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Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
WCDMA RAN
Principle
Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page1
Objectives
Upon completion of this course, you will be able to:
Describe the development of 3G
Outline the advantage of CDMA principle
Characterize code sequence
Outline the fundamentals of RAN
Describe feature of wireless propagation
Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page2
Contents
1. 3G Overview
2. CDMA Principle
3. WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure
4. WCDMA Wireless Fundamental

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Different Service, Different
Technology
AMPS
TACS
NMT
Others
1G 1980s
Analog
GSM
CDMA
IS-95
TDMA
IS-136
PDC
2G 1990s
Digital
Technologies
drive
3G
IMT-2000
UMTS
WCDMA
cdma
2000
Demands
drive
TD-SCDMA
3G provides compositive services for both operators and subscribers
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3G Evolution
Proposal of 3G
IMT-2000: the general name of third generation mobile
communication system
The third generation mobile communication was first
proposed in 1985and was renamed as IMT-2000 in the
year of 1996
Commercialization: around the year of 2000
Work band : around 2000MHz
The highest service rate :up to 2000Kbps
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3G Spectrum Allocation
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Bands WCDMA Used
Main bands
1920 ~ 1980MHz / 2110 ~ 2170MHz
Supplementary bands: different country maybe different
1850 ~ 1910 MHz / 1930 MHz ~ 1990 MHz (USA)
1710 ~ 1785MHz / 1805 ~ 1880MHz (Japan)
890 ~ 915MHz / 935 ~ 960MHz (Australia)
. . .
Frequency channel numbercentral frequency5, for
main band:
UL frequency channel number 96129888
DL frequency channel number : 1056210838
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3G Application Service
Time Delay
Error Ratio
background
conversational
streaming
interactive
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The Core technology of 3G: CDMA
CDMA
WCDMA
CN: based on MAP and GPRS
RTT: WCDMA
TD-SCDMA
CN: based on MAP and GPRS
RTT: TD-SCDMA

cdma2000
CN: based on ANSI 41 and
MIP
RTT: cdma2000
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Contents
1. 3G Overview
2. CDMA Principle
3. WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure
4. WCDMA Wireless Fundamental
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Multiple Access and Duplex
Technology
Multiple Access Technology
Frequency division multiple access (FDMA)
Time division multiple access (TDMA)
Code division multiple access (CDMA)

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Multiple Access Technology
Power
FDMA
Power
TDMA
Power
CDMA
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Multiple Access and Duplex
Technology
Duplex Technology
Frequency division duplex (FDD)
Time division duplex (TDD)
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Duplex Technology
Time
Frequency
Power
TDD
USER 2
USER 1
DL
UL
DL
DL
UL
FDD
Time
Frequency
Power
UL DL
USER 2
USER 1
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Contents
1. 3G Overview
2. CDMA Principle
3. WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure
4. WCDMA Wireless Fundamental
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WCDMA Network Architecture
RNS
RNC
RNS
RNC
Core Network
Node B
Node B
Node B Node B
Iu-CS Iu-PS
Iur
Iub
Iub
Iub Iub
CN
UTRAN
UE
Uu
CS PS
Iu-CS Iu-PS
CS PS
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WCDMA Network Version Evolution
3GPP Rel99
3GPP Rel4
3GPP Rel5
2000
2001 2002
GSM/GPRS CN
WCDMA RTT
IMS
HSDPA
3GPP Rel6
MBMS
HSUPA
2005
CS domain change to
NGN
WCDMA RTT
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WCDMA Network Version Evolution
Features of R6
MBMS is introduced
HSUPA is introduced to achieve the service rate up to 5.76Mbps
Features of R7
HSPA+ is introduced, which adopts higher order modulation and MIMO
Max DL rate: 28Mbps, Max UL rate:11Mbps
Features of R8
HSPA+ PhaseII is introduced, which adopts 64QAM+MIMO or 64QAM+DC
in downlink (Defined by 3GPP 25.XXX)
LTE is introduced which adopts OFDMA instead of CDMA (Defined by 3GPP
36.XXX)
Max DL rate: 100Mbps, Max UL rate: 50Mbps (with 20MHz bandwidth)
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Uu Interface protocol structure
L3
c
o
n
t
r
o
l

c
o
n
t
r
o
l

c
o
n
t
r
o
l

c
o
n
t
r
o
l

C-plane signaling
U-plane information
PHY
L2/MAC
L1
RLC
DC Nt GC
L2/RLC
MAC
RLC
RLC
RLC
Duplication avoidance
UuS boundary
L2/BMC
control
PDCP
PDCP L2/PDCP
DC Nt GC
RRC
RLC
RLC
RLC
RLC
BMC
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General Protocol Mode for UTRAN
Terrestrial Interface
The structure is based on the principle that the layers and
planes are logically independent of each other.
Application
Protocol
Data
Stream(s)
ALCAP(s)
Transport
Network
Layer
Physical Layer
Signaling
Bearer(s)
Control Plane User Plane
Transport Network
User Plane
Transport Network
Control Plane
Radio
Network
Layer
Signaling
Bearer(s)
Data
Bearer(s)
Transport Network
User Plane
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Iu-CS Interface
ALCAP
Control Plane
Transport Network
Control Plane
User plane
Radio
Network
Layer
Transport Network
User Plane
Transport
Network
Layer

