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Table of Contents
1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................ 2
1.1 What is Transmission line? ................................................................................................ 2
1.2 Main components ............................................................................................................... 2
1.3 Definitions (Terminology) .................................................................................................. 3
1.4 How to procee the transmission line pro!ect .................................................................. "
2 DESIGN ASPECTS OF TRANSMISSION LINE ........................................................ 6
2.1 #asic Methoology .............................................................................................................. $
2.2 %election of con&ctor ......................................................................................................... '
2.3 %pacing an clearances for power lines ............................................................................ (
2.4 %ag)tension calc&lation ..................................................................................................... 1*
2." Dimensioning of tower ...................................................................................................... 13
2.5.1 Determination of eigt ............................................................................................... 1!
2.5.2 Loading "ases ............................................................................................................... 1!
2.5.! #or"e $nal%ses metods .............................................................................................. 15
2.5.& 'ele"tion of to(er members ......................................................................................... 16
2.$ Dimensioning of +ns&lator ............................................................................................... 1,
2.' Tower -o&nations ........................................................................................................... 1(
2., .arthling ............................................................................................................................ 21
3 CONSTRUCTION ASPECTS .................................................................................. 22
3.1 Transportation .................................................................................................................. 22
3.2 /onstr&ction of fo&nation .............................................................................................. 22
3.3 Tower .rection .................................................................................................................. 23
3.4 %tringing ............................................................................................................................. 23
4 FINANCIAL ASPECT ............................................................................................... 23
5 ANNEX (EXERCISES) ............................................................................................. 26
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-asi" Design and Constru"tion aspe"ts of Transmission Lines
1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 What ! T"a#!$!!%# &#'(
Tis .uestion "an simpl% not be ans(ered b% a fe( (ords. /a" "apter in tis le"ture notes
probabl% (ill use to gi0e a proper ans(er of it.
$ transmission line is a de0i"e for te transfer of ele"tri" energ%. 1t "an transfer te energ%
o0er long or sort distan"es, and at different 0oltages. Transfer of ele"tri"al energ% o0er 0er%
long distan"es "alls for a trun2 line (it ig 0oltages. Te transmission lines of 0er% ig
0oltages, su" as3 *, 24, 15, 24, 22, 24, &,, 24, are part of a national grid 5G6T in
-elgium7. To ma2e it easier to understand it "an be said tat te transmission lines (it te
iger 0oltages are te ig(a%s in te energ% transfer s%stem. 1n bet(een tese ig(a%s
and te small 8pats9, (i" migt "all distribution net(or2 to drop te 0oltage line from
iger le0el to lo(er le0el, tere (ill be a lot of transmission lines (it different 0oltages.
1n te planning and design of transmission line, a number of re.uirements a0e to be met.
#rom te ele"tri"al point of 0ie(, te most important re.uirement is insulation and safe
"learan"es to earted parts. Tese, togeter (it te "ross:se"tion of "ondu"tors, te spa"ing
bet(een "ondu"tors, and te relati0e lo"ation of ground (ires (it respe"t to te "ondu"tors,
influen"e te design of p%lons and foundations.
1.2 Ma# )%$*%#'#t!
$ transmission line "onsists of different "omponents. Te "ondu"tors troug (i" te
ele"tri"al energ% is to be transferred are to be supported b% insulators and p%lons. Terefore
basi"all% main "omponents, (i" "onsists in transmission line are;
Condu"tor
/art (ire 5Ground (ire7
1nsulators
<ter ard(are 5"lamp, 0ibration dampers, "able "onne"tor et"s7
P%lon
#oundation
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1.3 D'+#t%#! (T'"$#%&%,-)
1n transmission lines planning and design, te follo(ing terms are "ommonl% used;
-asi" or normal span
6uling or e.ui0alent span
$0erage span
=ind span
=eigt span
#asic or normal span
Te normal span is te most e"onomi"al span for (i" te line is designed o0er le0el
ground, so tat te re.uisite ground "learan"e is obtained at te ma>imum spe"ified
temperature.
0&ling or e1&i2alent span
Te ruling span is te assumed design span tat (ill produ"e, bet(een dead ends, te best
a0erage tension trougout a line of 0ar%ing span lengts (it "anges in temperature and
loading. 1t is te (eigted a0erage of te 0ar%ing span lengts.
$ "ustomar% rule is to estimate a ruling span (i" (ill appro>imatel% ? $0erage span @ 2A!
5ma>imum span B a0erage span7
Teoreti"all% te ruling span is "al"ulated b% te formula;
n
n
r
l l l
l l l
L
+ + +
+ + +
=
....
......
2 1
! !
2
!
1
=ere l
1
, l
2
,C.,l
n
are te first, se"ond and last span lengts in te se"tion. Generall%, as te
number of spans in"rease, te ruling span approa"es te a0erage span. Te ere"tion tension
for an% line se"tion is "al"ulated for tis %poteti"al span. Tis span is ten used to "al"ulate
te oriDontal "omponent of tension, (i" is to be applied to all te span bet(een te dead
end to(ers.
32erage span
Te a0erage span is te mean span lengt bet(een dead ends. 1t is assumed tat te "ondu"tor
is freel% suspended su" tat ea" indi0idual span rea"ts to "anges in tension as a single
a0erage span. $ll sag and tension "al"ulations are "arried out for te a0erage span, on tis
assumption. T(o basi" %poteses must be "onsidered for e>treme loading;
Lo( temperature at a gi0en (ind speed
Eig (ind at a gi0en temperature
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$part from tis oter %potesis sall also be "onsidered;
Eig temperature no (ind for ground "learan"e
Fean temperature for "oldest mont for $eolian 0ibration
.4ample; #ind ruling and a0erage span for & spans in a dead ended line se"tion "onsisting of
lengts, !,,, &,,, 5,, and +,, m respe"ti0el%.
( )
m span ruling l Theoretica
m span ruling Customary
m span Average
6,!
+,, 5,, &,, !,,
+,, 5,, &,, !,,
. .
*,, 5,, +,,
!
2
5,, . .
5,,
&
+,, 5,, &,, !,,
.
! ! ! !
=
+ + +
+ + +
=
= + =
=
+ + +
=
Gormall% longer ruling span sall be "onsidered during design stage.
Dea .n %pan
$ dead end span is one in (i" te "ondu"tor is dead:ended at bot ends. Dead end spans
sould preferabl% be a0oided, but in "ertain "ases field "onditions di"tate teir use. 1t is
fre.uentl% "on0enient to "ross a ri0er, a 0alle% (it a single long span. =en su" a span
o""urs, it is desirable to dead:ended it at bot ends to a0oid using a ruling span tat (ould be
too long for te rest of te line.
Win %pan
Te (ind span is tat on (i" te (ind is assumed to a"t trans0ersel% on te "ondu"tors and
is ta2en as alf te sum of t(o spans, adHa"ent to te p%lon. Tis span (ill be used to "al"ulate
te (ind load of "ondu"tor on to(er.
Weight span
Te (eigt span is te oriDontal distan"e bet(een te lo(est points of te "ondu"tors, on te
t(o spans adHa"ent to te to(er. Te lo(est point is defined as te point at (i" te tangent
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to te sag "ur0es. Te (eigt span is used to "al"ulate te dead load of "ondu"tor on to(er.
T%pi"al figure for (ind span and (eigt span is gi0en belo(.
Figure 1; =ind span and (eigt span
1.4 .%/ t% *"%)''0 th' t"a#!$!!%# &#' *"%1')t
-efore start to "onstru"t a transmission line a lot of planning and design (or2 need to be
"arried out to pro0ide ne"essar% plans and lengts of te profiles, sele"tion of main
"omponents of te line to be built.
Te first ting is to a0e a loo2 on te most up to date maps a0ailable to a".uire a general
impression of te topograp% of te area (ere te line is to be ere"ted and tus dete"t an%
ob0ious problems tat migt arise. Te topograpi"al sur0e% sall be "arried out (it a most
optimal solution bot en0ironmentall%, te"ni"all% and e"onomi"all%. $ proper line profile
(it ne"essar% information sall be prepared. Te profile sall be normall% made (it
appropriate s"ale3 for oriDontal 1; 2,,, and 0erti"al 1;5,,.
$fter preparing profile design (or2 sall be started. =en designing a transmission line te
first important ting to be 2no(n is te operating 0oltage of te transmission line. =at
"ondu"tor to use (ill depend upon operating 0oltage, transfer "apa"it% desired and total lengt
of te transmission line.
Te detail dis"ussion on te design aspe"ts is briefed in ne>t "apter.

