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BALIKPAPAN 16 JUNE 2014

LOOKING FOR RELATIONSHIP STORATIVITY INTERPOROSITY FLOW

COEFFICIENT AND RATIO WITH THE RECOVERY FACTOR DURING THE

PERIOD OF PLATEAU RATE ON NATURAL FRACTURING RESERVOIR

Ayu Utaya Ryandhita

1)

, Rizky Kurniawan Putra

2)

,Rizky Rosdiana

3)

Petroleum Engineering, Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Minyak dan Gas Bumi, Balikpapan, Indonesia

ABSTRACT

natural fracturing reservoir is accompanied by

the presence of fissures formed naturally and exert

influence on the flow of fluid that occurs in the

reservoir. The breach affected the mechanism of

production of oil and gas in the reservoir.

Reservoir fracturing naturally have a very

important parameter to be able to estimate the

performance of the reservoir the storativity

interporosity flow coefficient and ratio. This

scientific paper describing the relationship

between the ratio and storativity interporosity

flow coefficient for a recovery factor during the

period of plateau rate on oil reservoirs with

vertical wells and horizontal wells in gas

reservoir.

In conducting this study, the author does a

Pressure Transient Analysis (PTA) and natural

fracturing reservoir modeling so that we can see

the behavior of the reservoir, then from this author

does model sensitivity to price ratio and

storativity interporosity flow coefficient to

observe what impact recovery factor during the

period of plateau rate on reservoir fracturing

naturally.

Sensitivity analysis on the results of oil and gas

reservoir, found that the bigger the price storativiy

ratio then the recovery factor during the plateau

rate of getting bigger. As for the sensitivity of the

interporosity flow coefficient obtained results

which do not affect significantly the price

recovery factor for oil reservoir. On the contrary

the result of sensitivity in reservoir gas giving

significant influence, in which the greater the

coefficient of flow then the interporosity price

recovery factor during the plateau rate will be

getting smaller. Thus generate an equation has

been on the recovery factor during the period of

plateau rate as a function of the price ratio and

storativity interporosity flow coefficient for

fracturing natural reservoir.

Keywords: storativity interporosity flow ratio,

coefficient, reservoir fracturing natural.

INTRODUCTION

The Reservoir is a reservoir natural fracturing

has a rock matrix system characterisitics and

fissures in it. The matrix and the fissures have

different rock properties, thus fracturing natural

reservoirs are often referred to with the dual

porosity reservoir. It is this that distinguishes

natural fracturing reservoir with plain reservoir in

General (single reservoir porosity). The difference

is the difference in behaviour gives the production

a fluid reservoirnya. This type of deployment

could almost be found worldwide, including in

Indonesia. An interest in reservoir fracturing

naturally start increasing in the last few years, this

is because the effect of the breach found in

reservoirs play an important role in the acquisition

of oil and gas produced. In 1956 Knebel and

Rodriques% u2013 Eraso1 reported that 41% of

ultimate recovery found to date was conceived in

this type of reservoir. McNaughton fine and then

Garb2 estimates that in 1975 the ultimate recovery

from a reservoir can produce oil exceeds 40

billion STB, certainly now that these figures may

have been speeding.

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Study of reservoir fracturing naturally

concerned about two important parameters,

namely the strorativity ratio and interporosity flow

coefficient. Storativity is the ratio of fluid storage

capacity both gas and oil within the clefts whereas

interporosity flow coefficient is a measure of the

ease of fluid flows from the rock matrix system to

the fracture. The first thing behind their studies on

paper this hypothesis is that the initial value of

storativity ratio comparable to the recovery factor

of reservoir oil production during the late period

of plateau rate, as shown in Figure 1 (field

Klamono, Reservoir Fracturing natural) 3. This

initial hypothesis will be examined further in this

paper.

The study in this paper will be examined two

models that use a gas phase model with horizontal

wells and oil phase with vertical wells.

Based on the above reasons, the scope of the

study stressed to search new equation that can be

used to determine the recovery factor during the

final period of plateau rate of reservoir fracturing

in nature. The equation must have regard to the

nature, fracturing two parameters namely

storativity interporosity flow coefficient and ratio,

is also expected to provide results accurate to

predict oil and gas flow rate you want to use.

