended
period,
see
your Lycorrii? g:Manuai
for
preservation
information.
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-8-2
ENSTROM 2800
HOISTING
To lift the entire
helicopter,
the use of a
nylon sling
of
approxi-
mately 3,000
Ibs.
capacity
is
required.
The
nylon sling
is
placed
aroundeach
grip assembly.
JACKING
It is
possible
to
jack up
the
helicopter
inboard of
upper
oleo
attach
points
onforwardandaftcrosstubes.
CAUTION:
Support
thetail caneat extremeend.
EXTERIORPAINT
Thefinish of
yourhelicopter
should be
kept
clean. It
requires
no
special
care. When
washed, however,
water should not be
Sprayed directly
into
any bearings. Any good grade
of car wax
will
help
to maintain the condition of the
factory
finish. It is
very
important
that the main rotor blades be
kept
clean and free of
dirt. After
all,
the blades are an airfoil,
and to
get
maximum
lift,
they
must be clean.
WINDOWSAND DOORS
The windows and doors are made from afine
grade
of
acrylic
plastic.
These surfaces can be scratched if
dirt,
bugs
or other
foreign
material are not removed
promptly.
If the windshield is
excessively dirty,
awaterand mild
soap
solution will
help
lift the
dirt.
CAUTION: Never take a
rag
to
wipe
dirt from the
glass
areas
on
your helicopter.
There are
many good products
made
especially
forthe
cleaning
of
acrylicplastic
surfaces
UPHOLSTERYAND CARPETS
No
special
care is
required
to
keep
the interiorof
yourhelicopter
clean. A
good
stiff broom will
help
remove the imbedded
dirt;
vacuum the interior whenever
possible. Any good upholstery
cleaner can be used on the
carpets
and
seats,
but aword of
caution when
cleaning
the seat belts.
They
are
nylon,
and cer-
tain
cleaning agents
will
destroy
the material used in theircon-
struction.
LANDINGGEARSHOCK STRUTS
The oleo struts are of the air-oil
type
and
require
little mainte-
nance. It is
suggested
that the oleo be
wiped
off
frequently
to
keep
theabrasiveaction of dirt andoil to aminimum.
Report
No. 28-AC-018
FM-8-3
ENSTRoM 280C
AIRCLEANER OR FILTER
The air cleaner is an
important part
of
your engines
induction
system.
If it becomes
dirty
or
clogged, yourengine
will use more
fuel and will not
produce
maximum
power. Excessively dirty
fil-
ters will allow
particles
of dirt to be sucked into the
cylinders,
causing major damage.
If
your helicopter
is
operated
in
any
dusty
and
high grass areas,
check theairfiltermore
frequently.
LIGHTS
Check the electrical
system
of the
helicopter daily
and
always
before
night flying
is
planned. Keep
the
light
lenscleanformaxi-
mumbrilliance.
BATTERY
The
battery
will
normally require only routing
maintenance.
However,
if
you
should
operate
in awarmclimate, an occasional
check forfluid level is recommended.
Keep
the
battery
terminals
and
battery compartment
freeofcorrosion.
DAMPERS-MAIN ROTOR
To check for
lead-lag operation,
raisethe bladeoff its
droop stop
and move each blade fore and aft
by gripping
blade at
tip.
A
resistance indicates
damper operation.
There should be no
undamped
motion.
TRANSMISSION-MAIN
Thetransmission
requires
no
special
attentionotherthan check-
ing
the
sight gauge
on the rearof the transmission on the
right-
handside.
TRANSMISSION-TAILROTOR
The transmission
requires
no special
attention otherthan check-
ing
theoil level
by sight gauge.
LUBRICATION
Lubrication information is includedin the MaintenanceManual. It
is
imperative
that the correct lubricants be usedandtrained
per-
sonnel do this
jobproperly.
Each itemshouldbe servicedat
pre-
scribed intervals. At the same time,
all other items
requiring
more
frequent
service should receive attention. The intervals
stated on the lubrication
diagram
should be considered maxi-
mum for
average
service. If
your helicopter
is
operated
under
abnormal
conditions,
check theseitems more
frequently.
Report
No. 28-Ac-016
FM-8-4
ENSTROM 2800
EXCESSIVE GREASE
Aftera
helicopter
is returnedfromaroutine
inspection,
the rotor
head,
tail
rotor,
and the tail rotor drive shaft will throw out
grease.
To
keep
the
helicopter
finish
bright,
remove this
grease
as soon as
possible
to
preveiit
its
sticky
surface from
collecting
dirt.
MAIN ROTORAND TAILROTORBLADES
Preflight inspection
of fhe main, and tail rotor blades for nicks
and an occasional
wiping
with aclean cloth to remove
bugs
and
stains, coupled
with
regular
lubrication of the
hubs,
will assure
long,
troublefree service. Never use an alkaiine cleaner on the
rotors;
remove
grease
and dirt with carbon
tetrachloride,
Stoddard
solvent, or
any
other mild solvent that will not attack
theadhesive
bonding
of the blade.
In coastal areas where the air is salt-laden or if
pitting
of the
blade
leading edge
is
noted, use
polyurethanetape
on the lead-
ing edge
for
protection.
This
tape may
be obtained from the
Enstrom Customer Service
Department.
If the
helicopter
is
equipped
with this
tape,
the
tape
must be
inspected
before each
flight.
Look for
holes, bubbles, blisters, or
separation
of the
tape.
If
any
defects are found,
the
tape
must be removed or
replaced
before further
flight.
The
tape
shouldbe
kept
clean in the same
mannerasthe rest of the
blade, except
that it shouldbecleaned
only
with
soap
and water. Do not use solvent on or around the
blade
tape.
FUEL
As
you
will
note,
thefuel tanks on
yourhelicopter
are
placarded
for
quantity
and octane of fuel to be used. The
engine requires
100/130 minimum
grade
aviation fuel. The use of other
types
of
fuel such as automobile or loweroctane aviation fuel will cause
severe
engine damage
and will void the
engine warranty.
Be
certain that fuel contamination due to worn out and
inoperative
filtration
system, dirty
fuel hose
nozzles,
rain or
any
other
foreign
material does notenter
yourhelicopters
fuel
system.
OIL
The
engine
manufacturer has recommended the
(see Engine
Operators Manual) types
of oil to be used in the different tem-
perature ranges.
These recommendations should be followedto
aid in coldweather
starting
and
proper
hot weatherlubrication of
your helicopter engine.
Care should be taken when
adding
oil
thatoil
spouts
are free of dirt and
foreign material,
oil can
tops
Revised: Feb. 17, 1989
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-8-5
ENSTRoM 280C
are clean before insialling~ij when
removing
oil filler
cap,
dirt does not enterthe oil
sump.
When
installing
the
engine
oil filler
cap,
check it for
security
andcleanliness.
COOLINGSYSTEM
If
unusually high
oil
temperature
is
encountered, remove oil
coolershroudandcheck for
foreign
matter.
REQUIRED F.A.A. FORMS
Miscellaneous data, information,
and licenses are a
part
of the
aircraft file. The
following
is achecklist forthat file. In
addition, a
periodic
check should be made of the latest Federal Aviation
Agency Regulations
to assure that all data
requirements
are
met.
A. To becarriedin the
helicopter
at all times.
1. Aircraft AirworthinessCertificateFormACA 1362
2. Aircraft
Registration
CertificateForeACA 500A
3. Aircraft Radio Station License
4.
Weight
and Balance
Report
5. Aircraft
Equipment
List
6.
Flight
Manual
B. Sincethe
regulations
of othernational
may require
other
documentsand
data, owners of
exported
aircraft should
check withtheirown aviation officialsto determinetheir
individual
requirements.
C.
Inspection
Periods: FAA
Regulations require
that all aircraft
have a
periodic(annual) inspection
as
provided by
the
administration,
and
performed by
a
person designated by
the administration. In addition,
100-hour
inspections by
an
"appropriately
rated mechanic"are
required
if the aircraft is
flown forhire. The manufacturerrecommends the 100-hour
inspection
for
yourhelicopter.