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2 DESIGN ASPECTS OF TRANSMISSION LINE
2.1 2a!) M'th%0%&%,-
Te design metodolog% is based on te "on"ept (ereb% a transmission line is designed as a
s%stem made of "omponents su" as foundation, p%lons, "ondu"tors, insulators and oter
ard(are. Te metodolog% is prin"ipall% based on international pra"ti"e.
Te metodolog% "an be des"ribed in te follo(ing steps;
Gater preliminar% line design data and a0ailable "limati" data
'ele"t reliabilit% le0el in terms of return period of design load
Cal"ulate "limati" loading on "omponents
Cal"ulate loads "orresponding to se"urit% re.uirements 5failure "ontainment7
Cal"ulate loads related to safet% during "onstru"tion and maintenan"e
'ele"t appropriate "orre"tion fa"tors, if appli"able, to te design "omponents su" as use
fa"tor, strengt fa"tors related to numbers of "omponents, strengt "oordination, .ualit%
"ontrol, and te "ara"teristi" strengt
Design "omponents for te abo0e loads and strengt re.uirements
Reliability levels
1n all "ases, lines sall at least meet te re.uirements of reliabilit% le0el one, (i"
"orrespond to a return period of design loads of 5, %ears.
Reliability levels for transmission line 56ef.:57
0elia5ility 6e2els 1 2 3
T, 6eturn period of
"limati" design loads,
in %ears
5, 15, !,,
Te reliabilit% le0el sall be dependent on te importan"e of te line in te national grid.
Eiger te reliabilit% le0el means te fa"tor of safet% is iger and ultimatel% more "ost.
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2.2 S'&')t%# %+ )%#03)t%"
Te sele"tion of "ondu"tor siDe sall be go0erned b% t(o fa"tors;
1. /le"tri"al re.uirement
2. Fe"ani"al strengt
.lectrical re1&irements
Te siDe of "ondu"tor (ill be determined based on follo(ing parameters;
1nstalled "apa"it% of te plant, P in 2=
<perating 0oltage of te line 4 in 24
Total lengt of te line to "al"ulate te losses
Cost of "onstru"tion
"os ! I V P =
"os !
=
V
P
I
, 5$mp7
I V ,
Losses,
A
L I R I l