Therefore, the equation will be discussed in this

paper are expected to help study the development

of oil and gas field is a natural for fracturing in the

future.

INTERPOROSITY FLOW COEFFICIENT

Interporosity flow coefficient is the parameter

that describes the ability of a fluid to flow from

the breach into the matrix 4. Warren and Root

defines the interporosity flow coefficient, , the

following equation 5:

=r

..( 1 )

Interporosity flow coefficient was also shows

the size of the fluid flowing from the ease of the

matrix to the fracture.

Reservoir fracturing model for different natural

interporosity flow equation coefficient difference

can be divided into four model 6 is as follows:

STORATIVITY RATIO

Storativity is the ratio of the size of the storage

capacity of the fluid within the fracture. Warren

and storativity ratio, defines the Root in the

following equation 7 :

From the above equations, it can be analyzed

that the smaller the value of , then the smaller

storage capacity of fluid (oil and gas) in the

fracture, but inside the matrix, the storage

capacity is fluidanya good. Instead, the greater the

the storage reservoir fracturing fluid nature

there is more in the breach.

three types of reservoir fracturing naturally

based on the value of storativity ratio we can

kelompokan in three tipe2, which are:

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a. type A: Storage capacity on high matrix if

compared with storage capacity on clefts

b. Type B: Storage capacity on the matrix and the

breach is almost the same size of

c. C Type : Storage capacity more in the breach.

PRESSURE TRANSIENT ANALYSIS

Warren and Root equation solution delivers

flow in reservoir fracturing natural as follows 5:

Can be analyzed that there are three regions of

the flow in reservoir fracturing natural. In the first,

or occurs when the initial stages of production, the

production of fluid flow comes from within a

system fracture. When the value of Ei, this

function is very small, so the equation 7 can be

changed to 5:

In the second, or often referred to as transition,

where the curve against time pressure in the

fracture tend to be constant. This shows the early

stages of the supply of the fluid matrix system

towards a system fracture. The existence and

duration of this period is shown in the parameter

and .

In the three regions, in which production has

been a very long time, then the period of quasi

steady-state flow is achieved, i.e. the production

of fluid comes from the matrix and also from

fracture. The equations used in the three periods

was 5:

If counted more, the above equation will give

the second slope value of 1.15/cycle. In the form

of log curves, dual porosity reservoir has the

characteristic shape of the valley at the end of the

transitional period. Fast slow onset is affected by

the current value of the interporosity flow

coefficient, while at its stripes were influenced by

the value of storativity ratio.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The first step is to find the equation of the

recovery factor during the period plateurate is to

do a reservoir modeling using software. The

Software used was CMG (Computer Modelling

Group) 2005 with IMEX simulator. Data used in

the model the reservoir is using the data field and

the hipotetik.

The next step is to validate the model used to

study testing the well (well testing analysis). This

procedure is necessary in order for the model

(base case) used to perform the sensitivity studies

is a valid model and can represent the actual state

of the reservoir fracturing nature.

The last step is to conduct a sensitivity study,

i.e., make changes in the parameters of fracture of

Storativity Interporosity Flow Coefficient and

Ratio and flow rate so that it will obtain a varied

behavior of the recovery factor during the final

period of plateau rate. The result was this

sensitivity that was used to create the equation or

the desired correlation.

RESERVOIR SIMULATION

A. RESERVOIR GAS

Gas reservoir models have directions x, y, and

z where the amount of the total grid as much as

9000 (50 * 30 * 6). Data on physical properties of

reservoir rock and fluid for the base case are

shown in table 1. Initial Gas In Place (IGIP) Bond

Expert petroleum engineering Indonesia IATMI

09-003 4 in this model is $ 98 BSCF. Based on

that data, too, can be calculated the value of =

0.5 and = 5.4 E-7. These values are considered

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as and base case. The dominant reservoir

Model used is the driving force of gas cap drive

only. On the model of wells and perforation,

modeling is done using horizontal wells along the

2,000 ft with perforation is carried out at the

height of the reservoir.