A
copy
of the
sample inspec-
tion forms, including
the
50, 100, periodic
and lubrication
guides
are included in the Maintenance Manual.
Report
No. 28-AC-018
FM-8-6
ENSTROM 280C
PREFLIGHT INSPECTION
After
familiarizing yourself
with the
equipment
of
your
280C the
primary
concernwill be its
operation.
Thischecklist is
designed
to be used as areference
guide
while
performing
the
preflight inspection.
Detailed information is found
in the Handbook of MaintenBnGe Instructions.
Thoroughly
famil-
iarize
yourself
with this Manual before
utilizing
this checklist.
Priorto
starting
the
complete:preflight inspection,
check the fol-
lowing
items in the
cockpit:
masterswitch OFF, magneto
switch
OFF,
ail otherswitches
OFF,
fuel valveON.
EXTERIOR
CAUTION: Removeall coversand
locking
devices.
1. Check left handdoorfor
securit3.
2. Check windshieldforcracks.
3. Check
pitot
tubeforobstructions.
4. Check
landing lights
for
operation
and
security.
5. Check induction intake
scoop
forobstructions.
6. Check
right
hand shock strut
piston
extension should be
3~"fO 13/41( fromredline strutsclean.
7. Check
right
hand
landing gear
for
security. (Groundhandling
wheels
secured.)
8. Check
right
handdoorfor
security.
9. Drainfuel
pump.
10. Check
right
hand
enginecompartment.
11. Check induction hose
clamps
on the air filter and fuel in-
jector
for
security.
12. Check airintake
scoop
forobstructions.
13. Check
right
hand fuel tank FULL 100/130 octane
cap
secured. Draintank
sump.
14. Check main
gear
box oil level.
15. Check
baggage
door locked.
16. Check
right
handstatic
port-opening
unobstructed.
17. Check tail conefor
general
condition.
18. Check tail rotordrive shaftfor
security.
19. Check
navigation
and strobe
lights
for
operation
and
secu
rity.
20. Check stabilizerfor
security.
21. Check tail rotor
pitch
linksfor
binding
orlooseness.
Check tail rotor blade for
security
and
leading edge
for
nicks, bonding separation
and
general security.
Check tail rotor teeter
stop
to insure rubber
bumpers
are
intact.
Check tail rotorstriketabsfor
security
and
damage.
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-8-7
ENSTROM 280%
22. Checktail rotor
guard
for
damage
ana
secunty.
23. Check left handstatic
port-opening
unobstructed.
24. Check main rotor blades
for
nicks, bonding separation
or
I
looseness. If blade
tape
is installed, inspect tape
for
holes,
bubbles, blisters, separation
or
lifting.
25. Check main rotor
pitch
links for
binding
orlooseness.
26. Check
cyclic
andcollective
walkihg
beamsfor
security.
27. Check blade
dampers
for
propersecurity
andoil level.
28. Check left handfuel tank FULL 100/130 octane
cap
secured,
draintank
sump.
29. Check
engine
oil 6
quarts
minimum, 8
quarts
maximum.
30. Checkfuel
system
forleaks.
31. Check exhaust manifoldforcracksandlooseness.
32. Check
engine
foroil leaks.
33. Check
turbocharger
exhaust inlet and outlet
clamps
for
security.
34. Check
turbocharger
airinlet
clamps
for
security.
35. Check
turbocharger
oil linesforleaks.
36. Check
turbocharger
mount bracketfor
security.
37. Check belt drive
system.
38. Check left hand shock struts
piston
extension should be
3~1"to 13/411 fromred line struts clean.
39. Check left hand
landing gear
for
security. (Ground handling
wheels
secure.)
40. Check
operation
of all
lighting
for
nightflight.
INTERIOR
1. Check and
adjust
tail rotor
pedals.
2. Check seat beltsfastened.
3. Doors latched.
4. Collectivefull down andfrictionon.
5. Check clutch
disengaged.
6. Check throttleCLOSED.
7. Check mixtureIDLE CUT OFF.
8. Check fuel valveON.
Revised: Feb. 17,
1989 Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-8-8
ENSTROM 2802
9. Check
magneto
switchOFF.
10. Radio switchesOFF.
11. Set masterswitchON.
12. Check fuel
quantity.
13. Checkfuel
pressurewarning light (press
to
test).
14. Check trimmotorsfor
operation.
15. Check controlsforfreedomof
operation.
16. Set altimeter.
Revised: Feb. 17, 1989
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-8-9
ENSTROM 280C
f ~P"X \
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EXTERIORINSPECTION
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-4-~
ENSTROM 280C
SECTION 9 OPERATIONALINFORMATION
The
operating
dataand information contained herein is not
intended to
provide flight instructions, but to
present
averbal
picture
of the
helicopter handling qualities
and control
applica-
tion
through
the various
phases
of the
flight regime.
Also dis-
cussedare
flight
characteristics which arecommonto most heli-
copters,
and the
special
features
pertinent
to the Model 280C
helicopter.
SOLO FLIGHT
Solo
flight
is
permitted
fromthe leftside
only.
TAXIING
Taxiing,
as
literally interpreted,
is not
possible
as the
helicopter
is
equipped
with
skid-type landing gear.
Movement of the heli-
copter
fromone
groundposition
to anothercanbe
accomplished
by ground personnel,
when the rotors are not
turning,
with the
use of
quickly
installed
ground handling
wheels or
by
the
pilot
flying
the
helicopter
fromone location to anotheratan altitude in
close
proximity
tothe
ground
surtace.
TAKEOFF TYPE QF: TAKEOFF
The known factors which must be considered
prior
to take-off
include
grossweight, temperature, density altitude,
andthearea
fromwhich
operationsareto be conducted. With this
knowledge
ai7d the
ability
of the Model 280C to
operate
from either
pre-
pared
or
unprepared
areas and surfacesi the
type
of take-off
canbe
easily
determined.
NORMALTAKEOFF TO MOVER
A normal lift-off to a
hovering
altitude within
ground
effect is the
most common
fype
of takebff and should be used whenever
possible.
Normal lift-off c~n be
accomp(ishea
at moderate alti-
tudes and at
average operating gross weights.
In this
type
of
takeoff,
the
safety
factor is
high
because the
helicopter
is lifted
fromthe
groundvertically
to
height
of 3 to 5 feet wherethe
flight
I
controls and
engine may
be checked for normal
operation
before
starting
aforward
speed
climb. A normal takeoff is made
in the
following
manner:
a. Increase throttle to 2900 RPM,
with the collective
pitch
full
down.
b. Place
cleric
control: inthe neutral
position
or to a
position
which
places
rotor
plane paraliell,to
horizontal if
helicopter
is
sitting
on a
slope.
Report
No. 28dC-D1~
FM-9-2
ENSTROM 2806
c. Increase collective
pitch
control
slow~y
and
smoothly
until a
hovering
altitude of 3 to 5 feet is oi; tained,
applying
anti-
torque pedal
to maintain
heading
as collective
pitch
is
increased.
d. As the
helicopte~r
breaks
ground,
minolr corrections of the
cyclic
control
may
b~
required
to insure vertical
ascent,
and
directional
heading
maintained
by
the
use
of the
appropriate
anti-torque
control
pedal.
NORMALTAKEOFF FROM MOVER
Hover
briefly
to determine and insure th~t the
engine
and
flight
controls are
operating properly.
Fromanor~nal; hover8ltitude of
3 to 5
feet, apply
forward
~yclic
stick to accelerate
smoothly
into
effective translational lift. Maintain
hovering
altitude with an
application
of collective
pitch
until translational lift has been
obtained and the ascent has
begun.
Then
slowly
lower nose of
I helicopter
to an attitudethatwill
producean
increaseof
airspeed
to best climb
speed. Adjust
controls and
power
as
required
to
establishthedesiredrateof climb.
MAXIMUM POWERTAKEOFF
Hover
helicopter
to 3 to 5 feet altitude 2900 RPM.
Apply
for-
ward
cyclicsmoothly.