=
2 2
, 5
l V l A l L , ,
7
Terefore tese fa"tors must be "ompared during sele"tion of "ondu"tor siDe. Eo(e0er it as
been re"ommended tat for line 22, 24 and abo0e te siDe of "ondu"tor sall not be less tan
&,, mm2.
#or e>ample refer Manual de travaux pratiques destine au cours du Professeur Jean Louis
Lilien
Te abo0e metod is primaril% appli"able to transmission lines tat are not subHe"t to load
gro(t. Tat (ould be te "ase for transmission lines from ne( plants do(n to te nearest
point of "onne"tion in te e>isting s%stem. =ile in te "ase of load gro(t, te sele"tion of
"ondu"tor sall be "arried out b% optimiDing te s%stem planning based on "osts and benefits
for te total benefits for te total s%stem (it proHe"ted load gro(t and generation e>pansion
plan. Te follo(ing formulas appl% to te "al"ulation;
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in 1,,,
U'I
A2m
in 1,,, U'I A2m
in 1,,, U'I A2m
=ere3
P
pea2
? Fa>imum transmitted po(er in F=
U
rated
? 6ated $C line 0oltage in 24
6 ? $C line resistan"e in km A
T
loss
? Loss duration in ours
2
/
? /nerg% "ost in Us"A2=
D ? Dis"ount fa"tor
C
<JF
? $nnual operation J maintenan"e "ost 5K of initial in0estment7
Te optimiDation stud% (ill be "arried out b% using tese formulas for different t%pes of
"ondu"tor and optimum one sall be sele"ted for te line. Tis is a "ompreensi0e stud% in
s%stem planning.
Mechanical strength
Te me"ani"al strengt of te "ondu"tor is one of te maHor parameter during te sele"tion
of te "ondu"tor of te line. Tree limits on "ondu"tor tension are set b% 8Te Gational
/le"tri"al 'afet% Code 5G/'C79 to 2eep normal tensions (itin reasonable limits and to
pre0ent "ondu"tor stresses abo0e te elasti" limit (en te "ondu"tor is full% loaded.
=en te "ondu"tor is loaded to te assumed "limati" load, te tension sall not e>"eed 6,K
of te ultimate strengt. Tis is referred to as te 8loaded "ondition9.
=en te "ondu"tor is initiall% strung and is "arr%ing no "limati" load, te tension sall not
e>"eed !5K of ultimate strengt at a temperature of 15.6
,
C 56,
o
#7. Tis is referred to as te
8initial unloaded "ondition9. $fter te "ondu"tor as been subHe"ted to te assumed "limati"
load, it re"ei0es a permanent or inelasti" stret". =en te "ondu"tor rea"es tis "ondition,
te tension (itout "limati" load at a temperature of 15.6
,
C 56,
,
#7 sall not e>"eed 25K of
ultimate strengt. Tis is referred to as te 9final unloaded "ondition9. #or a gi0en ruling span
onl% one of tese "onditions (ill "ontrol te sele"tion of "ondu"tor siDe and te oter t(o ma%
a0e relati0el% little signifi"an"e in so far te ma>imum allo(able tensions are "on"erned.
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D C K K
D k T R U P K
K K K K
M O investment M O
loss rate! peak losses
M O losses investment total
. 1,, A .
. . . . 7 A 5
J J
2
J
=
=
+ + =
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2.3 S*a)#, a#0 )&'a"a#)'! +%" *%/'" &#'!
#rom safet% "onsiderations, po(er "ondu"tors along te route of te transmission line sould
maintain re.uisite "learan"es to ground in open "ountr%, national ig(a%s, ri0ers, rail(a%s,
tra"2s, tele"ommuni"ation lines, oter e>isting po(er lines.
Te ground "learan"e for different 0oltages, (i" generall% appli"able are;
66 24 6.5 m at @65
,
C "ondu"tor temperature
1!2 24 *., m at @65
,
C "ondu"tor temperature
22, 24 *.5 m at @+,
,
C "ondu"tor temperature
Te minimum "learan"es of "ondu"tor o0er ri0ers, (i" are not na0igable, sall be 2ept !.,5
m o0er ma>imum flood le0el.
Te minimum "learan"es bet(een te "ondu"tors of a po(er line and tele"ommuni"ation
"able sall be;
1!2 24 2.&& m
22, 24 2.*& m
&,, 24 &.++ m
Te minimum spa"ing bet(een po(er lines sall be;
1!2 24 2.*5 m
22, 24 &.55 m
&,, 24 6.,, m
Te spa"ing of "ondu"tors is determined b% "onsiderations, (i" are partl% ele"tri"al and
partl% me"ani"al. Usuall% "ondu"tors (ill s(ing s%n"ronousl% 5in pase7 (it te (ind, but
(it long spans and small siDe of "ondu"tors, tere is al(a%s possibilit% of te "ondu"tors
s(inging non: s%n"ronousl%, and te siDe of te "ondu"tor and te ma>imum sag at te
"entre of te span are fa"tors, (i" sould be ta2en into a""ount in determining te pase
distan"e apart at (i" te% sould strung. $s a rule of tumb, minimum oriDontal spa"ing
bet(een "ondu"tors sould not be less tan 1K of te span lengt in order to minimiDe te
ris2 of pases "oming into "onta"t (it ea" oter during s(ing.
Tere are number of empiri"al formula in use, dedu"ed from spa"ing, (i" a0e su""essfull%
operated in pra"ti"e;
G/'C, U'$ formula
EoriDontal spa"ing in "m,
2
6+1 . !
L
" A # + + =
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=ere $ ? ,.*62 "m per 24 line 0oltage
' ? 'ag in "m, and
L ? Lengt of insulator string in "m
'(edis formula
EoriDontal spa"ing in "m,
" # * . , 5 . 6 + =
=ere ' ? 'ag in "m and
/ ? Line 0oltage in 24
#ren" formula
EoriDontal spa"ing in "m,
5 . 1
+