B. RESERVOIR OIL

This study uses a radial-shaped reservoir model

of two-dimensional and cylindrical coordinate

system (r z uDFE0). A scale model is a grid of

blocks 20 * 1 * 20 = 400 blocks. The Data used to

create this model is the data from the well-X

which is the well on the oil reservoir fracturing

natural. from the results of analysis of a pressure

analysis of the well-X obtained Initial Oil in Place

(IOIP) estimated at 4.02 x106 STB and storativity

price ratio obtained by 17.7% and interporisty

flow coefficient of 3.284 x

price parameters.

The value of this value and base case. As for

the full set of data will be in use seen in table 2.

VALIDATION OF THE MODEL

A. RESERVOIR GAS

Model validation is carried out by means of

analytical testing of the well (well testing) the

result is shown in Figure 2. Pressure build up test

results are shown in Figure 2 gives the results not

much different with reservoir fracturing

parameters input natural in the simulator, i.e. =

0.18% and = 1,080 E-7. Those results showed

a comparison matrix permeability of the fracture

is equal to the input data in the simulator. In the

picture it looks horizontal wells characteristics are

shown with a long line at a pressure derivative

after time wellbore storage is expected to have

finished. Another reason that the factors

supporting horizontal wells was dominant in this

model is the value of the skin (S) are negative,

because horizontal wells tend to give the effect of

reservoir merekahkan.

Considering the above reasons, then the base

case model is considered valid to do further

studies.

B. RESERVOIR OIL

Validation of the model in use is done with

history graph matching the price pressure on the

bottom of the well (Pwf) with respect to time of

the Drill data Steam test (DST) and the results can

be seen in Figure 3.

From the results of this validation may be

stated that the reservoir model that has been

created is reliable so that it could proceed with the

analysis of the behavior of the reservoir fracturing

naturally variable sensitivity analysis for different

reservoir fracturing nature.

C. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS

is the analysis of the results of observation of

the recovery factor in reservoir fracturing

naturally with some parameters that are changed.

The parameters that play a role in the

determination of recovery factor during the final

plateau rate of reservoir physical parameter is a

natural fracturing itself, namely the storativity

interporosity flow coefficient and ratio and

parameter constraints flow rate of the well.

Further sensitivity analysis is carried out by

changing parameters of the well flow rate against

the constraints worth interporosity flow

coefficient and storativity ratio that varies as well.

These three parameters are expected to be able to

give accurate predictions in the determination of

recovery factor during the final plateau rate in

reservoir fracturing naturally.

The main assumptions used in the analysis of

this sensitivity is the spread of fissures in the

reservoir. Other assumptions used are when

conducting sensitivity storativity ratio, then the

parameters are considered constant coefficient

interporosity flow, and vice versa.

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RESULT AND DISCUSSION

RESERVOIR GAS

A. SENSITIVITY STORATIVITY

RATIO

In this study, made eleven changes to the values

of porosity and fracture kompresibilitas clefts

whereas other parameter values are considered to

be fixed. Results sensitivity storativity ratio

against the recovery factor during the final plateau

rate shown in Figure 4. Based on this correlation

then obtained a temporary observation that the

value recovery factor during the final plateau rate

of 1.5 in relation to the value of storativity

rationya. Things that need to be further assessed

that the greater value of storativity rationya then

the capacity of the shelter in fluid fracture will be

even greater, so the reservoir's ability to provide a

plateau rate will take longer than the reservoir has

a capacity of fluid on fracture shelter fewer.

Relationship with recovery ratio factor storativity

as late plateau rate can be divided into two regions

storativity ratio as in Figure 5 the equation as

follows:

B. SENSITIVITY COEFFICIENT

INTERPOROSITY FLOW

To see the influence of the interporosity flow

coefficient factor sensitivity against the recovery

factor during the final period of plateau rate, made

changes to the value of fracture permeability,

because these factors are more uncertain than the

permeability of the matrix. Results of the

sensitivity of the interporosity flow coefficient of

recovery factor of gas at the end of a period of

plateau rate shown in Figure 6. The picture tells us

that the greater the value of the interporosity flow

coefficient, which means that the smaller the ratio

of permeability between the matrix and fracture,

then the rate will plateau is getting short. This is

in accordance with the understanding of that

supply flow rate at the time of the plateau rate

derived from fracture. Based on the results of the

simulations, that factor interporosity flow

coefficient for both the storativity ratio has the

price of the same regression. Results of the

regression coefficient sensitivity of the

interporosity flow shown in Figure 7. Relationship

coefficient of flow with interporosity recovery

factor during the final plateau rate are as follows:

C. SENSITIVITY OF THE GAS FLOW

RATE CONSTRAINTS

To create an equation that can apply to many

more conditions and reduce assumptions

assumptions used% u2013 the parameters forming

the equations shall represent more and more and

more conditions. Therefore, the sensitivity of the

gas flow rate constraints should also be taken into

account with respect to the factors that will affect

the value of the recovery factor during the final

period of plateau rate. Another reason that it is

strengthening that the purpose of this study is to

help the right flow rate prediction for

development of a fracturing natural gas field,

especially for the new field to be manufactured.

The assumptions used in conducting sensitivity

to gas flow rate is applicable for the lapse rate

flow rate 10 - 50 MMScfd with a value of the

interporosity flow coefficient was fixed.

Results sensitivity to both the storativity ratio

shown in Figure 8, 9 and 10. This picture shows

the results that the larger the value of the

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maximum gas flow rate constraints are given, then

the brief plateau rate of his progress. It is also

influential to the price recovery factor during the

final period of plateau rate that is getting smaller.

Relationship constraints gas flow rate with the

recovery factor during the final plateau rate are as

follows:

RESERVOIR OIL

A. SENSITIVITY STORATIVITY

RATIO

Sensitivity analysis of this effect see storativity

ratio price recovery factor during the plateau rate.

Parameters that are changed only the parameter

kompresibilitas the breach, while other parameters

are considered to be fixed. This is the

parameterparameter of storativity karenakan ratio

has a high uncertainty is the price of

kompresibilitas fissures. Figure 11 is a result of

the analysis of sensitivity of storativity ratio.

From the results of this analysis we can see on

Figure 12 that with the greater price of sorativity

ratio then the greater the recovery factor of price

as well as the plateau rate. This is due to the

greater price of storativity ratio then the shelter

will be more fluid in fracturing and so with this

condition the system from this reservoir will have

a capacity of larger flow rate fracturing oil

saturation so prices left the less. For the

relationship between the price of storativity ratio

with the recovery factor during the plateau rate

following the equation below:

B. SENSITIVITY COEFFICIENT

INTERPOROSITY FLOW

Sensitivity of the interporosity flow coefficient

is the same that we do when we perform

sensitivity storativity ratio that we want to see the

influence of the interporosity flow coefficient on

price period of plateau rate, and recovery factor

during the plateau rate. When we do this it is

assumed that the sensitivity of parameters in

addition to the parameters of the interporosity

flow coefficient is fixed.

From the results of this analysis are shown in

Figure 13, of this image indicate that with

increasing price interporosity flow coefficient was

then the price of recovery factor during the

plateau rate does not give significant effects. This

is because interporosity flow coefficient does not

change the shape of the geometry of the fluidanya

this parameter so that the storage is not very

significant in influencing the price of the period

and rate of recovery rates plateau factor.

C. SENSITIVITY OF THE OIL FLOW

RATE CONSTRAINTS

The results of the sensitivity of the oil flow

rate contrain showed with the greater oil flow rate

contrain showed the smaller the price recovery

factor during the final period of the plate as shown

in Figure 14 and 15. from the results of this

sensitivity analysis equation is obtained as

follows:

THE RECOVERY FACTOR DURING

THE FINAL EQUATION PLATEU RATE

To make the recovery factor equations in

reservoir fracturing experience when the end of a

period of plateau rate, is to combine the results of

three such sensitivity by using the pi theorm (pi

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theorem), that parallels the final plateau time

factor recovery rate following the link below:

To get the value of a, b, c, and C (constant),

the logarithmic approach is required in accordance

with the pi theorem itself. For example, to get the

value of the coefficient "a" then the value , Q,

and C is considered constant.

The calculation result of the coefficients gives

the fourth equation suggestion for mengestimasi

recovery factor during the final plateau rate on gas

reservoir with horizontal well fracturing oil and

natural with vertical wells, but the equation is as

follows:

VALIDATION AND LIMITS THE

CORRELATION

A. RESERVOIR GAS

To test whether the proposed equations valid to

apply further is to discuss the proposal of equation

with the validation analysis of error between the

reservoir simulation results with equation.