As forwardmotion
increases, apply
collec-
tiveandthrottle until 36.5 inches of manifold
pressure
is attained
at 2900
engine
RPM. Do not exceed 36.5 inches of manifold
pressureduring
the takeoff maneuver. Do not increasecollective
pitch beyond
this
point Coverpitching)
as this will cause
engine
and rotorRPM to decrease.
CAUTION: Ail "C"models are
equipped
with afull-time turbo-
charger
and an overboost
warning light
on the
instrument
panel
to warn the
pilot
of an overboost
condition. Transient overboost conditions which
may trigger
the caution
light may
not show as over-
boost condition on the MAP indicator. The MAP
indicator red line is the
determining
factor in ascer-
taining
the
magnitude
of an overboost condition
and must be
logged
in the
engine log
and
inspec-
tions
performedperLycoming
Bulletin 369F.
Maintain 3 to 5 feet altitude
by
theuseof
cyclic
control. Astrans-
lational lift
speed
is reached
(15-20 MPH), apply
aft
cyclic
to
seek climb
angle
that will allowthe
helicopter
to climbandaccel-
erate to the best rate of climb
speed.
Maintain
heading during
takeoff
by
coordinateuseof directional control
pedals
and
cyclic.
Revised:
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-9-3
ENSTROM 280C
MAxlMunn AREAS
Conditions
may
occur in which the
helicopter
must be
operated
from confined areas in which take-off distances
(from
hover to
best rate of climb
speed)
are not sufficientto clearobstaclesthat
may
be inthe
flight path (trees, buildings, wires, etc.).
In orderto
clear such obstacles
safely,
the climb
portion
of the take-off
must utilize the best
angle
of climb
airspeed (30
MPHsafe side
of
height velocity curve).
This
angle
of climb will
substantially
shorten the distance
required
to clearobstacles. To
accomplish
this
type
of
take-off, hover
helicopter
at 3 to 5 feet altitude and
2900 RPM.
Apply
forward
cyclicsmoothly.
As the
helicopter
begins
to accelerate
forward, apply
collective and throttle until
RPM.
(See preceding
caution
note).
Do not increase
collectiveI
36.5 inches of manifold
pressure
is obtained at 2900
engine
beyond
this
point (overpitching)
as this will cause
engine
and
rotor RPM to decrease. Maintain 3 to 5 feet altitude
by
use of
cyclic
control. As translational
speed
is reached
(15-20 MPH)
apply
aft
cyclic
to seek climb
anglethat
will maintain 30-35 MPH
(refer
to
height-velocity diagram
in
flight manual).
After
clearing
all obstacles at this
airspeed, apply
forward
cyclic
and
readjust
collectiveandthrottleas desiredforfurther
flight.
NOTE: If RPM is lost due to
overpitching,
it
may
be
regained
I
by maintaining
36.5 inchesof manifold
pressure,
tower-
ing
collective
slightly
and
applying
someaft
cyclic.
In both
preceding
conditions it is
imperative
that the
helicopter
has accelerated alittle
beyond
translational
speed
in order to
accomplish
these maneuvers.
Therefore, goodjudgement
must be usedto determine
the rate at which the
helicopter
is accelerated from
hover to translational
speed
and to determine if suffi-
cient distance is available to clearobstacles underthe
existing density
altitudeconditions.
Crosswind Takeoff. In the event acrosswind takeoff is
required,
normal takeoff
procedures
are to be followed.
However, as the
helicopter
leavesthe
ground,
there will be defi-
nite
tendency
to drift downwind at arate
proportionate
to the
wind
velocity.
This
tendency
can be corrected
by moving
and
holding
the
cyclic
stick
sufficiently
in the direction of the wind to
prevent
downwind drift.
During
crosswind
takeoff,
it is advisable
to
keep open
areas to
windward,side
of
flight path
to facilitate
emergency landing
if it shouldbe
necessary.
Revised: Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-9-4
ENSTROM 280C
NORMALAPPROACHFOR LANDING
The
object
of anormal
approach
is to
fly
the
helicopter
to a
hoveroverthe selected
spot prior
to touchdown. To
accomplish
this
objective,
the cruise
airspeed
is decreased
gradually
to 58
MPHand
enginespeed
is maintainedat 2900 RPM. Control rate
of descent with collective and throttle
(manifold pressure);
air-
speed
with
cyclic
control. As the selected
landing
areais
approached,
the
airspeed
and rate of descent are decreased
until azero
groundspeedhovering
altitude is attainedat
approx-
imately
3 to 5 feetaltitude.
STEEP APPROACH
Steep approach procedure requires
a
precision power
control
approach
and is used to clearobstacles in the
flight path
when
accomplishing
a
landing
in aconfined area. The
airspeed
in a
steep approach
should be 30 to 35 MPH
(safe
side of H/V
curve)
andthe rate of descent should be as low as
possible
for
the desired
angle
of descent. Since a
relatively high
amount of
power
will be
required
to control the rate of
descent, aminimum
amount of additional
power
will be
required
to
accomplish
a
hover. The
aiming point
to
spot
of intended hover in
ground
effect should be as near as
possible
after
clearing
final obsta-
cles. This will allow an over-runto
get helicopterstopped
in case
powersetting
shouldoccur
during
slowdownfrom30 MPHdown
to O
airspeed. During descent,
the
airspeed
is controlled
by
appropriate cyclic
stick
application
and the rate of descent is
controlled
by properapplication
of collective
pitch
andthrottle. In
the final
stages
of
appro.ach,
the collective
pitch
is increased
gradually
as the
cyclic
stick is
adjusted
to reduce the
airspeed
from 30 to 35 MPHto O
groundspeed.
This should be accom-
plished
in a
way
which will reduce
the;
rate of descent and
groundspeed
to zero the moment the
hovering
altitude is
reached.
LANDING-LANDINGSITE EVALUATION
The
versatility
of the
helicopterpermits
safe
operation
fromunfa-
miliar and
unprepared sites,
such as
open
fields,
mountain
knells and
ridges, beaches, snow,
and iced areas.
Any
selected
landing
site in the afore-mentionedareas must be
properly
eval-
uated and the
pilot
must use
propertechniques
to effect land-
ings
and takeoffs from these sites.
Although
the
helicopter
is
designed
for and is
capable
of
operation
from restricted
areas,
thefinal
analysis
of thesituationon the decisionto land must be
determined
by
the best
professional judgement
ofthe
pilot.
Prior
to
attempting operation
of the
helicopter
from
unpreparedareas,
FAA
Approval: April 20, 1978
Revised: Feb. 17, 1989
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-9-5
ENSTROM 280C
the
pilot
must and evaluate
by
a
low
speed pass
into
the
wind over the intended
landing
site.
Generally,
the
landing
site should be nearlevel,
and
depending
on
existing density,
altitude and
gross weight conditions,
should
meet the obstacle clearance
requirements
set forth in this
Manual. The
pilot
must also
considerpersonal proficiency,
wind
andterrain
roughness
when
evaluating
the
suitability
ofthe land-
ing
area.
WIND DIRECTION AND VELOCITY
The effects ofwindon takeoff and
landings
are
important
factors
and should be considered in the
operation
of the
helicopter;
however,
in
planning
critical
helicopteroperations,
the effects of
winds can be relied
upon
to assist in
accomplishing landings
and takeoffs from unobstructed areas. If the
helicopterwere rid-
ing
a
gust
of wind on the final
approach
and the
gust
should
decrease as the
helicopter
was
approaching
ahover,
the heti-
copter
would
probably rapidly "Settle"
if the wind factor was
planned
on to execute the
landing.
This dondition will also hold
true
during
the
initial lphase
of takeoff. If an
operation
is
depen-
dent on wind conditions,
all Oth~rconditions
being marginal,
the
helicoptergross weight
shouldbe reduced. When
lan~ingarea
is determined to be
marginal,
the
pilot, exercising good judg-
ment,
should select another site. Another effect of wind that
must be considered is the "lee"effect of the wind over hills,
ridges,
and obstacles. The downdrafts
resulting
fromthese con-
ditions
particularly
affect the initial
phase
of takeoff or final
phase
of
landing.