L " # + + =
=ere ' ? 'ag in "m
L ? Lengt of insulator string in "m
/ ? Line 0oltage in 24
Tower top clearance
To(er top "learan"e is te 0erti"al "learan"e bet(een eart(ire and top "ondu"tor, (i" is
go0erned b% te angle of sielding. Te sield angle 0aries from about 25
,
to !,
,
,depending
on te "onfiguration of "ondu"tors. To(er top "learan"e sall be ta2en 1.5 and 2.25 m for 1!2
24 and 22, 24 respe"ti0el% for ,
,
s(ing.
2.4 Sa,4t'#!%# )a&)3&at%#
Te sag and tension of te "ondu"tor are subHe"t to 0ariations due to te "anges in
temperatures and loading. #or spans of te order of !,, meters and less, te sag and tension
"al"ulation "an be "arried out b% paraboli" formula (it suffi"ient degree of a""ura"%. #or te
"ase of 0er% long spans, "atenar% formula gi0es more a""urate results tan paraboli".
7ara5olic form&la;
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/atenary form&la8
$
%
D
$
T
%
"$
Cosh
$
%
D
%
"$
"inh
$
%
L
+ =

=
=
1
2
2
2
2 2
p & $ + =
=ere;
. ? resultant load on te "ondu"tor per unit lengt
' ? 'pan lengt
D ? 'ag of "ondu"tor at its lo(est point
L ? lengt of te "ondu"tor in span
T ? Tension at eiter point of support
E ? oriDontal tension at te lo(est point
Te oriDontal tension at te lo(est point 5E7 sall normall% be ta2en 6, GAmm
2
for span less
tan !,, m and 1,, GAmm2 for span grater tan !,, m span. Tis tension (ill be treated as a
pretension.
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$
%
%
$ "
$
T
%
$ "
D
%
$ "
" L
+ =
=
+ =
+
.
+
.
. 2&
.
2
2
2
2 !
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1n tose instan"es (ere te "ondu"tor supports are not at te same ele0ation, sags are
determined b% means of in"lined span sag formulas, (i" e>press te sag in terms of te sag
of a le0el span of te same lengt as follo(s;
-ig&re 2; 1n"lined 'pan
2
1
2
2
2
1
&
1
2
&
1
&
1