A
B
RANAP
AAL2 PATH
ATM
Physical Layer
SAAL NNI
SCCP
MTP3-B
Iu UP
SAAL NNI
MTP3-B
Transport Network
User Plane
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Iu-PS Interface
Control Plane
User plane Radio
Network
Layer
Transport Network
User Plane
Transport
Network
Layer

Transport Network
User Plane
C
RANAP
ATM
SAAL NNI
SCCP
MTP3-B
Iu UP
AAL Type 5
IP
UDP
GTP-U
Physical Layer
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Iub Interface
ALCAP
Control Plane
Transport Network
Control Plane
User plane
Radio
Network
Layer
Transport Network
User Plane
Transport
Network
Layer

Transport Network
User Plane
NBAP
AAL2 PATH
ATM
Physical Layer
SAAL UNI
Iub FP
SAAL UNI
NCP CCP
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Iur Interface
ALCAP
Control Plane
Transport Network
Control Plane
User plane
Radio
Network
Layer
Transport
Network
Layer

A
B
RNSAP
AAL2 PATH
ATM
Physical Layer
SAAL NNI
SCCP
MTP3-B
Iur Data
Stream
SAAL NNI
MTP3-B
Transport Network
User Plane
Transport Network
User Plane
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Contents
1. 3G Overview
2. CDMA Principle
3. WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure
4. WCDMA Wireless Fundamental
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Processing Procedure of WCDMA System
Source
Coding
Channel Coding
& Interleaving
Spreading Modulation
Source
Decoding
Channel Decoding
& Deinterleaving
Despreading Demodulation
Transmission
Reception
chip
modulated
signal
bit symbol
Service
Signal
Radio
Channel
Service
Signal
Receiver
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WCDMA Source Coding
AMR (Adaptive Multi-Rate)
Speech
A integrated speech codec with 8
source rates
The AMR bit rates can be controlled
by the RAN depending on the
system load and quality of the
speech connections
Video Phone Service
H.324 is used for VP Service in CS
domain
Includes: video codec, speech codec,
data protocols, multiplexing and etc.
CODEC Bit Rate (kbps)
AMR_12.20 12.2 (GSM EFR)
AMR_10.20 10.2
AMR_7.95 7.95
AMR_7.40 7.4 (TDMA EFR)
AMR_6.70 6.7 (PDC EFR)
AMR_5.90 5.9
AMR_5.15 5.15
AMR_4.75 4.75
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Processing Procedure of WCDMA System
Transmitter
Source
Coding
Channel Coding
& Interleaving
Spreading Modulation
Source
Decoding
Channel Decoding
& Deinterleaving
Despreading Demodulation
Transmission
Reception
chip
modulated
signal
bit symbol
Service
Signal
Radio
Channel
Service
Signal
Receiver
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WCDMA Block Coding - CRC
Block coding is used to detect if there are any
uncorrected errors left after error correction.
The cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is a common method
of block coding.
Adding the CRC bits is done before the channel encoding
and they are checked after the channel decoding.

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WCDMA Channel Coding
Effect
Enhance the correlation among symbols so as to recover the signal when
interference occurs
Provides better error correction at receiver, but brings increment of the
delay
Types
No Coding
Convolutional Coding (1/2, 1/3)
Turbo Coding (1/3)
Code Block
of N Bits
No Coding
1/2 Convolutional
Coding
1/3 Convolutional
Coding
1/3 Turbo Coding
Uncoded N bits
Coded 2N+16 bits
Coded 3N+24 bits
Coded 3N+12 bits
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WCDMA Interleaving
Effect
Interleaving is used to reduce the probability of consecutive bits
error
Longer interleaving periods have better data protection with more
delay
(
(
(
(
(
(

1 1 1 0
1 ... ... ...
... ... ... ...
... 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 . . . 1 0 1 1 1
(
(
(
(
(
(