NORMALLANDING
After
completion
of the normal
approach
to ahover altitude,
maintain
engine
RPM and decrease collective
pitch sufficiently
to affect aconstant,
smooth rate of descent until touchdown.
During
final
descent,
make
necessary
corrections with direction-
al
pedals
and
cyclic
control to mdintain alevel attitude and con-
stant
heading
to minimize movement on
ground
contact. After
ground contact,
continue to decrease collective
pitch smoothly
and
steadily
until the entire
weight
of the
helicopter
is
ground
supported
andthen decreasecollective
pitch
to minimum.
CROSSWIND LANDING
Crosswind
landings generally
can be avoided in
helicopteroper-
ations.
Occasionally,
when
operating
from
unprepared areas,
such as
plowed
orfurrowed
fields, ridges
and
upslope
ordown-
slope surfaces, necessity may require
that crosswind
landings
be
performed.
When conditions demand and terrain features
Revised:
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-9-6
ENSTROM 280C
dictate, acrosswind
landing is
also utilized to
preclude
the nec-
essary
of
landing
on a
high, tilting angle
oradangerous
tail low
altitude. Prior to
accomplishing
the
crosswjnd landing,
the
pilot
should evaluate the climatic
conditions, including
wind
velocity
andthe
terrain,
andthen
eroceed
as follows:
Engine
RPM maxi-
mum, approach landing spotfrom
crosswind direction if
possi-
ble,
and hover. Hold
cyclic
control into direction of wind to
pre-
vent side
drift,
and reduce collective
pitch
and, descend as in
normal
landing.
FLIGHT CHARACTERISTICS HANDLINGAND STABILITY
The
flight
characteristics of this
helicopter
in
general
are similar
to other
single
rotor
helicopters.
The
particularly
noticeable dif-
ference is the
handling
ease and additional
stability
that is evi-
dent
during takeoff, hovering,
and all modes of
flight.
To obtain
or increase
helicopter
forward
speed, simultaneously apply
for-
ward control stick and increase main rotor
pitch,
and maintain
power through
constant
flight
condition. Altitude is maintained
through-out
the entire
range
of forward and rearward
flight
speeds by
fore and aft movement of the
cyclic
control stick in
coordination with collective
pitch application.
Directional
heading
is controlled
by
the
application
of lateral
cyclic
control and
appropriate
directional control
pedal.
Blade stall can
only
occur
during flight
and is caused
by high angle
attack on the
retreating
blade and occurs at the inboard section of the blade area. This
condition cannot be encountered when the
helicopter
is
operat-
ed within the
specified operating
limits as stated in the
Flight
Manual. Blade stall is the result of numerous
contributing
factors
such as
gross weight,
low rotor RPM, airspeed
acceleration and
altitude. The condition is most
likely
to occurat
higherairspeeds
and low
operating RPM;
it also follows that the condition will
occur sooner with
high
values of
altitude,
gross weight,
and
angle
of bank. The
major warnings
of
approaching retreating
bladesstall conditions in theorderin which
they
will
generally
be
experienced
are:
1. Abnormal 3
per
revolutionvibration.
2.
Pitchup
of thenose.
3.
Tendency
for the
helicopter
to roll in the direction of the
stalled
(left)
side.
At the onset of blade stall
vibration,
the
pilot
shouldtakethefol-
lowing
correctivemeasures:
1. Reducecollective
pitch.
2. Increase rotorRPM.
Revised:
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-9-7
ENSTRoM a80C
3. Reduceforward
4. Descendto loweraltitude.
5. Minimize
maneuvering.
MANEUVERINGFLIGHT
Movement and
response
of the
flight
controls while
conducting
flight
maneuvers is normal at all times when the
helicopter
is
operating
within the limitations set forth in the
Flight
Manual.
Throughout
the entire realm of
flight,
it will
definitely
be noted
that minimum effort is
required by
the
pilot
forcontrol of move-
ment, and
by
use of trim
system,
anearzero control forceeffect
effortis
required, regardless
ofthe
gross weight
orCGlocation.
HOVERINGFLIGHT
The
hovering capabilities
df the Model 280C
Helicopter
forboth
in andout of
groundeffect hovering
will
allowflight operations
to
be excellent.
It should be
remembered, however,
th~t
the
performance
of all
helicopters
is affected
by
numerous
factorssuch asclimaticcon-
ditions, altitude, temperature,
and
gross weight.
It is aknown
fact that "in
ground
effect"
hovering performance
is betterthan
"out of
ground
effect"
performance
for reasdn of the
helicopter
being
in
part supportedby
acushionof
air
being providedby
the
rotor downwash when the
helicopter
is in close
proximity
to the
ground.
Additional
performance
will also be realizedwhen
oper-
ating
at low
temperatures,
which is the
equivalent
of
atmospher-
ic
density,
and
wind,
which
represents airspeed.
Either of these
conditionsoracombinationof both increases
performance
since
low
temperatures
allow the
engine
and rotorto
provide
more lift
andwindreducesthe
powerrequired.
STUDENT TRAINING
Autorotation
practice
should be carried out overterrain suitable
forfull autorotational
landing
in case of inadvertent
engine stop-
page.
Sudden
power
cuts to idle
position
are not recommended
since the fuel
injector
is
quite
sensitive to
improper adjustment
of idle
mixture,
idle
rpm
andsudden
power
reduction.
CAUTION:
Rapid
throttle movement
during practice
autorota-
tion
may
decrease the life of the
over-running
clutch.
NOISE ABATEMENT
Increased
emphasis
on
improving
the
quality
of ourenvironment
requires
renewed effort on th~
part
of all
pilots
to minimize the
effect of aircraft; noiseonthe
public.
Revised: Report
No. 28-AC-018
FM-9-8
ENSTROM 280C
We, as
helicopter pilots,
can demonstrate our concern for en-
vironmental
improvement by application
of the
following sug-
gested procedures,
and
thereby
tend to build
publicsupport
for
aviation:
1. Pilots
operating helicopters
overoutdoorassemblies of
per-
sons,
recreational land
park areas,
ah~othernoise-sensitive
areasshouldmake
every
effortto
fly
not lessthan
2,000
feet
above the
surface, weather
permitting,
even
though flight
at
alower level
may
be consistent with the
provisions
of
gov-
ernment
regulations.
2.
During departure
from or
approach
to an
airport
or
heliport,
climb aftertakeoff and descent for
landing
should be made
so as to avoid
prolonged flight
at low altitude near noise-
sensitiveareas.
NOTE: The above recommended
procedures
do not
apply
where
they
would conflict with ATC clearances or
instructions, or where,
in the
judgment,
an altitude of
less than
2,000
feet is
necessary
forhimto
adequately
exercisehis
duty
to seeandavoidotheraircraft.
LEANINGWITHAN ENSTROM ECONOMYMIXTURE
INDICATOR
(EGT)
Exhaust
gas temperature,
as shownon the EnstromEGT indica-
tor,
should be used as an aidforfuel mixture
leaning
in
cruising
flight
at 75%
power
orless,
i.e. 28 inches manifold
pressure
and
2900 RPM in the Model 280C.
To obtain abest
economy
mixture, lean to 1650 "F. EGT. To
obtain abest
power
mixture,
lean
only
to 1550 "F. EGT. Do not
exceed 1650 gF. EGT.
Operation
on the lean side of
peak
EGT
is not
approved.
Also
any change
in
altitudeor
power
will
require
arecheck of the EGT indication.
COLD WEATHEROPERATION
The use of an external
preheater
and an external
power
source
(APU)
is recommended whenever
possible
to reduce wear and
abuseto the
engine
and the electrical
system.
Preheat will thaw
the oil
trapped
in the oil coolerwhich
probably
will be
congealed
prior
to
starting
in
extremely
cold
temperatures.
When
using an
external
power source,
the
position
of the master switch is the
ON
position
whilethealternatorswitch is left in theOFF
position
until theAPU
plug
is disconnectedfromthe
helicopter.