+ =

=
D
"
"
D

D D
D

D D
(ere;
D1 ? "ondu"tor sag belo( lo(er support
D2 ? "ondu"tor sag belo( upper support
/ ? differen"es in ele0ation bet(een support
'1 ? oriDontal distan"e from lo( part of sag to lo(er support
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.4ample; #ind te "ondu"tor sag b% te paraboli" and "atenar% metod for te "ondu"tor
(it te data gi0en belo(;
Condu"tor span ' ? *,, m
Diameter, D ? 21 mm
=ind pressure at &.&
,
C ? )*2.2 GAmm
2
=eigtAmeter lengt ? ).+ GAmm
$rea ? 261 mm
2
5see $nne> 7
2.5 D$'#!%##, %+ t%/'"
2.5.1 D't'"$#at%# %+ h',ht
Te fa"tors go0erning te eigt of to(er are;
Finimum permissible ground "learan"e,
1
Fa>imum sag,
2
4erti"al spa"ing bet(een "ondu"tors,
!
4erti"al "learan"e bet(een eart(ire and top "ondu"tor,
&
Te total eigt of to(er (ill be determined b%;
& ! 2 1
h h h h %
T
+ + + =
2.5.2 L%a0#, )a!'!
Te loads on transmission line to(er "onsist of tree mutuall% perpendi"ular s%stems of load
a"ting 0erti"al, normal to te dire"tion of line, and parallel to te dire"tion of te line. 1t as
been found "on0enient in pra"ti"e to standardiDe te loads as under;
Trans0erse load
Longitudinal load
4erti"al load
Torsional sear
=eigt of stru"ture
9ertical loas
4erti"al loads are (eigt of "ondu"tors and eart(ire and stru"tures as (ell as do(n:pull
"aused b% le0el differen"es bet(een to(ers, (i" is ta2en into a""ount (en determining te
(eigt span.
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Trans2erse loas
Trans0erse loads are "aused b% (ind and oriDontal pull from de0iation angle in te line.
6ongit&inal loas
Longitudinal loads are "aused b% pretension of "ondu"tor tension on one side onl% of tension
to(ers and b% an abnormal 5bro2en (ire7 load on suspension to(ers, subHe"t to definition b%
standards or national "odes of pra"ti"e.
Weight of str&ct&re
Te (eigt of stru"ture is an un2no(n .uantit% until te a"tual design is "omplete. Eo(e0er,
6%le
1
as e0ol0ed an empiri"al formula gi0ing te appro>imate (eigt of an% to(er in terms
of its eigt and ma>imum (or2ing o0erturning moment at te base.
&5, . . 6&+ . , + = M % '
(ere3
= ? (eigt of to(er abo0e ground le0el in 2g,
E ? o0erall eigt of te to(er
F ? o0erturning moment at ground le0el, in G m 5(or2ing loads7
=or2ing load for to(er in 6%leLs formula defined as M of ultimate load of "ondu"tors and
eart:(ire3 (ere 2 is te fa"tor applied for normal "ondition.
Win loa
=ind speed and turbulen"e depend on te terrain rougness. =it in"reasing terrain
rougness, turbulen"e in"reases and (ind speed de"reases near ground le0el. #our "ategories
of ground, of in"reasing rougness are "onsidered as indi"ated in table belo( 56ef7.
:ro&n
ro&ghness
categories
$ - C D
;
0
1.,+ 1.,, ,.+5 ,.6*
Te referen"e (ind 0elo"it% for a parti"ular line,
M R R
V K V =
, =ere 4
F
is (ind speed.
Te line, (i" follo(s te ridge of ill, 0alle% and "ulti0ated fields, falls under te "ategor%
C and D. Eo(e0er for "al"ulation purpose te line sall be regarded under "ategor% -, i.e.
N
6
?1.
1
6%le, P.O., 8'teel to(er e"onomi"s9, Oournal of 1//, Part 2, 1)&6.
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Te present pra"tise in (ind load "al"ulation is;
=ind pressure on "ondu"tors; P ? ,.6!& 4
F
2
in GAmm
2
=ind pressure on stru"tures; P? 1.,252 4
F
2
in GAmm
2
$ir resistan"e fa"tor sall be ta2en 1.*1 for total (ind pressure, front and ba"2 of stru"ture.
Tus total pressure on stru"ture (ill be
2
. ,252 . 1 *1 . 1
M
V P =
on te proHe"ted area of te
to(er. Tis pra"ti"e and number is based on $meri"an 'o"iet% of Ci0il /ngineers Go.523
8Guide for Design of 'teel Transmission To(ers9.
/>ample for "al"ulation of to(er loading for a t%pi"al 1!2 24 double "ir"uit line is en"losed
in $nne>.
2.5.3 F%")' A#a&-!'! $'th%0!
<n"e te e>ternal loads a"ting on te to(er are determined, one pro"eeds (it an anal%sis of
te for"es in 0arious members.
-efore te ad0ent of digital "omputers, metod of anal%sis of "omple> stru"tures generall%
in0ol0ed lengt%, time:"onsuming "al"ulations, in0ol0ing longand "al"ulations, for
obtaining
member for"es and defle"tions. Te use of "omputer programs as enabled te anal%sis of
large stru"tural s%stems to be "arried out more easil% and a""uratel%.
$mong te 0arious metods a0ailable for te truss anal%sis, te matri> formulation of
anal%ti"al metod as te ad0antage o0er oter metods, sin"e te operation of matri> algebra
"an be pro0ided in te form of routine in te "omputer program.
Te matri> metod of stru"tural anal%sis is broadl% subdi0ided into t(o distin"t metods;
1. #le>ibilit% metod
2. 'tiffness metod
$ltoug t(o approa"es are fundamentall% different, te% are lin2ed to ea" oter b% a
"omplementar% relationsip.
-le4i5ility metho
Te fle>ibilit% metod of anal%sis is also 2no(n as te for"e metod or "ompatibilit% metod.
[ ]{ } { }
{ } [ ] { } ! ( R
R (
1
=
=
=ere
J , R (
are fle>ibilit% influen"e "oeffi"ient, member for"es and displa"ement
respe"ti0el%.
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1n general, if a stru"ture is n times stati"all% indeterminate, it (ill be ne"essar% to set up n
"ompatibilit% e.uations at n releases in order to anal%se te stru"ture. Te "ompatibilit%
e.uations are set up b% establising te "ontinuit% of te stru"ture at ea" release in turn,
using te displa"ement i)
(
5termed as fle>ibilit% influen"e "oeffi"ient7 at 1 due to unit stress
at H.
%tiffness metho
Te stiffness metod is also 2no(n as Displa"ement metod or /.uilibrium metod. Te
metod begins b% fi>ing te stru"ture at te nodes, appl%ing un2no(n displa"ement
{ }
one at
a time and finding te nodal for"es, P, due to ea" one of tem. Te e.uations of e.uilibrium
are set up in terms of nodal displa"ements a""ounting for boundar% "onditions.
[ ]{ } { } P K =
'ol0ing tese e.uations, un2no(n displa"ements, , are first obtained b% using
{ } [ ] { } P K
1
=
/0er% stru"ture must fulfil te dual re.uirements of e.uilibrium and "ompatibilit%. Te
fle>ibilit% metod maintains te stru"ture in e.uilibrium and uses "ompatibilit% "onditions for
te solution, (ile te stiffness metod maintains te "ompatibilit% of te stru"ture and ma2es
use of e.uilibrium "ondition for te solution.
#or sol0ing pin:Hointed trusses, te stiffness metod generall% leads fe(er e.uations.
Terefore, te stiffness metod is more "ommonl% emplo%ed in te anal%sis of transmission
line to(ers.
2.5.4 S'&')t%# %+ t%/'" $'$5'"!
Te a>ial for"e is te onl% for"e for to(er member 5bra"ing7. Terefore, te member as to be
designed eiter "ompression or tension. 'ome members in "ross:arm (ill be subHe"ted b%
bending moment. =en tere is multiple load "ondition "ertain members ma% be subHe"ted to
"ompression and tension as (ell as bending and a>ial. Te leg se"tion (ill be subHe"ted bot
bending and a>ial for"es. Te basi" design "riteria, (i" are appli"able for sele"tion of to(er
members, are as follo(;
Tension
2
. . ) . ,
M
U
(
net
A
s!
*