1 1 1 0
1 ... ... ...
... ... ... ...
... 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1
Inter-column
permutation
Output bits
Input bits
Interleaving periods:
20, 40, or 80 ms
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Processing Procedure of WCDMA System
Source
Coding
Channel Coding
& Interleaving
Spreading Modulation
Source
Decoding
Channel Decoding
& Deinterleaving
Despreading Demodulation
Transmission
Reception
chip
modulated
signal
bit symbol
Service
Signal
Radio
Channel
Service
Signal
Receiver
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Correlation
Correlation measures similarity between any two arbitrary
signals.
Identical and Orthogonal signals:
Correlation = 0
Orthogonal signals
-1 1 -1 1

-1 1 -1 1

1 1 1 1
+1

-1
+1

-1
+1

-1
+1

-1
Correlation = 1
Identical signals
-1 1 -1 1

1 1 1 1

-1 1 -1 1
C1
C2
+1
+1
C1
C2
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Orthogonal Code Usage - Coding
UE1: 1 1

UE2: 1 1

C
1
: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
C
2
: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
UE1c1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
UE2c2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

UE1c1 UE2c2 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0
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Orthogonal Code Usage - Decoding
UE1C
1
UE2C
2
: 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0

UE1 Dispreading by c1: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Dispreading result: 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0
Integral judgment: 4 (means1) 4 (means1)

UE2 Dispreading by c2: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Dispreading result: 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0
Integral judgment: 4 (means1) 4 (means1)
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Spectrum Analysis of Spreading &
Dispreading
Spreading code
Spreading code
Signal
Combination
Narrowband signal
f
P(f)
Broadband signal
P(f)
f
Noise & Other Signal
P(f)
f
Noise+Broadband signal
P(f)
f
Recovered signal
P(f)
f
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Spectrum Analysis of Spreading &
Dispreading
Max allowed interference
Eb/No
Requirement
Power

Max interference caused by
UE and others
Processing Gain
Ebit
Interference from
other UE
Echip
Eb / No = Ec / No PG
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Process Gain
Process Gain



Process gain differs for each service.
If the service bit rate is greater, the process gain is smaller,
UE needs more power for this service, then the coverage of
this service will be smaller, vice versa.
)
rate bit
rate chip
log( 10 Gain ocess Pr =
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Spreading Technology
Spreading consists of 2 steps:
Channelization operation, which transforms data symbols into
chips
Scrambling operation is applied to the spreading signal
scrambling
channelization
Data
symbol
Chips after
spreading
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WCDMA Channelization Code
OVSF Code (Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor) is used as
channelization code
SF = 8 SF = 1 SF = 2 SF = 4
C
ch,1,0
= (1)
C
ch,2,0
= (1,1)
C
ch,2,1
= (1, -1)
C
ch,4,0
= (1,1,1,1)
C
ch,4,1
= (1,1,-1,-1)
C
ch,4,2
= (1,-1,1,-1)
C
ch,4,3
= (1,-1,-1,1)
C
ch,8,0
= (1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1)
C
ch,8,1
= (1,1,1,1,-1,-1,-1,-1)
C
ch,8,2
= (1,1,-1,-1,1,1,-1,-1)
C
ch,8,3
= (1,1,-1,-1,-1,-1,1,1)
C
ch,8,4
= (1,-1,1,-1,1,-1,1,-1)
C
ch,8,5
= (1,-1,1,-1,-1,1,-1,1)
C
ch,8,6
= (1,-1,-1,1,1,-1,-1,1)
C
ch,8,7
= (1,-1,-1,1,-1,1,1,-1)

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WCDMA Channelization Code
SF = chip rate / symbol rate
High data rates low SF code
Low data rates high SF code
Radio bearer SF Radio bearer SF
Speech 12.2 UL 64 Speech 12.2 DL 128
Data 64 kbps UL 16 Data 64 kbps DL 32
Data 128 kbps UL 8 Data 128 kbps DL 16
Data 144 kbps UL 8 Data 144 kbps DL 16
Data 384 kbps UL 4 Data 384 kbps DL 8
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Purpose of Channelization Code
Channelization code is used to distinguish different
physical channels of one transmitter
For downlink, channelization code ( OVSF code ) is used to
separate different physical channels of one cell
For uplink, channelization code ( OVSF code ) is used to
separate different physical channels of one UE

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Purpose of Scrambling Code
Scrambling code is used to distinguish different
transmitters
For downlink, scrambling code is used to separate different
cells in one carrier
For uplink, scrambling code is used to separate different
UEs in one carrier

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Scrambling Code
Scrambling code: GOLD sequence.
There are 2
24
long uplink scrambling codes which are used for
scrambling of the uplink signals. Uplink scrambling codes are
assigned by RNC.
For downlink, 512 primary scrambling codes are used.