Revised:
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-9-9
ENsTRoM 2800
In
very
cold weather,
the
engine:isf7D uld it? e
warmed
up
without
the rotor
systemengaged
fora
of 2 to 5 minutes at 1500
RPM.
Remove all accumulation of
snow
and ice
prior
to
flight.
Failure
to remove
ice and snow accumulations can
result in serious
aerodynamic
and structural effects when and if
flight
is
attempted
BLADE TAPE
Polyurethane
leading edge tape
can be installed on the main
rotorblades. If the
tape
is installed,
it should
be
inspected
before
each
flight
for holes,
blisters,; bubbles, separation,
and
security
of attachment. If
any
defects
are noted,
the
tape
must be
removed or replaced
before the next
flight.
If the
helicopter
is
operated
in rain, the
tape
life
may
be shortened considerably.
Separation
of
part
of all of the blade
tape
can cause an
extremely rough
rotor
system.
In this event,
the
helicopter
should be landed as soon as practical
and the rotor
system,
blades,
andblade
tape inspectedprior;
to further
flight.
LOSSOF TAILROTOR EFFECTIVENESS
Loss of tail rotor effectiveness (LTE)
is a
phenomenon
which
can occur in
any
single
main rotor/anti-torque helicopter.
Although
the 280C has a
very
effective tail rotor and does not
exhibit
any
tendencies for LTE,
the
pilot
should be aware that
the
potential
forLTE,
howeversmall,
does exist. As such, pilots
shouldbe awareofthecauses and
recovery
techniques.
There are anumberOf factors which reduce
the effectiveness of
the tail rotor or increase the thrust
required
from the tail rotor.
These factors include
high power
settings,
low
airspeeds,
left
crosswinds ortailwinds,
and
right, yawning
turns. Under
exactly
the
right
conditions,
these factors can combine to make the tail
rotor
virtually
ineffective. This LTE can be
recognized by
an
uncommanded
right yaw
which can
be
stopped using
the tail
rotor
petals
alone.
Recovery
from LTE can be
accomplished by
increasing
forward
speed, lowering
the collective if altitude
permits,
and
applying
left
pedal.
The
longer
corrective actions
aredelayed,
themoredifficult it will beto recover
fromLTE.
Revised: May 22,
1998
Report
No. 28-AC-0~6
--I -- - ^ ; ; ----- - -
FM-9-10
ENSTROM 280C
FUELFLOW VS. NOZZLE PRESSURE
Lycoming
Model H101360-EIAD
With
Bendix RSA SABI
Injector
180
f60
i I I I _I
140
120
-1
100
g
80
60
40
20
0 4 8 12 16 20 24
Nozzle Pressure Psi
Revised:
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-9-11
ENSTRoM 280C
AVERAGE CRUISE PE#FORMANCE 2900 R.P.M.
EXTENDED RANGE AND RICHMIXTURE
180 LBS. AND
240
LBS. FUEL
[NO RESERVE]
G.W. 2200 LBS, SEA LEVELD.A.
(ENDURANCE (RANGE
E.G.T. NbZr. HOURS) STATUTE MI.I
tAS P.P.H. P.P.H.ILEAN P.S.I. 246 )b* 180 I~n. 2401br1801b~.
I
M.P. XH.P. MPH RICH LEANIRICH R.-L. R.-L. R.-L. R.-L. R.-L.
20 51 61 63 54 ! 650 4 -2.8 3.5-4.42.6-3.3
2132681158-201
1425
n 5) 72 )8 81 B
-3.213.(-3.912.3-2.8 n,~8(1166 209
24 63 82 86 61 1650 6 -3.8128-3.612.1-2.7 1229 295 1
172-222
1475
26 68 88 91 75 1650 7.2-4,6 12.5-3~2
11.9-2.4 122C281I
167 211
1500
28 75 101 102 82 1650 8.3-5.4
2.3-2.9)
1.8-2.2 232 295 182 212
3D 80 105 100 94 8.~-1.2
2.~-2.511.6-1.9 1211-2621)68-199
32 88 107 116 NA 10.6 2.1
1
1.5 225
1166
1535
34 92 109 123 NA ~Is 1.9
1
4 207
1~59
1550
36.5 100 112 135 NA )13.8 1.8
(1.3
201
1148
1550
DEFINITION OF ABBREVIATIONS
M.P. Manifold
pressure
inches of
mercury.
%H.P. Percent of ratedbrake horsepower.
TAX MPH True
airspeed
miles
per
hour.
P.P.H. Pounds
per
hourfuel flow rich mixture.
RICH
P.P.H. Pounds
per
hourfuel flow lean mixture.
E.G.T. Exhaust
gastemperature
at lean
mixture,
LEAN also calledT.I.T. turbineinlet
temp.
NOZZ. P.S.I. Fuel
injector
nozzle
pressure
in
pounds
persquare
inch.
R. Rich mixture.
L. Lean mixture.
G.W. Gross
Weight.
D.A.
Density
altitude.
NA Not
approved
mixture
SettiniJ.
FAA
Approval: April 20, 1978
Revised: Feb. 17, 1989 Report
No. 28-AC-016
...; ~..____.; _.,_..._....................... ; .; ....~-_._; .L.; .
FM-10-1-1
ENSTROM 280C
WET/DRYDISPERSAI, SYSI"E~II SUPPLEMENT
NO. 1
SECTION 1 GENERAL
This
supplement
must be attachedto the
approvedflight
manual
when the
wet/dry dispersal system
is installed.
Operation
in
compliance
with Section 2 of the
Approved Flight
Manual is
mandatory except
as modified
by
this
flight
manual
supplement.
Other
approved
sections and
supplemental
dataare recom-
mended
procedures.
This aircraft is
approved
forrestricted
category operations
when
agricultural spray equipment
is installed in
compliance
with
Enstrom
Helicopter Drawing
28-22620.
(Initial
installation of
electrical
components, pump,
clutch control, rails,
drive
system,
boom attach
fittings
and
upper
tank attach
fittings
must be
per-
formed
by
certified mechanicand entered in airframe
log.)
After
initial installation,
removal orinstallation of
wet/dry dispersal sys-
tem
may
be
accomplishedby
owneror
operator.
SECTION 2 LIMITATIONS
Airspeed
Limitations: Maximum
operating speed
85 MPHIASat
S.L.
power
off,
lineardecreaseto 80 MPH
IPaSat 6000 ft.
HD.
Altitude Limitations:
i
6000 ft.
density
altitude.
Weight
Limitations: Maximum
grossweight:
2600 Ibs.
Maximumload
perdispersal
tank: 350 Ibs.
Centerof
Gravity
Forward: 96.5 in.
limitations: Rearward: 98.0
Lateral Offset
Moment: 3180 in-lbs. to -1855 in-tbs.
(Above
2350.
Lbs.)
Type
of
Operation: Approved
for restricted
category opera-
tions under
provisions
of FAR 137.
Placards: On Tank: "Restricted"
"Agricultural Operations Only"
"Max. Load Per
Dispersal
Tank- 350 Ibs.
In View of Pilot: Restricted
category
never
exceed
speeds
MPHIAS
FAA
Approval: May 5, 6978 Report
No. 28-AC-016
---I-; - -- ---- ---; - ; -- - -- ^- -- ; - -- --; - ; ; - - : 1 - - ----- --- --- - ; ---- - -- - - ----; ; ;
FM-10-1-2
ENSTROM 280C
PRESSURE OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE F
ALTITUDE
20 0 20 40 60 80 100
SEA LEVEL 85 85 85 85 85 85 85
1000 85 85 85 85 85 83 82
2000 85 85 85 84 83 82 81
3000 85 85 84 83 82 81 80
4000 85 84 85 82 81 80
5000 84 83 82 81 80
6000 83 82 81 80
SECTION 3 NORMALPROCEDURES
PREFLIGHT CHECK
1. Check
sprayer system
controls. Clutch control handle and
spray
"on"and"off"switch on
cyclic
stick.
2. Check
spray
tank boomsfor
security.
3. Check
spray
tank for
security
and freedom of movement
against springs.