/ompression
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1
.
M
+
(
e((
A
s!
*

#ening moment
1
.
M
+
(
e((
'
!
M

=
(ere;
$
net
? Get "ross se"tional are of angle se"tion
$
eff
? /ffe"ti0e "ross se"tional area of angle se"tion
U
(
? Ultimate strengt of material in Fpa
+
(
? Pield strengt in Fpa
=
eff
? /ffe"ti0e se"tional modulus
1 M

? 1.1
2 M

? 1.25
1 M
+
+!
(
(

=
#ening an a4ial forces
Te "ross se"tion of leg se"tion (ill be satisfa"tor% if te follo(ing "riteria are satisfied;
1
. . .
+ +
+! e((,
!,
+! e((+
!+
y! e((
s!
( '
M
( '
M
( A
*
#&c<ling 7henomenon
To(ers are normall% "omposed of "olumn members supported b% stress:"arr%ing bra"ing and
redundant members. Limiting 0alues of
r
L
e
5slenderness ratio7 are for legs, 15,3 for oter
members "arr%ing "al"ulated stress 2,,3 6edundant, 25,. =ere Le is te effe"ti0e lengt and
r is radius of g%ration.
Te uler Formula is used in te elasti" range. #or general "ase
KL L
e
=
, (ere N is te
effe"ti0e lengt fa"tor, (i" depends on te end restraints. /ffe"ti0e lengts of "olumns (it
different restraints are so(n in figure belo(.
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Figure !"!; /ffe"ti0e lengts of "olumns (it different restrains
2.6 D$'#!%##, %+ I#!3&at%"
$ir "learan"e refers to te minimum distan"e, (i" must be maintained bet(een te li0e
"ondu"tor and earted metal parts of te support to a0oid flaso0er bet(een tem. Te
minimum air "learan"e as to be maintained e0en under te "onditions of s%stem o0er:
0oltages (it te insulator strings in te defle"ted position due to te a"tion of (ind pressure.
1n e>tra ig 0oltage s%stems, tree t%pes of o0er 0oltages are li2el% to o""ur;
1. <0er 0oltages due to dire"t stro2es of ligtning
2. <0er 0oltages due to s(it"ing surges
/nergising of transmission lines on no load
'(it"ing off of long lines on no load
1nterruption of transformer magnetising "urrents
!. Po(er fre.uen"% o0er 0oltages
=en a long loaded line is interrupted at one end
=en an open line is suddenl% "onne"ted to te sour"e
<n te o""urren"e of a single pase to eart fault or t(o pases to eart fault
1t is terefore ne"essar% to spe"if% tree different "learan"es "orresponding to tree different
t%pes of o0er 0oltages mentioned abo0e, (it te insulator string in te defle"ted position.
Te number of insulator dis"s and air "learan"es normall% adopted are gi0en in table belo(;
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Ta5&'6 N3$5'" %+ #!3&at%" 0!)! +%" E.7 &#'!
Nominal system voltage, kV
O8'" 7%&ta,'! 66 132 220 400
Number of discs (254146 mm!
"#itc$ing surges 2 5 % 13
&o#er'fre(uency 3 5 10 20
)ig$tning 1 1 1 2
R')%$$'#0'0 #3$5'" %+ #!3&at%" 0!)! 5 9 14 23
Ta5&'6 A" )&'a"a#)' 3#0'" 0++'"'#t !-!t'$ %*'"at#, )%#0t%#
Nominal system voltage, kV
S-!t'$ )%#0t%# 66 132 220 400
*inimum clearances in cm
"#itc$ing surges 3+ ,0 114 22+
&o#er'fre(uency 33 ,6 133 1++
)ig$tning %0 150 210 2%0
2.: T%/'" F%3#0at%#!
Te foundation is "alled upon to resist te follo(ing t%pes of for"es;
Uplift
Do(ntrust
Lateral load
<0erturning moment
Te basi" 0erti"al for"es are deri0ed from te dead(eigt of te to(er and te "ondu"tors.
Te (ind "ontributes to te oriDontal for"e on te to(er, produ"ing not onl% oriDontal sear
for"e 5lateral load7 on te foundation, but also an uplift on te (ind(ard side of te stru"ture
and do(ntrust on te oter. Te uplift or te "ompression for"es are of primar% "on"ern in
to(er foundation design 5see figure belo(7. Te design of te to(er foundation depends on
te nature of loading and t%pe of soil tat supports te foundation.
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Figure !"#; #or"es on to(er foundation.
Te t%pes of foundations generall% adopted for transmission line to(ers are as follo(s;
1. $ugur t%pe (it under"ut
2. Pad and stem t%pe
!. Under reamed pile t%pe
&. Grillage t%pe
5. 6o"2 an"ors
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-ig&re 2.4; Different t%pes of foundation
2.; Ea"th&#,
<n"e te geometr% of te to(er and te line insulation le0el are fi>ed, te one fa"tor, (i"
affe"ts te ligtning performan"e of a line tat "an be "ontrolled during te "onstru"tion pase
of te line, is te to(er:footing resistan"e. Conse.uentl%, tis sould be measured during tis
pase of te (or2 and, if ne"essar%, e>tra earting pro0ided. Te footing resistan"e to be
attained for different 0oltage "ategories a""ording to 'o0iet Union pra"ti"e is gi0en in table
belo(;
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%pecific resisti2ity of soil
(ohms=cm3)
0esistance (in ohms)
>p to 33* <9 4**="** <9
Up to 1,
&
1, 1,
1,
&
up to 5 Q1,
&
15 1!
5Q1,
&
up to 1,Q1,
&
2, 15
1,Q1,
&
!, !,
3 CONSTRUCTION ASPECTS
$ transmission line "onstru"tion proHe"t is fundamentall% a series of indi0idual proHe"ts,
(i" are spotted o0er te lengt of te line. Tis "onstru"tion (or2 "annot be organised in