Example of validation of equation is as follows:

Example i:

Field-X with parameters:

= 0.35

= 5.4 E-7

Constrain Q maks = 30 MMScfd

(RF

plateu rate

) korelasi = 71.69 % (RF

plateu rate

) simulasi = 70.55 % Error =

1.58 %

Example ii:

Field-Y with parameters:

= 0.7

= 5.4 E-7

Constrain Q maks = 25 MMScfd

(RF

plateu rate

) korelasi = 88.64 % (RF

plateu rate

)

simulasi = 87.84 % Error = 0.9 %

The complete results of the recovery factor

equation validation when the end of the period the

plateau rate fracturing natural gas manufactured

with horizontal wells, can be shown in table 3.

Based on the values listed in table 3, it can be

proved that the equation equation 18 and 19 has a

high degree of accuracy. In order that this

equation holds true with high accuracy, so please

note the following restriction:

1. Prices are fissures in the sensitvitas storativity

porosity ratio should not be more than the value of

0.1.

2. Reservoir fluid-gas phase dried (dry gas). 3.

minimum bottomhole Pressure in the simulation is

250 psi.

4. Layout of horizontal wells is at the top of the

reservoir.

5. Driving Mechanism that applies is the gas cap

drive only.

B. RESERVOIR OIL

Equation (20) we condition on the validation by

Wells-X with parameters:

= 0.177

= 3.284x10

-7

Constrain oil flow rate = 858 Stb/day

(RF

plateu rate

) well-X = 28.4% (RF

plateu rate

) korelasi = 28.43 % Error =

0.105 %

The complete results of the recovery factor

equation validation when the end of the period the

plateau rate on oil reservoir fracturing naturally

manufactured with vertical wells, can be shown in

table 4.

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As for the limitations that this equation is

applicable are as follows:

1. Distribution of homogeneous fissures around

the reservoir.

2. Reservoir fluid is Black Oil

3. Driving Mechanism in force is the Solution gas

drive only.

CONCLUSION

1. The value of storativity ratio for oil and gas

reservoir in proportion to the value of the

recovery factor during the end period rate

plateu.

2. Results of the interporosity flow coefficient

sensitivity for gas reservoir gives significant

influence with the inversely proportional to the

recovery factor during the end period rate

while for plateu oil reservoir is not significant.

3. Constraints Results flow rate of gas and oil to

give an inversely proportional to influence

recovery factor during the end period rate

plateu.

4. Proposal of Equation for estimation of gas

reservoir with horizontal wells and wells with

vertical oil reservoir provides a high accuracy

in determining the recovery factor during the

final period of plateau rate on reservoir

fracturing natural.

SUGGESTION

1. Need to do further studies on the influence of

fracture and matrix permeability change

spacing to the value of the recovery factor

during the final period of plateau rate.

2. The analysis needs to be done to the maximum

gas flow rate outside the hose testing equation.

3. The model has yet to be known whether Warren

and Root with other natural fracturing reservoir

model (Gilman and Kazemi, Baker, De Swaan)

have the same factor in recovery results during

the late period of plateau rate, therefore needs

to be done further studies would be this.

4. The need for the development of the recovery

factor equation of gas natural fracturing when

the end of a period of plateau rate with the

parameters of other gases.

5. Further studies need to be done about the

sensitivity analysis of the interporosity flow

coefficient for oil reservoir.

6. Development of analysis needs to be done to

the oil reservoir parameters between the breach

of storativity interporosity flow coefficient and

ratio with the recovery factor on horizontal

wellbore conditions.

REFERENCES

1. Yasutra, Amega: Inflow Performance

Relationship Pada Reservoir Rekah Alami

Bertenaga Dorong Gas Terlarut, Tesis,

Departemen Teknik Perminyakan-ITB,

Bandung, 2006

2. Aguilera, Robert: Naturally Fractured

Reservoir. Pennwell Publishing Company,

Tulsa, Oklahoma, 1995.

3. Ariadji, Tutuka: Pembuatan Pengembangan

Lanjut (POFD) Lapangan Minyak DOH

dengan Metode Injeksi Air (Klamono Field,

Carbonate, Naturally Fractures Reservoir).