4.
Pump
beltsand
mounting
hardware.
Beforetakeoff lift
guard
on
emergency dump
switch.
MOVER CHECK Movercheck
system
at G.W. for
properdamper
ope
rations.
SECTION 4 EMERGENCYAND
MALFUNCTION PROCEDURES
4.1
Liquid jettison jettison liquid by actuating dump
valve
switch on
cyclic
stick. A
slight pitch up
can be
anticipated.
Adjust cyclic
control
accordingly.
NOTE: Jettison tests were
performed
with one
dump
valve
inoperative
to
produce
maximum lateral
load and the demonstration showed
negligible
affect on lateral control.
4.2 Loss of
power
enter
autorotation, jettison
load immedi-
ately
andfollow normal
flight
manual
procedures.
4.3 Lossoftail rotor enter
autorotation, jettison
loadimmedi-
ately
andfollow normal
flight
manual
procedures.
4.4 In the event of sudden onset of asevere i/rev,
vibration,
jettison
load
immediately
and land
helicopter.
Check andor
repair
M/R
dampersasappropriate
beforefurther
flights.
FAA
Approval: May 5, 1979
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-10-1-3
ENS7ROM 2800
4.5
Spreader
malt
-i~singcyclicdisplacement
is
required
forhover or
forward,flight,
land
immediately
and
check
loading
situationand
spreaderoperation.
SECTION 5 PERFORMANCE
Figure
5-1 Vnevs. D.A.
Figure
5-2 HoverI.G.E. curveextendedto 2600 Ibs.
Figure
5-3
Airspeed
calibratedvs. indicated
Figure
5-4
Heightvelocity diagram
FAA
Approval: May 5, 1978 Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-10-1-4
ENSTROM 2800
SECTION 5 PERFORMANCE
V neverexceedVS. DENSITYALTITUDE
Vnedemonstratedat 2750
engine rpm
2600 Ib.
grossweight
FIGURE 5-1
14000
12000
it 1Q~Oo
8~00
MAX. APPROVED %EILING
b 6~90Q
li~OQ
ERQNt~));
2000
S.L.
M 4Q 80 80 100 120
Indicated
Airspeed
MPH
FAA
Approval: May 5,
1978 Report
No. 28-AC-018
FM-10-1-5
ENSTROM 280C
MOVER CEILING:i:N
3X FOOT SKID HEIGHT
WITI-; IAG. KIT
FIGURE 5-2
MAX. APPROVED CEILING
6000
I I\
Po
I
Y r\ \ ~3
a,
4000
STANDARD DAY~, \ 0~6_h
2000
MAXIMU~ I
APPROVED WEIGHT
2200 2300 2400 2500 2600
Gross
Weight
Lbs.
FAA
Approval: ~ay 5, 1918 Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-IO-1-6
ENSTROM 2800
AIRSPEED CALIBRATION
2600 LB. GR. WT.
AGTANKSAND BOOMS
FIGURE 5-3
120
100
f
B
60
qO
20
0
20 40 60 80 100 120
Indicated
Airspeed
MPH
NOTE: Indicated
speeds
below20 MPHarenotreliable.
FAA
Approval: May 5, 1978
Report
No. 28-AC-018
FM-10-1-7
ENSTR4rJi 2800
HEIGHT DIAGRAM
FIGURE 15-4
700
I III AVOID OPERATION IN THISAREA
2600 LB. GR. WT.
600
E Hover
may
be
precluded
b
sDhericcqrlditions in this
~rri ii
id
pi~iA
SA EOPERATI~N
500
IL
NOTE: Critical
pointsweredemonstrated
,11 S.L. altitude curves were
E
developed analytically
400
8
300
<5
Recommended Takeoff Profile
C
200
,Use
caution in thisareato
avoid contact of tail rotor
guardwith ground
100
O
2~
,:40:
! i ! 801
80 85 100
Ihdicated
Airspeed
MPH
FAA Approval: May 5,
1979; Report
No. 28-AC-018
FM-10-1-8
ENSTRoM 280c
SECTION 6 WEIGHT AND BALANCE
Items to be used with basic
Flight
Manual Form No.s
F-165,
F-166,
F-167 and F-168 for
helicopter weight
and C.G.
calculations.
ITEMS WT. ARM MOMENT
Wet
system
removable
portion
113.65 107.77
12,247.59
Dry system
removable
portion
71.35 97.60
6,963.47
Items
remaining
on
helicopter
13.25
~89.94
1,191.12
(Normal category)
Dispersal
tank load
_
:I
.95.00
SECTION 7 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION AND
INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS
Initial installation see Enstrom
drawing
28-22620 and hand-
book "lnstallation Instructions and Parts List Combination
Wet/Dry Ag
Kit831000.
The
following dispersal system
items
may
remain on the heli-
copter
fornormal
category operations.
1. Rail
assembly
2. Powertake-off
assembly
3. Strut
fittings
and
upper
tank
fittings
4. Pressure
gage
5. Clutchcontrol
6. Electrical harnessandswitches
Installation ProceduresWet
Dispersal System
1. Position tanks on rails andsecurewith
(4)
clevis
pins (upper
and
lower).
NOTE: Check internal tank
mounting.
Isolation mount
spring
should be in free state
(no preload
with
tank
empty).
Check nut should be 1.00 in. from
endof threadedrod.
2. Position wet center section on rails and secure with clevis
pins.
3. Attachcross feed
assembly
to
spray
tanks, securewith over
center latch and
safety wire,
and install 2 hoses to center
section.
4. Attachclutchcontrol cable.
5. Remove
tape securing
belt to
jack
strut and
place
belt on
power
take-off.
FAA
Approval: May 5, 1978 Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-10-1-9
6NSTROM 280C
6. Connect
pressure
and
emergency dump
motorelectrical
plugs.
7. Attach
spray
boomsand
safety.
8.
Inspect system
and
performoperational
check.
9. Make
log
book
entry,
wet
dispersal system
installed.
Helicopterapproved
forrestricted
categor/ operationsonly.
VVet
System
Removal
Steps
1
through
7.
Installation Procedures
Dry Dispersal System
1. Positiontanks on rails andsecurewith
(4)
clevis
pins.
NOTE: Check internal tank
mounting.
Isolation mount
spring
should be in free state
(no preload
with
tank
empty).
Check nut should be 1.00 in. from
endofthreadedrod.
2. Install rt. side
spreader
under tank and secure with over-
center latch
(butterfly
valve
aft)
and
safety
wire. Connect
electrical
plug
to valve motor.
3. Install left
spreader
undertank.
4. Install and
adjust linkage
between
butterfly
valves.
5. Install
angle
drive
using
2 clevis
pins
and
safety.
6. Install "V"belt and
adjust
tension.
7. Install left and
righttake-up
assemblies.
8. Install
long
"V"belt to each
spreader (lower
to rt.
spreader)
and
adjust
tension.
9.
Inspect system
and
performoperational
check.
10. Make
log
book
entry. Dry dispersal system installed,
heli-
copterapproved
forrestricted
category operationsonly.
Dry System
Removal Reverse
Steps
1-8.
To return
helicopter
to normal
category
remove wet or
dry
dis-
persal systemper
above instructionsand:
1.
Cap
electrical
plugs,
fasten ends to rail or cross tube with
tape
orbundleties.
2. Fasten clutchcableto crosstube.
3.
Tape
"V"beltto Jack Strut.
4.
Inspect Helicopter.
FAA
Approval: May 5, 1978
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-10-1-10
ENSTROM 280C
NOTE: Possibledeterioration of rubber
parts
andcorro-
sion of
helicopter
structure
may
occurwhencer-
tain
dispersants
are used.
Inspection
intervals
and
cleaning procedures
should be modified to
prevent possibledamage.
5. Make
log
book
entry, wet/dry dispersal system
removed
except
for allowance
provisions remaining
on
helicopter.
Helicopterapproved
fornormal
category operations.