te same manner as a "ompa"t dam, po(erouse and building "onstru"tion. Due to te great
time it ta2es to tra0el bet(een to(er sites, more "onstru"tion inspe"tors or super0isors are
re.uired to "ontrol te proHe"t. $ "onstru"tion "ommuni"ations net(or2 is a must for te
transmission line "onstru"tion.
To perform all operations re.uired for "onstru"ting te line "omprises te follo(ing pases;
Transportation of material at site
Constru"tion of foundation
To(er ere"tion
'tringing of te "ondu"tor
3.1 T"a#!*%"tat%#
Te (eigt of materials and e.uipment re.uired for building te line is se0eral undred
tonnes, (ile "onstru"tion sites are s"attered o0er a (ide area. Logisti" operation tus
be"omes a maHor fa"tor in te line "onstru"tion.
3.2 C%#!t"3)t%# %+ +%3#0at%#
Generall% most of te to(er foundation is "on"rete foundation (it different t%pe. Te
0olume of "on"rete (ill 0ar% from 15 m! up to &, m! per foundation depending upon te
load on parti"ular to(er.
Rualit% "ontrol during te "onstru"tion of foundation is most, sin"e te "onstru"tion materials
li2e, sand, aggregate, "ement and steel are brougt from different lo"ation and .ualit% ma%
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ULG, Transmission and Distribution Department Page 2! of 26
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0ar%. Curing of foundation is often "allenging, be"ause of la"2 of (ater at ea" to(er
lo"ation.
3.3 T%/'" E"')t%#
-uilt up metod, ere"ting te to(er members b% member is most "ommonl% used for ere"ting
to(ers. Te ere"tion progresses from te bottom up(ard. Te four main leg members of te
first se"tion of te to(er are first ere"ted and gu%ed off. Te "ross:bra"es are ten assembled
on te ground and te assembl% is raised as a unit and bolted to te alread% ere"ted "orner leg
angles. Te first se"tion is tus built and oriDontal struts, if an% are bolted in position. #or
assembling te se"ond se"tion of te to(er, an ere"ting pole is pla"ed on te top of one of te
"orner legs for raising parts of te se"ond se"tion of te to(er. Te leg members and bra"es of
tis se"tion are ten oisted and assembled. Te ere"ting pole is tus mo0ed up as te to(er
gro(s. Te pro"ess is "ontinued till te "omplete to(er is ere"ted. Cross:arms are also
assembled on te ground and raised up and fi>ed to te main bod% of te to(er.
3.4 St"#,#,
'tringing te line, in0ol0es te follo(ing four operations;
'tringing te pilot line to aulage te "ondu"tor
6unning out te "ondu"tors from reels
Pulling up te "ondu"tors to "orre"t sag and tension
T%ing off
Condu"tor sould al(a%s be paid out from rotating reels or some similar rotating de0i"e. To
speed up te (or2, and (ere0er te topograp% permits it, te "ondu"tor is paid out from te
rotating reels mounted on tru"2. Tis (ill minimise te possibilit% of damaging te "ondu"tor
b% dragging it o0er fen"es, ro"2s, et".
1n re"ent %ears, te use of eli"opters as be"ome pre0alent sin"e te stret"ing metod "an
redu"e te (or2 for"e and at te same time a0oid "utting trees.
4 FINANCIAL ASPECT
Transmission line "ost (ill be bro2en do(n into different "omponent "osts; "ondu"tor,
eart(ire, insulatorsAfittings, to(ers, foundation, and engineering. /a" "omponent in"ludes
material and ere"tion 5"onstru"tion7. Te brea2do(n into "omponent "osts, (i" is a0eraged
internationall% are gi0en in table belo(;
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#0.3; D?W@ +@T? /?M7?@.@T /?%T%A +@T.0@3T+?@36 39.03:.
3ll fig&res are B of total line costs
/omponents C 1"* <9 1"* D 3** <9
%ingle circ&it Do&5le circ&it %ingle circ&it Do&5le circ&it
Matr. .rec Total Matr. .rec Total Matr. .rec Total Matr. .rec Total
Condu"tors
2,.2 11.& 31.$ 25., 11.5 3$." 2,.* 12., 32.' 2*., 11.5 3,."
/art(ires
2.& 1.* 4.1 1.5 1.1 2.$ 2.1 1.6 3.' 1.! 1.2 2."
1nsulators
Afittings
5.2 !.5 ,.' 6.5 !.5 1*.* 6.5 2.& ,.( 5., !., ,.*
To(ers
21.) 11.2 33.1 21., ).& 3*.4 21., 11.+ 32., 21.5 ).+ 31.3
#oundation
11.5 5., 1$." 11.5 5., 1$." 11.2 5.& 1$.$ 1,.* 5.5 1$.2
6igt of
(a%,
/ngineering
!., !., $.* 2., 2., 4.* 2.5 2.+ ".3 1.5 2., 3."
Totals
6&.2 !5.+ 1**.* 6*.5 !2.5 1**.* 6&., !6., 1**.* 6*., !!., 1**.*
Te "ost distribution for double "ir"uit lines up to !,, 24 also applies to single "ir"uit lines
(it t(in "ondu"tors per pase.
/omponents 42* <9A %ingle /irc&it
%ingle /irc&it
Matr. .rec Total
Condu"tors 21.1 12.6 33.'
/art(ires 2., 2., 4.*
1nsulators
Afittings
&., !.2 '.2
To(ers 21., 12.+ 33.,
#oundation 1,.5 5.* 1$.2
6igt of (a%,
/ngineering
2.! 2.+ ".1
Totals 6,.) !).1 1**.*
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ULG, Transmission and Distribution Department Page 25 of 26
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6ist of 0eferences
1. Furt% '.'. J 'anta2umar $.6.,1)),.9Transmission Line 'tru"ture93 F"Gra(Eill
-oo2 "o3
2. $'C/:Fanuals and 6eports on /ngineering Pra"ti"e Go 523 8Guide for Design of
'teel Transmission To(ers9.
!. Professor Oean:Louis Lilien, 1))+A1))) 39