4. Ahmed, Tarek: Advanced Reservoir

Engineering, Elsiever Inc, Texas, 2005.

5. Van Golf-Racht, T.D.: Fundamentals of

Fractured Reservoir Engineering. Elsevier

Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam,

1982.

6. Tiab, Djebbar and Erle C. Donaldson:

Petrophysic: Theory and Practice of Measuring

Reservoir Rock and Fluid Transport. Gulf

Professional Publishing, Houston, 2004.

7. Warren, J.E. Root, P.J: The Behavior of

Naturally Fractured Reservoir, SPE Journal.

September, 1963, pp. 245 255.

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Tabel-1 Propherties Data of Rock And Reservoir Data For Gas Reservoir

Properties unit

Value

Interval Zone Ft 7500 -7560

Temperature

o

F 180

Pressure Psia 3500

Gas Flow Rate MMScfd 30

Spesific Grafity Gas 0.6

Fracture Spasing, lm ft 100

FVF Gas

bbl/cuft

0.00076

(Bg)

Gas Viscosity (g) cp 0.02625

Gas Compressibility (Cg) 1/psi 2.38E-04

Water Compressibility (C

w

) 1/Psia 2.97E-06

Matriks Compressibility (Cm) 1/Psia 3.00E-06

Fracture Compressibility (Cf) 1/Psia 1.50E-05

Well Radius (r

w

) ft 0.255

Thickness ft 60

Fracture porosity % 5

Matrix Porosity % 25

Matrix Permeability (km) md 10

Fracture Permeability (kf) md 10000

Well length horizontal, L ft 2000

S

w

% 70

Sg % 30

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Tabel-2. Reservoir Data Of Well-X for Oil Reservoir

Properti Unit

Value

Thick perforated ft 1017

Temperature o

F

321

Pressure Psia 4745

Oil Flow Rate STB/D 858

Pwf Psia 4552

API 38.6

Spesific Grafity Gas 0.8104

GOR scf/STB 1297

Well Head Temperature

o

F 120

Well Head Pressure Psia 2500

Separator Temperature o

F

99

Separator Pressure Psia 190

Oil FVF (Bo) RB/STB 1.682

Oil Viscosity (o) cp 0.2216

Oil Compressibility (Co) 1/psi 1.77e-05

Water Compressibility

(Cw) 1/Psia 3.98e-06

Rocks Compressibility (Cr) 1/Psia 4.862e-06

Total Compressibility (Ct) 1/Psia 1.296e-5

Well Radius (rw) ft 0.255

ID Tubing in 2.875

Thickness ft 1017

Porosity % 10

Sw % 70

So % 30

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Figure-1 Field Klamono, Reservoir Fracturing

Natural

Figure-2 Log Plot a Pressure Build Up Test Gas

Reservoir

Figure-3 History Matching pressure (Oil

Reservoir Model Validation)

Figure-4 Plateu Rate for Storativity Sensitivity

Ratio (Gas Reservoir)

Figure-5. The Gas Gain factor to the end of the

period when the Ratio of Storativity Plateau Rate

Figure-6 time for the Rate Sensitivity Plateu

Interporosity Flow Coefficient (Gas Reservoir)

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Figure-7 Gas Gain Factor of the Interporosity

Flow Coefficient at the end of a period of Plateau

Rate

Figure-8. Plateu Sensitivity Rate for Gas flow rate

Constraints on the Base Case Model

Figure-9. Gas Earnings factor when Plateu Rate

against the Constraints of Gas flow rate in Region

I.

Figure-10 Gas Acquisition Factor when Plateu

Rate of Gas flow rate on the Constraints of the

Region II

Figure-11. Plateau Rate for Storativity Sensitivity

Ratio (Oil Reservoir)

Figure-12. Recovery Factor during the period of

Plateau Rate of Storativity Ratio (Oil Reservoir)

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Figure-13. Plateau Interporosity Flow Rate for the

Sensitivity Coefficient (Oil Reservoir)

Figure-14. Plateu Sensitivity Rate for Oil flow

rate Constraints

Figure-14. Plateu Sensitivity Rate for Oil flow

rate Constraints

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