FAA
Approval: May 5, 1978
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-10-2-1
ENsTROM 280c
FLOAT LANDINGGEARSUPPLEMENT NO. 2
SECTION 1 GENERAL
This
supplement mijst be attached: to the basic
flight
manual
when the Enstrom
FloatLanding
Gear Kit No. 28-17326 is
installed.
Operation
in
compliance
with Section 2. OPERATING
LIMITATIONSof thebasicmanual is
mandatory except
as modi-
fied
by
this
supplement.
Other
approved
section and
supple-
mental dataare recommended
procedures.
The 28-17326 FLOAT LANDING GEAR KIT consists of two
multi-cell
(5 compartment)
AIR CRUISERSNO. D 24780 inflat-
able
floats, attachment
fittings,
relocated
pitot tube, lengthened
universal blocksand modifiedhorizoritai stabilizerinstallation.
SECTION 2 OPERATINGLIMITATIONS
TYPE OF OPERATIONS:
This
helicopter
is
approved
for
operation
under
day
VFR
non-icing
conditions
only.
AIRSPEED LIMITATIONS
NEVEREXCEED SPEEDS:
V,,
100
mph
I.A.S. to 3000 feet
hd.-For
variations
greater
than
3000 feet
Hd,
see Placard and
Figure
5.1.
ALTITUDE LIMITATIONS
SEE SECTION 3 BASE ALTITUDE CHANGE
CENTEROF GRAVITYLIMITATIONS
SEE FIGURE 6.1 for
approved
C.G. limits and lateral offset
moment.
PLACARDS:
Neverexceed
speeds (Vne)
miles
per
hourI.A.S.
PRESSURE OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE "F
ALTITUDE i
20 0 20 40 60 80 100
SEA LEVEL 85 85 85 85 85 85 85
1000 85 85 85 85 85 83 82
2000 85 85 85 84 83 82 81
3000 85 85 84 83 82 81 80
4000 85 84 83 82 81 80
5000 84 83 82 81 80
6000 83 82 81 80
FAA
Approval:
June16, 1978
Report
No. 28-Ac-016
FM-10-2-2
ENSTROM 2806
SECTION 3 NORMALPROCEDURES
ROTOR ENGAGEMENT
tonwater)
Priorto
engaging
the
rotor,
the
helicopter:should
eitherbe
secured or set adrift in anareasufficient to make at least
one
complete
rotation due to
engagement
rotor
torque.
Allowanceshouldbe
given
to
helicopter
drift.
Follow normal
engagementprocedures
until needles
marry,
then
smoothly
advance throttle until tail rotor becomes
effective
(approximately
one
helicopter
revolution or 1800
engineRPM)
FLIGHT INFORMATION
Taxi at slow
speeds
with
partial
collective to
prevent
float bows
from
nosing
under. Safe
taxiing
has been demonstrated in
waves
up
to 18 inches
(trbugh
to
crest).
RUNNINGLANDING
1. Maximum recommended water contact
speed
is 30 MPH.
Reduce
speed
on
rough
water.
2. Afterwater
contact,
avoid
rapid lowering
ofcollective
pitch.
NOTE: To avoid
possible
float
damage
on land use mini-
mum
ground
contact
speed.
BASE ALTITUDE CHANGE
Before
flight
check float
pressure.
Normal
pressure
is 1.5 PSIG.
1. For
flights
to loweraltitude overinflate at base altitude .5
PSIG
per
1000 feet
anticipated
altitude
change. (6.5
PSIG
maximuminflation
pressure).
NOTE: This includes the normal ambient
temperature
vari-
ations associatedwith
changes
in altitude.
2. For
lights
to
higher
altitude
12,000
feet differential alti-
tude
permitted (provided
float
pressure
is not more than 1.5
PSIGat
takeoff).
3. For variations in ambient air
temperature
and/orwatertem-
perature
at a
given
base altitude use the
following proce-
dure: When an ambient air
temperature
or water
tempera-
ture colder than the
temperature
at initial inflation is antici-
pated,
over inflate,
.5 PSIGabove normal for each 15 "F
decreasein
temperatureanticipated.
FAA
Approval:
June16, 1978
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-10-2-3
ENSTROM 280C
SECTION 4
ENGINE FAILURE DURINGFLIGHT
(above
80
mph)
1. Maintain
heading
with
nttttrrque pedals
and
apply
aft
cyclic
to reduce
airspeed
while
simultaneously lowering
collective
pitch
2. Stabilizeat 58
mph.
3. At about 75 feet above
ground/or water, apply
aft
cyclic
to
reduceforward
speed.
4. When about 20-25 feet above
surface, begin
to level heli-
copter
and
apply
collective
pitch
as
necessary
to cushion a
level
landing.
WARNING
Touchdown
speeds
should be
kept
below 20
mph
for emer-
gency autorotating
water
landings, especially
withforward
c.g.
ENGINE FAILURE DURINGFLIGHT
(below
80
mph)
1. Enternormal autorotationandstabilizeat 58
mph.
2. Use same
procedure
as
steps
3 and 4 of above
procedure.
SECTION 5 PERFORMANCE
No
change
from basicmanual
except
as indicated in the foilow-
ing
charts.
Figure
5.1 V neverexceedvs.
density
altitude.
Figure
5.2
Airspeed
calibration
RATE Of= CLIMB: Reduce rate of climb
by
150 feet
per
minute
fromthat obtainedfrom
Page
FM-5-7 ofthebasicmanual.
FAA
Approval:
June16, 1978
Report
No. 28-AC-016
3
-n a3 V)
71
CENTER OF GRAVITYLIMITS: LATERAL
(see
chart
below)
0 II
~h 3 4
f~?
O
Longitudinal
92.0 in. to94.6 in. at 2350 Ib.
V, (D
O
o
03
a
a
92.0 in. to98.5 in. at 2070 Ib.
3 Z~U
3
ng
d
oV>(D O
3Tj(D
Z (3
3(3
r (3
r.3
n,
cp
D
3 0)
u
9,
C 3 Q]
co -O
a
S
2
n
E? c~
a,
IJ~
r
cr>~m
o
t~
CD
C) m
I P,
O
v, v,
I
Z
03
V,
W 3 -I
7~ 3
3
a
09
cn
u,
OP
u, rn
D
a
2000
~o
3
n r
a
K
~o
2,
3, Z
3
o~
Z~O
1 "D r
<D
m
>3
"a
-P (D
o
1
03
3
o~ (D
3
1 ru
a -h(D O
Q2 Q4 Q8 ~9000 -2000 O +4000
cn
o
LEFT 3
~i+
m
ov,
3 LONGlfUDINALC.G. LATERALOFFSET MOMENT
I
Z
~--I
r
6
INCHES IN, LBS.
v,
~o
ca
rn
FM-10-2-5
ENSTROM 280C
Figure
5.1 V ne~rexee~-:vs.
density
altitude
12000
ti
loooo
c3
BM)O
sooo
VNE FOR
FLOAT EQUIPPED
MODELSF-28C AND
w 280C 2350 LBS.
P
4000
2000
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
CALIBRATED AIRSPEED MPH
FAA
Approval: May 19, 1978 Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-10-2-6
ENSTROM 2800
AIRSPEED CALIBRATION
MODEL280C
2350 LBS.
WITHFLOATSi
100
IA
Q.
E
P
80
w
w
u,
pc:
so
P
W
Oe
40
rp
20
NOTE: ZERO INSTRUMENT ERROR
R
0 20 40 60 80 100
COCKPIT INDICATED AIRSPEED
(MPH)
(PITOT
TUBE INSTALLED IN
NOSE)
INSTRUMENT ERRORZERO
FAA
Approval: April 20, 1978
Revised: Feb.
17,
1989
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-10-3-1
ENsTRoM 280C
EXTERNALLOADS:SUPP~EM:ENT NO. 3
SECTION 1 GENERAL
This
supplement
must be attached to the Basic
Flight
Manual
when the Enstrom
Cargo
Hook Kit No. 28-22000 is installedand
utilized for
transportation
of external
cargo. Operation
in
compli-
ance with Section 2
Operating
Limitations of the Basic
Manual is
mandatory except
as modified
by
this
supplement.