Fanuel de tra0au> prati.ues destine au
"ours9.
&. 6/$ -ulletin 16,:2, Oul% 1)6). 8/ngineering and <perations Fanual for 6ural
/le"tri" '%stems9, Distribution Line Design 5Fe"ani"al7
5. 6esam 6aH Da2al, Oune 1)))3 D1:1))):163 8Fs" Tesis <n NE1FT1:DE$LN/=$6
1!2 N4 T6$G'F1''1<G L1G/, G/P$L, $ 'TUDP <# 1FP<6T$GT P$6$F/T/6'93 1G'T1TUTT
#<6 4$''-PGG1GG, D/P$6TF/GT <# EPD6$UL1C $GD /G416<GF/GT$L /GG1G//61GG.

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5 ANNEX (EXERCISES)
%ag an Tension calc&lation8
E<a$*&'6
G8'# 0ata6
-onductor s.an " in m / ,00
0iameter, 0 in mm / 21
1ind .ressure at 424
0
- in N3mm2 / %,2,2
1eig$t .er meter leng$t$ in N3m / %,+
-ross sectional area of conductor in mm2 / 261
S%&3t%#6
4ind t$e resultant load on t$e conductor .er unit lengt$
1ind load .er meter run / 233 0#ind .ressure / 13,610+
(,N3m / 16,,,1+2
Pa"a5%&) +%"$3&a6
12 ) / ,05,%015
22 0 / 3%,35%15
32 5 / 26,60,12
Cat'#a"- +%"$3&a6
12 ) / ,05,%164
22 0 / 3%,52534
32 5 / 26,62,%1
.4ercise8 -in the con&ctor sagA length an tension 5y the para5olic an catenary
form&la for the con&ctorA Moose with the ata gi2en 5elow8
'pan ' ? 65, m
Diameter D ? !1.** mm
=ind pressure ? *5, GAmm2
1"e load ? 15 GAm
Condu"tor (eigt ? 2, GAm
CA' area of "ondu"tor ? 525.+ mm2
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!)*+)&!1.do" $pril 16, 2,,2
2 2
p & $ + =