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Primary Scrambling Code Group
Primary
scrambling
codes for
downlink
physical
channels
Group 0

Primary scrambling
code 0

Primary
scrambling code
8*63

Primary
scrambling code
8*63 +7
512 primary
scrambling
codes


Group 1
Group 63
Primary scrambling
code 1
Primary scrambling
code 7
64 primary
scrambling code
groups
Each group consists of 8
primary scrambling codes
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Code Multiplexing
Downlink Transmission on a Cell Level
Scrambling code
Channelization code 1
Channelization code 2
Channelization code 3
User 1 signal
User 2 signal
User 3 signal
NodeB
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Code Multiplexing
Uplink Transmission on a Cell Level
NodeB
Scrambling code 3
User 3 signal
Channelization code
Scrambling code 2
User 2 signal
Channelization code
Scrambling code 1
User 1 signal
Channelization code
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Processing Procedure of WCDMA System
Source
Coding
Channel Coding
& Interleaving
Spreading Modulation
Source
Decoding
Channel Decoding
& Deinterleaving
Despreading Demodulation
Transmission
Reception
chip
modulated
signal
bit symbol
Service
Signal
Radio
Channel
Service
Signal
Receiver
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Modulation Overview
1 0 0 1
time
Basic steady radio
wave:
carrier = A.cos(2tFt+|)
Amplitude Shift
Keying:
A.cos(2tFt+|)
Frequency Shift
Keying:
A.cos(2tFt+|)
Phase Shift Keying:
A.cos(2tFt+|)
Data to be transmitted:
Digital Input
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Modulation Overview
Digital Modulation - BPSK
1
t
1 1 0
1
t
-1
NRZ coding
f
o

BPSK
Modulated
BPSK
signal
Carrier
Information
signal
|=0 |=t |=0
1 10 2 3 4 9 8 7 5 6
1 10 2 3 4 9 8 7 5 6
Digital Input
High Frequency
Carrier
BPSK Waveform
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Modulation Overview
Digital Modulation - QPSK
-1 -1
1 10 2 3 4 9 8 7 5 6
1 10 2 3 4 9 8 7 5 6
NRZ Input
I di-Bit Stream
Q di-Bit Stream
I
Component
Q
Component
QPSK Waveform
1
1
-1
1
-1
1
1
-1
-1
-1
1 1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1
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Modulation Overview
NRZ
coding
90
o

NRZ
coding
QPSK
Q(t)
I(t)
f
o

A
A Acos(e
o
t)
Acos(e
o
t

+ t/2)


|
1 1 t/4
1 -1 7t/4
-1 1 3t/4
-1 -1 5t/4
) cos( 2 : | e + t A QPSK
o
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Demodulation
QPSK Constellation Diagram
1 10 2 3 4 9 8 7 5 6
QPSK Waveform
1,1
-1,-1
-1,1
1,-1
1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1
-1,1
NRZ Output
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WCDMA Modulation
Different modulation methods corresponding to different
transmitting abilities in air interface

HSDPA: QPSK or 16QAM R99/R4: QPSK
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Processing Procedure of WCDMA System
Source
Coding
Channel
Coding
Spreading Modulation
Source
Decoding
Channel
Decoding
Despreading Demodulation
Transmission
Reception
chip
modulated
signal
bit symbol
Service
Signal
Radio
Channel
Service
Signal
Transmitter
Receiver
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Wireless Propagation
Received
Signal
Transmitted
Signal
Transmission Loss:
Path Loss + Multi-path Fading
Time
Amplitude
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Propagation of Radio Signal
Signal at Transmitter
Signal at Receiver
-40
-35
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
d
B

0
0
d
B
m

-20
-15
-10
-5
5
10
15
2
0
Fading
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Fading Categories
Fading Categories
Slow Fading
Fast Fading
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Diversity Technique
Diversity technique is used to obtain uncorrelated signals
for combining
Reduce the effects of fading
Fast fading caused by multi-path
Slow fading caused by shadowing
Improve the reliability of communication
Increase the coverage and capacity
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Diversity
Time diversity
Channel coding, Block interleaving
Frequency diversity
The user signal is distributed on the whole bandwidth
frequency spectrum
Space diversity
Polarization diversity
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Principle of RAKE Receiver
Receive set
Correlator 1
Correlator 2
Correlator 3
Searcher correlator
Calculate the
time delay and
signal strength

Combiner
The combined
signal
t
t
s(t) s(t)
RAKE receiver help to overcome on the multi-path fading and enhance the receive
performance of the system
Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page63
Summary
In this course, we have discussed basic concepts of WCDMA:
Spreading / Despreading principle
UTRAN Voice Coding
UTRAN Channel Coding
UTRAN Spreading Code
UTRAN Scrambling Code
UTRAN Modulation
UTRAN Transmission/Receiving
Thank you
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