Other
approved
sections and
supplemental
dataare recom-
mended
procedures.
This aircraft is certifiedfor
multiple
certificate
operation
at
gross
weight up
to 2600 Ibs. for restricted
category cargo
hook
opera-
tion when in or converted to the 2350 Ibs.
configuration (IIANV
Enstrom
Drawing 28-100005).
A
log
book
entry
shall be made
when
changing category
of
operation.
The
Cargo
Hook Kit
incorporates
electro-mechanical
cargo
releasefeatures.
SECTION 2 OPERATINGLIMITATIONS
ENGINE LIMITS 2900 RPM,
36.5 in. M.A.P.
(205 H.P.)
AIRSPEED LIMITATIONS
Do notexceed
approvedflight
manual
speeds.
CAUTION
The maximumsafe
airspeed
for
satisfactory handling
character-
istics is
dependent
on
many
variables,
i.e.
aerodynamicshape
load,
c.g,
of
load, length
of
sling,
location of
suspension points
and rate of climbordescent. cautionshouldbeexercisedasthe
onset of
unsdtisfactory handling
characteristics
may
be
abrupt.
Restricted
category operations
2350 Ibs. to 2600 Ibs.
maximum
oPerati:ng:speedl85 Mph
IAS at sealevel
power
on and
power
off, linear decrease to 80
mph
IAS at 6000
feet
density
altitude.
ALTITUDE LIMITATIONS
For Gross
Weights up
to 2350 Ibs.: See
Approved Flight
Manual. Restricted
category operations
2350 Ibs. to 2600 Ibs.:
6000 feet
density
altitude.
WEIGHT LIMITATIONS
Do not exceed
approved
ilight
manual-weight
limitations.
Restricted
category operations:
Thetotal
weight
of the
helicopter
and load combination shall not exceed2600 Ibs. See FAR
133,
Subpart
D.
MaximumExternalLoad
1,0001bs.
FAA
Approval: July 28,
1978
Revised:
August 15, 1979
Report
No. 28-AC-016
I.
I- -- - 1 - ---- - -- - ; :--- ; --- -- -- 11---1--- - ------- -- -- ; -I- ----
FM-10-3-2
ENSTROM 280e
CENTER OF G,RAVITYLIMITATIONS
For
weights
2350 Ibs. and under: See
ApprovedFlight
Manual.
Restricted
Category operations
above 2350 Ibs.: Forward 86.5
in.,
rearward98.0 in.
Lateral offset moment: For
weights
2350 Ibs. and under: See
Approved Flight
Manual.
Restricted
category operations
above 2350 Ibs.: 3180 in. Ibs.
to 1855in.lbs.
TYPE OF OPERATIONS
Approved
for
multiple
certificate
operations
under
provisions
of
FAR 133 forClass B Rotorcraft-LoadCombinations when in the
2350 Ibs.
configuration.
Normal
operations
underCAR Part 6
(FAR
Part
27)
can be con-
ductedwith the
cargo
hook
installed, providing
external
cargo
is
not
beingtransported.
PLACARDS
Approved
for Class B Rotorcraft-Load
Operation. Occupancy
limitedto
flight
crew memberwhen
carrying
external load.
(Installed
on instrument
panel).
In view of Pilot: Restricted
category
neverexceed
speeds mph.
IAS.
PRESSURE OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE "F
ALTITUDE 20 0 20 40 60 80 100
SEA LEVEL 85 85 85 85 85 85 85
1000 85 85 85 85 85 83 82
2000 85 85 85 84 83 82 81
3000 85 85 84 83 82 81 80
4000 85 84 83 82 81 80
5000 84 83 82 81 80
6000 83 82 81 80
EXTERNALLOAD LIMIT
1,000
LBS.:
(Installed
on
Cargo Hook)
SECTION 3 NORMALPROCEDURES
Preflight Operation
Check
1. Check Electrical Release
System
a. Turn masterswitchon
b. Place instrument
panel cargo
release
arming
switch to
theon
position
FAA
Approval: July 28, 1978
Revised:
August16,
1979
Report
No. 28-AC-016
FM-10-3-3
ENSTRoM 280C
c. Placeaload
(3
IbS. hook beam
d. Press
upper
switch on
pilots cyclicgrip
and the beam
will release. If the
momentary
release switch is held in
the on
position
the
cargo
hook beam will not relatch.
Afterthe switch is released check to see if beam auto-
matically
relatches.
2. Check Mechanical Release
System(Emergency Release)
a. All switchesoff
b. Place load
(3
Ibs.
Min.)
on
cargo
hook beam
c. Activate
Emergency
Release
by pulling
the "T"handle
mounted on the
pilots cyclic
stick.
Approximately
1.5
inches of travel is
required
to release the
cargo
hook
beam.
d. After load releases
push
"T"handle in and check hook
beamforautomatic
relatchjng.
STATICELECTRICITYDISCHARGE
Provide
ground
crewwith instructions as follows:
Discharge
heli-
copter
static
electricity
before
attaching cargo by touching
the
airframewith a
ground
wire orif ametal
sling
is
used,
the hook-
up ring
can be struck
against
the
cargo
hook. If contact has
been lost afterinitial
grounding,
the
helicopter
should be electri-
cally regroundedand,
if
possible,
contact maintained until hook-
up completed.
CARGO HOOK OPERATION
Position instrument
panel
CBRGO RELEASE
arming
switch
(cir-
cult
breaker)
to OFFwhen
attaching cargo,
then move switch to
ON as desired
during approach
forrelease. When
cargo
release
is desired
press upper
switchon pilotscyclicgrip.
SECTION 4 EMERGENCYPROCEDURES
Pull mechanical manual release handle located on the
pilots
cyclic
stick
just
forward of th~e
cyclicgrip,
to
drop cargo
in the
event of anelectrical failure.
NOTE
The
cargo
mechanical release will function
regardless
of
posi-
tion of CARGO RELEASE
arming
switch:
FAA
Approval: July 28,
1978
Revised:
August15,
1979 Report
No. 28-Ac-016
FM-10-3-4
ENSTROM 280@
SECTION 5 PERFORMANCE DATA
Use
approvedflight
manual data.
SECTION 6 WEIGHT BALANCE
A new
weight
and balance should be calculated
per
the instruc-
tions in Section 6 of the Basic
Flight
Manual
using
the
following
information:
OPTIONALEQUIPMENT WT. ARM MOMENT
(LBS.) (IN.) (IN.-LBS.)
Cargo
Hook Installation 15 95.50 1432. 5
Hook Load 95.94
FAA
Approval: July 28, i978
Revised:
August15, 1979
Report
No. 28-40-016
FM-10-4-1
ENSTRoM 2800
SNOWSHOE SUPPLEMENTNO. 4
SECTION 1--~GENERAL
This
supplement
must be attached to the Basic
Flight
Manual
when the Enstrom nowshoe Kit No. 28-22400 is installed.
Operation
in
compliance
with Section 2 OPERATINGLIMI-
TATIONSof the Basic
Flight
Manual is
mandatory except
as
modified
by
this
supplement.
Other
apprQved
sections and
sup-
plemental
dataare recommended
procedi~res.
The Snowshoe Kit consists of foursnowshoe
pads,
two on each
skid
tube,
andwill
permit landings
in varioussnow conditions.
SECTION 2 OPERATINGLIMITATIONS
AIRSPEED LIMITATIONS Sameas Basic
Flight
Manual
WEIGHT LIMITATIONS Sameas Basic
Flight
Manual
CENTER OF GRAVITYLIMITATIONS Same as Basic
Flight
Manual
SECTION 6 WEIGHT BALANCE
A new
weight
and balance should be calculated
per
the instruc-
tions in Section 6 off the Basic
Flight
Manual
using
the
following
information:
OPTIONALEQUIPMENT WT. ARM MOMENT
(LBS.) (IN.) (IN.-LBS.)
Snowshoe Kit 18.0 100.9 1816.2
FAA
Approval: April 20, 1978
Revised: Feb. 17, 1989
Report
No. 28-AC-016
NOTES